A PL/SQL Source Text Wrapping

You can wrap the PL/SQL source text for any of these stored PL/SQL units, thereby preventing anyone from displaying that text with the static data dictionary views *_SOURCE:

  • Package specification

  • Package body

  • Type specification

  • Type body

  • Function

  • Procedure

Note:

Wrapping text is low-assurance security. For high-assurance security, use Oracle Database Vault, described in Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide.

A file containing wrapped PL/SQL source text is called a wrapped file. A wrapped file can be moved, backed up, or processed by SQL*Plus or the Import and Export utilities.

To produce a wrapped file, use either the PL/SQL Wrapper utility or a DBMS_DDL subprogram. The PL/SQL Wrapper utility wraps the source text of every wrappable PL/SQL unit created by a specified SQL file. The DBMS_DDL subprograms wrap the source text of single dynamically generated wrappable PL/SQL units.

Both the PL/SQL Wrapper utility and DBMS_DDL subprograms detect tokenization errors (for example, runaway strings), but not syntax or semantic errors (for example, nonexistent tables or views).

By default, the 11.2 PL/SQL compiler can use use wrapped packages that were compiled with the 9.2 PL/SQL compiler. To prevent the 11.2 PL/SQL compiler from using wrapped packages that were compiled with the 9.2 PL/SQL compiler, set the PL/SQL compilation parameter PERMIT_92_WRAP_FORMAT to FALSE. For more information about PERMIT_92_WRAP_FORMAT, see Oracle Database Reference. For more information about PL/SQL compilation parameters, see "PL/SQL Units and Compilation Parameters".

Topics

PL/SQL Source Text Wrapping Limitations

  • Wrapped files are not downward-compatible between Oracle Database releases.

    For example, you cannot load files produced by the V8.1.6 PL/SQL Wrapper utility into a V8.1.5 Oracle Database.

  • Wrapping PL/SQL source text is not a secure way to hide passwords or table names.

    For high-assurance security, use Oracle Database Vault, described in Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide.

  • You cannot wrap the PL/SQL source text of triggers.

    To hide the implementation details of a trigger, put them in a stored subprogram, wrap the subprogram, and write a one-line trigger that invokes the subprogram.

PL/SQL Source Text Wrapping Guidelines

  • Wrap only the body of a package or type, not the specification.

    Leaving the specification unwrapped allows other developers to see the information needed to use the package or type (see Example A-5). Wrapping the body prevents them from seeing the package or type implementation.

  • Wrap files only after you have finished editing them.

    You cannot edit wrapped files. If a wrapped file needs changes, you must edit the original unwrapped file and then wrap it.

  • Before distributing a wrapped file, view it in a text editor and ensure that all important parts are wrapped.

PL/SQL Source Text Wrapping with PL/SQL Wrapper Utility

Note:

Oracle recommends using PL/SQL Wrapper Utility version 10 or later.

The PL/SQL Wrapper utility takes a single SQL file (such as a SQL*Plus script) and produces an equivalent text file in which the PL/SQL source text of each wrappable PL/SQL unit is wrapped. (For the list of wrappable PL/SQL units, see the introduction to "PL/SQL Source Text Wrapping".)

The PL/SQL Wrapper utility cannot connect to Oracle Database. To run the PL/SQL Wrapper utility, enter this command at the operating system prompt (with no spaces around the equal signs):

wrap iname=input_file [ oname=output_file ]

input_file is the name of an existing file that contains any combination of SQL statements. output_file is the name of the file that the PL/SQL Wrapper utility creates—the wrapped file.

Note:

input_file cannot include substitution variables specified with the SQL*Plus DEFINE notation, because output_file is parsed by the PL/SQL compiler, not by SQL*Plus.

The PL/SQL Wrapper utility deletes from the wrapped file all comments except:

  • Comments in CREATE statement headers (that is, between CREATE and plsql_source in the syntax diagram in Oracle Database SQL Language Reference)

  • Comments delimited by /* and */

Note:

If input_file is a wrapped file, then input_file and output_file have identical contents.

The default file extension for input_file is sql. The default name of output_file is input_file.plb. Therefore, these commands are equivalent:

wrap iname=/mydir/myfile
wrap iname=/mydir/myfile.sql oname=/mydir/myfile.plb

This example specifies a different file extension for input_file and a different name for output_file:

wrap iname=/mydir/myfile.src oname=/yourdir/yourfile.out

You can run output_file as a script in SQL*Plus. For example:

SQL> @myfile.plb;

Example A-1 shows the text of a SQL file, wraptest2.sql, that contains two wrappable PL/SQL units—the procedure wraptest and the function fibonacci. The file also contains two comments and a SQL SELECT statement.

Example A-1 SQL File with Two Wrappable PL/SQL Units

-- The following statement will not change. This comment will be deleted.
 
