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Oracle® Database Installation Guide
11g Release 2 (11.2) for Microsoft Windows

E47798-03
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1 Overview of Oracle Database Installation

This chapter describes the different installation types of Oracle Database and issues to consider before you install Oracle Database:

1.1 New Oracle Products and Features Installed with This Release

There are many new features and products installed with this release. See the What's New in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) chapter.

1.2 Planning Your Installation

The Oracle Database installation process consists of six steps:

  1. Read the release notes: Read the Oracle Database release notes before you begin the installation. The release notes are available with the platform-specific documentation. The latest version of the release notes is available on Oracle Technology Network at

    http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/indexes/documentation/index.html

  2. Review the licensing information: Although the installation media in your media pack contain many Oracle components, you are permitted to use only those components for which you have purchased licenses.

    Oracle Support Services does not provide support for components for which licenses have not been purchased.

  3. Plan the installation: This overview chapter describes the Oracle products that you can install and issues that you must consider before starting the installation.

    You also may want to see Appendix G, which covers frequently asked questions about installing Oracle Database components, such as how to install Oracle Database if your site uses Oracle applications or if you need multiple Oracle Database client connections.

    If you plan to perform multiple installations, see Appendix C for information about silent or response file installations, and cloning the Oracle home.

    Oracle Database Client is installed separately. You cannot install Oracle Database Client during an Oracle Database installation.

  4. Complete preinstallation tasks: Chapter 2 describes tasks that you must complete before installing Oracle Database. Additionally, see Chapter 3 for Oracle Restart preinstallation tasks.

  5. Install the software: Use the following sections to install Oracle Database:

    • Chapter 4 describes how to use Oracle Universal Installer to install Oracle Database and how to clone an Oracle home.

    • Chapter 3 describes how to use Oracle Universal Installer to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server and Oracle Automatic Storage Management from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure media.

    • Chapter 7 describes how to remove Oracle Database software.

    • Appendix C describes how to perform silent or response file installations, which you may want to use to perform multiple installations of Oracle Database.

    • Appendix D describes how to install and use Oracle components in different languages.

    • Appendix F provides troubleshooting advice in case you encounter problems with the installation.

  6. Complete postinstallation tasks: Chapter 5 describes postinstallation tasks.

  7. Get started using Oracle Database: Use the following sections to get started using Oracle Database:

    • Chapter 6 describes how to check the contents of the installed Oracle Database, how to start the database and various other Oracle tools, and how to locate various files.

    • "Cloning an Oracle Home" describes how you can clone an existing Oracle Database home.

    • Appendix B on the Optimal Flexible Architecture, which is a set of guidelines that ensure reliable Oracle installations that require little maintenance.

    • Appendix D describes globalization support information.

    • Appendix E explains how to manage Oracle Database port numbers.

1.3 Installation Considerations

This section contains information that you should consider before deciding how to install this product. It contains the following sections:

1.3.1 Installation Differences Between Windows and UNIX Systems

If you are experienced with installing Oracle components in UNIX environments, note that many manual setup tasks required on UNIX are not required on Windows. The key differences between UNIX and Windows installations are:

  • Startup and shutdown services

    With Windows, Oracle Universal Installer creates services at installation time that can be configured to automatically start the Oracle software components when the host computer starts. On Linux and UNIX systems, database or system administrators must manually configure the oratab file.

  • Environment variables

    With Windows, Oracle Universal Installer sets environment variables such as PATH, ORACLE_BASE, ORACLE_HOME, and ORACLE_SID in the registry. In UNIX systems, you must manually set these environment variables.

    If you have multiple Oracle homes installed, then only the SID of the last Oracle home is set in the registry. See Oracle Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide for Windows and UNIX for more information about managing Oracle homes.

  • Operating System Groups

    On Windows systems, Oracle Universal Installer creates the ORA_DBA, ORA_OPER, ORA_SID_DBA and ORA_SID_OPER groups, which are used for operating system authentication for Oracle instances. On Linux and UNIX systems, you must create these operating system groups manually, and they are used for granting permission to access various Oracle software resources and for operating system authentication. Windows does not use an Oracle Inventory group.

