|Oracle® Database Installation Guide
11g Release 2 (11.2) for Linux
|PDF · Mobi · ePub|
Refer to What's New in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) for more information about the new features and products installed with this release.
The Oracle Database installation process consists of the following steps:
Read the release notes: Read Oracle Database Release Notes for Linux before you begin the installation. The release notes are available with the platform-specific documentation. The latest version of the release notes is available on Oracle Technology Network at:
Review the licensing information: Although the installation media in the media pack contain many Oracle components, you are permitted to use only those components for which you have purchased licenses.
Oracle Support Services does not provide support for components for which licenses have not been purchased.
See Also:Oracle Database Licensing Information
Plan the installation: This chapter describes the Oracle products that you can install and issues that you must consider before starting the installation.
You can also refer to Appendix H, which covers frequently asked questions about installing Oracle Database components, such as how to install Oracle Database if the site uses Oracle applications or if you need multiple Oracle Database connections.
Install the software: Use the following sections to install Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server:
Chapter 3 describes how to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server.
Chapter 4 describes how to use Oracle Universal Installer to install Oracle Database and how to clone an Oracle home.
Chapter 7 describes how to remove Oracle Database software.
Appendix A provides information about performing silent, or response file installations, which you may want to use if you must perform multiple installations of Oracle Database.
Appendix B provides information about cloning an Oracle home.
Appendix F describes globalization support information.
Appendix G provides troubleshooting advice in case you encounter problems with the installation.
Complete postinstallation tasks: Chapter 5 describes recommended and required postinstallation tasks.
Get started using Oracle Database: Use the following sections to get started with Oracle Database:
Chapter 6 describes how to verify the contents of the installed Oracle Database, how to start various tools, and how to locate various files.
Appendix C describes the network-attached storage (NAS) devices, which you can use to store Oracle database files and Oracle software.
Appendix D describes the Optimal Flexible Architecture, which is a set of guidelines that ensures reliable Oracle installations that require little maintenance.
Appendix E explains the method to manage Oracle Database port numbers.
This section contains information that you must consider before deciding how to install this product. It contains the following sections:
The platform-specific hardware and software requirements included in this guide were current when this guide was published. However, because new platforms and operating system software versions might be certified after this guide is published, review the certification matrix on the My Oracle Support Web site for the most up-to-date list of certified hardware platforms and operating system versions. The My Oracle Support Web site is available at:
You must register online before using My Oracle Support. After logging in, click Certifications from the menu options. On the Certifications page, use the Certification Search options to search by Product, Release, and Platform. You can also search using the Quick Link options such as Classic Certify & Product Roadmap, Product Availability, and Lifetime Support.
You can use Oracle SQL Developer to view metadata and data of several non-Oracle databases. Refer to "Database Certification for SQL Developer (Oracle and Third-Party)" in Oracle SQL Developer Installation Guide for more information.
This product supports multiple Oracle homes. So, you can install this release or earlier releases of the software more than once on the same system, in different Oracle home directories.
You must install Oracle Database into a new Oracle home directory. You cannot install products from one release of Oracle Database into an Oracle home directory of a different release. For example, you cannot install Oracle Database 11g Release 2 software into an existing Oracle9i Oracle home directory.
You can install this release more than once on the same system if each installation is installed in a separate Oracle home directory.
The Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server provides the infrastructure to include your single-instance database in an enterprise grid architecture. Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) combines these infrastructure products into one software installation called the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home. On a single-instance database, the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home includes Oracle Restart and Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) software.
To use Oracle ASM or Oracle Restart, you must first install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server before you install and create the database. Otherwise, you must manually register the database with Oracle Restart.
See Also:Chapter 3, "Oracle Grid Infrastructure" for more information about installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server
When you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) configures the single-node version of Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services (CSS). Specifically, CSS is a daemon process that is configured by the
The CSS service is required to enable synchronization between an Oracle ASM instance and the database instances that rely on it for database file storage. Because the service must be running before an Oracle ASM instance or database instance starts, it is configured to start automatically by Oracle Restart before the Oracle ASM instance is started. It must be running if an Oracle database is using Oracle ASM for database file storage.
For single-instance installations, the CSS daemon is installed-in and runs from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home which is the same home that runs Oracle ASM.
Note:On cluster systems with Oracle RAC installations, the CSS daemon is configured during the Oracle Clusterware installation. If the system is running Oracle Clusterware, then see Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for information about removing Oracle RAC or Oracle Clusterware.
