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4 Configuration Tasks When Installing from the Database

Oracle Application Express is installed by default with Oracle Database 11g. This chapter describes required postinstallation configuration tasks for Oracle Application Express when installed with Oracle Database 11g or later.

The instructions in this chapter apply to both new and upgrade installations. To learn more, see "Upgrading from a Previous Version of Oracle Application Express".

This chapter contains these topics:

4.1 About Patching Oracle Application Express

If you are already running Oracle Application Express, then check the Oracle Application Express page on the Oracle Technology Network (OTN) at the following URL for information about patch set releases or later versions of Oracle Application Express:

http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/developer-tools/apex/overview/index.html

Upgrading to Oracle Database 11g will not patch Oracle Application Express. To learn more about downloading and installing Oracle Application Express from Oracle Technology Network (OTN) see "Downloading from Oracle Technology Network".

4.2 Recommended Pre-installation Tasks

Before installing Oracle Application Express, Oracle recommends that you complete the following steps:

  1. Review and satisfy all Oracle Application Express installation requirements. See "Oracle Application Express Installation Requirements".

  2. Shut down any existing Oracle Database instances as well as Oracle-related processes.

    Shut down any existing Oracle Database instances with normal or immediate priority, except for the database where you plan to install the Oracle Application Express schemas. On Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) systems, shut down all instances on each node.

    If Automatic Storage Management (ASM) is running, shut down all databases that use ASM except for the database where you will install Oracle Application Express, and then shut down the ASM instance.

    You can use the Windows Services utility, located either in the Windows Control Panel or from the Administrative Tools menu (under Start and then Programs), to shut down Oracle Database and ASM instances. Names of Oracle databases are preceded with OracleService. The Oracle ASM service is named OracleASMService+ASM. In addition, shut down the OracleCSService service, which ASM uses. Right-click the name of the service and from the menu, choose Stop.

  3. Back up the Oracle Database installation.

    Oracle recommends that you create a backup of the current installation of Oracle Database installation before you install Oracle Application Express. You can use Oracle Database Recovery Manager, which is included the Oracle Database installation, to perform the backup.

  4. Start the Oracle Database instance that contains the target database.

    After backing up the system, you must start the Oracle instance that contains the target Oracle database. Do not start other processes such as the listener or Oracle HTTP Server. However, if you are performing a remote installation, make sure the database listener for the remote database has started.

    Note:

    If you are connecting to a remote database, then start the listener.

4.3 Choosing an HTTP Server

In order to run, Oracle Application Express must have access to either the embedded PL/SQL gateway or Oracle HTTP Server and mod_plsql. To learn more, see "About Choosing an HTTP Server".

4.4 Installing from the Database and Configure the Embedded PL/SQL Gateway

This section describes required postinstallation configuration tasks when running Oracle Application Express with the embedded PL/SQL gateway.

Topics in this section include:

4.4.1 Install the Oracle Database and Complete Pre-installation Tasks

Oracle Application Express automatically installs with Oracle Database 11g or later. To learn more about install the Oracle Database, see the Oracle Database Installation Guide for your operating environment and "Recommended Pre-installation Tasks".

4.4.2 Configure the Embedded PL/SQL Gateway

Although the embedded PL/SQL gateway installs with the Oracle Database 11g, you must configure it before you can use it with Oracle Application Express. To accomplish, you run a configuration file and unlock the ANONYMOUS account.

Note:

The Oracle XML DB HTTP Server with the embedded PL/SQL gateway is not supported before Oracle Database 11g.

Topics in this section include:

4.4.2.1 Running the apxconf.sql Configuration Script

In a new installation, you configure the embedded PL/SQL gateway by running the configuration script apxconf.sql. Then, you unlock the ANONYMOUS account.

Note:

If you are upgrading and have previously configured the embedded PL/SQL gateway, skip this section and go to "Enable Network Services in Oracle Database 11g".

To run the apxconf.sql configuration script:

  1. Change your working directory to ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\apex or whatever convention used to indicate the Oracle home.

  2. Start SQL*Plus and connect to the database where Oracle Application Express is installed as SYS. For example:

    • On Windows:

      SYSTEM_DRIVE:\ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password 
      
    • On UNIX and Linux:

      $ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password 
      
  3. Run apxconf.sql as shown in the following example:

    @apxconf
    
  4. When prompted, enter a password for the Application Express Admin account.

    Be sure to make a note of the password you enter. You will use this password to log in to Oracle Application Express Administration Services.

  5. When prompted, enter the port for the Oracle XML DB HTTP server. The default port number is 8080.

  6. Enter the following statement to unlock the ANONYMOUS account:

    ALTER USER ANONYMOUS ACCOUNT UNLOCK;
    

4.4.2.2 Verifying the Oracle XML DB HTTP Server Port

The embedded PL/SQL gateway runs in the Oracle XML DB HTTP server in the Oracle database. You can determine if the Oracle XML DB HTTP server is enabled by verifying the associated port number.

To verify the port number where the Oracle XML DB HTTP Server is running:

  1. Start SQL*Plus and connect to the database where Oracle Application Express is installed as SYS specifying the SYSDBA role:

    • On Windows:

      SYSTEM_DRIVE:\ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password
      
    • On UNIX and Linux:

      $ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password
      
  2. Enter the following statement to verify the port number:

    SELECT DBMS_XDB.GETHTTPPORT FROM DUAL;
    

    If the port number returns 0, the Oracle XML DB HTTP Server is disabled.

  3. To enable it, follow the instructions in "Enabling Oracle XML DB HTTP Server".

4.4.2.3 Enabling Oracle XML DB HTTP Server

The embedded PL/SQL gateway runs in the Oracle XML DB HTTP server in the Oracle database.

To enable Oracle XML DB HTTP server:

  1. Start SQL*Plus and connect to the database where Oracle Application Express is installed as SYS. For example:

    • Windows:

      DRIVE_LETTER:\> sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password 
      
    • UNIX and Linux:

      $ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password 
      
  2. Run the following statements:

    EXEC DBMS_XDB.SETHTTPPORT(port);
    COMMIT;
    

    For example:

    EXEC DBMS_XDB.SETHTTPPORT(8080);
    COMMIT;
    

Note:

Port numbers less than 1024 are reserved for use by privileged processes on many operating systems. To enable the XML DB HTTP listener on a port less than 1024, such as 80, review the following documentation:

4.4.2.4 Disabling Oracle XML DB HTTP Server

The embedded PL/SQL gateway runs in the Oracle XML DB HTTP server in the Oracle database. To disable Oracle XML DB HTTP server:

  1. Start SQL*Plus and connect to the database where Oracle Application Express is installed as SYS. For example:

    • Windows:

      DRIVE_LETTER:\> sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password 
      
    • UNIX and Linux:

      $ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password 
      
  2. Run the following statements:

    EXEC DBMS_XDB.SETHTTPPORT(0);
    COMMIT;
    

4.4.3 Enable Network Services in Oracle Database 11g

By default, the ability to interact with network services is disabled in Oracle Database 11g release 1 (11.1). Therefore, if you are running Oracle Application Express with Oracle Database 11g release 1 (11.1), you must use the new DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN package to grant connect privileges to any host for the APEX_030200 database user. Failing to grant these privileges results in issues with:

  • Sending outbound mail in Oracle Application Express.

    Users can call methods from the APEX_MAIL package, but issues arise when sending outbound email.

  • Using Web services in Oracle Application Express.

  • PDF/report printing.

  • Searching for content in online Help (that is, using the Find link).

