PK iFJoa,mimetypeapplication/epub+zipPKiFJMETA-INF/container.xml PKYuPKiFJOEBPS/feature.htm Sybase Gateway Features and Restrictions

2 Sybase Gateway Features and Restrictions

After the gateway is installed and configured, you can use the gateway to access Sybase data, pass Sybase commands from applications to the Sybase database, perform distributed queries, and copy data.

This chapter contains the following sections:

2.1 Using the Pass-Through Feature

The gateway can pass Sybase commands or statements from the application to the Sybase database using the DBMS_HS_PASSTHROUGH package.

Use the DBMS_HS_PASSTHROUGH package in a PL/SQL block to specify the statement to be passed to the Sybase database, as follows:

DECLARE
    num_rows INTEGER;
BEGIN
    num_rows := DBMS_HS_PASSTHROUGH.EXECUTE_IMMEDIATE@SYBS('command');
END;
/

Where command cannot be one of the following:

The DBMS_HS_PASSTHROUGH package supports passing bind values and executing SELECT statements.


Note:

TRUNCATE cannot be used in a pass-through statement.


See Also:

Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference and Chapter 3, Features of Oracle Database Gateways, of Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity User's Guide for more information about the DBMS_HS_PASSTHROUGH package.

2.2 Executing Stored Procedures and Functions

Using the procedural feature, the gateway can execute stored procedures that are defined in the Sybase database. It is not necessary to relink the gateway or define the procedure to the gateway, but the procedure's access privileges must permit access by the gateway.


See Also:

Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity User's Guide for more information about executing stored procedures.

Standard PL/SQL statements are used to execute a stored procedure.

The gateway supports stored procedures in three mutually exclusive modes:

2.2.1 Return Values and Stored Procedures

By default, all stored procedures and functions do not return a return value to the user. To enable return values, set the HS_FDS_PROC_IS_FUNC parameter in the initialization parameter file.


See Also:

Appendix D, "Initialization Parameters" for information about both editing the initialization parameter file and the HS_FDS_PROC_IS_FUNC parameter.


Note:

If you set the HS_FDS_PROC_IS_FUNC gateway initialization parameter, you must change the syntax of the procedure execute statement for all existing stored procedures.

In the following example, the employee name JOHN SMYTHE is passed to the Sybase stored procedure REVISE_SALARY. The stored procedure retrieves the salary value from the Sybase database to calculate a new yearly salary for JOHN SMYTHE. The revised salary returned in RESULT is used to update EMP in a table of an Oracle database:

DECLARE
  INPUT VARCHAR2(15);
  RESULT NUMBER(8,2);
BEGIN
  INPUT := 'JOHN SMYTHE';
  RESULT := REVISE_SALARY@SYBS(INPUT);
  UPDATE EMP SET SAL = RESULT WHERE ENAME =: INPUT;
END;
/

The procedural feature automatically converts non-Oracle data types to and from PL/SQL data types.

2.2.2 Result Sets and Stored Procedures

The Oracle Database Gateway for Sybase provides support for stored procedures which return result sets.

By default, all stored procedures and functions do not return a result set to the user. To enable result sets, set the HS_FDS_RESULTSET_SUPPORT parameter in the initialization parameter file.


See Also:

Appendix D, "Initialization Parameters" for information about both editing the initialization parameter file and the HS_FDS_RESULTSET_SUPPORT parameter. For further information about Oracle support for result sets in non-Oracle databases see Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity User's Guide.


Note:

If you set the HS_FDS_RESULTSET_SUPPORT gateway initialization parameter, you must change the syntax of the procedure execute statement for all existing stored procedures or errors will occur.

When accessing stored procedures with result sets through the Oracle Database Gateway for Sybase, you will be in the sequential mode of Heterogeneous Services.

The Oracle Database Gateway for Sybase returns the following information to Heterogeneous Services during procedure description:

  • All the input arguments of the remote stored procedure

  • None of the output arguments

  • One out argument of type ref cursor (corresponding to the first result set returned by the stored procedure)

Client programs have to use the virtual package function dbms_hs_result_set.get_next_result_set to get the ref cursor for subsequent result sets. The last result set returned is the out argument from the procedure.

The limitations of accessing result sets are the following:

  • Result sets returned by a remote stored procedure have to be retrieved in the order in which they were placed on the wire

  • On execution of a stored procedure, all result sets returned by a previously executed stored procedure will be closed (regardless of whether the data has been completely

In the following example, the Sybase stored procedure is executed to fetch the contents of the emp and dept tables from Sybase:

create procedure REFCURPROC (@arg1 varchar(255), @arg2 varchar(255) output)
as
select @arg2 = @arg1
select * from EMP
select * from DEPT
go

This stored procedure assigns the input parameter arg1 to the output parameter arg2, opens the query SELECT * FROM EMP in ref cursor rc1, and opens the query SELECT * FROM DEPT in ref cursor rc2.


Note:

Chained mode must be set before creating the stored procedure. Issue the following command in Sybase: set chained on

2.2.2.1 OCI Program Fetching from Result Sets in Sequential Mode

The following example shows OCI program fetching from result sets in sequential mode:

OCIEnv *ENVH;
OCISvcCtx *SVCH;
OCIStmt *STMH;
OCIError *ERRH;
OCIBind *BNDH[3];
OraText arg1[20];
OraText arg2[255];
OCIResult *rset;
OCIStmt *rstmt;
ub2 rcode[3];
ub2 rlens[3];
sb2 inds[3];
OraText *stmt = (OraText *) "begin refcurproc@SYBS(:1,:2,:3); end;";
OraText *n_rs_stm = (OraText *)
  "begin :ret := DBMS_HS_RESULT_SET.GET_NEXT_RESULT_SET@SYBS; end;";

/* Prepare procedure call statement */

/* Handle Initialization code skipped */
OCIStmtPrepare(STMH, ERRH, stmt, strlen(stmt), OCI_NTV_SYNTAX, OCI_DEFAULT);

/* Bind procedure arguments */
inds[0] = 0;
strcpy((char *) arg1, "Hello World");
rlens[0] = strlen(arg1);
OCIBindByPos(STMH, &BNDH[0], ERRH, 1, (dvoid *) arg1, 20, SQLT_CHR,
             (dvoid *) &(inds[0]), &(rlens[0]), &(rcode[0]), 0, (ub4 *) 0, 
             OCI_DEFAULT);
inds[1] = -1;
OCIBindByPos(STMH, &BNDH[1], ERRH, 1, (dvoid *) arg2, 20, SQLT_CHR,
             (dvoid *) &(inds[1]), &(rlens[1]), &(rcode[1]), 0, (ub4 *) 0, 
             OCI_DEFAULT);

inds[2] = 0;
rlens[2] = 0;
OCIDescriptorAlloc(ENVH, (dvoid **) &rset, OCI_DTYPE_RSET, 0, (dvoid **) 0);
OCIBindByPos(STMH, &BNDH[2], ERRH, 2, (dvoid *) rset, 0, SQLT_RSET,
             (dvoid *) &(inds[2]), &(rlens[2]), &(rcode[2]),
             0, (ub4 *) 0, OCI_DEFAULT);

/* Execute procedure */
OCIStmtExecute(SVCH, STMH, ERRH, 1, 0, (CONST OCISnapshot *) 0,
               (OCISnapshot *) 0, OCI_DEFAULT);

/* Convert result set to statement handle */
OCIResultSetToStmt(rset, ERRH);
rstmt = (OCIStmt *) rset;

/* After this the user can fetch from rstmt */
/* Issue get_next_result_set call to get handle to next_result set */
/* Prepare Get next result set procedure call */

OCIStmtPrepare(STMH, ERRH, n_rs_stm, strlen(n_rs_stm), OCI_NTV_SYNTAX,
               OCI_DEFAULT);

/* Bind return value */
OCIBindByPos(STMH, &BNDH[1], ERRH, 1, (dvoid *) rset, 0, SQLT_RSET,
             (dvoid *) &(inds[1]), &(rlens[1]), &(rcode[1]),
             0, (ub4 *) 0, OCI_DEFAULT);

/* Execute statement to get next result set*/
OCIStmtExecute(SVCH, STMH, ERRH, 1, 0, (CONST OCISnapshot *) 0,
               (OCISnapshot *) 0, OCI_DEFAULT);

/* Convert next result set to statement handle */
OCIResultSetToStmt(rset, ERRH);
rstmt = (OCIStmt *) rset;

/* Now rstmt will point to the second result set returned by the
remote stored procedure */

/* Repeat execution of get_next_result_set to get the output arguments */

2.2.2.2 PL/SQL Program Fetching from Result Sets in Sequential Mode

Assume that the table loc_emp is a local table exactly like the Sybase emp table. The same assumption applies for loc_dept. outargs is a table with columns corresponding to the out arguments of the Sybase stored procedure.

create or replace package rcpackage is
  type RCTYPE is ref cursor;
end rcpackage;
/
declare
  rc1 rcpackage.rctype;
  rec1 loc_emp%rowtype;
  rc2 rcpackage.rctype;
  rec2 loc_dept%rowtype;
  rc3 rcpackage.rctype;
  rec3 outargs%rowtype;
  out_arg varchar2(255);

begin

  -- Execute procedure
  out_arg := null;  refcurproc@SYBS('Hello World', out_arg, rc1);

  -- Fetch 20 rows from the remote emp table and insert them into loc_emp
  for i in 1 .. 20 loop
    fetch rc1 into rec1;
    insert into loc_emp (rec1.empno, rec1.ename, rec1.job,
    rec1.mgr, rec1.hiredate, rec1.sal, rec1.comm, rec1.deptno);
  end loop;

  -- Close ref cursor
  close rc1;

  -- Get the next result set returned by the stored procedure
  rc2 := dbms_hs_result_set.get_next_result_set@SYBS;

  -- Fetch 5 rows from the remote dept table and insert them into loc_dept
  for i in 1 .. 5 loop
    fetch rc2 into rec2;
    insert into loc_dept values (rec2.deptno, rec2.dname, rec2.loc);
  end loop;

  --Close ref cursor
  close rc2;

  -- Get the output arguments from the remote stored procedure
  -- Since we are in sequential mode, they will be returned in the
  -- form of a result set
  rc3 := dbms_hs_result_set.get_next_result_set@SYBS;

  -- Fetch them and insert them into the outarguments table
  fetch rc3 into rec3;
  insert into outargs (rec3.outarg, rec3.retval);

  -- Close ref cursor
  close rc3;

end;
/

2.3 CHAR Semantics

This feature allows the gateway to optionally run in CHAR Semantics mode. Rather than always describing Sybase CHAR columns as CHAR(n BYTE), this feature describes them as CHAR(n CHAR) and VARCHAR(n CHAR). The concept is similar to Oracle database CHAR Semantics. You need to specify HS_NLS_LENGTH_SEMANTICS=CHAR gateway parameter to activate this option. Refer to Appendix D for more detail.

2.4 Multi-byte Character Sets Ratio Suppression

This feature optionally suppresses the ratio expansion from Sybase database to Oracle database involving multi-byte character set. By default, Oracle gateways assume the worst ratio to prevent data being truncated or insufficient buffer size situation. However, if you have specific knowledge of your Sybase database and do not want the expansion to occur, you can specify HS_KEEP_REMOTE_COLUMN_SIZE parameter to suppress the expansion. Refer to Appendix D for more detail.

2.5 IPv6 Support

Besides full IPv6 support between Oracle databases and the gateway, IPv6 is also supported between this gateway and Sybase database. Refer to the HS_FDS_CONNECT_INFO parameter in Appendix D for more detail.

2.6 Gateway Session IDLE Timeout

You can optionally choose to terminate long idle gateway sessions automatically with the gateway parameter HS_IDLE_TIMEOUT. Specifically, when a gateway session is idle for more than the specified time limit, the gateway session is terminated with any pending update rolled back.

2.7 Database Compatibility Issues for Sybase

Sybase and Oracle databases function differently in some areas, causing compatibility problems. The following compatibility issues are described in this section:

2.7.1 Chained Mode

The gateway supports the ANSI-standard chained mode. Sybase stored procedures must be written for this mode. Running in chained mode allows the gateway to extend the Oracle two-phase commit protection to transactions updating Oracle and Sybase databases.

2.7.2 Column Definitions

By default, a Sybase table column cannot contain null values unless NULL is specified in the column definition. In compliance with the ANSI standard, the Sybase database option "allow nulls by default" can be set to true to change the default column definition to NULL.

For an Oracle table, null values are allowed in a column unless NOT NULL is specified in the column definition.