  • Account for running Oracle Universal Installer

    With Windows, you log in with Administrator privileges. You do not need a separate account. On Linux and UNIX systems, you must create and use a software owner user account, and this user must belong to the Oracle Inventory group.

See Also:

"Oracle Database Windows/UNIX Differences" appendix in Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows

1.3.2 Recommended File System

Oracle strongly recommends that you install the Oracle database home (Oracle database binaries, trace files, and so on) on Oracle ACFS or NTFS; the database files themselves must be placed on Oracle ASM if using Oracle ACFS; otherwise they can be placed on NTFS. Usage of Oracle ACFS and Oracle ASM or NTFS instead of FAT32 is recommended to ensure security of these files.

See Also:

"File Permissions" in Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows for information about the default permissions when using Oracle Universal Installer and Database Configuration Assistant to install the Oracle Database software

1.3.3 Managing User Accounts with User Account Control

To ensure that only trusted applications run on your computer, Windows Vista, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1, and Windows Server 2012 provide User Account Control. If you have enabled this security feature, then, depending on how you have configured it, Oracle Universal Installer prompts you for either your consent or your credentials when installing Oracle Database. Provide either the consent or your Windows Administrator credentials as appropriate.

You must have Administrator privileges to run some Oracle tools, such as Database Configuration Assistant, Net Configuration Assistant, and OPatch, or to run any tool or application that writes to any directory within the Oracle home. If User Account Control is enabled, and you are logged in as the local Administrator, then you can successfully run each of these commands in the usual way. However, if you are logged in as "a member of the Administrator group," then you must explicitly invoke these tasks with Windows Administrator privileges. All the Oracle shortcuts that require Administrator privileges start as "Administrator" automatically when you click the shortcuts. However, if you run the above tools from a Windows command prompt, you must run them from an Administrator command prompt. OPatch does not have a shortcut and has to be run from an Administrator command prompt.

See Also:

"Running Tools with Windows User Account Control" in Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows for more information.

To start a command prompt window with Windows Administrator privileges:

  1. On your desktop, create a shortcut for the command prompt window. An icon for that shortcut appears on the desktop.

  2. Right-click the icon for the newly created shortcut, and specify Run as administrator.

When you open this window, the title bar reads Administrator: Command Prompt. Commands run from within this window are run with Administrator privileges.

1.3.4 Hardware and Software Certification

The platform-specific hardware and software requirements included in this installation guide were current at the time this guide was published. However, because new platforms and operating system software versions might be certified after this guide is published, review the certification matrix on the My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink) Web site for the most up-to-date list of certified hardware platforms and operating system versions. This Web site also provides compatible client and database versions, patches, and workaround information for bugs. The My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink) Web site is available at

https://support.oracle.com/

You must register online before using My Oracle Support. After logging in, from the menu options, select the Certifications tab. On the Certifications page, use the Certification Search options to search by Product, Release, and Platform. You can also search using the Certification Quick Links options such as Product Delivery, and Lifetime Support.

1.3.4.1 Third-Party Database Certification for Oracle SQL Developer

You can use Oracle SQL Developer to view metadata and data of several non-Oracle databases. See "Database Certification for SQL Developer (Oracle and Third-Party)" in Oracle SQL Developer Installation Guide for more information.

1.3.5 Multiple Oracle Homes Support

Oracle Database supports multiple Oracle homes. You can install this release or previous releases of the software more than once on the same system, in different Oracle home directories. This allows flexibility in deployment and maintenance of the database software. For example, it enables you to run different versions of the database simultaneously on the same system, or it enables you to upgrade specific database instances on a system without affecting other running databases. However, when you have installed multiple Oracle Homes on a single system, there is also some added complexity introduced that you must consider allowing these Oracle Homes to coexist.

See Also:

My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink) Note 460054.1 for more details about multiple Oracle home environment issues

1.3.5.1 Installing Oracle Database on a System with Existing Oracle Software

You must install this product into a new Oracle home directory. You cannot install products from one release of Oracle Database into an Oracle home directory of a different release. For example, you cannot install Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) software into an existing Oracle9i Oracle home directory.

