The Oracle Database software is available on installation media, or you can download it from the Oracle Technology Network website, or the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud portal. In most cases, you use the graphical user interface (GUI) provided by Oracle Universal Installer to install the software. However, you can also use Oracle Universal Installer to complete silent mode installations, without using the GUI.
See Also:Appendix A for information about silent mode installations
Review the information in Chapter 1, "Overview of Oracle Database Installation" and complete the tasks listed in Chapter 2, " Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks".
If you must perform multiple installations of Oracle Database, you may want to use silent mode or response file mode. In response file mode, at each node, you run Oracle Universal Installer from the command line using a response file. The response file is a text file that contains the settings you typically enter in the Oracle Universal Installer GUI dialog boxes.
See Also:Appendix A for information about silent mode installations
Using Oracle Universal Installer from an earlier Oracle release to install components from this release is no longer allowed.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
In previous releases, Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) was installed as part of the Oracle Database installation. With Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle ASM is part of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, either for a cluster, or for a standalone server.
To upgrade an existing Oracle ASM installation, upgrade Oracle ASM by running an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade. If you do not have Oracle ASM installed and you want to use Oracle ASM as your storage option, then you must complete an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation before you start your Oracle Database installation.
See Also:Chapter 3, "Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server" for information about Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server
If Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC are installed on the system, Oracle Universal Installer displays the Specify Hardware Cluster Installation page. You must select the Local Installation option, unless you want to install Oracle RAC.
Oracle Database uses the database character set for:
Data stored in SQL character datatypes (CHAR, VARCHAR2, CLOB, and LONG).
Identifiers such as table names, column names, and PL/SQL variables.
Stored SQL and PL/SQL source code, including text literals embedded in this code.
After a database is created, changing its character set is usually very expensive in terms of time and resources. Such operations may require converting all character data by exporting the whole database and importing it back. Therefore, it is important that you carefully select the database character set at installation time.
Oracle recommends Unicode AL32UTF8 as the database character set. Unicode is the universal character set that supports most of the currently spoken languages of the world. It also supports many historical scripts (alphabets). Unicode is the native encoding of many technologies, including Java, XML, XHTML, ECMAScript, and LDAP. Unicode is ideally suited for databases supporting the Internet and the global economy.
Because AL32UTF8 is a multibyte character set, database operations on character data may be slightly slower when compared to single-byte database character sets, such as WE8MSWIN1252. Storage space requirements for text in most languages that use characters outside of the ASCII repertoire are higher in AL32UTF8 compared to legacy character sets supporting the language. The increase in storage space concerns only character data and only data that is not in English. The universality and flexibility of Unicode usually outweighs these additional costs.
Consider legacy character sets when compatibility, storage requirements, or performance of text processing is critical and the database supports only a single group of languages. The database character set to be selected in this case is the character set of most clients connecting to this database.
The default character set suggested or used by Oracle Universal Installer and Database Configuration Assistant in this release is based on the language configuration of the operating system.
For most languages, the default character set is one of the Microsoft Windows character sets, for example WE8MSWIN1252, even though the database is not installed on Windows. This results from the assumption that most clients connecting to the database run under the Microsoft Windows operating system. Because the database should be able to store all characters coming from the clients and Microsoft Windows character sets have a richer character repertoire than the corresponding ISO 8859 character sets, the Microsoft Windows character sets are usually the better choice. For example, the EE8MSWIN1250 character set supports the Euro currency symbol and various smart quote characters, while the corresponding EE8ISO8859P2 character set does not support them. Oracle Database converts the data between the database character set and the client character sets, which are declared by the NLS_LANG settings.
The list of database character sets that is presented to you for selection by Oracle Universal Installer contains only the recommended character sets. Even though Oracle Database supports many more character sets, they are either deprecated or they are binary subsets of another recommended character set. For example, WE8DEC is a deprecated character set and US7ASCII and WE8ISO8859P1 are both binary subsets of WE8MSWIN1252.
If, for compatibility reasons, you must create a database in one of the character sets that was not recommended, select the Advanced database configuration option. Database Configuration Assistant in the interactive mode gives you the opportunity to select any of the database character sets supported on AIX.
This section is optional and describes how to identify disk groups and determine the free disk space that they contain. You can store either database or recovery files in an existing Oracle ASM disk group that you created during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
Note:The Oracle ASM instance that manages the existing disk group runs in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home directory.