If you plan to use Oracle Data Guard with Oracle Database Vault, then see My Oracle Support note 754065.1 at:
Oracle Database Vault installs a baseline database auditing policy. This policy covers the access control configuration information stored in Oracle Database Vault database tables, information stored in Oracle Catalog (rollback segments, tablespaces, and so on), the use of system privileges, and Oracle Label Security configuration. When you install Oracle Database Vault, the security specific database initialization parameters are initialized with default values.
See Also:Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide for more information about the database audit policy
You can choose different installation methods to install Oracle Database, as follows:
When you use the interactive method to install Oracle Database, Oracle Universal Installer displays a series of screens that enable you to specify all the required information to install the Oracle Database software and optionally create a database.
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle Universal Installer provides you the following options:
Desktop Class: Select this option if you are installing on a laptop or desktop class system. This option includes a starter database and allows minimal configuration. This option is designed for those who want to quickly set up a database.
Server Class: Select this option if you are installing on a server class system, such as what you would use when deploying Oracle Database in a production data center. This option allows for more advanced configuration options. Advanced configuration options available with this option include Oracle RAC, Oracle ASM, backup and recovery configuration, integration with Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control, and more fine-grained memory tuning, among others.
Furthermore, the Server Class option provides you with the following installation types:
Typical: Select this installation method to quickly install Oracle Database. This installation type requires minimal user input. OUI installs the software and optionally creates a general-purpose database using the information that you specify on the screen. It is the default installation type.
Advanced: Select this installation type to complete any of the following tasks:
Select a database character set or different product languages.
Create the EXAMPLE tablespace during the installation.
Create a database on a different file system from the software.
Specify different passwords for administrative schemas.
Configure automated backups or Oracle Enterprise Manager notifications.
Configure Oracle Configuration Manager.
Customize components from the available components list. In the Select Database Edition screen, if you select Enterprise Edition, then Oracle Universal Installer automatically selects the components most customers need for their Oracle Database installation. You can also click Select Options to customize components from the components list.
See Also:"Reviewing Component-Specific Installation Guidelines" for additional information about Oracle database installation
By creating a response file and specifying this file when you start Oracle Universal Installer, you can automate some or all of the Oracle Database installation. These automated installation methods are useful if you must perform multiple installations on similarly configured systems or if the system where you want to install the software does not have X Window system software installed.
When you use a response file, you can run Oracle Universal Installer in the following modes, depending on whether you specify all of the required information:
Silent Mode: Oracle Universal Installer runs in silent mode if you use a response file that specifies all required information, and specify the
-silent option when starting Oracle Universal Installer. None of the Oracle Universal Installer screens are displayed.
Response File Mode: Oracle Universal Installer runs in response file mode if you do not specify all required information in the response file.
For more information about these modes and about how to complete an installation using response files, see Appendix A.
Use the Software Updates feature to dynamically download and apply the latest updates released by Oracle; such as, interim patch updates, critical patch updates, Oracle Universal Installer updates, and the latest patch set updates. This functionality is available with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (184.108.40.206).
You can choose to download the latest updates by providing your My Oracle Support credentials or you can apply previously downloaded updates. You can also download the updates separately using the
-downloadUpdates option and later apply them during the Oracle Database installation by providing the location of the updates.
See Also:"Running Oracle Universal Installer" for more information on the
-downloadUpdatesoption and dynamically applying software updates during installation
You can choose one of the following database editions when installing Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2):
Enterprise Edition: Installs licensable Oracle Database options and database configuration and management tools in addition to all of the products that are installed during a Standard Edition installation. It also installs products most commonly used for data warehousing and transaction processing. This option also allows you to enable or disable individual components from a components list.
Standard Edition: This installation type is designed for department-level or workgroup-level applications and for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). It is engineered to provide core relational database management services and options. It installs an integrated set of management tools, full distribution, replication, Web features, and it helps build business-critical applications.
Standard Edition One: This installation type is designed for department-level, workgroup-level, or Web applications. From single-instance environments for small business to highly distributed branch environments, Oracle Database Standard Edition One includes all the features necessary to build business-critical applications.
You must install Oracle Database Client separately. You cannot install it during an Oracle Database installation. See Oracle Database Client Installation Guide for Linux for installation instructions.
The installation process is the same for all the database editions.
Ensure that you install only those products for which you have a valid license.
See Also:Oracle Database Licensing Information for more information about the features available with each Oracle Database edition and for information about licensing
During the Oracle Database installation, you can choose to create an Oracle database as part of the installation. If you choose to create an Oracle database, then Oracle Universal Installer uses Oracle Database Configuration Assistant to create it. You can create the database with one of the preconfigured database types, which are designed for a variety of different applications, modify one of the preconfigured database types, or create a customized database to meet your requirements.