You can install this release more than once on the same system if each installation is installed in a separate Oracle home directory.

1.3.6 Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server

The Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server provides the infrastructure to include your single instance database in an enterprise grid architecture. Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) combines these infrastructure products into one software installation called the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home. On a single instance database, the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home includes Oracle Restart and Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) software.

To use Oracle Automatic Storage Management or Oracle Restart, you must first install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server before you install and create the database. Otherwise, you must manually register the database with Oracle Restart.

See Also:

Chapter 3, "Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server" for more information about installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server

1.3.7 Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services

When you install the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, Oracle Universal Installer configures the single-node version of Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services (CSS).

The CSS service is required to enable synchronization between an Oracle ASM instance and the database instances that rely on it for database file storage. Because the service must be running before an Oracle ASM instance or database instance starts, it is configured to start automatically by Oracle Restart before the Oracle ASM instance is started. It must be running if an Oracle database is using Oracle ASM for database file storage.

For single-instance installations, the CSS is installed-in and runs from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home which is the same home that runs Oracle ASM.

Note:

On cluster systems with Oracle RAC installations, the CSS is configured during the Oracle Clusterware installation. If the system is running Oracle Clusterware, then refer to Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for information about removing Oracle RAC or Oracle Clusterware.

1.3.8 Oracle Universal Installer Overview

Oracle Universal Installer is a Java-based graphical user interface (GUI) tool that enables you to install Oracle software. Oracle Universal Installer provides the following capabilities:

  • Component and suite installations

  • Globalization support

  • Distributed installation support

  • Unattended silent installations using response files

  • Removal of installed components

  • Multiple Oracle homes support

Oracle Universal Installer can run a silent or response file installation of Oracle software using response files. See Appendix C, "Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files" for more information.

You must use the Oracle Universal Installer 11g to install components into an Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) Oracle home directory.

Oracle Universal Installer automatically installs the Oracle version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE). This version is required to run Oracle Universal Installer and several Oracle assistants. Do not modify the JRE, unless doing so with a patch provided by My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink). Visit the following site to find Oracle patches to download:

https://support.oracle.com/

When Oracle Universal Installer runs, it creates an dbhome_n directory, which keeps track of the components you are installing. Do not modify the contents of this directory. By default, this directory is located at the same directory level as ORACLE_HOME.

1.3.9 Oracle Base Directory

If you install Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) on a computer with no other Oracle software installed, Oracle Universal Installer creates an Oracle base directory for you. If Oracle software is installed, then one or more Oracle base directories exist. In the latter case, Oracle Universal Installer offers you a choice of Oracle base directories to install Oracle Database.

In a default Windows installation, the Oracle base directory appears as follows:

DRIVE_LETTER:\app\username

Note:

You can choose to create an Oracle base directory, even if other Oracle base directories exist on the system.

1.3.10 Oracle Home Directory

This section covers the following topics:

1.3.10.1 Contents of the Oracle Home Environment

The Oracle home directory is located under the Oracle base directory. For example, in a default Windows installation, if you name the Oracle home directory dbhome_1, it appears in the Oracle base directory as follows:

DRIVE_LETTER:\app\username\product\11.2.0\dbhome_1

An Oracle home corresponds to the environment in which Oracle components run. This environment includes the following:

  • Location of installed component files

  • PATH variable pointing to binary files of installed components

  • Registry entries

  • Service names

  • Program groups

Oracle homes also have a name associated with them, which is automatically assigned by the installer.

1.3.10.2 Multiple Oracle Home Components

You can install all Oracle components in multiple Oracle homes on the same computer. However, some components can only support one active instance at a time. The current (latest) installation renders the previous one inactive. These components are:

  • Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows

  • Oracle Counters for Windows Performance Monitor

  • Oracle Objects for OLE

  • Oracle Provider for OLE DB

Note:

Oracle Objects for OLE is not supported on Windows x64.