To determine if an existing Oracle ASM disk group exists or to determine if there is sufficient disk space in a disk group, use the following procedure:
View the contents of the
oratab file to determine if an Oracle ASM instance is configured on the system:
# more /etc/oratab
If an Oracle ASM instance is configured on the system, then the
oratab file contains a line similar to the following:
In this example,
+ASM is the system identifier (
SID) of the Oracle ASM instance and
oracle_home_path is the Oracle home directory where Oracle ASM is installed. By convention, the
SID for an Oracle ASM instance should be
Open a shell prompt and temporarily set the
ORACLE_HOME environment variables to specify the appropriate values for the Oracle ASM instance to use.
For example, if the Oracle ASM
SID is named
+ASM and is located in the
grid subdirectory of the
ORACLE_BASE directory, then enter the following commands to create the required settings:
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ ORACLE_SID=+ASM $ export ORACLE_SID $ ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid/ $ export ORACLE_HOME
% setenv ORACLE_SID +ASM % setenv ORACLE_HOME /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid
Using SQL*Plus, connect to the Oracle ASM instance as the
SYS user with
SYSASM privilege and start the instance if necessary:
# $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus /nolog SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSASM Enter password: SYS_password SQL> STARTUP
Enter the following command to view the existing disk groups, their redundancy level, and the amount of free disk space in each one:
SQL> SELECT NAME,TYPE,TOTAL_MB,FREE_MB FROM V$ASM_DISKGROUP;
From the output, identify a disk group with the appropriate redundancy level, and note the free space that it contains.
If necessary, install or identify the additional disk devices required to meet the storage requirements listed in the previous section.
The Oracle Database software is available on installation media, or you can download it from the Oracle Technology Network website, or the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud portal. To install the software from the hard disk, you must either download it and unpack it, or copy it from the installation media, if you have it.
You can access and install Oracle Database by using one of the following methods:
To copy the software to a hard disk, see "Copying the Software to the Hard Disk"
To download the software from Oracle Technology Network, see "Downloading Oracle Software"
You can download the trial version of the installation files from the Oracle Technology Network (OTN) or the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud portal and extract them on your hard disk. Ensure that you review and understand the terms of the license. Most downloads include the development license. This section contains the following topics:
To download the installation archive files from Oracle Technology Network:
Use any browser to access the software download page from Oracle Technology Network:
Go to the download page for the product to install.
On the download page, identify the required disk space by adding the file sizes for each required file.
The file sizes are listed next to the file names.
Select a file system with enough free space to store and expand the archive files.
In most cases, the available disk space must be at least twice the size of all of the archive files.
On the file system that you selected in Step 4, create a parent directory for each product, for example
OraDB11g, to hold the installation directories.
Download all of the installation archive files to the directory that you created in Step 5.
Verify that the files you downloaded are the same size as the corresponding files on Oracle Technology Network. Also verify the checksums are the same as noted on Oracle Technology Network using a command similar to the following:
Extract the files in each directory that you just created.
After you have extracted the required installation files, see "Installing the Oracle Database Software" .
You can download the software from Oracle Software Delivery Cloud as Media Packs. A Media Pack is an electronic version of the software that is also available to Oracle customers on CD-ROM or DVD. To download the Media Pack:
Use any browser to access the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud portal:
Complete the Export Validation process by entering information (name, company, email address, and country) in the online form.
In the Media Pack Search page, specify the Product Pack and Platform to identify the Media Pack you want to download. If you do not know the name of the Product Pack, you can search for it using the License List.
Optionally, select the relevant product to download from the Results list.
In the search results page, click Readme to download and review the Readme file for download instructions and product information.
After you review the Readme, choose the appropriate Media Pack from the search results to download the individual zip files. Follow the Download Notes instructions in this page. After you download and extract the contents of the required zip files, proceed with the installation of the software.
Note:Print the page with the list of downloadable files. It contains a list of part numbers and their corresponding descriptions that you may refer during the installation process.
After you download the files, click View Digest to verify that the MD5 or SHA-1 checksum matches with what is listed in the media download page.
My Oracle Support note 549617.1 for information on how to verify the integrity of a software download at:
Frequently Asked Questions section on the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud portal for more information about Media Packs
To extract the installation archive files, perform the following steps:
If necessary, change to the directory that contains the downloaded installation archive files.
Oracle RDBMS software is available as two archive files. Ensure that you extract both the archive files to the same directory.