2.7.3 Naming Rules

Naming rule issues include the following:

2.7.3.1 Rules for Naming Objects

Oracle and Sybase use different database object naming rules. For example, the maximum number of characters allowed for each object name can be different. Also, the use of single and double quotation marks, case sensitivity, and the use of alphanumeric characters can all be different.


See Also:

Oracle Database Reference and Sybase documentation.

2.7.3.2 Case Sensitivity

The Oracle database defaults to uppercase unless you surround identifiers with double quote characters. For example, to refer to the Sybase table called emp, enter the name with double quote characters, as follows:

SQL> SELECT * FROM "emp"@SYBS;

However, to refer to the Sybase table called emp owned by SCOTT from an Oracle application, enter the following:

SQL> SELECT * FROM "Scott"."emp"@SYBS;

If the Sybase table called emp is owned by SCOTT, a table owner name in uppercase letters, you can enter the owner name without double quote characters, as follows:

SQL> SELECT * FROM SCOTT."emp"@SYBS;

Or

SQL> SELECT * FROM scott."emp"@SYBS;

Oracle recommends that you surround all Sybase object names with double quote characters and use the exact letter case for the object names as they appear in the Sybase data dictionary. This convention is not required when referring to the supported Oracle data dictionary tables or views listed in Appendix C, "Data Dictionary".

If existing applications cannot be changed according to these conventions, create views in Oracle to associate Sybase names to the correct letter case. For example, to refer to the Sybase table emp from an existing Oracle application by using only uppercase names, define the following view:

SQL> CREATE VIEW EMP (EMPNO, ENAME, SAL, HIREDATE)
      AS SELECT "empno", "ename", "sal", "hiredate"
      FROM "emp"@SYBS;

With this view, the application can issue statements such as the following:

SQL> SELECT EMPNO, ENAME FROM EMP;

Using views is a workaround solution that duplicates data dictionary information originating in the Sybase data dictionary. You must be prepared to update the Oracle view definitions whenever the data definitions for the corresponding tables are changed in the Sybase database.

2.7.4 Data Types

Data type issues include the following:

2.7.4.1 Binary Literal Notation

Oracle SQL uses hexadecimal digits surrounded by single quotes to express literal values being compared or inserted into columns defined as data type RAW.

This notation is not converted to syntax compatible with the Sybase VARBINARY and BINARY data types (a 0x followed by hexadecimal digits, surrounded by single quotes).

For example, the following statement is not supported:

SQL> INSERT INTO BINARY_TAB@SYBS VALUES ('0xff')

Where BINARY_TAB contains a column of data type VARBINARY or BINARY. Use bind variables when inserting into or updating VARBINARY and BINARY data types.

2.7.4.2 Data Type Conversion

Sybase does not support implicit date conversions. Such conversions must be explicit.

For example, the gateway issues an error for the following SELECT statement:

SELECT DATE_COL FROM TEST@SYBS WHERE DATE_COL = "1-JAN-2001";

To avoid problems with implicit conversions, add explicit conversions, as in the following:

SELECT DATE_COL FROM TEST@SYBS WHERE DATE_COL = TO_DATE("1-JAN-2001")

See Also:

Appendix A, "Data Type Conversion" for more information about restrictions on data types.

2.7.5 Queries

Query issues include the following:

2.7.5.1 Row Selection

Sybase evaluates a query condition for all selected rows before returning any of the rows. If there is an error in the evaluation process for one or more rows, no rows are returned even though the remaining rows satisfy the condition.

Oracle evaluates the query condition row-by-row and returns a row when the evaluation is successful. Rows are returned until a row fails the evaluation.

2.7.5.2 Empty Strings

Oracle processes an empty string in a SQL statement as a null value. Sybase processes an empty string as an empty string.

When comparing an empty string, the gateway passes literal empty strings to the Sybase database without any conversion. If you intended an empty string to represent a null value, Sybase does not process the statement that way; it uses the empty string.

You can avoid this problem by using NULL or IS NULL in the SQL statement instead of the empty string syntax, as in the following example:

SELECT * from "emp"@SYBS where "ename" IS NULL;

Selecting an empty string

For VARCHAR columns, the gateway returns an empty string to the Oracle database as NULL value.

For CHAR columns, the gateway returns the full size of the column with each character as empty space (' ').

2.7.5.3 Empty Bind Variables

For VARCHAR bind variables, the gateway passes empty bind variables to the Sybase database as a NULL value.

2.7.6 Locking

The locking model for a Sybase database differs significantly from the Oracle model. The gateway depends on the underlying Sybase behavior, so Oracle applications that access Sybase through the gateway can be affected by the following possible scenarios:

  • Read access might block write access

  • Write access might block read access

  • Statement-level read consistency is not guaranteed


    See Also:

    Sybase documentation for information about the Sybase locking model.

2.7.7 Sybase Identifiers Length Limit

By default, the gateway will always quote identifiers. However, certain Sybase releases have a limit of 30 characters for identifiers such as table or column names and quotes are considered part of the names when checking against this limit. Therefore, when quotes are used, you can only specify 28 characters. In order to support the maximum length limit in those Sybase releases, you need to specify HS_FDS_QUOTE_IDENTIFIER=FALSE in your gateway initialization parameter file. Setting this initialization parameter will cause the gateway to send identifiers without quotes. However, it has the side effect of precluding the use of identifiers that contain dots (.) or spaces, and the identifiers will follow the case sensitivity of the Sybase database being used.

2.8 Known Restrictions

If you encounter incompatibility problems not listed in this section or in "Known Problems", contact Oracle Support Services. The following section describes the known restrictions and includes suggestions for dealing with them when possible:

The foAllowing restriction also applies:

2.8.1 Transactional Integrity

The gateway cannot guarantee transactional integrity in the following cases:

  • When a statement that is processed by the gateway causes an implicit commit in the target database

  • When the target database is configured to work in autocommit mode


    Note:

    Oracle strongly recommends the following:
    • If you know that executing a particular statement causes an implicit commit in the target database, then ensure that this statement is executed in its own transaction.

    • Do not configure the target database to work in autocommit mode.


2.8.2 Transaction Capability

The gateway does not support savepoints. If a distributed update transaction is under way involving the gateway and a user attempts to create a savepoint, the following error occurs:

ORA-02070: database dblink does not support savepoint in this context

By default, the gateway is configured as COMMIT_CONFIRM and it is always the commit point site when the Sybase database is updated by the transaction.

2.8.3 COMMIT or ROLLBACK in PL/SQL Cursor Loops Closes Open Cursors

Any COMMIT or ROLLBACK issued in a PL/SQL cursor loop closes all open cursors, which can result in the following error:

ORA-1002:  fetch out of sequence 

To prevent this error, move the COMMIT or ROLLBACK statement outside the cursor loop.

2.8.4 Stored Procedures

Changes issued through stored procedures that embed commits or rollbacks cannot be controlled by the Oracle transaction manager or Oracle COMMIT or ROLLBACK commands.

When accessing stored procedures with result sets through the Oracle Database Gateway for Sybase, you must work in the sequential mode of Heterogeneous Services.

When accessing stored procedures with multiple result sets through the Oracle Database Gateway for Sybase, you must read all the result sets before continuing.

Output parameters of stored procedures must be initialized to a NULL value.

Oracle Database Gateway for Sybase does not support output parameters or stored procedures with output parameters, inside a pass through query.

2.8.5 Pass-Through Feature

DDL statements executed by Sybase using the gateway pass-through feature might fail if they are in a multi-statement transaction. Set the Sybase option "ddl in tran" to allow DDL statements in a transaction.

Oracle recommends that you place a DDL statement in its own transaction when executing such a statement with the pass-through feature. An explicit COMMIT must be issued after the DDL statement.

If the SQL statements being passed through the gateway result in an implicit commit at the Sybase database, the Oracle transaction manager is unaware of the commit and an Oracle ROLLBACK command cannot be used to roll back the transaction.

2.8.6 Sybase NCHAR and NVARCHAR Data Types

The gateway cannot select a column defined with a Sybase NCHAR or NVARCHAR data type.

2.8.7 SQL Syntax

This section lists restrictions on the following SQL syntax:


See Also:

Appendix B, "Supported SQL Syntax and Functions" for more information about restrictions on SQL syntax.

2.8.7.1 WHERE CURRENT OF Clause

UPDATE and DELETE statements with the WHERE CURRENT OF clause are not supported by the gateway because they rely on the Oracle ROWID implementation. To update or delete a specific row through the gateway, a condition style WHERE clause must be used.

2.8.7.2 CONNECT BY Clause

The gateway does not support the CONNECT BY clause in a SELECT statement.

2.8.7.3 ROWID

The Oracle ROWID implementation is not supported.

2.8.7.4 Subqueries in INSERT Statement

Subqueries of INSERT statements cannot use multiple aliases for the same table. For example, the following statement is not supported:

SQL> INSERT INTO "emp_target"@SYBS
         SELECT a."empno" FROM "emp_source"@SYBS a,
            "emp_source"@SYBS b WHERE b."empno"=9999

2.8.7.5 EXPLAIN PLAN Statement

The EXPLAIN PLAN statement is not supported.

2.8.7.6 Callback Support

SQL statements that require the gateway to callback to Oracle database would not be supported.

The following categories of SQL statements will result in a callback:

  • Any DML with a sub-select, which refers to a table in Oracle database. For example:

    INSERT INTO emp@non_oracle SELECT * FROM oracle_emp;
    
  • Any DELETE, INSERT, UPDATE or "SELECT... FOR UPDATE..." SQL statement containing SQL functions or statements that needs to be executed at the originating Oracle database.

    These SQL functions include USER, USERENV, and SYSDATE, and the SQL statements are in selects of data from the originating Oracle database. For example:

    DELETE FROM emp@non_oracle WHERE hiredate > SYSDATE;
    
    SELECT ename FROM tkhoemp@non_oracle
    WHERE hiredate IN (SELECT hiredate FROM tkhoemp)
    FOR UPDATE OF empno;
    
  • Any SQL statement that involves a table in Oracle database, and a LONG or LOB column in a remote table. For example:

    SELECT a.long1, b.empno FROM scott.table@non_oracle a, emp b
    WHERE a.id=b.empno; 
    
    SELECT a.long1, b.dummy FROM table_non@non_oracle a, dual b;
    

where a.long1 is a LONG column.

2.8.8 SQL*Plus COPY Command with Lowercase Table Names

You need to use double quotes to wrap around lowercase table names.

For example:

copy from tkhouser/tkhouser@inst1 insert loc_tkhodept using select * from "tkhodept"@holink2;

2.8.9 Database Links

The gateway is not multithreaded and cannot support shared database links. Each gateway session spawns a separate gateway process and connections cannot be shared.

2.8.10 CALLBACK links

Oracle Database Gateway for Sybase does not support CALLBACK links. Trying a CALLBACK link with the gateway will return the following error message:

ORA-02025: All tables in the SQL statement must be at the remote database

2.9 Known Problems

This section describes known problems and includes suggestions for correcting them when possible. If you have any questions or concerns about the problems, contact Oracle Support Services. A current list of problems is available online. Contact your local Oracle office for information about accessing the list.

The following known problems are described in this section:

2.9.1 Encrypted Format Login

Oracle database no longer supports the initialization parameter DBLINK_ENCRYPT_LOGIN. Up to version 7.3, this parameter's default TRUE value prevented the password for the login user ID from being sent over the network (in the clear). Later versions automatically encrypt the password.

2.9.2 Date Arithmetic

The following SQL expressions do not function correctly with the gateway:

date + numbernumber + datedate - numberdate1 - date2

Statements with the preceding expressions are sent to the Sybase database without any translation. Since Sybase does not support these date arithmetic functions, the statements return an error.

2.9.3 Sybase IMAGE and TEXT Data Type

The following restrictions apply when using IMAGE and TEXT data types:

  • An unsupported SQL function cannot be used in a SQL statement that accesses a column defined as Sybase data type IMAGE or TEXT.

  • You cannot use SQL*Plus to select data from a column defined as Sybase data type IMAGE or TEXT when the data is greater than 80 characters in length. Oracle recommends using Pro*C or Oracle Call Interface to access such data in a Sybase database.

  • IMAGE and TEXT data cannot be read through pass-through queries.

The gateway does not support the PL/SQL function COLUMN_VALUE_LONG of the DBMS_SQL package.


See Also:

Appendix B, "Supported SQL Syntax and Functions" for more information about restrictions on SQL syntax.

2.9.4 String Functions

If you concatenate numeric literals using the "||" operator when using the gateway to query a Sybase database, the result is an arithmetic addition. For example, the result of the following statement is 18:

SQL> SELECT 9 || 9 FROM DUAL@SYBS;

The result is 99 when using Oracle to query an Oracle database.