1.3.11 Installing Oracle Database Vault in an Oracle Data Guard Environment

If you plan to use Oracle Data Guard with Oracle Database Vault, then refer to Note 754065.1 on the My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink) Web site at the following URL:

https://support.oracle.com/

1.3.12 Oracle Database Vault Default Audit Policy and Initialization Parameters

Oracle Database Vault installs a baseline database auditing policy. This policy covers the access control configuration information stored in Database Vault database tables, information stored in Oracle Catalog (rollback segments, tablespaces, and so on), the use of system privileges, and Oracle Label Security configuration. When you install Oracle Database Vault, the security specific database initialization parameters are initialized with default values.

See Also:

Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide for more information about the database audit policy

1.4 Migration Considerations

Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) database for 32-bit Windows can be migrated to an Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) database for 64-bit Windows. See the "Migrating an Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) Database" section in the Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows for migration information.

1.5 Oracle Database Installation Methods

You can choose different installation methods to install Oracle Database, which are as follows:

1.5.1 Interactive Installation Types

When you use the interactive method to install Oracle Database by selecting the Create and configure a database option, Oracle Universal Installer displays a series of screens that enable you to specify all the required information to install the Oracle Database software and create a database.

Oracle Universal Installer provides you the following options:

  • Desktop Class: Select this option if you are installing on a laptop or desktop class system. This option includes a starter database and allows minimal configuration. This option is designed for those who want to get up and running with the database quickly.

  • Server Class: Select this option if you are installing on a server class system, such as what you would use when deploying Oracle in a production data center. This option allows for more advanced configuration options. Advanced configuration options available using this option include Oracle RAC, Oracle Automatic Storage Management, backup and recovery configuration, integration with Enterprise Manager Grid Control, and more fine-grained memory tuning, among others.

    Furthermore, the Server Class option provides you with the following installation types:

    • Typical: Select this installation method to quickly install Oracle Database. This installation type requires minimal user input. It installs the software and optionally creates a general-purpose database using the information that you specify on the screen. It is the default installation type.

    • Advanced: Select this installation type to complete any of the following tasks:

      • Select a database character set or different product languages

      • Create the EXAMPLE tablespace during the installation

      • Create a database on a different file system from the software

      • Specify different passwords for administrative schemas

      • Configure automated backups or Oracle Enterprise Manager notifications

      • Configure Oracle Configuration Manager

      • In the Select Database Edition screen, if you select Enterprise Edition, then Oracle Universal Installer automatically selects the components most customers need for their Oracle Database installation. You can also click Select Options to customize components from the components list.

1.5.2 Automated Installation Methods Using Response Files

By creating a response file and specifying this file when you start Oracle Universal Installer, you can automate some or all of the Oracle Database installation. These automated installation methods are useful if you must perform multiple installations on similarly configured systems.

When you use a response file, you can run Oracle Universal Installer in the following modes, depending on whether you specify all of the required information or not:

  • Silent Mode: Oracle Universal Installer runs in silent mode if you use a response file that specifies all required information, and specify the -silent option when starting Oracle Universal Installer. None of the Oracle Universal Installer screens are displayed.

  • Response File Mode: Oracle Universal Installer runs in response file mode if you do not specify all required information in the response file.

For more information about these modes and about how to complete an installation using response files, see Appendix C.

1.6 Software Updates Option

Use the Software Updates feature to dynamically download and apply the latest updates released by Oracle; such as, interim patch updates, critical patch updates, Oracle Universal Installer updates, and the latest patch set updates. This functionality is available starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2).

You can choose to download the latest updates by providing your My Oracle Support credentials or you can apply previously downloaded updates. You can also download the updates separately using the -downloadUpdates option and later apply them during the Oracle Database installation by providing the location where the updates are present.

See Also:

"Installing the Oracle Database Software" for more information about the -downloadUpdates option, and dynamically applying software updates during installation

1.7 Oracle Database Editions

You can choose one of the following installation types when installing Oracle Database 11g:

  • Enterprise Edition: Installs licensable Oracle Database options, and database configuration and management tools in addition to all of the products that are installed during a Standard Edition installation. It also installs products most commonly used for data warehousing and transaction processing. This option also permits you to enable or disable individual components from a components list.

  • Standard Edition: This installation type is designed for department or workgroup-level applications and for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). It is engineered to provide core relational database management services and options. It installs an integrated set of management tools, full distribution, replication, Web features, and facilities for building business-critical applications.