If the downloaded file has the
zip extension, use the following command to extract the content:
If the downloaded file has the
cpio.gz extension, use the following command:
$ gunzip filename.cpio.gz
This command creates files with names similar to the following:
To extract the installation files, enter a command similar to the following:
$ cpio -idcmv < filename.cpio
Note:See the download page for information about the correct options to use with the
Some browsers uncompress files while downloading them, but they leave the
.gz file extension.
For each file, this command creates a subdirectory named
n is the disk number identified in the file name.
When you have extracted all of the required installation files, see the "Installing the Oracle Database Software".
Before installing Oracle Database, Oracle recommends that you copy the software to the hard disk to enable the installation process to run faster. Before copying the installation media content to the hard disk, you must mount the disk. The following sections describe how to mount the disk and copy its content to the hard disk.
On most AIX systems, the disk mounts automatically when you insert it into the disk drive. If the disk does not mount automatically, then follow these steps to mount it:
Switch user to
$ sudo - root
If necessary, enter a command similar to following to unmount the currently mounted disc, then remove it from the drive:
# umount /dvd
In this example,
/dvd is the mount point directory for the disc drive.
Insert the appropriate disc into the disc drive, then enter a command similar to the following to mount it:
# /usr/sbin/mount -rv cdrfs /dev/cd0 /dvd
In this example,
/dev/cd0 is the device name of the disc drive and
/dvd is the mount point directory.
If Oracle Universal Installer displays the Disk Location dialog box, enter the disc mount point directory path, for example:
To continue, go to one of the following sections:
To copy software to a hard disk, see "Copying the Oracle Database Software to a Hard Disk".
To install the software from the installation media, see "Installing the Oracle Database Software".
Note:If the system does not have an installation media, you can copy the software from the disk to a file system on another system, then either mount that file system using NFS or use FTP to copy the files to the system where you want to install the software.
To copy the contents of the installation media to a hard disk:
Create a directory on the hard disk, outside of the Oracle base directory, to hold the Oracle software:
$ mkdir OraDb11g
Change the directory to the directory you created in Step 1:
$ cd OraDb11g
Mount the disk, if it is not mounted.
Some platforms automatically mount the disk when you insert it into the drive. If the disk does not mount automatically, see the "Mounting Disks" section for platform-specific information.
Copy the contents of the mounted disk to the corresponding new subdirectory as follows:
$ cp -R /directory_path OraDb11g
If necessary, mount the next disk and repeat Step 4.
During installation, you are prompted to select a database security configuration. The Secure Configuration option configures the database with database auditing options, and password policy and expiration settings.
For new database installations, the default configuration for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) includes the Secure Configuration option. To disable these enhanced security controls you can deselect the Assert all new security settings check box in the Specify Configuration Option screen that appears during the database installation. Oracle Database is then installed with default options for Oracle Database 10g Release 2. You can enable or disable auditing or password security settings, or revert to a previous security setting. After installation, you can enable or disable the security configuration by starting Database Configuration Assistant through the command-line interface.
To enable the security configuration:
dbca -silent -configureDatabase -sourceDB SID -disableSecurityConfiguration NONE -enableSecurityConfiguration true
To disable the security configuration:
dbca -silent -configureDatabase -sourceDB SID -disableSecurityConfiguration [ALL|PASSWORD_PROFILE] -enableSecurityConfiguration false
SID is the system identifier.
For database upgrades, the upgraded database retains your existing database security configuration to ensure compatibility with existing applications.
Oracle recommends configuring your database with the Secure Configuration option either during installation or after installation using Database Configuration Assistant.
Database Vault is an enhanced security feature. If it is installed with the database, then you cannot change the secure configuration using the Database Configuration Assistant option.
In most cases, you use the graphical user interface (GUI) provided by Oracle Universal Installer to install Oracle Database. The instructions in this section explain how to run the Oracle Universal Installer GUI to perform most database installations.
For any type of installation process, start Oracle Universal Installer and install the software, as follows:
Logon as the Oracle software owner user (typically,
oracle) to the computer on which you want to install Oracle components.
If you are installing the software from installation media, mount the disk if it is not mounted.
If the disk does not mount automatically, see the "Mounting Disks" section for platform-specific information.
Some platforms automatically mount the disk when you insert the installation media into the drive.
To start Oracle Universal Installer, complete one of the following steps depending on the location of the installation files:
Note:Start Oracle Universal Installer from the terminal session where you logged in as the
oracleuser and set the user's environment.