2.9.5 Schema Names and PL/SQL

If you do not prefix a Sybase database object with its schema name in a SQL statement within a PL/SQL block, the following error message occurs:

ORA-6550 PLS-201 Identifier table_name must be declared.

Change the SQL statement to include the schema name of the object.

2.9.6 Data Dictionary Views and PL/SQL

You cannot refer to data dictionary views in SQL statements that are inside a PL/SQL block.

2.9.7 Stored Procedures

Return values of stored procedures that return result sets are incorrect.

PKc#PKiFJOEBPS/index.htm>O Index

Index

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  K  L  M  N  O  P  R  S  T  U  V  W 

A

ALTER statement, B.1
Arithmetic operators, B.2.2.1

B

BINARY data type, A.1
BIT data type, A.1

C

Case rules, 2.7.3.2
Case studies, 3
Chained mode, 2.7.1
CHAR data type, A.1
character sets
Heterogeneous Services, D.3.6.1
COMMIT
restrictions, 2.8.3
Commit point site, 2.8.2
Comparison operators, B.2.2.2
CONCAT operator, 2.9.4
CONNECT BY clause, 2.8.7.2
COPY command, 2.8.8
CREATE statement, B.1
Cursor loops
restrictions, 2.8.3

D

Data definition language, B.1
Data dictionary
views, C.1.4
Data type
BINARY, A.1
BIT, A.1
CHAR, A.1
conversion, 2.7.4.2
DATE, A.1
DATETIME, A.1
DECIMAL, A.1
FLOAT, A.1
IMAGE, A.1
INTEGER, A.1
LONG, A.1
LONG RAW, A.1
MONEY, A.1
NUMBER, A.1
NUMERIC, A.1
RAW, A.1
REAL, A.1
SMALL DATETIME, A.1
SMALL MONEY, A.1
SMALLINT, A.1
TEXT, A.1
TINYINT, A.1
VARBINARY, 2.9.1, A.1
VARCHAR, A.1
VARCHAR2, A.1
DATE data type, A.1
DATETIME data type, A.1
DDL statement, 2.8.5
DECIMAL data type, A.1
DELETE statement, 3.9.1, B.1.1, B.2.1
demonstration build SQL script, 3.3
Demonstration files, 3.3
Demonstration tables, 3.5
Demonstration tables build SQL script, 3.5
describe cache high water mark
definition, D.3.5
DROP statement, B.1

E

Encrypted format login, 2.9.1
Error messages
error tracing, D.3.19
Errors
ORA-02070, 2.8.2
Executing Stored Procedures, 3.12

F

fetch array size, with HS_FDS_FETCH_ROWS, D.3.21
FLOAT data type, A.1
Functions in SQL, 2.2

G

Gateway
case studies, 3
data dictionary tables, C.1
pass-through feature, 2.1
supported functions, B
supported SQL syntax, B.1
globalization support
Heterogeneous Services, D.3.6
GRANT statement, B.1
Group functions, B.2.2.3

H

Heterogeneous Services
defining maximum number of open cursors, D.3.8
optimizing data transfer, D.3.9
setting global name, D.3.4
specifying cache high water mark, D.3.5
tuning internal data buffering, D.3.10
tuning LONG data transfer, D.3.7
Hexadecimal notation, 2.7.4.1
HS_CALL_NAME initialization parameter, D.3.1
HS_DB_NAME initialization parameter, D.3.4
HS_DESCRIBE_CACHE_HWM initialization parameter, D.3.5
HS_FDS_CONNECT_INFO, D.3.14
HS_FDS_FETCH_ROWS parameter, D.3.21
HS_FDS_PROC_IS_FUNC initialization parameter, D.3.15
HS_FDS_RECOVERY_PWD initialization parameter, D.3.30
HS_FDS_RESULTSET_SUPPORT initialization parameter, D.3.18
HS_FDS_TRACE_LEVEL initialization parameter, D.3.19
enabling agent tracing, D.1
HS_FDS_TRANSACTION_LOG initialization parameter, D.3.20
HS_IDLE_TIMEOUT initialization parameter, D.3.23
HS_KEEP_REMOTE_COLUMN_SIZE initialization parameter, D.3.25
HS_LANGUAGE initialization parameter, D.3.6
HS_LONG_PIECE_TRANSFER_SIZE initialization parameter, D.3.7
HS_NLS_LENGTH_SEMANTICS initialization parameter, D.3.24
HS_OPEN_CURSORS initialization parameter, D.3.8
HS_RPC_FETCH_REBLOCKING initialization parameter, D.3.9
HS_RPC_FETCH_SIZE initialization parameter, D.3.10
HS_TIME_ZONE initialization parameter, D.3.11

I

IFILE initialization parameter, D.3.13
IMAGE data type, A.1
Initialization parameter file
customizing, D
INSERT statement, 2.8.7.4, 3.9.3, B.1.2, B.2.1
INTEGER data type, A.1

K

Known restrictions, 2.8

L

Locking, database, 2.7.6
LONG data type, A.1
LONG RAW data type, A.1

M

MONEY data type, A.1

N

NULL values, 2.7.2
NUMBER data type, A.1
NUMERIC data type, A.1
NVL function, 3.7

O

Objects, naming rules, 2.7.3.1
ORA-02070, 2.8.2

P

parameters
gateway initialization file
HS_FDS_FETCH_ROWS, D.3.21
Passing commands to database, 2.8.5
Pass-Through Feature, 3.11
Pass-through feature, 2.8.5
PL/SQL, 2.9.5, 2.9.6

R

RAW data type, A.1
REAL data type, A.1
remote functions
referenced in SQL statements, D.3.1
ROLLBACK
restrictions, 2.8.3
ROWID, 2.8.7.1, 2.8.7.3

S

savepoint support, 2.8.2
SELECT statement, 3.11.2, B.1.3, C.1.2
SMALL DATETIME data type, A.1
SMALLINT data type, A.1
Stored procedures, 2.8.4, 2.9.7
running in chained mode, 2.7.1
Stored procedures in SQL Server, 2.2
String functions, B.2.2.4, B.2.2.4
SUM function, 3.7

T

TEXT data type, A.1
TINYINT data type, A.1
Transaction modes, 2.7.1
transactional capability, 2.8.2
transactional integrity, 2.8.1
TRUNCATE statement, B.1
Two-phase commit, 2.8.2

U

UPDATE statement, 3.9.2, 3.11.1, B.1.4, B.2.1

V

VARBINARY data type, 2.9.1, A.1
VARCHAR data type, A.1
VARCHAR2 data type, A.1

W

WHERE CURRENT OF clause, 2.8.7.1
PKܵ>>PKiFJ OEBPS/apb.htmQ Supported SQL Syntax and Functions

B Supported SQL Syntax and Functions

This appendix contains the following sections:

B.1 Supported SQL Statements

With a few exceptions, the gateway provides full support for Oracle DELETE, INSERT, SELECT, and UPDATE statements.

The gateway does not support Oracle data definition language (DDL) statements. No form of the Oracle ALTER, CREATE, DROP, GRANT, or TRUNCATE statements can be used. Instead, for ALTER, CREATE, DROP, and GRANT statements, use the pass-through feature of the gateway if you need to use DDL statements against the Sybase database.


Note:

TRUNCATE cannot be used in a pass-through statement.


See Also:

Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for detailed descriptions of keywords, parameters, and options and the Sybase documentation for details of executing SQL statements in a transaction.

B.1.1 DELETE

The DELETE statement is fully supported. However, only Oracle functions supported by Sybase can be used.


See Also:

"Functions Supported by Sybase" for a list of supported functions.

B.1.2 INSERT

The INSERT statement is fully supported. However, only Oracle functions supported by Sybase can be used.


See Also:

"Functions Supported by Sybase" for a list of supported functions.

B.1.3 SELECT

The SELECT statement is fully supported, with these exceptions:

  • CONNECT BY condition

  • NOWAIT

  • START WITH condition

  • WHERE CURRENT OF

B.1.4 UPDATE

The UPDATE statement is fully supported. However, only Oracle functions supported by Sybase can be used. Also, you cannot have SQL statements in the subquery that refer to the same table name in the outer query. Subqueries are not supported in the SET clause.


See Also:

"Functions Supported by Sybase" for a list of supported functions.

B.2 Oracle Functions

All functions are evaluated by the Sybase database after the gateway has converted them to Sybase SQL.

B.2.1 Functions Not Supported by Sybase

Oracle SQL functions with no equivalent function in Sybase are not supported in DELETE, INSERT, or UPDATE statements, but are evaluated by the Oracle database if the statement is a SELECT statement. That is, the Oracle database performs post-processing of SELECT statements sent to the gateway.

If an unsupported function is used in a DELETE, INSERT, or UPDATE, statement, the following Oracle error occurs:

ORA-02070: database db_link_name does not support function in this context

B.2.2 Functions Supported by Sybase

The gateway translates the following Oracle database functions in SQL statements to their equivalent Sybase functions:

B.2.2.1 Arithmetic Operators

OracleSybase
+
+
--
*
*
/
/

B.2.2.2 Comparison Operators

OracleSybase
=
=
>>
<
<
>=>=
<=
<=
<>, !=, ^=<>, !=
IS NOT NULLIS NOT NULL
IS NULLIS NULL

B.2.2.3 Group Functions

OracleSybase
AVGAVG
COUNTCOUNT
MAXMAX
MINMIN
SUMSUM

B.2.2.4 String Functions

OracleSybase
||
+ (expression1 + expression2)
ASCIIASCII
CHRCHAR
INSTRCHARINDEX
LENGTHCHAR_LENGTH
LOWERLOWER
SUBSTR (second argument cannot be a negative number)SUBSTRING
UPPERUPPER

B.2.2.5 Other Functions

OracleSybase
ABSABS
CEILCEILING
COSCOS
EXPEXP
FLOORFLOOR
LNLOG
LOGLOG10
MOD%
NOT NVLIS NOT NULL
NVLIS NULL
POWERPOWER
ROUNDROUND
SINSIN
SQRTSQRT
TANTAN

PK+TQQPKiFJ OEBPS/lot.htm  List of Tables

List of Tables

PKቌ PKiFJOEBPS/cover.htm Cover

Oracle Corporation

PK;PKiFJOEBPS/title.htm Oracle Database Gateway for Sybase User's Guide, 11g Release 2 (11.2)

Oracle® Database Gateway for Sybase

User's Guide

11g Release 2 (11.2)

E12067-03

January 2012


Oracle Database Gateway for Sybase User's Guide, 11g Release 2 (11.2)

E12067-03

Copyright © 2002, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Primary Author:  Maitreyee Chaliha

Contributor:  Vira Goorah, Juan Pablo Ahues-Vasquez, Peter Castro, Charles Benet, Peter Wong, and Govind Lakkoju

This software and related documentation are provided under a license agreement containing restrictions on use and disclosure and are protected by intellectual property laws. Except as expressly permitted in your license agreement or allowed by law, you may not use, copy, reproduce, translate, broadcast, modify, license, transmit, distribute, exhibit, perform, publish, or display any part, in any form, or by any means. Reverse engineering, disassembly, or decompilation of this software, unless required by law for interoperability, is prohibited.

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PKKPKiFJOEBPS/casestudies.htmoD Case Studies

3 Case Studies

The following case studies for Sybase demonstrate some of the features of the Oracle Database Gateway. You can verify that the gateway is installed and operating correctly by using the demonstration files included on the distribution media.

The demonstration files are automatically copied to disk when the gateway is installed.