  • Standard Edition One: This installation type is designed for department, workgroup-level, or web applications. From single instance environments for small business to highly distributed branch environments, Oracle Database Standard Edition One includes all the facilities necessary to build business-critical applications.

  • Personal Edition: Installs the same software as the Enterprise Edition installation type, but supports only a single user development and deployment environment that requires full compatibility with Enterprise Edition and Standard Edition. Oracle RAC is not installed with Personal Edition.

See Also:

Note:

  • The installation process is the same for all the database editions.

  • Ensure that you install only those products for which you have a valid license.

1.8 Database Configuration Options

You can create an Oracle database during the installation process. If you choose to create an Oracle database, Oracle Universal Installer uses Oracle Database Configuration Assistant to create it. You can create one of the preconfigured database types, which are designed for a variety of different applications, modify one of the preconfigured database types, or create a customized database to suit your own requirements.

This section describes the following database configuration options:

1.8.1 Preconfigured Database Types

Oracle provides the following preconfigured database types that you can create or customize during the installation:

  • General Purpose/Transaction Processing

  • Data Warehouse

See the online help provided by either Oracle Universal Installer or Oracle Database Configuration Assistant for a description of these preconfigured database types.

1.8.2 Installation Choices That Affect Database Creation

Oracle Universal Installer runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in one of two modes, depending on the choices that you make during the installation:

  • Silent or response file mode

    If you choose the Enterprise Edition, Standard Edition, or Personal Edition as the database edition, then choose to create a preconfigured database type. Oracle Universal Installer prompts you for the minimum amount of information required to create a database of the type you choose. It then runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in silent or response file mode to create the database after it installs the software.

    Note:

    Oracle recommends that you use this method to create a database if you have not previously created one.
  • Interactive mode

    Install the database using Oracle Universal Installer and start Oracle Database Configuration Assistant from Oracle home. Oracle Database Configuration Assistant runs in interactive mode. Using the screens in Oracle Database Configuration Assistant, you can either modify one of the preconfigured database types or customize the database.

    Note:

    If you choose this method to create a database, click the Help button on any of the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant screens for a description of the information that you must specify on that screen.

1.8.3 Creating a Database After Installation

If you decide not to create a database during the installation, you can use Oracle Database Configuration Assistant to create one after you have installed the software.

See Also:

Oracle Database 2 Day DBA for more information about using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant to create a database after installation

1.9 Database Storage Options

If you choose to create a database during the installation, you can specify the following storage options for database files:

Note:

Installing files on raw devices is no longer an option during installation. You must use a file system, or use Oracle Automatic Storage Management.

1.9.1 File System

If you choose the file system option, then Oracle Database Configuration Assistant creates the database files in a directory on a file system on your computer. Oracle recommends that the file system you choose be separate from the file systems used by the operating system or the Oracle software. The file system that you choose can be any of the following:

  • A file system on a disk that is physically attached to the system

    If you are creating a database on basic disks that are not logical volumes or RAID devices, then follow the Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) recommendations and distribute the database files over multiple disks.

  • A file system on a logical volume manager (LVM) or a RAID device

    If you are using multiple disks in an LVM or RAID configuration, then Oracle recommends that you use the stripe-and-mirror-everything (SAME) methodology to increase performance and reliability. Using this methodology, you must not specify multiple file system mounting points for database storage.

  • A network file system (NFS) mounted from a certified network attached storage (NAS) device. You also have the option to use the Direct NFS feature, which simplifies the administration of NFS configurations and also offers performance improvements.

    See Also:

    "Direct NFS Client" for more information about the Direct NFS feature

    If the NAS device is certified by Oracle, then you can store the database files on them.

If you choose the Advanced database creation option, then you can also choose to use the Oracle-managed files feature with the new database. If you use this feature, then you must specify only the database object name instead of file names when creating or deleting database files.

See Also:

Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about Oracle-managed files

1.9.2 Oracle Automatic Storage Management

Oracle Automatic Storage Management is a high-performance storage management solution. For Oracle Database files, it simplifies the management of a dynamic database environment, such as creating and laying out databases and managing disk space.