If the installation files are on installation media, enter commands similar to the following, where
directory_path is the path of the
database directory on the installation media:
If the installation files are on the hard disk, change the directory to the
database directory and enter the following command:
Downloading Updates Before Installation
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (126.96.36.199), if you plan to run the installation in a secured data center, then you can download updates before starting the installation by starting Oracle Universal Installer on a system that has Internet access in update download mode. To start Oracle Universal Installer to download the updates, enter the following command:
$ ./runInstaller -downloadUpdates
Provide the My Oracle Support user name and password, and provide proxy settings, if needed, in the Provide My Oracle Support credentials screen. Then, enter the Download location and click Download in the Download software updates screen. If updates are available, then they are downloaded in the location provided. The Finish Updates screen shows the successful download of the updates. Click Close.
After you download the updates, transfer the update file to a directory on the server where you plan to run the installation.
Oracle Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide for Windows and UNIX for more information about response file formats
Do not install Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) software into an existing Oracle home.
Follow the instructions displayed on the Oracle Universal Installer screens. If you need additional information, click Help.
See Also:"Reviewing Accounts and Passwords" for information about password guidelines
Do not modify the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) except by using a patch provided by Oracle Support Services. Oracle Universal Installer automatically installs the Oracle-supplied version of the JRE. This version is required to run Oracle Universal Installer and several Oracle assistants.
If errors are displayed while installing the software, see Appendix G for information about troubleshooting.
If you chose an installation type that runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in interactive mode, then you must provide detailed information about configuring the database and network.
If you need help when using the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in interactive mode, click Help on any screen.
Note:If you chose a default installation, Oracle Database Configuration Assistant does not run interactively.
When the configuration assistant tasks are complete click finish, click Exit, then click Yes to exit from Oracle Universal Installer.
During the database installation, when Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to run a script with
root privileges, enter a command similar to the following in a terminal where you are logged in as the
root user, then click OK:
For more information see screen "Install product" in the installation table that follows.
See Chapter 5 for information about tasks that you must complete after you install Oracle Database.
The following table lists the various screens displayed during an Enterprise Edition installation for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2):
|Configure Security Updates||Enter your email address, preferably your My Oracle Support email address or user name in the Email field.
Select the I wish to receive security updates via My Oracle Support check box to receive security updates.
Enter your My Oracle Support password in the My Oracle Support Password field.
|Download Software Updates||Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (188.8.131.52), you can use the Software Updates feature to dynamically download and apply the latest updates. Select one of the following options, and click Next:
See Also: "Software Updates Option"
|Apply Software Updates||This screen is displayed if you select to download the software updates, or provide the pre-downloaded software updates location.
|Select Installation Option||Select one of the following installation options, and click Next:
|System Class||Select the type of system for installing the database, and click Next.
|Grid Installation Options||Select the type of database installation you want to perform, and click Next.
|Select Install Type||Select one of the following, and click Next:
|Select Product Languages||This option enables you to select the language in which you want to run the product.
Select the product language from the Available Languages list, and move it to the Selected Languages list. Click Next.
|Select Database Edition||Select Enterprise Edition, Standard Edition, or Standard Edition One. Click Next.
If you click Select Options, then based on your selection you can enable or disable components from the components list. This screen enables you to customize the database. The components available in this screen are:
Click OK to continue.
Note: The Select Options button is enabled only if you select the Enterprise Edition installation type.
|Specify Installation Location||The Oracle base path appears by default. You can change this path based on your requirement. Specify Oracle Base, Software Location, and click Next.
The Oracle base directory is a top-level directory for Oracle software installations owned by an Oracle installation owner account. The default Oracle base path is
In the Software Location field, accept the default value or enter the Oracle home directory path in which you want to install Oracle software.The directory path must not contain spaces. Click Next.
Note: This screen is available only with Advanced Installation.
Ensure that the Oracle home path for the database home and the Oracle base path use only ASCII characters. At the time of this release, the use of non-ASCII characters for an Oracle database home or Oracle base is not supported.
|Create Inventory||You are prompted by the installer to specify the Inventory Directory path for the central inventory the first time you install any Oracle software on your computer.
Select the oraInventory Group Name of the operating system group that will own the Oracle Inventory directory (the Oracle Inventory group).