Topics in this section include:

Tip:

To run the examples described in this section, the compatible initialization parameter of the database must be set to at least 11.1.0.0.0. By default an 11g database will already have the parameter set properly, but a database upgraded to 11g from a prior version may not. See "Creating and Configuring an Oracle Database" in Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information about changing database initialization parameters.

4.4.3.1 Granting Connect Privileges

The following example demonstrates how to grant connect privileges to any host for the APEX_030200 database user. This example assumes you connected to the database where Oracle Application Express is installed as SYS specifying the SYSDBA role.

DECLARE
  ACL_PATH  VARCHAR2(4000);
  ACL_ID    RAW(16);
BEGIN
  -- Look for the ACL currently assigned to '*' and give APEX_030200
  -- the "connect" privilege if APEX_030200 does not have the privilege yet.

  SELECT ACL INTO ACL_PATH FROM DBA_NETWORK_ACLS
   WHERE HOST = '*' AND LOWER_PORT IS NULL AND UPPER_PORT IS NULL;

  -- Before checking the privilege, ensure that the ACL is valid
  -- (for example, does not contain stale references to dropped users).
  -- If it does, the following exception will be raised:
  --
  -- ORA-44416: Invalid ACL: Unresolved principal 'APEX_030200'
  -- ORA-06512: at "XDB.DBMS_XDBZ", line ...
  --
  SELECT SYS_OP_R2O(extractValue(P.RES, '/Resource/XMLRef')) INTO ACL_ID
    FROM XDB.XDB$ACL A, PATH_VIEW P
   WHERE extractValue(P.RES, '/Resource/XMLRef') = REF(A) AND
         EQUALS_PATH(P.RES, ACL_PATH) = 1;

  DBMS_XDBZ.ValidateACL(ACL_ID);
   IF DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN.CHECK_PRIVILEGE(ACL_PATH, 'APEX_030200', 
     'connect') IS NULL THEN 
      DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN.ADD_PRIVILEGE(ACL_PATH, 
     'APEX_030200', TRUE, 'connect'); 
  END IF;

EXCEPTION
  -- When no ACL has been assigned to '*'.
  WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN
  DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN.CREATE_ACL('power_users.xml',
    'ACL that lets power users to connect to everywhere',
    'APEX_030200', TRUE, 'connect');
  DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN.ASSIGN_ACL('power_users.xml','*');
END;
/
COMMIT;

The following example demonstrates how to provide less privileged access to local network resources. This example would enable indexing the Oracle Application Express Online Help and could possibly enable email and PDF printing if those servers were also on the local host.

DECLARE
  ACL_PATH  VARCHAR2(4000);
  ACL_ID    RAW(16);
BEGIN
  -- Look for the ACL currently assigned to 'localhost' and give APEX_030200
  -- the "connect" privilege if APEX_030200 does not have the privilege yet.
  SELECT ACL INTO ACL_PATH FROM DBA_NETWORK_ACLS
   WHERE HOST = 'localhost' AND LOWER_PORT IS NULL AND UPPER_PORT IS NULL;

  -- Before checking the privilege, ensure that the ACL is valid
  -- (for example, does not contain stale references to dropped users).
  -- If it does, the following exception will be raised:
  --
  -- ORA-44416: Invalid ACL: Unresolved principal 'APEX_030200'
  -- ORA-06512: at "XDB.DBMS_XDBZ", line ...
  --

  SELECT SYS_OP_R2O(extractValue(P.RES, '/Resource/XMLRef')) INTO ACL_ID
    FROM XDB.XDB$ACL A, PATH_VIEW P
   WHERE extractValue(P.RES, '/Resource/XMLRef') = REF(A) AND
         EQUALS_PATH(P.RES, ACL_PATH) = 1;

  DBMS_XDBZ.ValidateACL(ACL_ID);
   IF DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN.CHECK_PRIVILEGE(ACL_PATH, 'APEX_030200', 
     'connect') IS NULL THEN 
      DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN.ADD_PRIVILEGE(ACL_PATH, 
     'APEX_030200', TRUE, 'connect'); 
  END IF;

EXCEPTION
  -- When no ACL has been assigned to 'localhost'.
  WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN
  DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN.CREATE_ACL('local-access-users.xml',
    'ACL that lets power users to connect to everywhere',
    'APEX_030200', TRUE, 'connect');
  DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN.ASSIGN_ACL('local-access-users.xml','localhost');
END;
/
COMMIT;

4.4.3.2 Troubleshooting an Invalid ACL Error

If you receive an ORA-44416: Invalid ACL error after running the previous script, use the following query to identify the invalid ACL:

REM Show the dangling references to dropped users in the ACL that is assigned
REM to '*'.

SELECT ACL, PRINCIPAL
  FROM DBA_NETWORK_ACLS NACL, XDS_ACE ACE
 WHERE HOST = '*' AND LOWER_PORT IS NULL AND UPPER_PORT IS NULL AND
       NACL.ACLID = ACE.ACLID AND
       NOT EXISTS (SELECT NULL FROM ALL_USERS WHERE USERNAME = PRINCIPAL);

Next, run the following code to fix the ACL:

DECLARE
  ACL_ID   RAW(16);
  CNT      NUMBER;
BEGIN
  -- Look for the object ID of the ACL currently assigned to '*'
  SELECT ACLID INTO ACL_ID FROM DBA_NETWORK_ACLS
   WHERE HOST = '*' AND LOWER_PORT IS NULL AND UPPER_PORT IS NULL;

  -- If just some users referenced in the ACL are invalid, remove just those
  -- users in the ACL. Otherwise, drop the ACL completely.
  SELECT COUNT(PRINCIPAL) INTO CNT FROM XDS_ACE
   WHERE ACLID = ACL_ID AND
         EXISTS (SELECT NULL FROM ALL_USERS WHERE USERNAME = PRINCIPAL);

  IF (CNT > 0) THEN

    FOR R IN (SELECT PRINCIPAL FROM XDS_ACE
               WHERE ACLID = ACL_ID AND
                     NOT EXISTS (SELECT NULL FROM ALL_USERS
                                  WHERE USERNAME = PRINCIPAL)) LOOP
      UPDATE XDB.XDB$ACL
         SET OBJECT_VALUE =
               DELETEXML(OBJECT_VALUE,
                         '/ACL/ACE[PRINCIPAL="'||R.PRINCIPAL||'"]')
       WHERE OBJECT_ID = ACL_ID;
    END LOOP;

  ELSE
    DELETE FROM XDB.XDB$ACL WHERE OBJECT_ID = ACL_ID;
  END IF;

END;
/

REM commit the changes.

COMMIT;

Once the ACL has been fixed, you must run the first script in this section to apply the ACL to the APEX_030200 user. See "Granting Connect Privileges".

4.4.4 Enable Indexing of Online Help in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 and Higher

The ability to search Oracle Application Express online Help is accomplished through Oracle Text and a URL data store. There is a change in the default behavior and permissions to use an Oracle Text URL data store in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 and later releases.

If users attempt to search Oracle Application Express online Help in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 and encounter the following error, then the permission to use an Oracle Text URL data store has not been granted to database user APEX_030200.

ORA-29855: error occurred in the execution of ODCIINDEXCREATE routine 
ORA-20000: Oracle Text error: 
DRG-10758: index owner does not have the privilege to use file or URL data store

To enable the indexing of online Help in Oracle Application Express, the permission to use an Oracle Text URL data store must be granted to the APEX_030200 database user. This is accomplished by assigning this specific privilege to a datbase role and then granting this role to the APEX_030200 database user.