Oracle Automatic Storage Management can be used with single database installations, multiple database installations, and in Oracle RAC environments. It can be used with databases created in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1.0.3 or later). However, Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) databases must use Oracle Automatic Storage Management from Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) or later. Oracle Automatic Storage Management is installed as part of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. If you plan to use Oracle Automatic Storage Management, then you must install Oracle Grid Infrastructure before you install and create the database. If you want to upgrade an existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management installation, then you must upgrade Oracle Automatic Storage Management by running an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade.

See Also:

Chapter 3, "Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server" for more information about installing the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software

Oracle Automatic Storage Management manages the storage of all database files, such as redo logs, control files, and data pump export files. Oracle Automatic Storage Management can manage the Oracle Database executable binary files and any other non-database file by creating a file system with Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System. Though Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System is cluster aware, it works as a file system on a single instance database also.

To use Oracle Automatic Storage Management, you allocate partitioned disks to Oracle with preferences for striping and mirroring. Oracle Automatic Storage Management manages the disk space for you, thus eliminating the need for traditional disk management tools such as logical volume managers (LVM), file systems, and the numerous commands necessary to manage both. The synchronization between Oracle Automatic Storage Management and the database instance is handled by Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services (CSS).

See Also:

Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for more information about Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System

1.9.2.1 Oracle Automatic Storage Management Components

Oracle Automatic Storage Management uses the following components:

Oracle Automatic Storage Management Disk Groups

A disk group is a set of disk devices that Oracle Automatic Storage Management manages as a unit. Each disk device can be an individual physical disk, a multiple disk device such as a RAID storage array or a logical volume, or a partition on a physical disk. However, mostly, disk groups consist of one or more individual physical disks. To enable Oracle Automatic Storage Management to balance I/O and storage appropriately within the disk group, ensure that all devices in the disk group have similar, if not identical, storage capacity and performance.

You can set the redundancy and striping attributes of individual file types within a disk group by using Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk group templates. When you create a disk group, Oracle Automatic Storage Management creates a set of default templates for that disk group. Default template settings depend on the disk group type. For example, the default template for control files for a normal redundancy disk group sets three-way mirroring. All other file templates are two-way mirrored. For a high redundancy disk group, the default mirroring cannot be changed; that is, all files are always three-way mirrored in a high redundancy disk group. You can modify the default templates to suit the unique needs of your site. See Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for more information.

Oracle Automatic Storage Management spreads data evenly across all of the devices in the disk group to optimize performance and utilization. You can add or remove disk devices from a disk group without shutting down the database. When you add or remove disks, Oracle Automatic Storage Management rebalances the data files across the disk group. You can create multiple disk groups to handle specific tasks, such as backup and recovery operations, in addition to routine file storage activities.

When you add a device to a disk group, you can specify a failure group for that device. Failure groups identify disk devices that have common failure characteristics, for example, devices that are attached to the same controller. If the controller fails, then all devices attached to it become unavailable. By default, each device also belongs to its own failure group. By using the failure groups you specify, Oracle Automatic Storage Management can distribute data among the devices in the disk group to help minimize the risk of data loss caused by component failures.

Oracle Automatic Storage Management Instance

The Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance is a special Oracle instance that manages Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk groups. The Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance and the ASMSNMP account are created as part of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home. Oracle Enterprise Manager uses this account to monitor Oracle ASM instances to retrieve data from Oracle ASM-related data dictionary views. The ASMSNMP account status is set to OPEN upon creation, and it is granted the SYSDBA privilege.

There is only one Oracle ASM instance per host regardless of the number of database instances running on that host.

See Also:

1.10 Database Management Options

To simplify database administration, Oracle provides a Web-based management tool called Oracle Enterprise Manager.

There are two ways that you can deploy Oracle Enterprise Manager:

  • Deploy Oracle Enterprise Manager centrally in your environment.

    To deploy Oracle Enterprise Manager centrally, you must install at least one Oracle Management Repository and one Oracle Management Service within your environment, then install an Oracle Enterprise Management Agent on every computer. You then can use a single HTML interface to manage and monitor software and hardware targets on all of those systems. Targets can include Oracle databases, application servers, Net listeners, and third-party software. This single interface is called Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control (or simply Grid Control).