SELECT COUNT(*) FROM EMPLOYEES
/
 
/* The PL/SQL source text of the following two CREATE statements
will be wrapped. This commment will not be deleted. */
 
CREATE PROCEDURE wraptest AUTHID DEFINER IS
  TYPE emp_tab IS TABLE OF employees%ROWTYPE INDEX BY PLS_INTEGER;
  all_emps  emp_tab;
BEGIN
  SELECT * BULK COLLECT INTO all_emps FROM employees;
  FOR i IN 1..10 LOOP
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Emp Id: ' || all_emps(i).employee_id);
  END LOOP;
END;
/
 
CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION fibonacci (
  n PLS_INTEGER
) RETURN PLS_INTEGER
AUTHID DEFINER
IS
  fib_1 PLS_INTEGER := 0;
  fib_2 PLS_INTEGER := 1;
BEGIN
  IF n = 1 THEN                              -- terminating condition
    RETURN fib_1;
  ELSIF n = 2 THEN
    RETURN fib_2;                           -- terminating condition
  ELSE
    RETURN fibonacci(n-2) + fibonacci(n-1);  -- recursive invocations
  END IF;
END;
/

Example A-2 uses the PL/SQL Wrapper utility to wrap wraptest2.sql and shows the wrapped file, wraptest2.plb. The wrapped file shows that the utility deleted the comment that begins with -- and wrapped (made unreadable) the PL/SQL source text of the procedure wraptest and the function fibonacci, but did not change the SELECT statement or the comment delimited by /* and */.

Example A-2 Wrapping File with PL/SQL Wrapper Utility

Assume that the operating system prompt is >. Wrap the file wraptest.sql:

> wrap iname=wraptest2.sql

Result:

PL/SQL Wrapper: Release 11.2.0.1.0- Production on Wed Sep 15 08:10:15 2010
 
Copyright (c) 1993, 2009, Oracle.  All rights reserved.
 
Processing wraptest2.sql to wraptest2.plb

Contents of wraptest.plb:

SELECT COUNT(*) FROM EMPLOYEES
/
/* The PL/SQL source text of the following two CREATE statements
will be wrapped. This commment will not be deleted. */
CREATE PROCEDURE wraptest wrapped 
a000000
b2
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
7
121 134
Pf3/wD+9ncRZhp3XxTMUO3yIRvswg+nQ7UhqfHRG2vg+SD7x9XzsDUFWbdwCJVEOLKBBRuH6
VMoRHfX6apzfyMkvWhzQLCYvAcq6Zu7++E7PrXNxUJzk/FZW8P9eRgyyyMFnDj53aP1cDje9
ZdGr2VmJHIw0ZNHBYhDdR+du5U5Yy47a6dJHXFW9eNyxBHtXZDuiWYTUtlnueHQV9iYDwE+r
jFn+eZm4jgDcTLTEzfmIVtPDRNhYCY3xhPo7vJeS8M1AvP+4xh9+uO35XsRIsRl1PTFVrGwg
6iuxETwA5Pu2mwx3
 
/
CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION fibonacci wrapped 
a000000
b2
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
8
14a fb
e1Yq3QQJoEoNKIeJlbgLoLdSgogwgxDcf8vWfHSKbuowFOXFKoj9MqYGqWyRxeeCUVqNVIO1
ICqJa3yPr6e7z8GZpMH3J0Cx0uQ0B1JuysymdNDlzfTvb7QWsrLU4jGs3h8Mm49/L9nyO4Xh
Ae06nawFpOJIAYpBf9wBVC+ZrjU/nuEtokBqCce6HWIoF6rYgz0V0W/47x5KpOnQ2i7X3kFe
FR8K7jT7X58k8xK9uYlZv5LhV71a7A==
 
/

In SQL*Plus, Example A-3 runs the wrapped file wraptest.plb, creating the procedure wraptest and the function fibonacci; selects the text of the subprograms (which is wrapped and therefore unreadable), and then invokes the subprograms.

Example A-3 Running Wrapped File and Viewing Wrapped PL/SQL Units

SQL> -- Run wrapped file:
SQL> 
SQL> @wraptest2.plb
SQL> SELECT COUNT(*) FROM EMPLOYEES
  2  /
 
  COUNT(*)
----------
       107
 
1 row selected.
 
