|Oracle® Database Installation Guide
11g Release 2 (11.2) for Linux
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This chapter describes tasks that you must perform after you have installed the database software. It includes information about the following topics:
If you install and intend to use any of the products listed in "Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks", then you must perform the tasks listed in the product-specific sections.
Note:This chapter describes basic configuration only. See Oracle Database Administrator's Guide, Oracle Database Administrator's Reference for Linux and UNIX-Based Operating Systems and product-specific administration and tuning guides for more detailed configuration and tuning information.
See Also:"Post-installation Database Configuration" section in Oracle Configuration Manager Installation and Administration Guide
Perform the following task after completing the Oracle Database installation:
Check the My Oracle Support Web site for required patch updates for your installation.
To download required patches:
Use a web browser to view the My Oracle Support website:
Log in to My Oracle Support.
Note:If you are not a My Oracle Support registered user, click Register here and follow the registration instructions.
On the main My Oracle Support page, click the Patches and Updates tab.
In the Patch Search group, select Product or Family (Advanced).
In the Product field, select Oracle Database.
In the Release field select the release number. For example, Oracle 18.104.22.168.1.
Any available patch updates are displayed in the Patch Search page.
Select the patch number and click ReadMe. The README page is displayed and contains information about the patch set and how to apply the patches to your installation.
Return to the Patch Search page, click Download, and save the file on your system.
Use the unzip utility provided with Oracle Database 11g release 1 (11.1) to uncompress the Oracle patch updates that you downloaded from My Oracle Support. The unzip utility is located in the
Oracle recommends that you perform the tasks described in the following section after completing an installation:
Oracle recommends that you back up the
root.sh script after you complete an installation. If you install other products in the same Oracle home directory, then Oracle Universal Installer updates the contents of the existing
root.sh script during the installation. If you require information contained in the original
root.sh script, then you can recover it from the backed up
Oracle recommends that you run the
utlrp.sql script after creating or upgrading a database. This script recompiles all PL/SQL modules that might be in an invalid state, including packages, procedures, and types. This is an optional step but Oracle recommends that you do it during installation and not at a later date.
See Also:Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
To run the
utlrp.sql script, follow these steps:
Switch the user to
coraenv script to set the environment for the database where you want to run the
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ . /usr/local/bin/oraenv
% source /usr/local/bin/coraenv
When prompted, provide the
SID for the database.
Start SQL*Plus, as follows:
$ sqlplus / AS SYSDBA
Start the database in restricted mode and run the
Update the startup files of the
oracle user and the operating system accounts of Oracle users, specifying the appropriate environment variables in the environment file.
For the Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell, add the environment variables to the
.profile file, or the
.bash_profile file for the Bash shell on Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
For the C shell, add the environment variables to the
Note:You can use the
coraenvscript to ensure that Oracle user accounts are updated.
NLS_LANG is an environment variable that specifies the locale behavior for Oracle software. This variable sets the language and territory used by the client application and the database server. It also declares the character set of the client, which is the character set of data entered or displayed by an Oracle client program, such as SQL*Plus.
See Also:Appendix F, "Configuring Oracle Database Globalization Support" for more information about the
The client static library (
libclntst11.a) is not generated during installation. To link the applications to the client static library, you must first generate it as follows:
Switch the user to
ORACLE_HOME environment variable to specify the Oracle home directory used by the Oracle Database installation, for example:
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1 $ export ORACLE_HOME
% setenv ORACLE_HOME /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1
Enter the following command:
Use the following guidelines only if the default semaphore parameter values are too low to accommodate all Oracle processes:
Note:Oracle recommends that you see the operating system documentation for more information about setting semaphore parameters.
Calculate the minimum total semaphore requirements using the following formula:
sum (process parameters of all database instances on the system) + overhead for background processes + system and other application requirements
semmns (total semaphores systemwide) to this total.
semmsl (semaphores per set) to 250.
semmni (total semaphores sets) to
semmsl rounded up to the nearest multiple of 1024.