This section describes the following database configuration options:
Oracle provides the following preconfigured database types that you can create or customize during the installation:
General Purpose/Transaction Processing
See the online help provided by either Oracle Universal Installer or Oracle Database Configuration Assistant for a description of these preconfigured database types.
Oracle Universal Installer runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in one of two modes, depending on the choices that you make during the installation:
Silent or response file mode
If you choose either the Enterprise Edition or Standard Edition database edition, then choose to create a preconfigured database type. Oracle Universal Installer prompts you for the minimum amount of information required to create a database of the type you choose. It then runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in silent or response file mode to create the database after it installs the software.
Note:Oracle recommends that you use this method to create a database if you have not previously created one.
Install the database using Oracle Universal Installer and start Oracle Database Configuration Assistant from the Oracle home. Oracle Database Configuration Assistant runs in interactive mode. Using the screens in Oracle Database Configuration Assistant, you can either modify one of the preconfigured database types or customize the database.
Note:If you use this method to create a database, then click Help on any of the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant screens for a description of the information that you must specify on that screen.
If you did not create a database during the installation, then you can use Oracle Database Configuration Assistant to create a database after you install the software. For more information about using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant to create a database after installation, see "Creating and Managing a Database with DBCA" in Oracle Database 2 Day DBA.
If you create a database during the installation, you can specify one of the following storage options for database files:
Note:Installing files on raw devices is no longer an option during installation. You must use a file system or Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM).
If you use the file system option, then Oracle Database Configuration Assistant creates the database files in a directory on a file system mounted on the computer. Oracle recommends that the file system be separate from the file systems used by the operating system or the Oracle software. The file system can be any of the following:
A file system on a disk that is physically attached to the system
If you are creating a database on basic disks that are not logical volumes or RAID devices, then Oracle recommends that you follow the Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) recommendations and distribute the database files over many disks.
A file system on a logical volume manager (LVM) volume or a RAID device
If you are using multiple disks in an LVM or RAID configuration, then Oracle recommends that you use the stripe and mirror everything (SAME) methodology to increase performance and reliability. Using this methodology, you do not have to specify multiple file system mount points for the database storage.
A network file system (NFS) mounted from a certified network-attached storage (NAS) device. You also have the option to use the Direct NFS feature, which simplifies the administration of NFS configurations and also improves performance.
If the NAS device is certified by Oracle, then you can store the database files on them.
"General Configuration Guidelines for NAS Devices" for NAS device certification information
If you use the Advanced database creation option, then you can also use the Oracle Managed Files feature with the new database. If you use this feature, then you must specify only the database object name instead of file names when creating or deleting database files.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) is a high-performance storage management solution. For Oracle Database files, it simplifies the management of a dynamic database environment, for example, creating and laying out databases and managing disk space.
Oracle ASM can be used with single database installations, multiple database installations, and in Oracle RAC environments. It can be used with databases created in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1.0.3 or later). However, Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) databases must use Oracle ASM from Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) or later. Oracle ASM is installed as part of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. If you plan to use Oracle ASM, then you must install Oracle Grid Infrastructure before you install and create the database. If you want to upgrade an existing Oracle ASM installation, then you must upgrade Oracle ASM by running an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade.
See Also:Chapter 3, "Oracle Grid Infrastructure" for more information about installing the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software
Oracle ASM manages the storage of all database files, such as redo logs, control files, and data pump export files.
Oracle ASM can manage the Oracle Database executable binary files and any other non-database files by creating a file system with Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System. Although Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System is cluster-aware, it also works as a file system on a single-instance database.
See Also:"Introduction to Oracle ACFS" in Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for information about Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System
At a high level, implementing Oracle ASM involves allocating partitioned disks for Oracle Database with preferences for striping and mirroring. Oracle ASM manages the disk space for you. This helps avoid the need for traditional disk management tools, such as Logical Volume Managers (LVM), file systems, and the numerous commands necessary to manage both. The synchronization between Oracle ASM and the database instance is handled by CSS.
The following are components of an Oracle ASM installation:
A disk group is a set of disk devices that Oracle ASM manages as a single unit. Each disk device can be an individual physical disk, a multiple disk device, such as a RAID storage array or logical volume, or a partition on a physical disk. In most cases, disk groups consist of one or more individual physical disks. To enable Oracle ASM to balance input/output operations and storage efficiently within the disk group, you must ensure that all devices in the disk group have similar, if not identical, storage capacity and performance.