SQL> /* The PL/SQL source text of the following two CREATE statements
SQL> will be wrapped. This commment will not be deleted. */
SQL> CREATE PROCEDURE wraptest wrapped
  2  a000000
  3  b2
  4  abcd
  5  abcd
  6  abcd
  7  abcd
  8  abcd
  9  abcd
 10  abcd
 11  abcd
 12  abcd
 13  abcd
 14  abcd
 15  abcd
 16  abcd
 17  abcd
 18  abcd
 19  7
 20  121 134
 21  Pf3/wD+9ncRZhp3XxTMUO3yIRvswg+nQ7UhqfHRG2vg+SD7x9XzsDUFWbdwCJVEOLKBBRuH6
 22  VMoRHfX6apzfyMkvWhzQLCYvAcq6Zu7++E7PrXNxUJzk/FZW8P9eRgyyyMFnDj53aP1cDje9
 23  ZdGr2VmJHIw0ZNHBYhDdR+du5U5Yy47a6dJHXFW9eNyxBHtXZDuiWYTUtlnueHQV9iYDwE+r
 24  jFn+eZm4jgDcTLTEzfmIVtPDRNhYCY3xhPo7vJeS8M1AvP+4xh9+uO35XsRIsRl1PTFVrGwg
 25  6iuxETwA5Pu2mwx3
 26  
 27  /
 
Procedure created.
 
SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION fibonacci wrapped
  2  a000000
  3  b2
  4  abcd
  5  abcd
  6  abcd
  7  abcd
  8  abcd
  9  abcd
 10  abcd
 11  abcd
 12  abcd
 13  abcd
 14  abcd
 15  abcd
 16  abcd
 17  abcd
 18  abcd
 19  8
 20  14a fb
 21  e1Yq3QQJoEoNKIeJlbgLoLdSgogwgxDcf8vWfHSKbuowFOXFKoj9MqYGqWyRxeeCUVqNVIO1
 22  ICqJa3yPr6e7z8GZpMH3J0Cx0uQ0B1JuysymdNDlzfTvb7QWsrLU4jGs3h8Mm49/L9nyO4Xh
 23  Ae06nawFpOJIAYpBf9wBVC+ZrjU/nuEtokBqCce6HWIoF6rYgz0V0W/47x5KpOnQ2i7X3kFe
 24  FR8K7jT7X58k8xK9uYlZv5LhV71a7A==
 25  
 26  /
 
Function created.
 
SQL> 
SQL> -- Try to display procedure source text:
SQL> 
SQL> SELECT text FROM USER_SOURCE WHERE name='WRAPTEST';
 
TEXT
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PROCEDURE wraptest wrapped
a000000
b2
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
7
121 134
Pf3/wD+9ncRZhp3XxTMUO3yIRvswg+nQ7UhqfHRG2vg+SD7x9XzsDUFWbdwCJVEOLKBBRuH6
VMoRHfX6apzfyMkvWhzQLCYvAcq6Zu7++E7PrXNxUJzk/FZW8P9eRgyyyMFnDj53aP1cDje9
ZdGr2VmJHIw0ZNHBYhDdR+du5U5Yy47a6dJHXFW9eNyxBHtXZDuiWYTUtlnueHQV9iYDwE+r
jFn+eZm4jgDcTLTEzfmIVtPDRNhYCY3xhPo7vJeS8M1AvP+4xh9+uO35XsRIsRl1PTFVrGwg
6iuxETwA5Pu2mwx3
 
 
1 row selected.
 
SQL> 
SQL> -- Try to display function source text:
SQL> 
SQL> SELECT text FROM USER_SOURCE WHERE name='FIBONACCI';
 
TEXT
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
FUNCTION fibonacci wrapped
a000000
b2
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
8
14a fb
e1Yq3QQJoEoNKIeJlbgLoLdSgogwgxDcf8vWfHSKbuowFOXFKoj9MqYGqWyRxeeCUVqNVIO1
ICqJa3yPr6e7z8GZpMH3J0Cx0uQ0B1JuysymdNDlzfTvb7QWsrLU4jGs3h8Mm49/L9nyO4Xh
Ae06nawFpOJIAYpBf9wBVC+ZrjU/nuEtokBqCce6HWIoF6rYgz0V0W/47x5KpOnQ2i7X3kFe
FR8K7jT7X58k8xK9uYlZv5LhV71a7A==
 
 
1 row selected.
 
SQL> 
SQL> BEGIN
  2    wraptest;  -- invoke procedure
  3    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('fibonacci(5) = ' || fibonacci(5));
  4  END;
  5  /
Emp Id: 198
Emp Id: 199
Emp Id: 200
Emp Id: 201
Emp Id: 202
Emp Id: 203
Emp Id: 204
Emp Id: 205
Emp Id: 206
Emp Id: 100
fibonacci(5) = 3
 
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
 
SQL> 

PL/SQL Source Text Wrapping with DBMS_DDL Subprograms

The DBMS_DDL package provides WRAP functions and CREATE_WRAPPED procedures, each of which wraps the PL/SQL source text of a single dynamically generated wrappable PL/SQL unit. The DBMS_DDL package also provides the exception MALFORMED_WRAP_INPUT (ORA-24230), which is raised if the input to WRAP or CREATE_WRAPPED is not a valid wrappable PL/SQL unit. (For the list of wrappable PL/SQL units, see the introduction to "PL/SQL Source Text Wrapping".)