During installation, by default you can create one disk group. If you plan to add an Oracle Database for a standalone server, then you should create the fast recovery area for database files.
The fast recovery area is a unified storage location for all Oracle Database files related to recovery. Database administrators can define the
DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST parameter to the path for the fast recovery area to enable on-disk backups and rapid recovery of data. Enabling rapid backups for recent data can reduce requests to system administrators to retrieve backup tapes for recovery operations.
When you enable fast recovery in the
init.ora file, Oracle Database writes all RMAN backups, archive logs, control file automatic backups, and database copies to the fast recovery area. RMAN automatically manages files in the fast recovery area by deleting obsolete backups and archiving files no longer required for recovery.
Oracle recommends that you create a fast recovery area disk group. Oracle Clusterware files and Oracle Database files can be placed on the same disk group, and you can also place fast recovery files in the same disk group. However, Oracle recommends that you create a separate fast recovery disk group to reduce storage device contention.
The fast recovery area is enabled by setting the
DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST parameter. The size of the fast recovery area is set with
_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE. As a general rule, the larger the fast recovery area, the more useful it becomes. For ease of use, Oracle recommends that you create a fast recovery area disk group on storage devices that can contain at least three days of recovery information. Ideally, the fast recovery area is large enough to hold a copy of all of your data files and control files, the online redo logs, and the archived redo log files needed to recover your database using the data file backups kept under your retention policy.
Multiple databases can use the same fast recovery area. For example, assume you have created a fast recovery area disk group on disks with 150 GB of storage, shared by 3 different databases. You can set the size of the fast recovery for each database depending on the importance of each database. For example, if
database1 is your least important database,
database2 is of greater importance and
database3 is of greatest importance, then you can set different
DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE settings for each database to meet your retention target for each database: 30 GB for
database1, 50 GB for
database2, and 70 GB for
To create a fast recovery file disk group:
Go to the Grid home bin directory, and start ASM Configuration Assistant (ASMCA), for example:
$ cd /u01/grid/bin $ ./asmca
ASMCA opens at the Disk Groups tab. Click Create to create a new disk group.
The Create Disk Groups window opens.
In the Disk Group Name field, enter a descriptive name for the fast recovery area group. For example:
In the Redundancy section, select the level of redundancy you want to use.
In the Select Member Disks field, select eligible disks to be added to the fast recovery area, and click OK.
The Diskgroup Creation window opens to inform you when disk group creation is complete. Click OK.
When you install Oracle Database, some options are enabled and others are disabled. To enable or disable a particular database feature for an Oracle home, shut down the database and use the
chopt tool. See Example 5-1.
chopt tool is a command-line utility that is located in the
bin directory. The syntax for
chopt [ enable | disable] db_option
The possible values for
db_option are described in the following table:
||Oracle Data Mining RDBMS Files|
||Oracle Database Vault|
||Oracle Label Security|
||Oracle Real Application Testing|
||Oracle Database Extensions for .NET 1.x|
||Oracle Database Extensions for .NET 2.0|
Oracle recommends that you run the Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) Configuration Audit Tool (RACcheck) to check your Oracle Database installation. RACcheck is an Oracle RAC auditing tool that checks various important configuration settings within Oracle Real Application Clusters, Oracle Clusterware, Oracle Automatic Storage Management, Oracle Database single instance, Oracle Restart and the Oracle Grid Infrastructure environment.
Oracle recommends that you download and run the latest version of RACcheck from My Oracle Support. For information about downloading, configuring and running RACcheck utility, refer to My Oracle Support note 1268927.1:
The following sections describe product-specific postinstallation tasks that you must perform if you install and intend to use the products mentioned:
Note:You need only perform postinstallation tasks for products that you intend to use.