To determine if the ability to use an Oracle Text URL data store is already granted to a database role:

  1. Start SQL*Plus and connect to the database where Oracle Application Express is installed as SYS specifying the SYSDBA role. For example:

    • On Windows:

      SYSTEM_DRIVE:\ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password
      
    • On UNIX and Linux:

      $ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password
      
  2. Run the following command:

    SELECT par_value FROM ctxsys.ctx_parameters WHERE par_name = 'FILE_ACCESS_ROLE';
    

    This returns either NULL or the database role which is granted the ability to use an Oracle Text URL data store.

  3. If no value is returned by step 2, then create a new database role as shown in the following example:

    CREATE ROLE APEX_URL_DATASTORE_ROLE;
    
  4. Grant this role to the database user APEX_030200 with the following statement:

    GRANT APEX_URL_DATASTORE_ROLE to APEX_030200;
    

    If step 2 returned a value, use this database role name instead of the example APEX_URL_DATASTORE_ROLE.

  5. Lastly, if step 2 did not return a value, then use the Oracle Text API to grant permission to the newly created database role with the following statement:

    EXEC ctxsys.ctx_adm.set_parameter('file_access_role', 'APEX_URL_DATASTORE_ROLE');
    

4.4.5 Security Considerations

Oracle highly recommends you configure and use a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) to ensure that passwords and other sensitive data are not transmitted in clear text in HTTP requests. Without the use of SSL, passwords could potentially be exposed, compromising security.

SSL is an industry standard protocol that uses RSA public key cryptography in conjunction with symmetric key cryptography to provide authentication, encryption, and data integrity.

4.4.6 About Running Oracle Application Express in Other Languages

The Oracle Application Express interface is translated into German, Spanish, French, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Brazilian Portuguese, Simplified Chinese, and Traditional Chinese. A single instance of Oracle Application Express can be installed with one or more of these translated versions. At runtime, each user's Web browser language settings determine the specific language version.

The translated version of Oracle Application Express should be loaded into a database that has a character set that supports the specific language. If you attempt to install a translated version of Oracle Application Express into a database that does not support the character encoding of the language, the installation may fail or the translated Oracle Application Express instance may appear corrupt when run. The database character set AL32UTF8 supports all the translated versions of Oracle Application Express.

You can manually install translated versions of Oracle Application Express using SQL*Plus. The installation files are encoded in AL32UTF8.

Note:

Regardless of the target database character set, to install a translated version of Oracle Application Express, you must set the character set value of the NLS_LANG environment variable to AL32UTF8 before starting SQL*Plus.

The following examples illustrate valid NLS_LANG settings for loading Oracle Application Express translations:

American_America.AL32UTF8
Japanese_Japan.AL32UTF8 

4.4.6.1 Installing a Translated Version of Oracle Application Express

Whether you are installing for the first time or upgrading from a previous release, you must run the load_lang.sql script to run a translated version of Oracle Application Express.

The installation scripts are located in subdirectories identified by a language code in the unzipped distribution apex/builder. For example, the German version is located in apex/builder/de and the Japanese version is located in apex/builder/ja. Within each of directory, there is a language loading script identified by the language code (for example, load_de.sql or load_ja.sql).

To install a translated version of Oracle Application Express:

  1. Set the NLS_LANG environment variable, making sure that the character set is AL32UTF8. For example:

    • Bourne or Korn shell:

      NLS_LANG=American_America.AL32UTF8
      export NLS_LANG
      
    • C shell:

      setenv NLS_LANG American_America.AL32UTF8
      
    • For Windows based systems:

      set NLS_LANG=American_America.AL32UTF8
      
  2. Start SQL*Plus and connect to the database where Oracle Application Express is installed as SYS specifying the SYSDBA role. For example:

    • On Windows:

      SYSTEM_DRIVE:\ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password
      
    • On UNIX and Linux:

      $ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password
      
  3. Execute the following statement:

    ALTER SESSION SET CURRENT_SCHEMA = APEX_030200;
    
  4. Execute the appropriate language specific script. For example:

    @load_lang.sql
    

    Where lang is the specific language (for example, load_de.sql for German or load_ja.sql for Japanese).

4.4.7 About Managing JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES

JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES determine the maximum number of concurrently running jobs. In Oracle Application Express release 3.2, transactional support and SQL scripts require jobs. If JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES is not enabled and working properly, you cannot successfully execute a script.

Topics in this section include:

4.4.7.1 Viewing the Number of JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES

There are currently three ways to view the number of JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES:

  • In the installation log file

  • On the About Application Express page in Oracle Application Express

  • From SQL*Plus

4.4.7.1.1 Viewing JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES in the Installation Log File

After installing or upgrading Oracle Application Express to release 3.2, you can view the number of JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES in the installation log files. See "Reviewing a Log of an Installation Session".

4.4.7.1.2 Viewing JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES in Oracle Application Express

You can also view the number of JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES on the About Application Express page.

To view the About Application Express page:

  1. Log in to Oracle Application Express. See "Logging in to Your Oracle Application Express Workspace".

  2. On the Administration list, click About Application Express.

    The current number JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES displays at the bottom of the page.

4.4.7.1.3 Viewing JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES from SQL*Plus

You can also view the number of JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES from SQL*Plus by running the following SQL statement:

SELECT VALUE FROM v$parameter WHERE NAME = 'job_queue_processes'

4.4.7.2 Changing the Number of JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES

You can change the number of JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES by running a SQL statement in SQL*Plus:

To update the number of JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES:

  1. Start SQL*Plus and connect to the database where Oracle Application Express is installed as SYS specifying the SYSDBA role:

    • On Windows:

      SYSTEM_DRIVE:\ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password
      
    • On UNIX and Linux:

      $ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password
      
  2. In SQL*Plus run the following SQL statement:

    ALTER SYSTEM SET JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES = <number>
    

    For example, running the statement ALTER SYSTEM SET JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES = 20 sets JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES to 20.

4.4.8 Configuring the SHARED_SERVERS Parameter

The embedded PL/SQL gateway uses the shared server architecture of the Oracle Database. To achieve acceptable performance when using the embedded PL/SQL gateway, ensure the SHARED_SERVERS database initialization parameter is set to a reasonable value (that is, not 0 or 1). For a small group of concurrent users, Oracle recommends a value of 5 for SHARED_SERVERS.

Consider the following example:

  1. Start SQL*Plus and connect to the database where Oracle Application Express is installed as SYS specifying the SYSDBA role. For example:

    • On Windows:

      SYSTEM_DRIVE:\ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password
      
    • On UNIX and Linux:

      $ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password
      
  2. Run the following statement:

    ALTER SYSTEM SET SHARED_SERVERS = 5 SCOPE=BOTH;
    

4.4.9 Create a Workspace and Add Oracle Application Express Users

You access the Oracle Application Express home page by logging in to workspace using a Web browser. Your Web browser must support JavaScript and the HTML 4.0 and CSS 1.0 standards. See "Browser Requirement".

A workspace is a virtual private database allowing multiple users to work within the same Oracle Application Express installation while keeping their objects, data and applications private. Each workspace has a unique ID and name.

An Oracle Application Express administrator can create a workspace manually within Oracle Application Express Administration Services or have users submit requests. Oracle Application Express Administration Services is a separate application for managing an entire Oracle Application Express instance. See "Creating Workspaces" and "Managing Workspace Requests" in Oracle Application Express Administration Guide.

See Also:

Oracle Database 2 Day + Oracle Application Express Developer's Guide if you are new to Oracle Application Express

This section includes these topics:

4.4.9.1 Creating a Workspace Manually

To create an Oracle Application Express workspace manually:

  1. Log in to Oracle Application Express Administration Services. Oracle Application Express Administration Services is a separate application for managing an entire Oracle Application Express instance. You log in using the ADMIN account and password created or reset during the installation process.