Note: By default, the Oracle Inventory directory is not installed under the Oracle Base directory. This is because all Oracle software installations share a common Oracle Inventory, so there is only one Oracle Inventory for all users, whereas there is a separate Oracle Base directory for each user.
|Select Configuration Type||Select one of the following, and click Next:
See the online help provided by either Oracle Universal Installer or Oracle Database Configuration Assistant for a description of these preconfigured database types.
|Specify Database Identifiers||Provide the following information, and click Next:
Note: Ensure that the combination of database name (first 8 unique characters of the unique name for the database), delimiter, and the database domain name does not exceed 128 characters.
When you enter the Global Database Name, Oracle Universal Installer automatically populates the SID prefix with the database name. You can change this name in Advanced Installation. Oracle Universal Installer limits the SID to 12 alphanumeric characters and the SID cannot contain an underscore (_), dollar sign ( $), or pound sign (#).
|Specify Configuration Options||Provide the following configuration information, and click Next:
The Enable Automatic Memory Management option enables the database to automatically distribute memory between SGA and PGA. If you deselect this option, then the SGA and PGA must be sized manually.
This option enables you to store the character data in the database in one of the following methods:
The Assert all new security settings option is selected by default. This setting includes enabling auditing and using new password profile.
Note: Oracle recommends that you use the default settings.
The Create database with sample schemas option is not selected by default. You can select this option, to create a starter database with sample schemas.
|Specify Management Options||Select one of the following options, and click Next:
|Specify Database Storage Options||Select one of the following options, and click Next.
Note: Installing Oracle data files on an Oracle ACFS file system is not supported. Oracle recommends that these data files are installed in Oracle ASM disk groups.
|Specify Recovery Options||Select one of the following options, and click Next.
|Select ASM Disk Group||This screen is displayed only if you select Oracle Automatic Storage Management as your storage option in the Specify Storage Option screen.
Disk groups are created during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. Disk groups are configured with the
The table in this screen displays existing disk groups created during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. Select the disk group to use for database file storage.
|Specify Schema Passwords||Enter and confirm passwords for the privileged database accounts, and click Next.
Note: Optionally, you can use the same password for all accounts. However, Oracle recommends that you specify a different password for each account. You must remember the passwords that you specify.
|Privileged Operating System Groups||The operating system groups are selected by default. You can also manually select the
See Also: "Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users" for more information.
|Perform Prerequisite Checks||This option verifies that the minimum system requirements to perform the database installation are met.
If you click Check Again, then you can run the prerequisite check again to see if the minimum requirements are met to carry on with the database installation.
Click Fix & Check Again, if you want the installer to fix the problem and verify the system requirements again.
Note: The Fix & Check Again option generates a script that you must run as the
See Also: "Installation Fixup Scripts" for more information.
To get a list of failed requirements, select ShowFailed from the list. To get a list of all the prerequirement checks run by the OUI, select Show All. To get a list of the prerequirement checks that are successful, select Show Succeeded.
Note: Oracle recommends that you use caution when selecting the Ignore All option. If you select this option, then Oracle Universal Installer may not confirm that your system can install Oracle Database successfully.
|Summary||Review the information displayed on this screen, and click Install.
Note: Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), you can save all the installation steps into a response file by clicking Save Response File. Later, this file can be used for a silent installation.
|Install Product||This screen displays the progress of a database installation.
This screen then displays the status information for the configuration assistants that configure the software and create a database.
A message is displayed at the end of the Database Configuration Assistant process. Click OK.
During the installation process, the Execute Configuration Scripts window appears. Run the
Note: If this is the first time you are installing Oracle software on your system, then Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to run the
See Also: Oracle Database 2 Day DBA for information about Oracle Database Configuration Assistant
|Finish||This screen is shown automatically when all the configuration tools are successful.
Review the Enterprise Manager Database Control URL information displayed in this screen and click Close.
Caution:After installation is complete, do not manually remove or run
cronjobs that remove
/var/tmp/.oracledirectories or their files while Oracle software is running. If you remove these files, then the Oracle software can intermittently stop responding. Oracle Restart installations fail with the following error:
CRS-0184: Cannot communicate with the CRS daemon.
If you plan to use the following products or features, then download and install the products from the Oracle Database Examples media:
Oracle JDBC Development Drivers
Oracle Database Examples
Oracle Text Knowledge Base
Various Oracle product demonstrations
For information about installing software and various Oracle product demonstrations from the Oracle Database Examples media, see Oracle Database Examples Installation Guide