This chapter contains the following sections:

3.1 Case Descriptions

The cases illustrate:

3.2 Distribution Media Contents

The distribution media contains the following:

3.3 Demonstration Files

After a successful gateway installation, use the demonstration files stored in the directory $ORACLE_HOME/dg4sybs/demo, where $ORACLE_HOME is the directory under which the gateway is installed. The directory contains the following demonstration files:

Demonstration FilesDemonstration Files
bldsybs.sqlcase4c.sql
case1.sqlcase5.sql
case2.sqlcase6a.sql
case3.sqlcase6b.sql
case4a.sqlcase7.sql
case4b.sqldropsybs.sql

3.4 Demonstration Requirements

The case studies assume these requirements have been met:

3.5 Creating Demonstration Tables

The case studies are based on the GTW_EMP, GTW_DEPT, and GTW_SALGRADE tables and the stored procedures InsertDept and GetDept. If the demonstration tables and stored procedures have not been created in the Sybase database, use the bldsybs.sql script to create them. Enter the following:

$ isql -USCOTT -PTIGER2 -ibldsybs.sql

The script creates the demonstration tables and stored procedures in the Sybase database accordingly:

CREATE TABLE GTW_EMP (
EMPNO      SMALLINT NOT NULL 
ENAME      VARCHAR(10),
JOB        VARCHAR(9),
MGR        SMALLINT,
HIREDATE   DATETIME,
SAL        NUMERIC(7,2),
COMM       NUMERIC(7,2),
DEPTNO     SMALLINT)
go

CREATE TABLE GTW_DEPT (
DEPTNO     SMALLINT NOT NULL,
DNAME      VARCHAR(14),
LOC        VARCHAR(13))
go

CREATE TABLE GTW_SALGRADE (
GRADE      MONEY,
LOSAL      NUMERIC(9,4),
HISAL      NUMERIC(9,4))
go

SET CHAINED ON
go

DROP PROCEDURE InsertDept
go

CREATE PROCEDURE InsertDept (@dno INTEGER,
   @dname VARCHAR(14), @loc VARCHAR(13))
AS INSERT INTO GTW_DEPT VALUES (@dno, @dname, @loc)
go

DROP PROCEDURE GetDept
go

CREATE PROCEDURE GetDept (@dno INTEGER, @dname VARCHAR(14) OUTPUT)
AS SELECT @dname=DNAME FROM GTW_DEPT WHERE DEPTNO=@dno
go

3.5.1 Demonstration Table Definitions

The table definitions are listed in the following table using information retrieved by the SQL*PLUS DESCRIBE command:

GTW_EMP

Name                            Null?    Type
------------------------------- -------- ----
EMPNO                           NOT NULL NUMBER(5)
ENAME                                    VARCHAR2(10)
JOB                                      VARCHAR2(9)
MGR                                      NUMBER(5)
HIREDATE                                 DATE
SAL                                      NUMBER(7,2)
COMM                                     NUMBER(7,2)
DEPTNO                                   NUMBER(5)

GTW_DEPT

Name                            Null?    Type
------------------------------- -------- ----
DEPTNO                          NOT NULL NUMBER(5)
DNAME                                    VARCHAR2(14)
LOC                                      VARCHAR2(13)

GTW_SALGRADE

Name                            Null?    Type
------------------------------- -------- ----
GRADE                                    NUMBER(19,4)
LOSAL                                    NUMBER(9,4)
HISAL                                    NUMBER(9,4)

3.5.2 Demonstration Table Contents

The contents of the Sybase tables are:

GTW_EMP

EMPNO ENAME   JOB         MGR   HIREDATE   SAL   COMM   DEPTNO
----- -----   ---         ---   --------   ---   ----   ------
7369  SMITH   CLERK       7902  17-DEC-80   800             20
7499  ALLEN   SALESMAN    7698  20-FEB-81  1600   300       30
7521  WARD    SALESMAN    7698  22-FEB-81  1250   500       30
7566  JONES   MANAGER     7839  02-APR-81  2975             20
7654  MARTIN  SALESMAN    7698  28-SEP-81  1250  1400       30
7698  BLAKE   MANAGER     7839  01-MAY-81  2850             30
7782  CLARK   MANAGER     7839  09-JUN-81  2450             10
7788  SCOTT   ANALYST     7566  09-DEC-82  3000             20
7839  KING    PRESIDENT         17-NOV-81  5000             10
7844  TURNER  SALESMAN    7698  08-SEP-81  1500     0       30
7876  ADAMS   CLERK       7788  12-JAN-83  1100             20
7900  JAMES   CLERK       7698  03-DEC-81   950             30
7902  FORD    ANALYST     7566  03-DEC-81  3000             20
7934  MILLER  CLERK       7782  23-JAN-82  1300             10

GTW_DEPT

DEPTNO DNAME          LOC 
----- -------------- --------
   10 ACCOUNTING     NEW YORK
   20 RESEARCH       DALLAS
   30 SALES          CHICAGO
   40 OPERATIONS     BOSTON 

GTW_SALGRADE

GRADE      LOSAL      HISAL
------     ------     -----
    1        700      1200
    2       1201      1400
    3       1401      2000
    4       2001      3000
    5       3001      9999

3.6 Case 1: Simple Queries

Case 1 demonstrates the following:

The first query retrieves all the data from GTW_DEPT and confirms that the gateway is working correctly. The second query retrieves all the data from GTW_EMP including the time portion of the hire date because the default date format was set to DD-MON-YY HH24:MM:SS for the session by an ALTER SESSION command.

3.7 Case 2: A More Complex Query

Case 2 demonstrates the following:

This query retrieves the departments from GTW_EMP whose total monthly expenses are higher than $10,000.

3.8 Case 3: Joining Sybase Tables

Case 3 demonstrates the following:

The query retrieves information from three Sybase tables and relates the employees to their department name and salary grade, but only for those employees earning more than the average salary.

3.9 Case 4: Write Capabilities

Case 4 is split into three cases and demonstrates the following:

3.9.1 DELETE Statement

Case 4a demonstrates bind values and subselect. All employees in department 20 and one employee, WARD, in department 30 are deleted.

3.9.2 UPDATE Statement

Case 4b provides an example of a simple UPDATE statement. In this example, employees are given a $100 a month salary increase.

3.9.3 INSERT Statement

Case 4c is an example of a simple insert statement that does not provide information for all columns.

3.10 Case 5: Data Dictionary Query

Case 5 demonstrates data dictionary mapping. It retrieves all the tables and views that exist in the Sybase database that begin with "GTW".

3.11 Case 6: The Pass-Through Feature

Case 6 demonstrates the gateway pass-through feature that allows an application to send commands or statements to Sybase.

This case demonstrates:

3.11.1 UPDATE Statement

Case 6a provides an example of a pass-through UPDATE statement with bind variables. In this example, the salary for EMPNO 7934 is set to 4000.

3.11.2 SELECT Statement

Case 6b provides an example of a pass-through SELECT statement. The data that is returned from the SELECT statement is inserted into a local table at the Oracle database.

3.12 Case 7: Executing Stored Procedures

Case 7 demonstrates the gateway executing a stored procedure in the Sybase database.

Before running the script, make sure that chained mode is set on, by issuing the following command in Sybase:

set chained on
PK Preface

Preface

This manual describes the Oracle Database Gateway for Sybase, which enables Oracle client applications to access Sybase data through Structured Query Language (SQL). The gateway, with the Oracle database, creates the appearance that all data resides on a local Oracle database, even though the data can be widely distributed.

This preface covers the following topics:

Audience

This manual is intended for Oracle database administrators who perform the following tasks:

Documentation Accessibility

For information about Oracle's commitment to accessibility, visit the Oracle Accessibility Program website at http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=docacc.

Access to Oracle Support

Oracle customers have access to electronic support through My Oracle Support. For information, visit http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=info or visit http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=trs if you are hearing impaired.

Related Documents

For more information, see the following documents:

Many of the examples in this book use the sample schemas of the seed database, which is installed by default when you install Oracle. Refer to Oracle Database Sample Schemas for information on how these schemas were created and how you can use them yourself.

Conventions

The following text conventions are used in this document:

ConventionMeaning
boldfaceBoldface type indicates graphical user interface elements associated with an action, or terms defined in text or the glossary.
italicItalic type indicates book titles, emphasis, or placeholder variables for which you supply particular values.
monospaceMonospace type indicates commands within a paragraph, URLs, code in examples, text that appears on the screen, or text that you enter.

PKh3<7PKiFJ OEBPS/apc.htm Data Dictionary

C Data Dictionary

The Oracle Database Gateway for Sybase translates a query that refers to an Oracle database data dictionary table into a query that retrieves the data from Sybase system tables. You perform queries on data dictionary tables over the database link in the same way you query data dictionary tables in the Oracle database. The gateway data dictionary is similar to the Oracle database data dictionary in appearance and use.

This appendix contains the following sections:

C.1 Data Dictionary Support

The following paragraphs describe the Oracle Database Gateway for Sybase data dictionary support.

C.1.1 Sybase System Tables

Sybase data dictionary information is stored in the Sybase database as Sybase system tables. All Sybase system tables have names prefixed with "sys". The Sybase system tables define the structure of a database. When you change data definitions, Sybase reads and modifies the Sybase system tables to add information about the user tables.

C.1.2 Accessing the Gateway Data Dictionary

Accessing a gateway data dictionary table or view is identical to accessing a data dictionary in an Oracle database. You issue a SQL SELECT statement specifying a database link. The Oracle database data dictionary view and column names are used to access the gateway data dictionary in an Oracle database. Synonyms of supported views are also acceptable. For example, the following statement queries the data dictionary table ALL_CATALOG to retrieve all table names in the Sybase database:

SQL> SELECT * FROM "ALL_CATALOG"@SYBS;

When a data dictionary access query is issued, the gateway:

  1. Maps the requested table, view, or synonym to one or more Sybase system table names. The gateway translates all data dictionary column names to their corresponding Sybase column names within the query. If the mapping involves one Sybase system table, the gateway translates the requested table name to its corresponding Sybase system table name within the query. If the mapping involves multiple Sybase system tables, the gateway constructs a join in the query using the translated Sybase system table names.

  2. Sends the translated query to Sybase.

  3. Might convert the retrieved Sybase data to give it the appearance of the Oracle database data dictionary table.

  4. Passes the data dictionary information from the translated Sybase system table to the Oracle database.


    Note:

    The values returned when querying the gateway data dictionary might not be the same as the ones returned by the Oracle SQL*Plus DESCRIBE command.

C.1.3 Direct Queries to Sybase Tables

Queries issued directly to individual Sybase system tables are allowed but they return different results because the Sybase system table column names differ from those of the data dictionary view. Also, certain columns in an Sybase system table cannot be used in data dictionary processing.

C.1.4 Supported Views and Tables

The gateway supports the following views and tables:

Supported Views and TablesSupported Views and Tables
ALL_CATALOGALL_COL_COMMENTS
ALL_CONS_COLUMNSALL_CONSTRAINTS
ALL_IND_COLUMNSALL_INDEXES
ALL_OBJECTSALL_TAB_COLUMNS
ALL_TAB_COMMENTSALL_TABLES
ALL_USERSALL_VIEWS
DBA_CATALOGDBA_COL_COMMENTS
DBA_OBJECTSDBA_TABLES
DBA_TAB_COLUMNSDBA_TAB_COMMENTS
DICT_COLUMNSDICTIONARY
DUALTABLE_PRIVILEGES
USER_CATALOGUSER_COL_COMMENTS
USER_CONS_COLUMNSUSER_CONSTRAINTS
USER_IND_COLUMNSUSER_INDEXES
USER_OBJECTSUSER_TAB_COLUMNS
USER_TAB_COMMENTSUSER_TABLES
USER_USERSUSER_VIEWS

No other Oracle database data dictionary tables or views are supported. If you use a view not on the list, you receive the Oracle database error code for no more rows available.

Queries through the gateway of any data dictionary table or view beginning with ALL_ can returns rows from the Sybase database even when access privileges for those Sybase objects have not been granted. When querying an Oracle database with the Oracle data dictionary, rows are returned only for those objects you are permitted to access.

C.2 Data Dictionary Mapping

The tables in this section list Oracle data dictionary view names and the equivalent Sybase system tables used. A plus sign (+) indicates that a join operation is involved.

Table C-1 Oracle Data Dictionary View Names and Sybase Equivalents

View NameSybase System Table Name

ALL_CATALOG

sysusers + sysobjects

ALL_COL_COMMENTS

sysusers + sysobjects + syscolumns

ALL_CONS_COLUMNS

sp_pkeys + sp_fkeys

ALL_CONSTRAINTS

sysconstraints + sysusers + sysobjects

ALL_IND_COLUMNS

sysusers + sysindexes + syscolumns

ALL_INDEXES

sysusers + sysindexes + sysobjects

ALL_OBJECTS

sysusers + sysobjects + sysindexes

ALL_TAB_COLUMNS

sysusers + sysobjects + syscolumns

ALL_TAB_COMMENTS

sysusers + sysobjects

ALL_TABLES

sysusers + sysobjects

ALL_USERS

sysusers

ALL_VIEWS

sysusers + sysobjects + syscomments

DBA_CATALOG

sysusers + sysobjects

DBA_COL_COMMENTS

sysusers + sysobjects + syscolumns

DBA_OBJECTS

sysusers + sysobjects + sysindexes

DBA_TABLES

sysusers + sysobjects

DBA_TAB_COLUMNS

sysusers + sysobjects + syscolumns

DBA_TAB_COMMENTS

sysusers + sysobjects

DICT_COLUMNS

sysobjects + syscolumns

DICTIONARY

sysobjects

DUAL

(Defined in the Gateway)

TABLE_PRIVILEGES

sysprotects + sysusers + sysobjects

USER_CATALOG

sysusers + sysobjects

USER_COL_COMMENTS

sysusers + sysobjects + syscolumns

USER_CONS_COLUMNS

sp_pkeys + sp_fkeys

USER_CONSTRAINTS

sysconstraints + sysusers + sysobjects

USER_IND_COLUMNS

sysusers + sysindexes + syscolumns

USER_INDEXES

sysusers + sysindexes + sysobjects

USER_OBJECTS

sysusers + sysobjects + sysindexes

USER_TAB_COLUMNS

sysusers + sysobjects + syscolumns

USER_TAB_COMMENTS

sysusers + sysobjects

USER_TABLES

sysusers + sysobjects

USER_USERS

sysusers

USER_VIEWS

sysusers + sysobjects + syscomments


C.2.1 Default Column Values

There is a minor difference between the gateway data dictionary and a typical Oracle database data dictionary. The Oracle database columns that are missing in an Sybase system table are filled with zeros, spaces, null values, not-applicable values (N.A.), or default values, depending on the column type.