You can set the redundancy and striping attributes of individual file types within a disk group by using Oracle ASM disk group templates. When you create a disk group, Oracle ASM creates a set of default templates for that disk group. Default template settings depend on the disk group type. For example, the default template for control files for both normal and high redundancy disk groups is set to three-way mirroring. Other files are configured with two-way mirroring for normal redundancy, or three-way mirroring when configured for high redundancy. For a high redundancy disk group, the default mirroring cannot be changed, which implies that all files are always three-way mirrored in a high redundancy disk group. You can modify the default templates to suit your site's needs. See Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for more information.
Oracle ASM spreads data evenly across all the devices in the disk group to optimize performance and utilization. You can add or remove disk devices from a disk group without shutting down the database. When you add or remove disks, Oracle ASM rebalances the files across the disk group. You can create multiple disk groups to do specific tasks, such as backup and recovery operations, in addition to regular file storage activities.
When you add a device to a disk group, you can specify a failure group for that device. Failure groups identify disk devices that have common failure characteristics, for example, devices that are attached to the same controller. If the controller fails, then all devices attached to it become unavailable. By default, each device also belongs to its own failure group. By using the failure groups you specify, Oracle ASM can distribute data among the devices in the disk group to minimize the risk of data loss caused by component failures.
The Oracle ASM instance is a special Oracle instance that manages Oracle ASM disk groups. The Oracle ASM instance and the
ASMSNMP account are created and started, if necessary, when you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure. Oracle Enterprise Manager uses this account to monitor Oracle ASM instances to retrieve data from Oracle ASM-related data dictionary views. The
ASMSNMP account status is set to
OPEN upon creation, and it is granted the SYSDBA privilege.
Oracle recommends that you have the Oracle ASM instance in its own Oracle home. Oracle also recommends that you run this instance before you start a database instance that uses Oracle ASM.
For an Oracle Database installation, you only need one Oracle ASM instance, regardless of the number of database instances on the computer.
See Also:"Managing Oracle ASM Users with Oracle Enterprise Manager" in Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for information about the
Deploy Oracle Enterprise Manager centrally in the environment
To deploy Oracle Enterprise Manager centrally, you must install at least one Oracle Management Repository and one Oracle Management Service within the environment, then install an Oracle Enterprise Management Agent on every computer to manage. You can then use a single HTML interface to manage and monitor software and hardware targets on all of those systems. Targets can include Oracle databases, application servers, net listeners, and third-party software. This single interface is called Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control (Grid Control).
Oracle Enterprise Manager is available separately on the Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control installation media, and on the Oracle Technology Network Web site at:
For the latest certification information, see My Oracle Support note 412431.1, "Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control Certification Checker" at:
Deploy Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control locally on the database system
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control software is installed by default with every Oracle Database installation. This local installation provides a Web-based interface called Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control. The Database Control is similar to the Grid Control, but it can manage only a single database. If you want to administer multiple databases on a system, then you must either configure a separate Database Control for each database, or you must install Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control.
See Also:Oracle Enterprise Manager Concepts manual and the Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control Basic Installation Guide on the Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control installation media for more information about Oracle Enterprise Manager
This section contains the following topics:
When you create a preconfigured database during the installation, you must select the Oracle Enterprise Manager interface to use to manage the database. The following options are available:
Use Grid Control for central database management
This option is available only if an Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control Agent is installed on the system. When Oracle Universal Installer detects an Oracle Management Agent on the system, you can choose this option and specify the Oracle Management Service to use to manage the database.
If an Oracle Management Agent is not installed, then you must use Database Control to manage the database. However, if Oracle Management Agent is installed after Oracle Database, then you can use Grid Control to manage this database.
Use Database Control for local database management
This option is selected by default if an Oracle Management Agent is not installed on the system. However, even if a Management Agent is installed, you can still configure Database Control to manage the database.
Install the database using Oracle Universal Installer and start Oracle Database Configuration Assistant from the Oracle home. Oracle Database Configuration Assistant runs in interactive mode. Using a screen in Oracle Database Configuration Assistant, you can specify the Oracle Enterprise Manager interface to use to manage the database. You can also choose not to configure the database with Oracle Enterprise Manager.