    Note:

    • Oracle Enterprise Manager is available separately on the Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control installation media.

    • For latest certification information, refer to My Oracle Support note 412431.1, "Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control Certification Checker", available from the following URL:

      https://support.oracle.com/
      
  • Deploy Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control locally on the database system.

    Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control software is installed by default with every Oracle Database installation. This local installation provides a Web-based interface called Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control. The Database Control is similar in function to the Grid Control, but it can manage only a single database. If you want to administer multiple databases on this system, you must either configure a separate Database Control for each database, or install Oracle Enterprise Manager 11g Grid Control.

See Also:

Oracle Enterprise Manager Concepts and Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control Basic Installation Guide for more information about Oracle Enterprise Manager

This section contains the following topics:

1.10.1 Management Options for Preconfigured Databases

When you create a preconfigured database during the installation, you must select the Oracle Enterprise Manager interface to manage the database. The following options are available:

  • Use Grid Control for central database management.

    This option is available only if an Oracle Management Agent is installed on the system. When Oracle Universal Installer detects Oracle Management Agent on the system, you can choose this option and specify the Oracle Management Service to manage the database.

    If an Oracle Management Agent is not installed, you must use Database Control to manage the database. However, if you install Oracle Management Agent after you install Oracle Database, you can use Grid Control to manage this database.

  • Use Database Control for local database management.

    This option is selected by default if an Oracle Management Agent is not installed on the system. However, even if a Management Agent is installed, you can still configure Database Control to manage the database.

1.10.2 Management Options for Custom Databases

Install the database using Oracle Universal Installer and start Oracle Database Configuration Assistant from Oracle home. Oracle Database Configuration Assistant runs in interactive mode. Using a screen in Oracle Database Configuration Assistant, you can specify the Oracle Enterprise Manager interface to manage the database. Alternatively, you can choose not to configure the database with Enterprise Manager.

Oracle recommends that you configure the database to use Enterprise Manager during installation. However, if you choose not to configure the database to use Enterprise Manager during the installation, you can use Oracle Database Configuration Assistant after the installation to configure the database to use it.

1.10.3 Features Provided by Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control

Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control, which is installed by default with Oracle Database, provides a Web-based user interface that you can use to monitor, administer, and maintain an Oracle database. You can use it to perform all of your database administration tasks. You can also use it to determine information about the database, such as:

  • Instance name, database version, Oracle home location, media recovery options, and other instance data

  • Current instance availability

  • Database alert information

  • Automatic notification of security alerts

  • Ability to apply patches

  • Session and SQL-related performance information

  • Space usage metrics

1.11 Database Backup and Recovery Options

If you use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control during the installation, you can optionally enable automated database backups that use the Oracle-suggested default backup strategy.

You do not have to enable automated backups during the installation. If you prefer, you can use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control or Grid Control to configure automated backups after you install the software and create a database.

This section covers the following topics:

See Also:

1.11.1 Enabling Automated Backups

If you enable automated backups, Oracle Enterprise Manager schedules a daily backup job that uses Oracle Database Recovery Manager (RMAN) to back up all of the database files to an on-disk storage area called the fast recovery area. The size of the fast recovery area is determined by the size of the database you must back up. The first time the backup job runs, it creates a full backup of the database. Subsequent backup jobs perform incremental backups, which enable you to recover the database to its state at any point during the preceding 24 hours. If you want to create an online backup, you must run the backup job in ARCHIVELOG mode.

To enable automated backup jobs during installation, you must specify the following information:

  • The location of the fast recovery area

    You can use either a file system directory or an Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk group for the fast recovery area. The default disk quota configured for the fast recovery area is 2 GB. For Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk groups, the required disk space depends on the redundancy level of the disk group that you choose. Chapter 2 describes how to choose the location of the fast recovery area and identifies its disk space requirements.

  • An operating system user name and password for the backup job

    Oracle Enterprise Manager uses the operating system credentials that you specify when running the backup job. The user name that you specify must belong to the Windows group that identifies database administrators (the ORA_DBA group). This user also must have Logon As A Batch Job privilege.