C.3 Gateway Data Dictionary Descriptions

The gateway data dictionary tables and views provide the following information:

They are described here with information retrieved by an Oracle SQL*Plus DESCRIBE command. The values in the Null? column might differ from the Oracle database data dictionary tables and views. Any default value is shown to the right of an item, but this is not information returned by DESCRIBE.

Table C-2 ALL_CATALOG

NameTypeValue

OWNER

VARCHAR2(30)

-

TABLE_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

TABLE_TYPE

VARCHAR2(5)

"TABLE" or "VIEW"


Table C-3 ALL_COL_COMMENTS

NameTypeValue

OWNER

VARCHAR2(30)

-

TABLE_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

COLUMN_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

COMMENTS

CHAR(1)

" "


Table C-4 ALL_CONS_COLUMNS

NameTypeValue

OWNER

VARCHAR2(30)

-

CONSTRAINT_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

TABLE_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

COLUMN_NAME

VARCHAR2(8192)

-

POSITION

FLOAT(49)

-


Table C-5 ALL_CONSTRAINTS

NameTypeValue

OWNER

VARCHAR2(30)

-

CONSTRAINT_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

CONSTRAINT_TYPE

VARCHAR2(1)

"R" or "P"

TABLE_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

SEARCH_CONDITION

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

R_OWNER

VARCHAR2(30)

-

R_CONSTRAINT_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

DELETE_RULE

VARCHAR2(9)

"NO ACTION" or " "

STATUS

VARCHAR2(7)

"ENABLED"

DEFERRABLE

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

DEFERRED

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

VALIDATED

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

GENERATED

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

BAD

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

RELY

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

LAST_CHANGE

DATE

-


Table C-6 ALL_IND_COLUMNS

NameTypeValue

INDEX_OWNER

VARCHAR2(30)

-

INDEX_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

TABLE_OWNER

VARCHAR2(30)

-

TABLE_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

COLUMN_NAME

VARCHAR2(8192)

-

COLUMN_POSITION

FLOAT(49)

-

COLUMN_LENGTH

FLOAT(49)

-

DESCEND

VARCHAR(4)

"DESC" or "ASC"


Table C-7 ALL_INDEXES

NameTypeValue

OWNER

VARCHAR2(30)

-

INDEX_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

INDEX_TYPE

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

TABLE_OWNER

VARCHAR2(30)

-

TABLE_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

TABLE_TYPE

VARCHAR2(7)

"TABLE" or "CLUSTER"

UNIQUENESS

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

COMPRESSION

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

PREFIX_LENGTH

NUMBER

0

TABLESPACE_NAME

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

INI_TRANS

NUMBER

0

MAX_TRANS

NUMBER

0

INITIAL_EXTENT

NUMBER

0

NEXT_EXTENT

NUMBER

0

MIN_EXTENTS

NUMBER

0

MAX_EXTENTS

NUMBER

0

PCT_INCREASE

NUMBER

0

PCT_THRESHOLD

NUMBER

0

INCLUDE_COLUMN

NUMBER

0

FREELISTS

NUMBER

0

FREELIST_GROUPS

NUMBER

0

PCT_FREE

NUMBER

0

LOGGING

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

BLEVEL

NUMBER

0

LEAF_BLOCKS

NUMBER

0

DISTINCT_KEYS

NUMBER

0

AVG_LEAF_BLOCKS_PER_KEY

NUMBER

0

AVG_DATA_BLOCKS_PER_KEY

NUMBER

0

CLUSTERING_FACTOR

NUMBER

0

STATUS

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

NUM_ROWS

NUMBER

0

SAMPLE_SIZE

NUMBER

0

LAST_ANALYZED

DATE

NULL

DEGREE

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

INSTANCES

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

PARTITIONED

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

TEMPORARY

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

GENERATED

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

SECONDARY

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

BUFFER_POOL

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

USER_STATS

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

DURATION

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

PCT_DIRECT_ACCESS

NUMBER

0

ITYP_OWNER

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

ITYP_NAME

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

PARAMETERS

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

GLOBAL_STATS

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

DOMIDX_STATUS

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

DOMIDX_OPSTATUS

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

FUNCIDX_STATUS

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL


Table C-8 ALL_OBJECTS

NameTypeValue

OWNER

VARCHAR2(30)

-

OBJECT_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

SUBOBJECT_NAME

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

OBJECT_ID

NUMBER

-

DATA_OBJECT_ID

NUMBER

0

OBJECT_TYPE

VARCHAR2(9)

"TABLE" or "VIEW" or "PROCEDURE"

CREATED

DATE

-

LAST_DDL_TIME

DATE

-

TIMESTAMP

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

STATUS

VARCHAR2(5)

"VALID"

TEMPORARY

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

GENERATED

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

SECONDARY

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL


Table C-9 ALL_TAB_COLUMNS

NameTypeValue

OWNER

VARCHAR2(30)

-

TABLE_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

COLUMN_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

DATA_TYPE

VARCHAR2(8)

-

DATA_TYPE_MOD

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

DATA_TYPE_OWNER

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

DATA_LENGTH

NUMBER

-

DATA_PRECISION

NUMBER

-

DATA_SCALE

NUMBER

-

NULLABLE

VARCHAR2(1)

"Y" or "N"

COLUMN_ID

NUMBER

-

DEFAULT_LENGTH

NUMBER

0

DATA_DEFAULT

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

NUM_DISTINCT

NUMBER

0

LOW_VALUE

NUMBER

0

HIGH_VALUE

NUMBER

0

DENSITY

NUMBER

0

NUM_NULLS

NUMBER

0

NUM_BUCKETS

NUMBER

0

LAST_ANALYZED

DATE

NULL

SAMPLE_SIZE

NUMBER

0

CHARACTER_SET_NAME

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

CHAR_COL_DECL_LENGTH

NUMBER

0

GLOBAL_STATS

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

USER_STATS

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

AVG_COL_LEN

NUMBER

0


Table C-10 ALL_TAB_COMMENTS

NameTypeValue

OWNER

VARCHAR2(30)

-

TABLE_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

TABLE_TYPE

VARCHAR2(5)

"TABLE" or "VIEW"

COMMENTS

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL


Table C-11 ALL_TABLES

NameTypeValue

OWNER

VARCHAR2(30)

-

TABLE_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

TABLESPACE_NAME

CHAR(1)

" "

CLUSTER_NAME

CHAR(1)

" "

IOT_NAME

CHAR(1)

" "

PCT_FREE

NUMBER(10)

0

PCT_USED

NUMBER(10)

0

INI_TRANS

NUMBER(10)

0

MAX_TRANS

NUMBER(10)

0

INITIAL_EXTENT

NUMBER(10)

0

NEXT_EXTENT

NUMBER(10)

0

MIN_EXTENTS

NUMBER(10)

0

MAX_EXTENTS

NUMBER(10)

0

PCT_INCREASE

NUMBER(10)

0

FREELISTS

NUMBER(10)

0

FREELIST_GROUPS

NUMBER(10)

0

LOGGING

CHAR(1)

" "

BACKED_UP

CHAR(1)

" "

NUM_ROWS

NUMBER(10)

0

BLOCKS

NUMBER(10)

0

EMPTY_BLOCKS

NUMBER(10)

0

AVG_SPACE

NUMBER(10)

0

CHAIN_CNT

NUMBER(10)

0

AVG_ROW_LEN

NUMBER(10)

0

AVG_SPACE_FREELIST_BLOCKS

NUMBER(10)

0

NUM_FREELIST_BLOCKS

NUMBER(10)

0

DEGREE

CHAR(1)

" "

INSTANCES

CHAR(1)

" "

CACHE

CHAR(1)

" "

TABLE_LOCK

CHAR(1)

" "

SAMPLE_SIZE

NUMBER(10)

0

LAST_ANALYZED

DATE

NULL

PARTITIONED

CHAR(1)

" "

IOT_TYPE

CHAR(1)

" "

TEMPORARY

CHAR(1)

" "

SECONDARY

CHAR(1)

" "

NESTED

CHAR(1)

" "

BUFFER_POOL

CHAR(1)

" "

ROW_MOVEMENT

CHAR(1)

" "

GLOBAL_STATS

CHAR(1)

" "

USER_STATS

CHAR(1)

" "

DURATION

CHAR(1)

" "

SKIP_CORRUPT

CHAR(1)

" "

MONITORING

CHAR(1)

" "


Table C-12 ALL_USERS

NameTypeValue

USERNAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

USER_ID

NUMBER(10)

-

CREATED

DATE

SYSDATE


Table C-13 ALL_VIEWS

NameTypeValue

OWNER

CHAR(30)

-

VIEW_NAME

CHAR(30)

-

TEXT_LENGTH

NUMBER(10)

0

TEXT

VARCHAR2(32512)

-

TYPE_TEXT_LENGTH

NUMBER(10)

0

TYPE_TEXT

CHAR(1)

" "

OID_TEXT_LENGTH

NUMBER(10)

0

OID_TEXT

CHAR(1)

" "

VIEW_TYPE_OWNER

CHAR(1)

" "

VIEW_TYPE

CHAR(1)

" "


Table C-14 DBA_CATALOG

NameTypeValue

OWNER

VARCHAR2(30)

-

TABLE_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

TABLE_TYPE

VARCHAR2(5)

"TABLE" or "VIEW"


Table C-15 DBA_COL_COMMENTS

NameTypeValue

OWNER

VARCHAR2(30)

-

TABLE_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

COLUMN_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

COMMENTS

CHAR(1)

" "


Table C-16 DBA_OBJECTS

NameTypeValue

OWNER

VARCHAR2(30)

-

OBJECT_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

SUBOBJECT_NAME

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

OBJECT_ID

NUMBER

-

DATA_OBJECT_ID

NUMBER

0

OBJECT_TYPE

VARCHAR2(9)

"TABLE" or "VIEW" or "PROCEDURE"

CREATED

DATE

-

LAST_DDL_TIME

DATE

-

TIMESTAMP

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

STATUS

VARCHAR2(5)

NULL

TEMPORARY

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

GENERATED

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

SECONDARY

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL


Table C-17 DBA_TAB_COLUMNS

NameTypeValue

OWNER

VARCHAR2(30)

-

TABLE_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

COLUMN_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

DATA_TYPE

VARCHAR2(8)

-

DATA_TYPE_MOD

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

DATA_TYPE_OWNER

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

DATA_LENGTH

NUMBER

-

DATA_PRECISION

NUMBER

-

DATA_SCALE

NUMBER

-

NULLABLE

VARCHAR2(1)

"Y" or "N"

COLUMN_ID

NUMBER

-

DEFAULT_LENGTH

NUMBER

0

DATA_DEFAULT

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

NUM_DISTINCT

NUMBER

0

LOW_VALUE

NUMBER

0

HIGH_VALUE

NUMBER

0

DENSITY

NUMBER

0

NUM_NULLS

NUMBER

0

NUM_BUCKETS

NUMBER

0

LAST_ANALYZED

DATE

NULL

SAMPLE_SIZE

NUMBER

0

CHARACTER_SET_NAME

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

CHAR_COL_DEC_LENGTH

NUMBER

0

GLOBAL_STATS

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

USER_STATS

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

AVG_COL_LEN

NUMBER

0


Table C-18 DBA_TAB_COMMENTS

NameTypeValue

OWNER

VARCHAR2(30)

-

TABLE_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

TABLE_TYPE

VARCHAR2(5)

"TABLE" or "VIEW"

COMMENTS

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL


Table C-19 DBA_TABLES

NameTypeValue

OWNER

VARCHAR2(30)