If you have an earlier release of Oracle software installed on this system, you might want to copy information from the Oracle Net
listener.ora configuration files from the earlier release to the corresponding files for the new release.
The following sections describe about how to configure the Oracle Net Services:
Note:The default location for the
listener.orafiles is the
$ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/directory. However, you can also use a central location for these files.
If you are upgrading from a previous release of Oracle Database, Oracle recommends that you use the current release of Oracle Net listener instead of the listener from the previous release.
If you have referenced the previous Oracle home directory names in the static listener information, then these directory names must be modified before the
listener.ora file can be used in the 11.2 environment.
For any database instances earlier than release 8.0.3, add static service information to the
listener.ora file. Oracle Database releases later than release 8.0.3 do not require static service information.
Unless you are using a central
tnsnames.ora file, copy Oracle Net Services names and connect descriptors from the earlier release
tnsnames.ora file to the version of that file used by the new release.
If necessary, you can also add connection information for additional database instances to the new file.
If you installed Oracle Label Security, you must configure it in a database before you use it. You can configure Oracle Label Security in two ways; with Oracle Internet Directory integration and without Oracle Internet Directory integration. If you configure Oracle Label Security without Oracle Internet Directory integration, you cannot configure it to use Oracle Internet Directory at a later stage.
Note:To configure Oracle Label Security with Oracle Internet Directory integration, Oracle Internet Directory must be installed in your environment and the Oracle database must be registered in the directory.
See Also:Oracle Label Security Administrator's Guide for more information about Oracle Label Security enabled with Oracle Internet Directory
If you install Oracle Database Vault, then you must register it in a database. Ensure that you create the Database Vault Owner and, optionally, Database Vault Account Manager administrative accounts before you can use it.
See Also:Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide for information about registering Oracle Database Vault
Oracle Messaging Gateway, an Oracle Database Advanced Queuing feature, requires additional configuration after you install Oracle Database if you plan to use Oracle Database Advanced Queuing.
See Also:Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing User's Guide to configure Oracle Messaging Gateway and for additional instructions about configuring the
This section describes postinstallation tasks for Oracle precompilers:
Note:All precompiler configuration files are located in the
Verify that the
PATH environment variable setting includes the directory that contains the C compiler executable.
Table 5-1 shows the default directories and the appropriate command to verify the path setting of the compiler.
Verify that the PATH environment variable setting includes the directory that contains the FORTRAN compiler executable. You can verify the path setting by using the
which xlf command. The path for the FORTRAN executable is
Oracle recommends that you configure and use a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) to ensure that passwords and other sensitive data are not transmitted in clear text in HTTP requests.
See Also:Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide for more information about configuring and using SSL
An Oracle Text knowledge base is a hierarchical tree of concepts used for theme indexing, ABOUT queries, and deriving themes for document services. If you plan to use any of these Oracle Text features, then you can install two supplied knowledge bases (English and French).
See Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for more information about the following tasks:
Reinstalling Oracle XML DB
Configuring or customizing the Oracle XML DB tablespace
Configuring FTP, HTTP/WebDAV port numbers
See Also:Appendix A of Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide
Many Oracle products and options must be configured before you use them for the first time. Before using individual Oracle products or options, see the appropriate guide in the product documentation library.
With Oracle Database 11g, instead of using the operating system kernel NFS client, you can configure Oracle Database to access NFS V3 servers directly using an Oracle internal Direct NFS Client. If Oracle Database cannot open an NFS server using Direct NFS Client, then Oracle Database uses the platform operating system kernel NFS client. In this case, the kernel NFS mount options must be set up as defined in "Checking NFS Buffer Size Parameters". Additionally, an informational message is logged in the Oracle alert and trace files indicating that Direct NFS Client could not be established.
The Oracle files available on the NFS server that are served by the Direct NFS Client are also accessible through the operating system kernel NFS client. The usual considerations for maintaining integrity of the Oracle files apply in this situation.