1.11.2 Backup Job Default Settings

If you enable automated backups after choosing one of the preconfigured databases during the installation, automated backup is configured with the following default settings:

  • The backup job is scheduled to run nightly at 2 a.m.

  • The disk quota for the fast recovery area is 2 GB.

If you enable automated backups by using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant, either during or after the installation, you can specify a different start time for the backup job and a different disk quota for the fast recovery area.

1.12 Email Notification Options

If you choose to use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control during the installation, you can configure Enterprise Manager to send e-mail when specific events occur. These events can include occurrences such as disk space reaching a critical limit (a threshold), or a database shutting down unexpectedly.

If you enable e-mail notifications, you must specify the following information:

  • The host name of a simple mail transport protocol (SMTP) server.

  • The e-mail address that should receive the alerts.

    The e-mail address that you specify can belong to an individual, or can be a shared e-mail account, or can be a distribution list.

You can use Enterprise Manager Database Control to setup, change, or customize e-mail notifications after you have created the database.

Note:

The option to enable e-mail notifications is not available starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2).

1.13 Upgrade Considerations

Oracle recommends installing Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) into a new Oracle home directory. If you must install Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) into an Oracle home directory that contains previously installed Oracle8i or Oracle9i components, then use Oracle Universal Installer to remove these components before beginning a new installation.

See Oracle Database Upgrade Guide before deciding to upgrade an existing database. Supported upgrade paths and upgrade procedures are covered in Oracle Database Upgrade Guide. However, this section describes several Windows-specific issues to understand before following the instructions in Oracle Database Upgrade Guide.

This section contains these topics:

1.13.1 Upgrading Your Operating System Before a Database Upgrade

When you upgrade to a new release of Oracle Database, the operating system requirements may have changed. If required, upgrade your operating system before upgrading Oracle Database. See Chapter 2, "Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements" for a list of supported operating systems.

To upgrade the operating system and then perform a database upgrade, perform one of the following procedures:

1.13.1.1 Upgrading the Operating System

Upgrade the operating system. Then, upgrade the database either manually or by using Oracle Database Upgrade Assistant.

1.13.1.2 Migrating to a New Computer

Migrate to a new computer using one of the following methods:

  • To upgrade the database on the new computer:

    1. Copy the database files from the computer running the previous operating system to the one running the supported operating system.

    2. Re-create the control files on the computer running the supported operating system.

    3. Manually upgrade the database using the method described in Oracle Database Upgrade Guide.

    Note:

    You cannot use Oracle Database Upgrade Assistant if you use this method. However, this method lets you easily revert to the earlier database.
  • You can also upgrade the database using the Export/Import utilities method described in Oracle Database Upgrade Guide.

    See Also:

    The table on "Supported Upgrade Paths for Upgrading Oracle Database" in Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for information about upgrading your current database release

1.13.2 Oracle Automatic Storage Management Is Installed with Oracle Grid Infrastructure

In previous releases, Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) was installed as part of the Oracle Database installation. With Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle Automatic Storage Management is part of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, either for a cluster, or for a standalone server.

If you want to upgrade an existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management installation, then you must upgrade Oracle Automatic Storage Management by running an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade. If you do not have Oracle Automatic Storage Management installed and you want to use Oracle Automatic Storage Management as your storage option, then you must complete an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation before you start your Oracle Database installation.

1.13.3 Daylight Saving Time Upgrade

See "Daylight Saving Time Upgrade of Timestamps with Timezone Data Type" for information about Daylight Savings Time Upgrade.

1.13.4 Policies for Client and Application Software Installations

If you upgrade your Oracle Database to 11g Release 2 (11.2), then Oracle recommends that you upgrade the client software to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) as well. Keeping the server and client software at the same release number ensures maximum stability for your applications. In addition, the latest Oracle client software may provide added functionality and performance enhancements that were not available with previous releases.

1.13.5 Downgrading a Database

Steps to downgrade a database, including steps to change the word size, are covered in Oracle Database Upgrade Guide.