Each WRAP function takes as input a single CREATE statement that creates a wrappable PL/SQL unit and returns an equivalent CREATE statement in which the PL/SQL source text is wrapped. For more information about the WRAP functions, see Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference.

Caution:

If you pass the statement that DBMS_DDL.WRAP returns to the DBMS_SQL.PARSE procedure whose formal parameter statement has data type VARCHAR2A, then you must set the lfflg parameter of DBMS_SQL.PARSE to FALSE. Otherwise, DBMS_SQL.PARSE adds lines to the wrapped PL/SQL unit, corrupting it. (For the syntax of DBMS_SQL.PARSE, see Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference.)

Each CREATE_WRAPPED procedure does what its corresponding WRAP function does and then runs the returned CREATE statement, creating the specified PL/SQL unit. For more information about the CREATE_WRAPPED procedures, see Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference.

Tip:

When invoking a DBMS_DDL subprogram, use the fully qualified package name, SYS.DBMS_DDL, to avoid name conflict if someone creates a local package named DBMS_DDL or defines the public synonym DBMS_DDL.

Note:

The CREATE statement that is input to a WRAP function or CREATE_WRAPPED procedure runs with the privileges of the user who invoked the subprogram.

Example A-4 dynamically creates a package specification (using the EXECUTE IMMEDIATE statement) and a wrapped package body, using a CREATE_WRAPPED procedure.

Example A-4 Creating Wrapped Package Body with CREATE_WRAPPED Procedure

DECLARE
  package_text  VARCHAR2(32767); -- text for creating package spec and body
 
  FUNCTION generate_spec (pkgname VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS
  BEGIN
    RETURN 'CREATE PACKAGE ' || pkgname || ' AUTHID DEFINER AS
      PROCEDURE raise_salary (emp_id NUMBER, amount NUMBER);
      PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER);
      END ' || pkgname || ';';
  END generate_spec;
 
  FUNCTION generate_body (pkgname VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS
  BEGIN
    RETURN 'CREATE PACKAGE BODY ' || pkgname || ' AS
      PROCEDURE raise_salary (emp_id NUMBER, amount NUMBER) IS
      BEGIN
        UPDATE employees
          SET salary = salary + amount WHERE employee_id = emp_id;
      END raise_salary;
      PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER) IS
      BEGIN
        DELETE FROM employees WHERE employee_id = emp_id;
      END fire_employee;
    END ' || pkgname || ';';
  END generate_body;
 
BEGIN
  package_text := generate_spec('emp_actions');  -- Generate package spec
  EXECUTE IMMEDIATE package_text;                -- Create package spec
  package_text := generate_body('emp_actions');  -- Generate package body
  SYS.DBMS_DDL.CREATE_WRAPPED(package_text);     -- Create wrapped package body
END;
/

Example A-5 selects the text of the package that Example A-4 created, emp_actions, and then invokes the procedure emp_actions.raise_salary. If the package specification were wrapped, then the information needed to invoke the procedure would be unreadable, like the PL/SQL source text of the package body.

Example A-5 Viewing Package with Wrapped Body and Invoking Package Procedure

Select text of package:

SELECT text FROM USER_SOURCE WHERE name = 'EMP_ACTIONS';

Result:

TEXT
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
PACKAGE emp_actions AUTHID DEFINER AS
      PROCEDURE raise_salary (emp_id NUMBER, amount NUMBER);
      PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER);
      END emp_actions;
PACKAGE BODY emp_actions wrapped
a000000
369
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
b
180 113
1fOVodewm7j9dBOmBsiEQz0BKCgwg/BKoZ4VZy/pTBIYo8Uj1sjpbEz08Ck3HMjYq/Mf0XZn
u9D0Kd+i89g9ZO61I6vZYjw2AuBidnLESyR63LHZpFD/7lyDTfF1eDY5vmNwLTXrFaxGy243
0lHKAzmOlwwfBWylkZZNi2UnpmSIe6z/BU2nhbwfpqd224p69FwYVXmFX2H5IMsdZ2/vWsK9
cDMCD1KEqOnPpbU2yXdpW3GIbGD8JFIbKAfpJLkoLfVxoRPXQfj0h1k=

Invoke raised_salary and show its effect:

DECLARE
  s employees.salary%TYPE;
BEGIN
  SELECT salary INTO s FROM employees WHERE employee_id=130;
  DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Old salary: ' || s);
  emp_actions.raise_salary(130, 100);
  SELECT salary INTO s FROM employees WHERE employee_id=130;
  DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('New salary: ' || s);
END;
/

Result:

Old salary: 2800
New salary: 2900
 
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.