    1. In a Web browser, navigate to the Oracle Application Express Administration Services application.

      If your setup uses the embedded PL/SQL gateway, go to:

      http://hostname:port/apex/apex_admin
      

      Where:

      hostname is the name of the system where Oracle XML DB HTTP server is installed.

      port is the port number assigned to Oracle XML DB HTTP server. In a default installation, this number is 8080.

      apex is the database access descriptor (DAD) defined in the configuration file.

    2. On the Login page:

      • In Username, enter admin.

      • In Password, enter the Oracle Application Express administrator account password you specified when you installed Oracle Application Express.

      • Click Login.

    See Also:

    See "Logging in to Oracle Application Express Administration Services" in Oracle Application Express Administration Guide.

    Next, create a workspace.

  2. Click Manage Workspaces.

  3. Under Manage Workspaces, click Create Workspace.

    The Create Workspace Wizard appears.

  4. For Identify Workspace, enter a workspace name and description and click Next.

  5. For Identify Schema, select the Oracle Forms application schema.

    1. For Re-use existing schema, select Yes.

    2. Select a schema from the list.

    3. Click Next.

  6. For Identify Administrator, enter the Workspace administrator information and click Next.

  7. Confirm your selections and click Create.

4.4.9.2 Creating Oracle Application Express Users

To create an Oracle Application Express user account:

  1. Log in to Oracle Application Express Administration Services as described in the previous section. See "Logging in to Oracle Application Express Administration Services" in Oracle Application Express Administration Guide.

  2. Click Manage Workspaces.

  3. Under Manage Workspaces, click Manage Developers and Users.

    The Manage Developers and Users page appears.

  4. Click Create.

    The Create/Edit User page appears.

  5. Under User Attributes, enter the appropriate information. Fields marked with an asterisk are required.

    Tip:

    To learn more about a specific attribute, click the item label. When Help is available, the item label changes to red when you pass your cursor over it and the cursor changes to an arrow and question mark.
  6. Under Password, type a case-sensitive password for this account.

    If your organization has set up a password policy, be sure the password meets the requirements.

  7. Under Developer Privileges, select the appropriate privileges:

    • User is a developer - To add this user as a developer or Workspace administrator, select Yes. For end users, select No.

      Developers can create and modify applications and database objects as well as view developer activity, session state, workspace activity, application, and schema reports.

    • User is a workspace administrator - To add this user as a Workspace administrator, select Yes. For developers or end users, select No.

      In addition to having developer privileges, workspace administrators can create and edit user accounts, manage groups, alter passwords of users within the same workspace, and manage development services.

  8. Under Account Control, specify the following:

    • Account Availability - Select Unlocked to enable a user to log in to this account.

    • Require Change of Password on First Use - Select Yes to require the user to change the password immediately after logging in with the current, temporary password. Otherwise, select No.

  9. Click Create User or Create and Create Another.

4.4.9.3 Logging in to Your Oracle Application Express Workspace

Once you create a workspace, you must log in to it using your login credentials (that is, the workspace name, user name, and password).

See Also:

See "Creating Workspaces" and "Managing Workspace Requests" in Oracle Application Express Administration Guide

To log in to a workspace:

  1. In a Web browser, navigate to the Oracle Application Express Login page.

    If your setup uses the embedded PL/SQL gateway, go to:

    http://hostname:port/apex
    

    Where:

    • hostname is the name of the system where Oracle XML DB HTTP server is installed.

    • port is the port number assigned to Oracle XML DB HTTP server. In a default installation, this number is 8080.

    • apex is the database access descriptor (DAD) defined in the configuration file.

      For users who have upgraded from earlier releases, or who have a custom configuration, this value may be htmldb or something else. Verify your DAD with your Oracle Application Express administrator.

    The Login page appears.

  2. Under Login, enter the following:

    • Workspace field - Enter the name of your workspace.

    • Username field - Enteryour user name.

    • Password field - Enter your case-sensitive password.

  3. Click Login.

    Note that, depending on your setup, you might be required to change your password when you log in for the first time.

4.5 Installing from the Database and Configure Oracle HTTP Server

This section describes how to configure Oracle HTTP Server with mod_plsql distributed with Oracle Database 11g or Oracle Application Server 10g.

Topics in this section include:

Note that these instructions do not apply if you are running Oracle HTTP Server release 9.0.3. To learn more, see "Configuring Oracle HTTP Server Distributed with Oracle9i Release 2".

Note:

Within the context of this section, the Oracle home directory (ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME) is the location where Oracle HTTP Server is installed.

4.5.1 Install the Oracle Database and Complete Pre-installation Tasks

Oracle Application Express automatically installs with Oracle Database 11g or later. To learn more about install the Oracle Database, see the Oracle Database Installation Guide for your operating environment and "Recommended Pre-installation Tasks".

4.5.2 Configure Oracle HTTP Server Distributed with Oracle Database 11g or Oracle Application Server 10g

Perform the following postinstallation steps if:

  • You are using a version of Oracle Application Express that installs with Oracle Database 11g or later.

  • You re not upgrading from a previous release. This is a new installation of Oracle Application Express.

  • You are running Oracle HTTP Server distributed with Oracle Database 11g or Oracle Application Server 10g.

  • Oracle HTTP Server is installed in an Oracle home.

Topics in this section include:

Note that these instructions do not apply if you are running Oracle HTTP Server release 9.0.3. To learn more, see "Configuring Oracle HTTP Server Distributed with Oracle9i Release 2".

Note:

Within the context of this section, the Oracle home directory (ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME) is the location where Oracle HTTP Server is installed.

4.5.2.1 Change the Password for the ADMIN Account

First, change the password for the Oracle Application Express ADMIN account.

Tip:

If you are upgrading from a prior release of Oracle Application Express, this step is unnecessary.

To change the password for the ADMIN account:

  1. Change your working directory to ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\apex or whatever convention used to indicate the Oracle home.

  2. Start SQL*Plus and connect to the database where Oracle Application Express is installed as SYS. For example:

    • On Windows:

      SYSTEM_DRIVE:\ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password
      
    • On UNIX and Linux:

      $ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password
      
  3. Run apxchpwd.sql. For example:

    @apxchpwd.sql
    

    When prompted enter a password for the ADMIN account.

4.5.2.2 Unlock the APEX_PUBLIC_USER Database User

When configuring Oracle HTTP Server for Oracle Application Express in a new installation, the database user APEX_PUBLIC_USER must be an unlocked account. To unlock the account for database user APEX_PUBLIC_USER, execute the following steps:

  1. Start SQL*Plus and connect to the database where Oracle Application Express is installed as SYS. For example:

    • On Windows:

      SYSTEM_DRIVE:\ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password
      
    • On UNIX and Linux:

      $ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password
      
  2. Run the following statement:

    ALTER USER APEX_PUBLIC_USER ACCOUNT UNLOCK
    

4.5.2.3 Change the Password for the APEX_PUBLIC_USER Database User

In order to specify the password in the DAD file, you have to change the password for the database user APEX_PUBLIC_USER. Please use the following steps to change the password for the APEX_PUBLIC_USER database user:

  1. Start SQL*Plus and connect to the database where Oracle Application Express is installed as SYS. For example:

    • On Windows:

      SYSTEM_DRIVE:\ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password
      
    • On UNIX and Linux:

      $ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password
      
  2. Run the following statement:

    SQL> PASSWORD APEX_PUBLIC_USER
    Changing password for APEX_PUBLIC_USER
    New password: password
    Retype new password: password
    
4.5.2.3.1 About Password Expiration in Oracle Database 11g

In the default profile in Oracle Database 11g, the parameter PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME is set to 180. If you are using Oracle Database 11g with Oracle Application Express, this causes the password for APEX_PUBLIC_USER to expire in 180 days. As a result, your Oracle Application Express instance will become unusable until you change the password.