-

TABLE_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

TABLESPACE_NAME

CHAR(1)

" "

CLUSTER_NAME

CHAR(1)

" "

IOT_NAME

CHAR(1)

" "

PCT_FREE

NUMBER(10)

0

PCT_USED

NUMBER(10)

0

INI_TRANS

NUMBER(10)

0

MAX_TRANS

NUMBER(10)

0

INITIAL_EXTENT

NUMBER(10)

0

NEXT_EXTENT

NUMBER(10)

0

MIN_EXTENTS

NUMBER(10)

0

MAX_EXTENTS

NUMBER(10)

0

PCT_INCREASE

NUMBER(10)

0

FREELISTS

NUMBER(10)

0

FREELIST_GROUPS

NUMBER(10)

0

LOGGING

CHAR(1)

" "

BACKED_UP

CHAR(1)

" "

NUM_ROWS

NUMBER(10)

0

BLOCKS

NUMBER(10)

0

EMPTY_BLOCKS

NUMBER(10)

0

AVG_SPACE

NUMBER(10)

0

CHAIN_CNT

NUMBER(10)

0

AVG_ROW_LEN

NUMBER(10)

0

AVG_SPACE_FREELIST_BLOCKS

NUMBER(10)

0

NUM_FREELIST_BLOCKS

NUMBER(10)

0

DEGREE

CHAR(1)

" "

INSTANCES

CHAR(1)

" "

CACHE

CHAR(1)

" "

TABLE_LOCK

CHAR(1)

" "

SAMPLE_SIZE

NUMBER(10)

0

LAST_ANALYZED

DATE

NULL

PARTITIONED

CHAR(1)

" "

IOT_TYPE

CHAR(1)

" "

TEMPORARY

CHAR(1)

" "

SECONDARY

CHAR(1)

" "

NESTED

CHAR(1)

" "

BUFFER_POOL

CHAR(1)

" "

ROW_MOVEMENT

CHAR(1)

" "

GLOBAL_STATS

CHAR(1)

" "

USER_STATS

CHAR(1)

" "

DURATION

CHAR(1)

" "

SKIP_CORRUPT

CHAR(1)

" "

MONITORING

CHAR(1)

" "


Table C-20 DICT_COLUMNS

NameTypeValue

TABLE_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

COLUMN_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

COMMENTS

CHAR(1)

" "


Table C-21 DICTIONARY

NameTypeValue

TABLE_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

COMMENTS

CHAR(1)

" "


Table C-22 DUAL

NameTypeValue

DUMMY

VARCHAR2(1)

"X"


Table C-23 TABLE_PRIVILEGES

NameTypeValue

GRANTEE

VARCHAR2(30)

-

OWNER

VARCHAR2(30)

-

TABLE_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

GRANTOR

VARCHAR2(30)

-

SELECT_PRIV

VARCHAR2(1)

"Y"

INSERT_PRIV

VARCHAR2(1)

"A"

DELETE_PRIV

VARCHAR2(1)

"Y"

UPDATE_PRIV

VARCHAR2(1)

"A"

REFERENCES_PRIV

VARCHAR2(1)

"A"

ALTER_PRIV

VARCHAR2(1)

"Y"

INDEX_PRIV

VARCHAR2(1)

"Y"

CREATED

DATE

-


Table C-24 USER_CATALOG

NameTypeValue

TABLE_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

TABLE_TYPE

VARCHAR2(5)

"TABLE" or "VIEW"


Table C-25 USER_COL_COMMENTS

NameTypeValue

TABLE_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

COLUMN_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

COMMENTS

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL


Table C-26 USER_CONS_COLUMNS

NameTypeValue

OWNER

VARCHAR2(30)

-

CONSTRAINT_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

TABLE_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

COLUMN_NAME

VARCHAR2(4000)

-

POSITION

NUMBER

-


Table C-27 USER_CONSTRAINTS

NameTypeValue

OWNER

VARCHAR2(30)

-

CONSTRAINT_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

CONSTRAINT_TYPE

VARCHAR2(1)

"R" or "P"

TABLE_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

SEARCH_CONDITION

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

R_OWNER

VARCHAR2(30)

-

R_CONSTRAINT_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

DELETE_RULE

VARCHAR2(9)

"NOACTION" or " "

STATUS

VARCHAR2(7)

"ENABLED"

DEFERRABLE

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

DEFERRED

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

VALIDATED

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

GENERATED

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

BAD

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

RELY

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

LAST_CHANGE

DATE

-


Table C-28 USER_IND_COLUMNS

NameTypeValue

INDEX_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

TABLE_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

COLUMN_NAME

VARCHAR2(8192)

-

COLUMN_POSITION

FLOAT(49)

-

COLUMN_LENGTH

FLOAT(49)

-

DESCEND

VARCHAR(4)

"DESC" or "ASC"


Table C-29 USER_INDEXES

NameTypeValue

INDEX_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

INDEX_TYPE

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

TABLE_OWNER

VARCHAR2(30)

-

TABLE_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

TABLE_TYPE

VARCHAR2(7)

"TABLE" or "CLUSTER"

UNIQUENESS

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

COMPRESSION

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

PREFIX_LENGTH

NUMBER

0

TABLESPACE_NAME

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

INI_TRANS

NUMBER

0

MAX_TRANS

NUMBER

0

INITIAL_EXTENT

NUMBER

0

NEXT_EXTENT

NUMBER

0

MIN_EXTENTS

NUMBER

0

MAX_EXTENTS

NUMBER

0

PCT_INCREASE

NUMBER

0

PCT_THRESHOLD

NUMBER

0

INCLUDE_COLUMN

NUMBER

0

FREELISTS

NUMBER

0

FREELIST_GROUPS

NUMBER

0

PCT_FREE

NUMBER

0

LOGGING

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

BLEVEL

NUMBER

0

LEAF_BLOCKS

NUMBER

0

DISTINCT_KEYS

NUMBER

0

AVG_LEAF_BLOCKS_PER_KEY

NUMBER

0

AVG_DATA_BLOCKS_PER_KEY

NUMBER

0

CLUSTERING_FACTOR

NUMBER

0

STATUS

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

NUM_ROWS

NUMBER

0

SAMPLE_SIZE

NUMBER

0

LAST_ANALYZED

DATE

NULL

DEGREE

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

INSTANCES

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

PARTITIONED

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

TEMPORARY

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

GENERATED

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

SECONDARY

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

BUFFER_POOL

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

USER_STATS

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

DURATION

VARHCAR2(1)

NULL

PCT_DIRECT_ACCESS

NUMBER

0

ITYP_OWNER

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

ITYP_NAME

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

PARAMETERS

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

GLOBAL_STATS

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

DOMIDX_STATUS

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

DOMIDX_OPSTATUS

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

FUNCIDX_STATUS

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL


Table C-30 USER_OBJECTS

NameTypeValue

OBJECT_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

SUBOBJECT_NAME

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

OBJECT_ID

NUMBER

-

DATA_OBJECT_ID

NUMBER

0

OBJECT_TYPE

VARCHAR2(9)

"TABLE" or "VIEW" or "PROCEDURE"

CREATED

DATE

-

LAST_DDL_TIME

DATE

-

TIMESTAMP

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

STATUS

VARCHAR2(5)

"VALID"

TEMPORARY

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

GENERATED

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

SECONDARY

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL


Table C-31 USER_TAB_COLUMNS

NameTypeValue

TABLE_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

COLUMN_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

DATA_TYPE

VARCHAR2(8)

-

DATA_TYPE_MOD

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

DATA_TYPE_OWNER

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

DATA_LENGTH

NUMBER

-

DATA_PRECISION

NUMBER

-

DATA_SCALE

NUMBER

-

NULLABLE

VARCHAR2(1)

"Y" or "N"

COLUMN_ID

NUMBER

-

DEFAULT_LENGTH

NUMBER

0

DATA_DEFAULT

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

NUM_DISTINCT

NUMBER

0

LOW_VALUE

NUMBER

0

HIGH_VALUE

NUMBER

0

DENSITY

NUMBER

0

NUM_NULLS

NUMBER

0

NUM_BUCKETS

NUMBER

0

LAST_ANALYZED

DATE

NULL

SAMPLE_SIZE

NUMBER

0

CHARACTER_SET_NAME

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

CHAR_COL_DECL_LENGTH

NUMBER

0

GLOBAL_STATS

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

USER_STATS

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

AVG_COL_LEN

NUMBER

0


Table C-32 USER_TAB_COMMENTS

NameTypeValue

TABLE_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

TABLE_TYPE

VARCHAR2(5)

"TABLE" or "VIEW"

COMMENTS

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL


Table C-33 USER_TABLES

NameTypeValue

TABLE_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

TABLESPACE_NAME

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

CLUSTER_NAME

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

IOT_NAME

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

PCT_FREE

NUMBER

0

PCT_USED

NUMBER

0

INI_TRANS

NUMBER

0

MAX_TRANS

NUMBER

0

INITIAL_EXTENT

NUMBER

0

NEXT_EXTENT

NUMBER

0

MIN_EXTENTS

NUMBER

0

MAX_EXTENTS

NUMBER

0

PCT_INCREASE

NUMBER

0

FREELISTS

NUMBER

0

FREELIST_GROUPS

NUMBER

0

LOGGING

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

BACKED_UP

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

NUM_ROWS

NUMBER

0

BLOCKS

NUMBER

0

EMPTY_BLOCKS

NUMBER

0

AVG_SPACE

NUMBER

0

CHAIN_CNT

NUMBER

0

AVG_ROW_LEN

NUMBER

0

AVG_SPACE_FREELIST_BLOCKS

NUMBER

0

NUM_FREELIST_BLOCKS

NUMBER

0

DEGREE

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

INSTANCES

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

CACHE

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

TABLE_LOCK

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

SAMPLE_SIZE

NUMBER

0

LAST_ANALYZED

DATE

NULL

PARTITIONED

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

IOT_TYPE

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

TEMPORARY

VARHCAR2(1)

NULL

SECONDARY

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

NESTED

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

BUFFER_POOL

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

ROW_MOVEMENT

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

GLOBAL_STATS

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

USER_STATS

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

DURATION

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

SKIP_CORRUPT

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

MONITORING

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL


Table C-34 USER_USERS

NameTypeValue

USERNAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

USER_ID

NUMBER(5)

-

ACCOUNT_STATUS

VARCHAR2(4)

"OPEN"

LOCK_DATE

DATE

NULL

EXPIRY_DATE

DATE

NULL

DEFAULT_TABLESPACE

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

TEMPORARY_TABLESPACE

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

CREATED

DATE

SYSDATE

INITIAL_RSRC_CONSUMER_GROUP

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

EXTERNAL_NAME

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL


Table C-35 USER_VIEWS

NameTypeValue

VIEW_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

-

TEXT_LENGTH

NUMBER

0

TEXT

VARCHAR2(255)

-

TYPE_TEXT_LENGTH

NUMBER

0

TYPE_TEXT

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

OID_TEXT_LENGTH

NUMBER

0

OID_TEXT

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

VIEW_TYPE_OWNER

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL

VIEW_TYPE

VARCHAR2(1)

NULL


PKs7Q2IxIPKiFJ OEBPS/apd.htm Initialization Parameters

D Initialization Parameters

The Oracle database initialization parameters in the init.ora file are distinct from gateway initialization parameters. Set the gateway parameters in the initialization parameter file using an agent-specific mechanism, or set them in the Oracle data dictionary using the DBMS_HS package. The gateway initialization parameter file must be available when the gateway is started.

This appendix contains a list of the gateway initialization parameters that can be set for each gateway and their description. It also describes the initialization parameter file syntax. It includes the following sections:

D.1 Initialization Parameter File Syntax

The syntax for the initialization parameter file is as follows:

  1. The file is a sequence of commands.

  2. Each command should start on a separate line.

  3. End of line is considered a command terminator (unless escaped with a backslash).

  4. If there is a syntax error in an initialization parameter file, none of the settings take effect.

  5. Set the parameter values as follows:

    [SET][PRIVATE] parameter=value
    

    Where:

    parameter is an initialization parameter name. It is a string of characters starting with a letter and consisting of letters, digits and underscores. Initialization parameter names are case sensitive.

    value is the initialization parameter value. It is case sensitive. An initialization parameter value is either:

    1. A string of characters that does not contain any backslashes, white space or double quotation marks (")

    2. A quoted string beginning with a double quotation mark and ending with a double quotation mark. The following can be used inside a quoted string:

      • backslash (\) is the escape character

      • \n inserts a new line

      • \t inserts a tab

      • \" inserts a double quotation mark

      • \\ inserts a backslash

      A backslash at the end of the line continues the string on the next line. If a backslash precedes any other character then the backslash is ignored.