Some NFS file servers require NFS clients to connect using reserved ports. If your filer is running with reserved port checking, then you must disable it for Direct NFS Client to operate. To disable reserved port checking, see your NFS file server documentation.
For NFS servers that restrict port range, you can use the insecure option to enable clients other than root to connect to the NFS server. Alternatively, you can disable Direct NFS Client as described in "Disabling Direct NFS Client."
Direct NFS Client may require up to four network paths defined for an NFS server. The Direct NFS Client performs load balancing across all specified paths. If a specified path fails, then Direct NFS Client reissues I/O commands over any remaining paths.
The following sections elaborate on enabling, disabling, checking the buffer size for a Direct NFS Client:
By default Direct NFS Client serves mount entries found in
/etc/mtab. No other configuration is required. You can use
oranfstab to specify additional Oracle Database specific options to Direct NFS Client. For example, you can use
oranfstab to specify additional paths for a mount point.
A new Oracle Database specific file
oranfstab can be added to either
/etc or to
oranfstab is placed in
$ORACLE_HOME/dbs, its entries are specific to a single database. However, when
oranfstab is placed in
/etc, then it is global to all Oracle databases, and hence can contain mount points for all Oracle databases.
Note:Direct NFS Client does not work and falls back to the traditional kernel NFS path if the back-end NFS server does not support a write size (
wtmax) of 32768 or larger.
Direct NFS Client determines mount point settings to NFS storage devices based on the configurations in
/etc/mtab. Direct NFS Client looks for the mount point entries in the following order:
It uses the first matched entry as the mount point.
Oracle Database requires that mount points be mounted by the kernel NFS system even when served through Direct NFS Client.
Complete the following procedure to enable Direct NFS Client:
You can optionally create an
oranfstab file with the following attributes for each NFS server to be accessed using Direct NFS Client:
Server: The NFS server name.
Path: Up to four network paths to the NFS server, specified either by IP address, or by name, as displayed using the
ifconfig command on the filer.
Local: Up to four local paths on the database host, specified by IP address or by name, as displayed using the
ifconfig command run on the database host.
Export: The exported path from the NFS server.
Mount: The corresponding local mount point for the exported volume.
Dontroute: Specifies that outgoing messages should not be routed by the operating system, but sent using the IP address they are bound to. Please note that this attribute does not work on Linux with multiple paths in the same subnet.
mnt_timeout: Specifies (in seconds) the time for which Direct NFS Client should wait for a successful mount before timing out. This parameter is optional and the default timeout is 10 minutes.
The following is an example of an
oranfstab file with two NFS server entries:
server: MyDataServer1 local: 22.214.171.124 path: 126.96.36.199 local: 188.8.131.52 path: 184.108.40.206 dontroute export: /vol/oradata1 mount: /mnt/oradata1
server: MyDataServer2 local: LocalPath1 path: NfsPath1 local: LocalPath2 path: NfsPath2 local: LocalPath3 path: NfsPath3 local: LocalPath4 path: NfsPath4 dontroute export: /vol/oradata2 mount: /mnt/oradata2 export: /vol/oradata3 mount: /mnt/oradata3 export: /vol/oradata4 mount: /mnt/oradata4 export: /vol/oradata5 mount: /mnt/oradata5
Oracle Database is not shipped with Direct NFS Client enabled by default. To enable Direct NFS Client, complete the following steps:
Change the directory to
Enter the following command:
make -f ins_rdbms.mk dnfs_on
Complete the following steps to disable the Direct NFS Client:
Log in as the Oracle software installation owner, and disable Direct NFS Client using the following commands:
cd $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/lib make -f ins_rdbms.mk dnfs_off
Note:If you remove an NFS path that Oracle Database is using, then you must restart the database for the change to take effect.
If you are using NFS, then you must set the values for the NFS buffer size parameters
wsize to at least 16384. Oracle recommends that you use the value 32768.