To prevent this behavior, create another profile in which the PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME parameter is set to unlimited and alter the APEX_PUBLIC_USER account and assign it the new profile.

See Also:

Oracle Database Security Guide for information on creating profiles and assigning them to database users.

4.5.2.4 Copy the Images Directory

Whether you are loading a new installation or upgrading from a previous release, you must copy the images directory from the top level of the apex\images directory to the location on the file system containing the Oracle home for Oracle HTTP Server.

Topics in this section include:

4.5.2.4.1 Copying the Images Directory After an Upgrade

During an upgrade, you must overwrite your existing images directory. Before you begin the upgrade, to ensure that you can revert to the previous version, Oracle recommends that you create a copy of your existing images directory for Oracle Application Express, indicating the release number of the images (for example, images_3_1).

To locate the images directory on the file system, review the following files for the text alias /i/:

  • Oracle HTTP Server distributed Oracle9i Release 2—see the httpd.conf file.

  • Oracle Application Server 10g—see the marvel.conf or dads.conf files.

  • Oracle HTTP Server distributed with Oracle Database 11g—see the marvel.conf or dads.conf files.

When you locate the images directory path, copy the existing images directory to a backup location. Doing so enables you to revert to the previous release, if that becomes necessary.

After you copy the existing images directory, use the following command syntax to copy the apex\images directory from the Oracle Database home to the existing images directory path, overwriting the existing images:

  • Oracle Application Server 10g:

    • On Windows:

      xcopy /E /I ORACLE_HOME\apex\images ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME\Apache\images
      
    • On UNIX and Linux:

      cp -rf $ORACLE_HOME/apex/images ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME/Apache
      
  • Oracle HTTP Server distributed with Oracle Database 11g:

    • On Windows:

      xcopy /E /I ORACLE_HOME\apex\images ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME\ohs\images
      
    • On UNIX and Linux:

      cp -rf $ORACLE_HOME/apex/images ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME/ohs
      

In the preceding syntax examples:

  • ORACLE_HOME is the Oracle Database Oracle home

  • ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME is the existing Oracle Application Server or Oracle HTTP Server Oracle home

4.5.2.4.2 Copying the Images Directory in a New Installation

After installation, copy the directory apex/images.

You can copy the images directory using Windows Explorer, or running a command from a command prompt similar to the following:

DRIVE_LETTER:\> xcopy /E /I ORACLE_HOME\apex\images ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME\ohs\images

In the preceding syntax example:

  • ORACLE_HOME is the Oracle Database 11g Oracle home

  • ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME is the existing Oracle Application Server or Oracle HTTP Server Oracle home

4.5.2.5 Configure Oracle HTTP Server 11g or Oracle Application Server 10g

Perform the following postinstallation steps if:

  • You are running Oracle HTTP Server distributed with Oracle Database 11g or Oracle Application Server 10g.

  • Oracle HTTP Server is installed in an Oracle home.

Note that these instructions do not apply if you are running Oracle HTTP Server release 9.0.3. To learn more, see "Configuring Oracle HTTP Server Distributed with Oracle9i Release 2".

Note:

Within the context of this document, ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME is the location where Oracle HTTP Server is installed.

Topics in this section include:

4.5.2.5.1 Editing the dads.conf File

If this is a new installation of Oracle Application Express, you must edit the dads.conf file. The dads.conf file contains the information about the DAD to access Oracle Application Express.

To edit the dads.conf file:

  1. Use a text editor and open the dads.conf.

    • Oracle Application Server 10g:

      • On Windows see:

        ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME\Apache\modplsql\conf\dads.conf
        
      • On UNIX and Linux see:

        ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME/Apache/modplsql/conf/dads.conf
        
    • Oracle HTTP Server distributed with Oracle Database 11g:

      • On Windows see:

        ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME\ohs\modplsql\conf\dads.conf
        
      • On UNIX and Linux see:

        ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME/ohs/modplsql/conf/dads.conf
        
  2. In the dads.conf file, replace ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME, host, port, service_name, and apex_public_user_password with values appropriate for your environment. Note that the apex_public_user_password is the password you changed in "Change the Password for the APEX_PUBLIC_USER Database User".

    Note that the path listed is only an example. The path in the dads.conf file should reference the file system path described in "Copy the Images Directory".

    Alias /i/ "ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME/Apache/images/"
    AddType text/xml       xbl
    AddType text/x-component       htc
    
    <Location /pls/apex>
     Order deny,allow
     PlsqlDocumentPath docs
     AllowOverride None
     PlsqlDocumentProcedure         wwv_flow_file_mgr.process_download
     PlsqlDatabaseConnectString     host:port:service_name ServiceNameFormat
     PlsqlNLSLanguage               AMERICAN_AMERICA.AL32UTF8
     PlsqlAuthenticationMode        Basic
     SetHandler                     pls_handler
     PlsqlDocumentTablename         wwv_flow_file_objects$
     PlsqlDatabaseUsername          APEX_PUBLIC_USER
     PlsqlDefaultPage               apex
     PlsqlDatabasePassword          apex_public_user_password
     PlsqlRequestValidationFunction wwv_flow_epg_include_modules.authorize
     Allow from all
    </Location>
    
  3. Locate the line containing PlsqlNLSLanguage.

    The PlsqlNLSLanguage setting determines the language setting of the DAD. The character set portion of the PlsqlNLSLanguage value must be set to AL32UTF8, regardless of whether or not the database character set is AL32UTF8. For example:

    ...
    PlsqlNLSLanguage            AMERICAN_AMERICA.AL32UTF8
    ...
    
  4. Save and exit the dads.conf file.

4.5.2.5.2 Stopping and Restarting Oracle HTTP Server

To stop and restart the Oracle HTTP Server, enter commands using the following syntax, where ORACLE_BASE is the path to the Oracle base directory:

ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME\opmn\bin\opmnctl stopproc ias-component=HTTP_Server
ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME\opmn\bin\opmnctl startproc ias-component=HTTP_Server

4.5.3 Enable Network Services in Oracle Database 11g

By default, the ability to interact with network services is disabled in Oracle Database 11g release 1 (11.1). Therefore, if you are running Oracle Application Express with Oracle Database 11g release 1 (11.1), you must use the new DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN package to grant connect privileges to any host for the APEX_030200 database user. Failing to grant these privileges results in issues with:

  • Sending outbound mail in Oracle Application Express.

    Users can call methods from the APEX_MAIL package, but issues arise when sending outbound email.

  • Using Web services in Oracle Application Express.

  • PDF/report printing.

  • Searching for content in online Help (that is, using the Find link).

Topics in this section include:

Tip:

To run the examples described in this section, the compatible initialization parameter of the database must be set to at least 11.1.0.0.0. By default an 11g database will already have the parameter set properly, but a database upgraded to 11g from a prior version may not. See "Creating and Configuring an Oracle Database" in Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information about changing database initialization parameters.

4.5.3.1 Granting Connect Privileges

The following example demonstrates how to grant connect privileges to any host for the APEX_030200 database user. This example assumes you connected to the database where Oracle Application Express is installed as SYS specifying the SYSDBA role.

DECLARE
  ACL_PATH  VARCHAR2(4000);
  ACL_ID    RAW(16);
BEGIN
  -- Look for the ACL currently assigned to '*' and give APEX_030200
  -- the "connect" privilege if APEX_030200 does not have the privilege yet.