    For example, to enable tracing for an agent, set the HS_FDS_TRACE_LEVEL initialization parameter as follows:

    HS_FDS_TRACE_LEVEL=ON
    

    SET and PRIVATE are optional keywords. You cannot use either as an initialization parameter name. Most parameters are needed only as initialization parameters, so you usually do not need to use the SET or PRIVATE keywords. If you do not specify either SET or PRIVATE, the parameter is used only as an initialization parameter for the agent.

    SET specifies that, in addition to being used as an initialization parameter, the parameter value is set as an environment variable for the agent process. Use SET for parameter values that the drivers or non-Oracle system need as environment variables.

    PRIVATE specifies that the initialization parameter should be private to the agent and should not be uploaded to the Oracle database. Most initialization parameters should not be private. If, however, you are storing sensitive information like a password in the initialization parameter file, then you may not want it uploaded to the server because the initialization parameters and values are not encrypted when uploaded. Making the initialization parameters private prevents the upload from happening and they do not appear in dynamic performance views. Use PRIVATE for the initialization parameters only if the parameter value includes sensitive information such as a user name or password.

    SET PRIVATE specifies that the parameter value is set as an environment variable for the agent process and is also private (not transferred to the Oracle database, not appearing in dynamic performance views or graphical user interfaces).

D.2 Oracle Database Gateway for Sybase Initialization Parameters

This section lists all the initialization file parameters that can be set for the Oracle Database Gateway for Sybase. They are as follows:

D.3 Initialization Parameter Description

The following sections describe all the initialization file parameters that can be set for gateways.

D.3.1 HS_CALL_NAME

PropertyDescription
Default valueNone
Range of valuesNot applicable

Specifies the remote functions that can be referenced in SQL statements. The value is a list of remote functions and their owners, separated by semicolons, in the following format:

owner_name.function_name
 

For example:

owner1.A1;owner2.A2;owner3.A3 

If an owner name is not specified for a remote function, the default owner name becomes the user name used to connect to the remote database (specified when the Heterogeneous Services database link is created or taken from user session if not specified in the DB link).

The entries for the owner names and the function names are case sensitive.

D.3.2 HS_DB_DOMAIN

PropertyDescription
Default valueWORLD
Range of values1 to 199 characters

Specifies a unique network sub-address for a non-Oracle system. The HS_DB_DOMAIN initialization parameter is similar to the DB_DOMAIN initialization parameter, described in the Oracle Database Reference. The HS_DB_DOMAIN initialization parameter is required if you use the Oracle Names server. The HS_DB_NAME and HS_DB_DOMAIN initialization parameters define the global name of the non-Oracle system.


Note:

The HS_DB_NAME and HS_DB_DOMAIN initialization parameters must combine to form a unique address in a cooperative server environment.

D.3.3 HS_DB_INTERNAL_NAME

PropertyDescription
Default value01010101
Range of values1 to 16 hexadecimal characters

Specifies a unique hexadecimal number identifying the instance to which the Heterogeneous Services agent is connected. This parameter's value is used as part of a transaction ID when global name services are activated. Specifying a nonunique number can cause problems when two-phase commit recovery actions are necessary for a transaction.

D.3.4 HS_DB_NAME

PropertyDescription
Default valueHO
Range of values1 to 8 characters

Specifies a unique alphanumeric name for the data store given to the non-Oracle system. This name identifies the non-Oracle system within the cooperative server environment. The HS_DB_NAME and HS_DB_DOMAIN initialization parameters define the global name of the non-Oracle system.

D.3.5 HS_DESCRIBE_CACHE_HWM

PropertyDescription
Default value100
Range of values1 to 4000

Specifies the maximum number of entries in the describe cache used by Heterogeneous Services. This limit is known as the describe cache high water mark. The cache contains descriptions of the mapped tables that Heterogeneous Services reuses so that it does not have to re-access the non-Oracle data store.

If you are accessing many mapped tables, increase the high water mark to improve performance. Increasing the high water mark improves performance at the cost of memory usage.

D.3.6 HS_LANGUAGE

PropertyDescription
Default valueSystem-specific
Range of valuesAny valid language name (up to 255 characters)

Provides Heterogeneous Services with character set, language, and territory information of the non-Oracle data source. The value must use the following format:

language[_territory.character_set]

Note:

The globalization support initialization parameters affect error messages, the data for the SQL Service, and parameters in distributed external procedures.

D.3.6.1 Character Sets

Ideally, the character sets of the Oracle database and the non-Oracle data source are the same. In almost all cases, HS_LANGUAGE should be set exactly the same as Oracle database character set for optimal character set mapping and performance. If they are not the same, Heterogeneous Services attempts to translate the character set of the non-Oracle data source to the Oracle database character set, and back again. The translation can degrade performance. In some cases, Heterogeneous Services cannot translate a character from one character set to another.


Note:

The specified character set must be a superset of the operating system character set on the platform where the agent is installed.

As more Oracle databases and non-Oracle databases use Unicode as database character sets, it is preferable to also run the gateway in Unicode character set. To do so, you must set HS_LANGUAGE=AL32UTF8. However, when the gateway runs on Windows, the Microsoft ODBC Driver Manager interface can exchange data only in the double-byte character set, UCS2. This results in extra ratio expansion of described buffer and column sizes. Refer to HS_FDS_REMOTE_DB_CHARSET for instruction on how to adjust to correct sizes.

D.3.6.2 Language

The language component of the HS_LANGUAGE initialization parameter determines:

  • Day and month names of dates

  • AD, BC, PM, and AM symbols for date and time

  • Default sorting mechanism

Note that Oracle does not determine the language for error messages for the generic Heterogeneous Services messages (ORA-25000 through ORA-28000). These are controlled by the session settings in the Oracle database.

D.3.6.3 Territory

The territory clause specifies the conventions for day and week numbering, default date format, decimal character and group separator, and ISO and local currency symbols. Note that the level of globalization support between the Oracle database and the non-Oracle data source depends on how the gateway is implemented.

D.3.7 HS_LONG_PIECE_TRANSFER_SIZE

PropertyDescription
Default value64 KB
Range of valuesAny value up to 2 GB

Sets the size of the piece of LONG data being transferred. A smaller piece size means less memory requirement, but more round-trips to fetch all the data. A larger piece size means fewer round-trips, but more of a memory requirement to store the intermediate pieces internally. Thus, the initialization parameter can be used to tune a system for the best performance, with the best trade-off between round-trips and memory requirements, and network latency or response time.

D.3.8 HS_OPEN_CURSORS

PropertyDescription
Default value50
Range of values1 to the value of Oracle's OPEN_CURSORS initialization parameter

Defines the maximum number of cursors that can be open on one connection to a non-Oracle system instance.

The value never exceeds the number of open cursors in the Oracle database. Therefore, setting the same value as the OPEN_CURSORS initialization parameter in the Oracle database is recommended.

D.3.9 HS_RPC_FETCH_REBLOCKING

PropertyDescription
Default valueON
Range of valuesOFF or ON

Controls whether Heterogeneous Services attempts to optimize performance of data transfer between the Oracle database and the Heterogeneous Services agent connected to the non-Oracle data store.

The following values are possible:

  • OFF disables reblocking of fetched data so that data is immediately sent from agent to server.

  • ON enables reblocking, which means that data fetched from the non-Oracle system is buffered in the agent and is not sent to the Oracle database until the amount of fetched data is equal or higher than the value of HS_RPC_FETCH_SIZE initialization parameter. However, any buffered data is returned immediately when a fetch indicates that no more data exists or when the non-Oracle system reports an error.

D.3.10 HS_RPC_FETCH_SIZE

PropertyDescription
Default value50000
Range of values1 to 10000000

Tunes internal data buffering to optimize the data transfer rate between the server and the agent process.

Increasing the value can reduce the number of network round-trips needed to transfer a given amount of data, but also tends to increase data bandwidth and to reduce latency as measured between issuing a query and completion of all fetches for the query. Nevertheless, increasing the fetch size can increase latency for the initial fetch results of a query, because the first fetch results are not transmitted until additional data is available.

D.3.11 HS_TIME_ZONE

PropertyDescription
Default value for '[+|-]hh:mm'Derived from the NLS_TERRITORY initialization parameter
Range of values for '[+|-]hh:mm'Any valid datetime format mask

Specifies the default local time zone displacement for the current SQL session. The format mask, [+|-]hh:mm, is specified to indicate the hours and minutes before or after UTC (Coordinated Universal Time—formerly Greenwich Mean Time). For example:

HS_TIME_ZONE = [+ | -] hh:mm

D.3.12 HS_TRANSACTION_MODEL

PropertyDescription
Default ValueCOMMIT_CONFIRM
Range of ValuesCOMMIT_CONFIRM, READ_ONLY, SINGLE_SITE, READ_ONLY_AUTOCOMMIT, SINGLE_SITE_AUTOCOMMIT

Specifies the type of transaction model that is used when the non-Oracle database is updated by a transaction.

The following values are possible:

  • COMMIT_CONFIRM provides read and write access to the non-Oracle database and allows the gateway to be part of a distributed update. To use the commit-confirm model, the following items must be created in the non-Oracle database:

    • Transaction log table. The default table name is HS_TRANSACTION_LOG. A different name can be set using the HS_FDS_TRANSACTION_LOG parameter. The transaction log table must be granted SELECT, DELETE, and INSERT privileges set to public.

    • Recovery account. The account name is assigned with the HS_FDS_RECOVERY_ACCOUNT parameter.

    • Recovery account password. The password is assigned with the HS_FDS_RECOVERY_PWD parameter.

  • READ_ONLY provides read access to the non-Oracle database.

  • SINGLE_SITE provides read and write access to the non-Oracle database. However, the gateway cannot participate in distributed updates.

  • READ_ONLY_AUTOCOMMIT provides read only access to the non-Oracle database that does not use logging.

  • SINGLE_SITE_AUTOCOMMIT provides read and write access to the non-Oracle database without logging. The gateway cannot participate in distributed updates. Moreover, any update to the non-Oracle database is committed immediately.

D.3.13 IFILE

PropertyDescription
Default valueNone
Range of valuesValid parameter file names

Use the IFILE initialization parameter to embed another initialization file within the current initialization file. The value should be an absolute path and should not contain environment variables. The three levels of nesting limit do not apply.

D.3.14 HS_FDS_CONNECT_INFO

PropertyDescription
Default ValueNone
Range of ValuesNot applicable

HS_FDS_CONNECT_INFO that describes the connection to the non-Oracle system.

The default initialization parameter file already has an entry for this parameter. The syntax for HS_FDS_CONNECT_INFO for the gateway is as follows:

HS_FDS_CONNECT_INFO=host_name:port_number/database_name

where, host_name is the host name or IP address of the machine hosting the Sybase database, port_number is the port number of the Sybase database server, and database_name is the Sybase database name.

This release supports IPv6 format, so you can enter IPv6 format in place of hostname, but you need to wrap square brackets around the IPv6 specification.

For example,

HS_FDS_CONNECT_INFO=[2001:0db8:20c:f1ff:fec6:38af]:port_number/…

D.3.15 HS_FDS_PROC_IS_FUNC

PropertyDescription
Default ValueFALSE
Range of ValuesTRUE, FALSE

Enables return values from functions. By default, all stored procedures and functions do not return a return value to the user.


Note:

If you set this initialization parameter, you must change the syntax of the procedure execute statement for all existing stored procedures to handle return values.

D.3.16 HS_FDS_RECOVERY_ACCOUNT

PropertyDescription
Default ValueRECOVER
Range of valuesAny valid user ID

Specifies the name of the recovery account used for the commit-confirm transaction model. An account with user name and password must be set up at the non-Oracle system. For more information about the commit-confirm model, see the HS_TRANSACTION_MODEL parameter.

The name of the recovery account is case sensitive.

D.3.17 HS_FDS_RECOVERY_PWD

PropertyDescription
Default ValueRECOVER
Range of valuesAny valid password

Specifies the password of the recovery account used for the commit-confirm transaction model set up at the non-Oracle system. For more information about the commit-confirm model, see the HS_TRANSACTION_MODEL parameter.

The name of the password of the recovery account is case sensitive.

D.3.18 HS_FDS_RESULTSET_SUPPORT

PropertyDescription
Default ValueFALSE
Range of ValuesTRUE, FALSE

Enables result sets to be returned from stored procedures. By default, all stored procedures do not return a result set to the user.