Direct NFS Client issues writes at
wtmax granularity to the NFS server.
For example, to use
wsize buffer settings with the value 32768, then update the
/etc/fstab file on each node with an entry similar to the following:
nfs_server:/vol/DATA/oradata /home/oracle/netapp nfs\ rw,bg,hard,nointr,rsize=32768,wsize=32768,tcp,actimeo=0,vers=3,timeo=600
Note:If you use NFS servers that restrict port range, you may need to mount the file system using the
Alternatively, see "Disabling Direct NFS Client".
Note:See your storage vendor documentation for additional information about mount options.
This section describes tasks that you must complete after you install the software:
The first time you start SQL Developer after installing it or after adding any extensions, you are asked to migrate your user settings from a previous release. (This occurs regardless of whether there was a previous release on your system.)
Note:Migration of user settings is supported only from SQL Developer release 1.0 to release 1.1. It is not supported for migration from a prerelease version of 1.1 to release 1.1.
These settings refer to database connections, reports, and certain SQL Developer user preferences that you set in a previous version by clicking Tools and then Preferences. However, some user preferences are not saved, and you must provide them again using the new release.
To migrate your user settings from SQL Developer release 1.0:
Unzip the release 1.1 kit into an empty directory (folder). Do not delete or overwrite the directory into which you unzipped the release 1.0 kit.
When you start SQL Developer release 1.1, click Yes when prompted to migrate the settings from a previous release.
In the dialog box that is displayed, do not accept the default location for the settings. Instead, provide the location of your release 1.0 settings, which might be a folder whose path ends with
See Also:"Migrating Information from Previous Releases" for more information
If you used a previous release of SQL Developer or a prerelease version of the current release, and you want to preserve the database connections that you were using, then save your existing database connections in an XML file. To save the connections, right-click the Connections node in the Connections Navigator and select Export Connections. After you complete the installation described in this guide, you can use those connections by right-clicking the Connections node in the Connections Navigator and selecting Import Connections.
To use any user-defined reports or the SQL history from a previous version, see "Location of User-Related Information" for information about where these are located. To use any user-defined reports or the SQL history from release 1.0 with both releases 1.0 and 1.1, you must save them before using release 1.1, because release 1.1 modifies the files to a format that is incompatible with release 1.0.
SQL Developer preferences (specified by clicking Tools and then Preferences) from a prerelease version of the current release cannot currently be saved and reused; you must provide any desired preferences again.
SQL Developer stores user-related information in several places, with the specific location depending on the operating system and certain environment specifications. User-related information includes user-defined reports, user-defined code examples, SQL Worksheet history, and SQL Developer user preferences.
The user-related information is stored outside the SQL Developer installation directory hierarchy, so that it is preserved if you delete that directory and install a new version. This information is stored in or under the
SQLDEVELOPER_USER_DIR location, if defined; otherwise as indicated in the following table.
Table 5-2 shows the typical default locations (under a directory or in a file) for specific types of resources on different operating systems. Note the period in the name of any directory or folder named
SQL Worksheet archive files
SQL Developer user preferences
SQL Worksheet archive files contain SQL statements that you have entered. These files begin with sqldev and then have a random number (for example,
sqldev14356.sql). If you close SQL Developer with a SQL Worksheet open that contains statements, then you are prompted to save these files.
To specify a nondefault
SQLDEVELOPER_USER_DIR location, do either of the following:
SQLDEVELOPER_USER_DIR environment variable to specify another directory path.
\sqldeveloper\sqldeveloper\bin\sqldeveloper.conf file and substitute the desired directory path for
SQLDEVELOPER_USER_DIR in the following line:
To prevent other users from accessing your user-specific SQL Developer information, you must ensure that the appropriate permissions are set on the directory where that information is stored or on a directory preceding it in the path hierarchy. For example, you may want to ensure that the
~/.sqldeveloper directory is not worldreadable.