  SELECT ACL INTO ACL_PATH FROM DBA_NETWORK_ACLS
   WHERE HOST = '*' AND LOWER_PORT IS NULL AND UPPER_PORT IS NULL;

  -- Before checking the privilege, ensure that the ACL is valid
  -- (for example, does not contain stale references to dropped users).
  -- If it does, the following exception will be raised:
  --
  -- ORA-44416: Invalid ACL: Unresolved principal 'APEX_030200'
  -- ORA-06512: at "XDB.DBMS_XDBZ", line ...
  --
  SELECT SYS_OP_R2O(extractValue(P.RES, '/Resource/XMLRef')) INTO ACL_ID
    FROM XDB.XDB$ACL A, PATH_VIEW P
   WHERE extractValue(P.RES, '/Resource/XMLRef') = REF(A) AND
         EQUALS_PATH(P.RES, ACL_PATH) = 1;

  DBMS_XDBZ.ValidateACL(ACL_ID);
   IF DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN.CHECK_PRIVILEGE(ACL_PATH, 'APEX_030200', 
     'connect') IS NULL THEN 
      DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN.ADD_PRIVILEGE(ACL_PATH, 
     'APEX_030200', TRUE, 'connect'); 
  END IF;

EXCEPTION
  -- When no ACL has been assigned to '*'.
  WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN
  DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN.CREATE_ACL('power_users.xml',
    'ACL that lets power users to connect to everywhere',
    'APEX_030200', TRUE, 'connect');
  DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN.ASSIGN_ACL('power_users.xml','*');
END;
/
COMMIT;

The following example demonstrates how to provide less privileged access to local network resources. This example would enable indexing the Oracle Application Express Online Help and could possibly enable email and PDF printing if those servers were also on the local host.

DECLARE
  ACL_PATH  VARCHAR2(4000);
  ACL_ID    RAW(16);
BEGIN
  -- Look for the ACL currently assigned to 'localhost' and give APEX_030200
  -- the "connect" privilege if APEX_030200 does not have the privilege yet.
  SELECT ACL INTO ACL_PATH FROM DBA_NETWORK_ACLS
   WHERE HOST = 'localhost' AND LOWER_PORT IS NULL AND UPPER_PORT IS NULL;

  -- Before checking the privilege, ensure that the ACL is valid
  -- (for example, does not contain stale references to dropped users).
  -- If it does, the following exception will be raised:
  --
  -- ORA-44416: Invalid ACL: Unresolved principal 'APEX_030200'
  -- ORA-06512: at "XDB.DBMS_XDBZ", line ...
  --

  SELECT SYS_OP_R2O(extractValue(P.RES, '/Resource/XMLRef')) INTO ACL_ID
    FROM XDB.XDB$ACL A, PATH_VIEW P
   WHERE extractValue(P.RES, '/Resource/XMLRef') = REF(A) AND
         EQUALS_PATH(P.RES, ACL_PATH) = 1;

  DBMS_XDBZ.ValidateACL(ACL_ID);
   IF DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN.CHECK_PRIVILEGE(ACL_PATH, 'APEX_030200', 
     'connect') IS NULL THEN 
      DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN.ADD_PRIVILEGE(ACL_PATH, 
     'APEX_030200', TRUE, 'connect'); 
  END IF;

EXCEPTION
  -- When no ACL has been assigned to 'localhost'.
  WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN
  DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN.CREATE_ACL('local-access-users.xml',
    'ACL that lets power users to connect to everywhere',
    'APEX_030200', TRUE, 'connect');
  DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN.ASSIGN_ACL('local-access-users.xml','localhost');
END;
/
COMMIT;

4.5.3.2 Troubleshooting an Invalid ACL Error

If you receive an ORA-44416: Invalid ACL error after running the previous script, use the following query to identify the invalid ACL:

REM Show the dangling references to dropped users in the ACL that is assigned
REM to '*'.

SELECT ACL, PRINCIPAL
  FROM DBA_NETWORK_ACLS NACL, XDS_ACE ACE
 WHERE HOST = '*' AND LOWER_PORT IS NULL AND UPPER_PORT IS NULL AND
       NACL.ACLID = ACE.ACLID AND
       NOT EXISTS (SELECT NULL FROM ALL_USERS WHERE USERNAME = PRINCIPAL);

Next, run the following code to fix the ACL:

DECLARE
  ACL_ID   RAW(16);
  CNT      NUMBER;
BEGIN
  -- Look for the object ID of the ACL currently assigned to '*'
  SELECT ACLID INTO ACL_ID FROM DBA_NETWORK_ACLS
   WHERE HOST = '*' AND LOWER_PORT IS NULL AND UPPER_PORT IS NULL;

  -- If just some users referenced in the ACL are invalid, remove just those
  -- users in the ACL. Otherwise, drop the ACL completely.
  SELECT COUNT(PRINCIPAL) INTO CNT FROM XDS_ACE
   WHERE ACLID = ACL_ID AND
         EXISTS (SELECT NULL FROM ALL_USERS WHERE USERNAME = PRINCIPAL);

  IF (CNT > 0) THEN

    FOR R IN (SELECT PRINCIPAL FROM XDS_ACE
               WHERE ACLID = ACL_ID AND
                     NOT EXISTS (SELECT NULL FROM ALL_USERS
                                  WHERE USERNAME = PRINCIPAL)) LOOP
      UPDATE XDB.XDB$ACL
         SET OBJECT_VALUE =
               DELETEXML(OBJECT_VALUE,
                         '/ACL/ACE[PRINCIPAL="'||R.PRINCIPAL||'"]')
       WHERE OBJECT_ID = ACL_ID;
    END LOOP;

  ELSE
    DELETE FROM XDB.XDB$ACL WHERE OBJECT_ID = ACL_ID;
  END IF;

END;
/

REM commit the changes.

COMMIT;

Once the ACL has been fixed, you must run the first script in this section to apply the ACL to the APEX_030200 user. See "Granting Connect Privileges".

4.5.4 Enable Indexing of Online Help in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 and Higher

The ability to search Oracle Application Express online Help is accomplished through Oracle Text and a URL data store. There is a change in the default behavior and permissions to use an Oracle Text URL data store in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 and higher.

If users attempt to search Oracle Application Express online Help in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 and encounter the following error, then the permission to use an Oracle Text URL data store has not been granted to database user APEX_030200.

ORA-29855: error occurred in the execution of ODCIINDEXCREATE routine 
ORA-20000: Oracle Text error: 
DRG-10758: index owner does not have the privilege to use file or URL data store

To enable the indexing of online Help in Oracle Application Express, the permission to use an Oracle Text URL data store must be granted to the APEX_030200 database user. This is accomplished by assigning this specific privilege to a datbase role and then granting this role to the APEX_030200 database user.

To determine if the ability to use an Oracle Text URL data store is already granted to a database role:

  1. Start SQL*Plus and connect to the database where Oracle Application Express is installed as SYS specifying the SYSDBA role. For example:

    • On Windows:

      SYSTEM_DRIVE:\ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password
      
    • On UNIX and Linux:

      $ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password
      
  2. Run the following command:

    SELECT par_value FROM ctxsys.ctx_parameters WHERE par_name = 'FILE_ACCESS_ROLE';
    

    This returns either NULL or the database role which is granted the ability to use an Oracle Text URL data store.

  3. If no value is returned by step 2, then create a new database role as shown in the following example:

    CREATE ROLE APEX_URL_DATASTORE_ROLE;
    
  4. Grant this role to the database user APEX_030200 with the following statement:

    GRANT APEX_URL_DATASTORE_ROLE to APEX_030200;
    

    If step 2 returned a value, use this database role name instead of the example APEX_URL_DATASTORE_ROLE.