Oracle recommends that you configure the database to use Oracle Enterprise Manager during installation. However, if you do not configure the database to use Oracle Enterprise Manager during the installation, then you can use Oracle Database Configuration Assistant after the installation to configure the database to use it.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control provides a Web-based user interface that enables you to monitor, administer, and maintain an Oracle database. You can use it to perform all database administration tasks. You can also use it to determine information about the database, such as:
Instance name, database version, Oracle home location, media recovery options, and other instance data
Current instance availability
Database alert information
Session and SQL-related performance information
Space usage matrix
In addition, it provides you with automatic notification of security alerts and the ability to download and apply patches for the software.
If you use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control during the installation, then you can optionally enable automated database backups that use the Oracle-suggested default backup strategy. You do not have to enable automated backups during the installation. If you prefer, you can use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control or Grid Control to configure automated backups after you install the software and create a database.
This section contains the following topics:
Oracle Database 2 Day DBA for information about using Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control to configure or customize automated backups or to recover a backed up database
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for more detailed information about defining a backup strategy and backing up and recovering Oracle databases
If you enable automated backups, then Oracle Enterprise Manager schedules a daily backup job that uses Oracle Recovery Manager (RMAN) to back up all of the database files to a disk storage area called the fast recovery area. The first time the backup job runs, it creates a full backup of the database. Subsequent backup jobs perform incremental backups, which enable you to recover the database to its state at any point during the preceding 24 hours.
To enable automated backup jobs during installation, you must specify the following information:
The location of the fast recovery area
You can use either a file system directory or an Oracle ASM disk group for the fast recovery area. To set the default values for fast recovery area and data file location, use Oracle base as the starting point. See "Oracle Base Directory" for more information on Oracle base.
Default fast recovery area:
Default data file location:
The default disk quota configured for the fast recovery area is 2 GB. For Oracle ASM disk groups, the required disk space depends on the redundancy level of the disk group that you choose. Chapter 2 describes how to choose the location of the fast recovery area and identifies its disk space requirements.
An operating system user name and password for the backup job
Oracle Enterprise Manager uses the operating system credentials that you specify when running the backup job. The user name that you specify must belong to the UNIX group that identifies database administrators (the
ORA_DBA group). This user also must have
Logon As A Batch Job privilege.
If you enable automated backups after choosing a preconfigured database during the installation, then automated backup is configured with the following default settings:
The backup job is scheduled to run every morning at 2.00 a.m.
The disk quota for the fast recovery area is 2 GB.
If you enable automated backups by using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant, either during or after the installation, then you can specify a different start time for the backup job and a different disk quota for the fast recovery area.
During the installation, if you choose the option to use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control for database management, then you can also configure Oracle Enterprise Manager to automatically send you an email when specific events occur. These events can include occurrences such as the disk space reaching a critical limit (a threshold) or a database shutting down unexpectedly.
If you enable email notifications, then you must specify the following information:
The host name of a Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) server
The email address that should receive the alerts
The email address that you specify could belong to an individual, or a shared email account, or a distribution list.
Note:The Enable Email Notifications option is not available starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (220.127.116.11).
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) database for 32-bit Linux can be migrated to an Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) database for 64-bit Linux. See "Database Migration from a 32-Bit Linux to 64-Bit Linux Computer" section in the Oracle Database Administrator's Reference for Linux and UNIX-Based Operating Systems for migration information.
For information about upgrading an earlier release of Oracle Database to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), see Oracle Database Upgrade Guide. The following sections provide additional platform-specific upgrade information that you must review before upgrading an existing database:
If you have Oracle Database installed on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1, then you must first upgrade the operating system to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 (update 7) before you upgrade the database. To upgrade the operating system, perform one of the following procedures:
Upgrade the operating system. Then, upgrade the database either manually or by using Oracle Database Upgrade Assistant.
Copy the database files:
Copy the database files from the computer running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 to the one running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.
Re-create the control files on the computer running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.
Manually upgrade the database.
Note:You cannot use Oracle Database Upgrade Assistant if you use this method. However, this method lets you easily revert to the earlier database.
You can also upgrade the database by using the Export/Import utilities.
See Also:The table on "Supported Upgrade Paths for Upgrading Oracle Database" in Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for information about upgrading your current database release
In previous releases, Oracle ASM was installed as part of the Oracle Database installation. With Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle ASM is part of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, either for a cluster or for a standalone server.
If you want to upgrade an existing Oracle ASM installation, then you must upgrade Oracle ASM by running an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade. If you do not have Oracle ASM installed and you want to use Oracle ASM as your storage option, then you must complete an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation before you start your Oracle Database installation.
See "Daylight Saving Time Upgrade of Timestamp with Timezone Data Type" for information about Daylight Saving Time Upgrade.
See the Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for more information about performing an in-place Oracle Database upgrade.