Note:

If you set this initialization parameter, you must do the following:
  • Change the syntax of the procedure execute statement for all existing stored procedures, to handle result sets

  • Work in the sequential mode of Heterogeneous Services


D.3.19 HS_FDS_TRACE_LEVEL

PropertyDescription
Default ValueOFF
Range of valuesOFF, ON, DEBUG

Specifies whether error tracing is turned on or off for gateway connectivity.

The following values are valid:

  • OFF disables the tracing of error messages.

  • ON enables the tracing of error messages that occur when you encounter problems. The results are written by default to a gateway log file in LOG directory where the gateway is installed.

  • DEBUG enables the tracing of detailed error messages that can be used for debugging.

D.3.20 HS_FDS_TRANSACTION_LOG

PropertyDescription
Default ValueHS_TRANSACTION_LOG
Range of ValuesAny valid table name

Specifies the name of the table created in the non-Oracle system for logging transactions. For more information about the transaction model, see the HS_TRANSACTION_MODEL parameter.

D.3.21 HS_FDS_FETCH_ROWS

PropertyDescription
Default Value100
Range of ValuesAny integer between 1 and 1000
SyntaxHS_FDS_FETCH_ROWS=num

HS_FDS_FETCH_ROWS specifies the fetch array size. This is the number of rows to be fetched from the non-Oracle database and to return to Oracle database at one time. This parameter will be affected by the HS_RPC_FETCH_SIZE and HS_RPC_FETCH_REBLOCKING parameters.

D.3.22 HS_FDS_QUOTE_IDENTIFIER

PropertyDescription
Default ValueTRUE for Sybase
Range of ValuesTRUE | FALSE
SyntaxHS_FDS_QUOTE_IDENTIFIER = { TRUE | FALSE }

HS_FDS_QUOTE_IDENTIFIER overrides the target's ability to support quote identifier depending on the value provided. The default value is TRUE for Sybase.

D.3.23 HS_IDLE_TIMEOUT

PropertyDescription
Default Value0 (no timeout)
Range of Values0-9999 (minutes)
SyntaxHS_IDLE_TIMEOUT=num

This feature is only available for Oracle Net TCP protocol. When there is no activity for a connected gateway session for this specified time period, the gateway session would be terminated automatically with pending update (if any) rolled back.

D.3.24 HS_NLS_LENGTH_SEMANTICS

PropertyDescription
Default ValueBYTE
Range of ValuesBYTE | CHAR
SyntaxHS_NLS_LENGTH_SEMANTICS = { BYTE | CHAR }

This release of gateway has Character Semantics functionality equivalent to the Oracle Database Character Semantics, that is, NLS_LENGTH_SEMANTICS. When HS_NLS_LENGTH_SEMANTICS is set to CHAR, the (VAR)CHAR columns of Sybase database are to be interpreted as having CHAR semantics. The only situation the gateway does not honor the HS_NLS_LENGTH_SEMANTICS=CHAR setting is when both Oracle database and the gateway are on the same multi-byte character set.

D.3.25 HS_KEEP_REMOTE_COLUMN_SIZE

PropertyDescription
Default ValueOFF
Range of ValuesOFF | LOCAL | REMOTE | ALL
SyntaxHS_KEEP_REMOTE_COLUMN_SIZE = OFF | LOCAL |REMOTE | ALL
Parameter typeString

HS_KEEP_REMOTE_COLUMN_SIZE specifies whether to suppress ratio expansion when computing the length of (VAR)CHAR datatypes during data conversion from the non-Oracle database to the gateway, and then to the Oracle database. When it is set to REMOTE, the expansion is suppressed between the non-Oracle database and the gateway. When it is set to LOCAL, the expansion is suppressed between the gateway and the Oracle database. When it is set to ALL, the expansion is suppressed from the non-Oracle database to the Oracle database.

When the parameter is set, the expansion is suppressed when reporting the remote column size, calculating the implicit resulting buffer size, and instantiating in the local Oracle database. This has effect only for remote column size from non-Oracle database to Oracle database. If the gateway runs on Windows and HS_LANGUAGE=AL32UTF8, then you must not specify this parameter, as it would influence other ratio related parameter operation. It has no effect for calculating ratio for data moving from Oracle database to non-Oracle database through gateway during INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE.

D.3.26 HS_FDS_REMOTE_DB_CHARSET

PropertyDescription
Default ValueNone
Range of valuesNot applicable
SyntaxHS_FDS_REMOTE_DB_CHARSET

This parameter is valid only when HS_LANGUAGE is set to AL32UTF8 and the gateway runs on Windows. As more Oracle databases and non-Oracle databases use Unicode as database character sets, it is preferable to also run the gateway in Unicode character set. To do so, you must set HS_LANGUAGE=AL32UTF8. However, when the gateway runs on Windows, the Microsoft ODBC Driver Manager interface can exchange data only in the double-byte character set, UCS2. This results in extra ratio expansion of described buffer and column sizes. To compensate, the gateway can re-adjust the column size if HS_FDS_REMOTE_DB_CHARSET is set to the corresponding non-Oracle database character set. For example, HS_FDS_REMOTE_DB_CHARSET=KO16KSC5601.

D.3.27 HS_FDS_SUPPORT_STATISTICS

PropertyDescription
Default ValueTRUE
Range of values{TRUE|FALSE}
SyntaxHS_FDS_SUPPORT_STATISTICS= {TRUE|FALSE}

We gather statistics from the non-Oracle database by default. You can choose to disable the gathering of remote database statistics by setting the HS_FDS_SUPPORT_STATISTICS parameter to FALSE.

D.3.28 HS_FDS_RSET_RETURN_ROWCOUNT

PropertyDescription
Default ValueFALSE
Range of values{TRUE|FALSE}
SyntaxHS_FDS_RSET_RETURN_ROWCOUNT= {TRUE|FALSE}

When set to TRUE, the gateway returns the row counts of DML statements that are executed inside a stored procedure. The row count is returned as a single row, single column result set of type signed integer.

When set to FALSE, the gateway skips the row counts of DML statements that are executed inside a stored procedure. This is the default behavior, and it is the behavior of 11.1 and older gateways.

D.3.29 HS_FDS_SQLLEN_INTERPRETATION

PropertyDescription
Default Value64
Range of values{64|32}
SyntaxHS_FDS_SQLLEN_INTERPRETATION= {64|32}

This parameter is only valid for 64 bit platforms. ODBC standard specifies SQLLEN (of internal ODBC construct) being 64 bit on 64 bit platforms, but some ODBC driver managers and drivers violate this convention, and implement it as 32 bit. In order for the gateway to compensate their behavior, you need to specify HS_FDS_SQLLEN_INTERPRETATION=32 if you use these types of driver managers and driver.

D.3.30 HS_FDS_REPORT_REAL_AS_DOUBLE

PropertyDescription
Default ValueFALSE
Range of ValuesTRUE, FALSE

Enables Oracle Database Gateway for Sybase treat SINGLE FLOAT PRECISION fields as DOUBLE FLOAT PRECISION fields.

PK?~+  PKiFJ OEBPS/toc.htmM? Table of Contents

Contents

List of Tables

Preface

1 Introduction

2 Sybase Gateway Features and Restrictions

3 Case Studies

A Data Type Conversion

B Supported SQL Syntax and Functions

C Data Dictionary

D Initialization Parameters

Index

PK ˖:R?M?PKiFJ OEBPS/toc.ncxX Oracle® Database Gateway for Sybase User's Guide, 11g Release 2 (11.2) Cover Title and Copyright Information Contents List of Tables Preface 1 Introduction 2 Sybase Gateway Features and Restrictions 3 Case Studies A Data Type Conversion B Supported SQL Syntax and Functions C Data Dictionary D Initialization Parameters Index Copyright PKZ5J] X PKiFJ OEBPS/apa.htm3 Data Type Conversion

A Data Type Conversion

This appendix contains the following section:

A.1 Data Type Conversion

The gateway converts Sybase data types to Oracle data types as follows:

Table A-1 Data Type Conversions

SybaseOracleComment

BIGINT

NUMBER(19)


BINARY

RAW

-

BIT

NUMBER(3)

-

CHAR

CHAR

-

DATE

DATE


DATETIME

DATE

-

DECIMAL

NUMBER(p[,s])

-

FLOAT

FLOAT(53)

-

IMAGE

LONG RAW

-

INT

NUMBER(10)

NUMBER range is -2,147,483,647 to 2,147,483,647

MONEY

NUMBER(p[,s])

-

NUMERIC

NUMBER(p[,s])

-

REAL

FLOAT(24)

-

SMALLDATETIME

DATE

-

SMALLINT

NUMBER(5)

NUMBER range is -32,767 to 32,767

SMALLMONEY

NUMBER(p[,s])

-

SYSNAME

VARCHAR2


TEXT

LONG

-

TIME

CHAR(15)


TIMESTAMP

RAW


TINYINT

NUMBER(3)

-

UNICHAR

NCHAR

-

UNSIGNED BIGINT

NUMBER(20)


UNSIGNED INT

NUMBER(10)


UNSIGNED SMALLINT

NUMBER(5)


UNITEXT

LONG

if Oracle DB Character Set = Unicode. Otherwise, it is not supported

UNIVARCHAR

NVARCHAR

-

VARBINARY

RAW

-

VARCHAR

VARCHAR2

-


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PKKPKiFJOEBPS/content.opfU Oracle® Database Gateway for Sybase User's Guide, 11g Release 2 (11.2) en-US E12067-03 Oracle Corporation Oracle Corporation Oracle® Database Gateway for Sybase User's Guide, 11g Release 2 (11.2) 2012-01-24T13:45:19Z Describes the Oracle Database Gateway for Sybase, which enables Oracle client applications to access Sybase data through Structured Query Language (SQL). PK7Z U PKiFJOEBPS/intro.htmi Introduction

1 Introduction

This chapter introduces the challenge faced by organizations when running several different database systems. It briefly covers Heterogeneous Services, the technology that the Oracle Database Gateway for Sybase is based on.

To get a good understanding of generic gateway technology, Heterogeneous Services, and how Oracle Database Gateways fit in the picture, reading the Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity User's Guide first is highly recommended.

This chapter contains the following sections:

1.1 Overview

Heterogeneous data access is a problem that affects a lot of companies. A lot of companies run several different database systems. Each of these systems stores data and has a set of applications that run against it. Consolidation of this data in one database system is often hard - in large part because that many of the applications that run against one database may not have an equivalent that runs against another. Until such time as migration to one consolidated database system is made feasible, it is necessary for the various heterogeneous database systems to interoperate.

Oracle Database Gateways provide the ability to transparently access data residing in a non-Oracle system from an Oracle environment. This transparency eliminates the need for application developers to customize their applications to access data from different non-Oracle systems, thus decreasing development efforts and increasing the mobility of the application. Applications can be developed using a consistent Oracle interface for both Oracle and Sybase.

Gateway technology is composed of two parts: a component that has the generic technology to connect to a non-Oracle system, which is common to all the non-Oracle systems, called Heterogeneous Services, and a component that is specific to the non-Oracle system that the gateway connects to. Heterogeneous Services, in conjunction with the Oracle Database Gateway agent, enables transparent access to non-Oracle systems from an Oracle environment.

1.2 Heterogeneous Services Technology

Heterogeneous Services provides the generic technology for connecting to non-Oracle systems. As an integrated component of the database, Heterogeneous Services can exploit features of the database, such as the powerful SQL parsing and distributed optimization capabilities.

Heterogeneous Services extend the Oracle SQL engine to recognize the SQL and procedural capabilities of the remote non-Oracle system and the mappings required to obtain necessary data dictionary information. Heterogeneous Services provides two types of translations: the ability to translate Oracle SQL into the proper dialect of the non-Oracle system as well as data dictionary translations that displays the metadata of the non-Oracle system in the local format. For situations where no translations are available, native SQL can be issued to the non-Oracle system using the pass-through feature of Heterogeneous Services.

Heterogeneous Services also maintains the transaction coordination between Oracle and the remote non-Oracle system, such as providing the two-phase commit protocol to ensure distributed transaction integrity, even for non-Oracle systems that do not natively support two-phase commit.


See Also:

Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity User's Guide for more information about Heterogeneous Services.

1.3 Oracle Database Gateways

The capabilities, SQL mappings, data type conversions, and interface to the remote non-Oracle system are contained in the gateway. The gateway interacts with Heterogeneous Services to provide the transparent connectivity between Oracle and non-Oracle systems.

The gateway can be installed on any machine independent of the Oracle or non-Oracle database. It can be the same machine as the Oracle database or on the same machine as the Sybase database or on a third machine as a standalone. Each configuration has its advantages and disadvantages. The issues to consider when determining where to install the gateway are network traffic, operating system platform availability, hardware resources and storage.

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