  5. Lastly, if step 2 did not return a value, then use the Oracle Text API to grant permission to the newly created database role with the following statement:

    EXEC ctxsys.ctx_adm.set_parameter('file_access_role', 'APEX_URL_DATASTORE_ROLE');
    

4.5.5 Security Considerations

Oracle highly recommends you configure and use Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) to ensure that passwords and other sensitive data are not transmitted in clear text in HTTP requests. Without the use of SSL, passwords could potentially be exposed, compromising security.

SSL is an industry standard protocol that uses RSA public key cryptography in conjunction with symmetric key cryptography to provide authentication, encryption, and data integrity.

4.5.6 About Running Oracle Application Express in Other Languages

The Oracle Application Express interface is translated into German, Spanish, French, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Brazilian Portuguese, Simplified Chinese, and Traditional Chinese. A single instance of Oracle Application Express can be installed with one or more of these translated versions. At runtime, each user's Web browser language settings determine the specific language version.

The translated version of Oracle Application Express should be loaded into a database that has a character set that supports the specific language. If you attempt to install a translated version of Oracle Application Express into a database that does not support the character encoding of the language, the installation may fail or the translated Oracle Application Express instance may appear corrupt when run. The database character set AL32UTF8 supports all the translated versions of Oracle Application Express.

You can manually install translated versions of Oracle Application Express using SQL*Plus. The installation files are encoded in AL32UTF8.

Note:

Regardless of the target database character set, to install a translated version of Oracle Application Express, you must set the character set value of the NLS_LANG environment variable to AL32UTF8 before starting SQL*Plus.

The following examples illustrate valid NLS_LANG settings for loading Oracle Application Express translations:

American_America.AL32UTF8
Japanese_Japan.AL32UTF8 

4.5.6.1 Installing a Translated Version of Oracle Application Express

Whether you are installing for the first time or upgrading from a previous release, you must run the load_lang.sql script to run a translated version of Oracle Application Express.

The installation scripts are located in subdirectories identified by a language code in the unzipped distribution apex/builder. For example, the German version is located in apex/builder/de and the Japanese version is located in apex/builder/ja. Within each of directory, there is a language loading script identified by the language code (for example, load_de.sql or load_ja.sql).

To install a translated version of Oracle Application Express:

  1. Set the NLS_LANG environment variable, making sure that the character set is AL32UTF8. For example:

    • Bourne or Korn shell:

      NLS_LANG=American_America.AL32UTF8
      export NLS_LANG
      
    • C shell:

      setenv NLS_LANG American_America.AL32UTF8
      
    • For Windows based systems:

      set NLS_LANG=American_America.AL32UTF8
      
  2. Start SQL*Plus and connect to the database where Oracle Application Express is installed as SYS specifying the SYSDBA role. For example:

    • On Windows:

      SYSTEM_DRIVE:\ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password
      
    • On UNIX and Linux:

      $ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password
      
  3. Execute the following statement:

    ALTER SESSION SET CURRENT_SCHEMA = APEX_030200;
    
  4. Execute the appropriate language specific script. For example:

    @load_lang.sql
    

    Where lang is the specific language (for example, load_de.sql for German or load_ja.sql for Japanese).

4.5.7 About Managing JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES

JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES determine the maximum number of concurrently running jobs. In Oracle Application Express release 3.2, transactional support and SQL scripts require jobs. If JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES is not enabled and working properly, you cannot successfully execute a script.

Topics in this section include:

4.5.7.1 Viewing the Number of JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES

There are currently three ways to view the number of JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES:

  • In the installation log file

  • On the About Application Express page in Oracle Application Express

  • From SQL*Plus

4.5.7.1.1 Viewing JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES in the Installation Log File

After installing or upgrading Oracle Application Express to release 3.2, you can view the number of JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES in the installation log files. See "Reviewing a Log of an Installation Session".

4.5.7.1.2 Viewing JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES in Oracle Application Express

You can also view the number of JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES on the About Application Express page.

To view the About Application Express page:

  1. Log in to Oracle Application Express. See "Logging in to Your Oracle Application Express Workspace".

  2. On the Administration list, click About Application Express.

    The current number JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES displays at the bottom of the page.

4.5.7.1.3 Viewing JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES from SQL*Plus

You can also view the number of JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES from SQL*Plus by running the following SQL statement:

SELECT VALUE FROM v$parameter WHERE NAME = 'job_queue_processes'

4.5.7.2 Changing the Number of JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES

You can change the number of JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES by running a SQL statement in SQL*Plus:

To update the number of JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES:

  1. Start SQL*Plus and connect to the database where Oracle Application Express is installed as SYS specifying the SYSDBA role:

    • On Windows:

      SYSTEM_DRIVE:\ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password
      
    • On UNIX and Linux:

      $ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password
      
  2. In SQL*Plus run the following SQL statement:

    ALTER SYSTEM SET JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES = <number>
    

    For example, running the statement ALTER SYSTEM SET JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES = 20 sets JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES to 20.

4.5.8 About Obfuscating PlsqlDatabasePassword Parameter

The PlsqlDatabasePassword parameter specifies the password for logging in to the database. You can use the dadTool.pl utility to obfuscate passwords in the dads.conf file.

You can find the dadTool.pl utility in the following directory:

  • For UNIX and Linux based systems:

    ORACLE_BASE/ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME/Apache/modplsql/conf
    
  • For Windows based systems:

    ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME\Apache\modplsql\conf
    

4.5.8.1 Obfuscating Passwords

To obfuscate passwords, run dadTool.pl by following the instructions in the dadTool.README file.

4.5.9 Create a Workspace and Add Oracle Application Express Users

You access the Oracle Application Express home page by logging in to workspace using a Web browser. Your Web browser must support JavaScript and the HTML 4.0 and CSS 1.0 standards. See "Browser Requirement".

A workspace is a virtual private database allowing multiple users to work within the same Oracle Application Express installation while keeping their objects, data and applications private. Each workspace has a unique ID and name.

An Oracle Application Express administrator can create a workspace manually within Oracle Application Express Administration Services or have users submit requests. Oracle Application Express Administration Services is a separate application for managing an entire Oracle Application Express instance. See "Creating Workspaces" and "Managing Workspace Requests" in Oracle Application Express Administration Guide.

See Also:

Oracle Database 2 Day + Oracle Application Express Developer's Guide if you are new to Oracle Application Express

This section includes these topics:

4.5.9.1 Creating a Workspace Manually

To create an Oracle Application Express workspace manually:

  1. Log in to Oracle Application Express Administration Services. Oracle Application Express Administration Services is a separate application for managing an entire Oracle Application Express instance. You log in using the ADMIN account and password created or reset during the installation process.

    If your setup uses Apache and mod_plsql, go to:

    http://hostname:port/pls/apex/apex_admin
    

    Where:

    hostname is the name of the system where Oracle HTTP Server is installed.

    port is the port number assigned to Oracle HTTP Server. In a default installation, this number is 7777.

    pls is the indicator to use the mod_plsql cartridge.

    apex is the database access descriptor (DAD) defined in the mod_plsql configuration file.

    See Also:

    See "Logging in to Oracle Application Express Administration Services" in Oracle Application Express Administration Guide.

    Next, create a workspace.

  2. Click Manage Workspaces.

  3. Under Manage Workspaces, click Create Workspace.

    The Create Workspace Wizard appears.

  4. For Identify Workspace, enter a workspace name and description and click Next.

  5. For Identify Schema, select the Oracle Forms application schema.

    1. For Re-use existing schema, select Yes.

    2. Select a schema from the list.

    3. Click Next.

  6. For Identify Administrator, enter the Workspace administrator information and click Next.

  7. Confirm your selections and click Create.

4.5.9.2 Creating Oracle Application Express Users

To create an Oracle Application Express user account:

  1. Log in to Oracle Application Express Administration Services as described in the previous section. See "Logging in to Oracle Application Express Administration Services" in Oracle Application Express Administration Guide.

  2. Click Manage Workspaces.

  3. Under Manage Workspaces, click Manage Developers and Users.

    The Manage Developers and Users page appears.

  4. Click Create.

    The Create/Edit User page appears.

  5. Under User Attributes, enter the appropriate information. Fields marked with an asterisk are required.

    Tip:

    To learn more about a specific attribute, click the item label. When Help is available, the item label changes to red when you pass your cursor over it and the cursor changes to an arrow and question mark.
  6. Under Password, type a case-sensitive password for this account.

    If your organization has set up a password policy, be sure the password meets the requirements.

  7. Under Developer Privileges, select the appropriate privileges:

    • User is a developer - To add this user as a developer or Workspace administrator, select Yes. For end users, select No.

      Developers can create and modify applications and database objects as well as view developer activity, session state, workspace activity, application, and schema reports.

    • User is a workspace administrator - To add this user as a Workspace administrator, select Yes. For developers or end users, select No.

      In addition to having developer privileges, workspace administrators can create and edit user accounts, manage groups, alter passwords of users within the same workspace, and manage development services.

  8. Under Account Control, specify the following:

    • Account Availability - Select Unlocked to enable a user to log in to this account.

    • Require Change of Password on First Use - Select Yes to require the user to change the password immediately after logging in with the current, temporary password. Otherwise, select No.

  9. Click Create User or Create and Create Another.

4.5.9.3 Logging in to Your Oracle Application Express Workspace

Once you create a workspace, you must log in to it using your login credentials (that is, the workspace name, user name, and password).

See Also:

See "Creating Workspaces" and "Managing Workspace Requests" in Oracle Application Express Administration Guide

To log in to a workspace:

  1. In a Web browser, navigate to the Oracle Application Express Login page. By default, Oracle Application Express installs to the following location:

    If your setup uses Oracle HTTP Server (Apache) and mod_plsql, go to:

    http://hostname:port/pls/apex
    

    Where:

    • hostname is the name of the system where Oracle HTTP Server is installed.

    • port is the port number assigned to Oracle HTTP Server. In a default installation, this number is 7777. You can find information about your Oracle HTTP Server installation's port number from either of the following files:

      ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\install\portlist.ini
      ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME\Apache\Apache\conf\httpd.conf
      

      Be aware that if you change a port number, it is not updated in the portlist.ini file. You can only rely on this file immediately after installation.

    • pls is the indicator to use the mod_plsql cartridge.

    • apex is the database access descriptor (DAD) defined in the mod_plsql configuration file.

      For users who have upgraded from earlier releases, or who have a custom configuration, this value may be htmldb or something else. Verify your DAD with your Oracle Application Express administrator.

    The Login page appears.

  2. Under Login, enter the following:

    • Workspace field - Enter the name of your workspace.

    • Username field - Enteryour user name.

    • Password field - Enter your case-sensitive password.

  3. Click Login.

    Note that, depending on your setup, you might be required to change your password when you log in for the first time.

4.6 Post Installation Tasks for Upgrade Installations

Once you have verified that your upgrade installation was successful and all upgraded applications function properly, you should remove schemas from prior Oracle Application Express installations.

Topics in this section include:

4.6.1 Remove Prior Oracle Application Express Installations

The database users associated with schemas from prior installations are privileged users and should be removed when they are no longer necessary. Removing schemas from a prior installation is a two step process. First you verify if a prior installation exists and then you remove the schemas.

4.6.1.1 Verify if Prior Installation Exist

To verify if prior installations exist:

  1. Start SQL*Plus and connect to the database where Oracle Application Express is installed as SYS. For example:

    • On Windows:

      SYSTEM_DRIVE:\ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password 
      
    • On UNIX and Linux:

      $ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password 
      
  2. Run the following query:

    SELECT username
       FROM dba_users 
     WHERE (username LIKE 'FLOWS_%' OR USERNAME LIKE 'APEX_%') 
       AND USERNAME NOT IN (
            SELECT 'FLOWS_FILES' 
              FROM DUAL 
             UNION 
            SELECT 'APEX_PUBLIC_USER' FROM DUAL 
             UNION
            SELECT SCHEMA s 
               FROM dba_registry
             WHERE comp_id = 'APEX');
    

If the results contain entries in the form FLOWS_XXXXXX or APEX_XXXXXX where XXXXXX represents six numbers, those entries are candidates for removal.

4.6.1.2 Remove Schemas from Prior Installations

To remove schemas from prior installations:

  1. Start SQL*Plus and connect to the database where Oracle Application Express is installed as SYS specifying the SYSDBA role. For example:

    • On Windows:

      SYSTEM_DRIVE:\ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password
      
    • On UNIX and Linux:

      $ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password
      
  2. Execute a statement connected similar to the following example:

    DROP USER FLOWS_030000 CASCADE;
    

4.6.2 Fix Invalid ACL in Oracle Database 11g

After following the instructions in"Remove Prior Oracle Application Express Installations", you may need to fix an invalid ACL if you are running Oracle Database 11g and you enabled network services for the prior Oracle Application Express schema.

To fix an invalid ACL:

  1. Start SQL*Plus and connect to the database where Oracle Application Express is installed as SYS specifying the SYSDBA role. For example:

    • On Windows:

      SYSTEM_DRIVE:\ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password
      
    • On UNIX and Linux:

      $ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password
      
  2. Execute a statement similar to following:

    EXEC DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN.DELETE_PRIVILEGE('power_users.xml', 'FLOWS_030000');
    

4.7 About the Oracle Application Express Runtime Environment

The Oracle Application Express runtime environment enables you to run production applications. It includes only the packages necessary to run your applications, making it a more hardened environment. It does not provide a Web interface for administration.

You administer the Oracle Application Express runtime environment using SQL*Plus or SQL Developer and the APEX_INSTANCE_ADMIN API. To learn more see, "Managing a Runtime Environment" and in Oracle Application Express Application Builder User's Guide.

Topics in this section include:

4.7.1 Convert a Runtime Environment to a Full Development Environment

To convert an Oracle Application Express runtime environment to a full development environment:

  1. Change your working directory to the apex directory where you unzipped the installation software.

  2. Start SQL*Plus and connect to the database where Oracle Application Express is installed as SYS specifying the SYSDBA role. For example:

    • On Windows:

      SYSTEM_DRIVE:\ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password
      
    • On UNIX and Linux:

      $ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password
      
  3. Run apxdvins.sql. For example:

    @apxdvins
    

See Also:

Oracle Database PL/SQL Language Reference for more information about SQL*Plus

4.7.2 Convert a Full Development Environment to a Runtime Environment

To convert an Oracle Application Express full development environment to a runtime environment:

  1. Change your working directory to the apex directory where you unzipped the installation software.

  2. Start SQL*Plus and connect to the database where Oracle Application Express is installed as SYS specifying the SYSDBA role. For example:

    • On Windows:

      SYSTEM_DRIVE:\ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password
      
    • On UNIX and Linux:

      $ sqlplus /nolog
      SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
      Enter password: SYS_password
      
  3. Run apxdevrm.sql. For example:

    @apxdevrm
    
  4. Follow the instructions in "Change the Password for the ADMIN Account".

See Also:

Oracle Database PL/SQL Language Reference for more information about SQL*Plus