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Oracle® Database Installation Guide
11g Release 2 (11.2) for Linux

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3 Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server

The Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server is the Oracle software that provides system support for an Oracle database including volume management, file system, and automatic restart capabilities. If you plan to use Oracle Restart or Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM), then you must install Oracle Grid Infrastructure before you install and create the database. Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server is the software that includes Oracle Restart and Oracle ASM. Oracle combines the two infrastructure products into a single set of binaries that is installed as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home.

Oracle ASM is a volume manager and a file system for Oracle database files that supports single-instance Oracle Database and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) configurations. Oracle ASM also supports a general purpose file system for your application needs including Oracle Database binaries. Oracle ASM is Oracle's recommended storage management solution that provides an alternative to conventional volume managers, file systems, and raw devices.

Oracle Restart improves the availability of your Oracle database by providing the following:

Note:

  • If you want to use Oracle ASM or Oracle Restart, then you must install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server before you install and create the database. Otherwise, you must manually register the database with Oracle Restart.

  • Oracle Restart is used in single-instance (nonclustered) environments only.

This chapter contains the following sections:

3.1 Requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation

The system must meet the following requirements:

3.1.1 Memory Requirements

The following are the memory requirements for installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server:

Minimum: At least 1.5 GB of RAM for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server; at least 1 GB of additional RAM if you plan to install Oracle Database after installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server.

Recommended: 4 GB of RAM or more if you plan to install both Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server and Oracle Database.

  • To determine the RAM size, enter the following command:

    # grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo
    

    If the size of the RAM is less than the required size, then you must install more memory before continuing.

  • The following table describes the relationship between installed RAM and the configured swap space recommendation:

    Note:

    On Linux, the HugePages feature allocates non-swappable memory for large page tables using memory-mapped files. If you enable HugePages, then you should deduct the memory allocated to HugePages from the available RAM before calculating swap space.
    RAM Swap Space
    Between 1.5 GB and 2 GB 1.5 times the size of the RAM
    Between 2 GB and 16 GB Equal to the size of the RAM
    More than 16 GB 16 GB

To determine the size of the configured swap space, enter the following command:

# grep SwapTotal /proc/meminfo

If necessary, see the operating system documentation for information about how to configure additional swap space.

To determine the available RAM and swap space, enter the following command:

# free

IMPORTANT:

  • Oracle recommends that you take multiple values for the available RAM and swap space before finalizing a value. This is because the available RAM and swap space keep changing depending on the user interactions with the computer.

  • Contact your operating system vendor for swap space allocation guidance for your server. The vendor guidelines supersede the swap space requirements listed in this guide.

3.1.2 Disk Space Requirements

The following are the disk space requirements for installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure:

  • At least 5.5 GB of disk space.

  • At least 1 GB of space in the /tmp directory.

To determine the amount of free space available in the /tmp directory, enter the following command:

# df -k /tmp

If there is less than 1 GB of free space available in the /tmp directory, then complete one of the following steps:

  • Delete unnecessary files from the /tmp directory to meet the disk space requirement.

  • Set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables to specify a temporary directory when setting the oracle user's environment.

    See Also:

    "Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment" for more information about setting TMP and TMPDIR
  • Extend the file system that contains the /tmp directory. If necessary, contact the system administrator for information about extending file systems.

3.1.3 Configuring the User's Environment

Complete the following tasks to set the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner user's environment:

  • Review the information in "Logging In to the System as root".

  • Ensure that you set the path to the Oracle base directory. Oracle Restart and Oracle Database are under the same Oracle base directory. For example:

    # ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle; 
    # export ORACLE_BASE
    
  • Set the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner user default file mode creation mask (umask) to 022 in the shell startup file. Setting the mask to 022 ensures that the user performing the software installation creates files with 644 permissions.

  • Set ulimit settings for file descriptors and processes for the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation software owner.

  • Set the DISPLAY environment variable in preparation for installation.

If you plan to install Oracle Database, then you must meet additional preinstallation requirements. See Chapter 2.

3.2 Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM Support

Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS) extends Oracle ASM technology to support of all of your application data in both single instance and cluster configurations. Oracle Automatic Storage Management Dynamic Volume Manager (Oracle ADVM) provides volume management services and a standard disk device driver interface to clients. Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System is layered on Oracle ASM through the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Dynamic Volume Manager interface.

Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM are supported on Oracle Linux 5 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 for Linux x86 and Linux x86-64. Table 3-1 lists the releases, platforms and kernel versions that support Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM.

Table 3-1 Platforms That Support Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM

Release Platform / Operating System Kernel

11.2.x

Linux x86: Oracle Linux 5 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5

2.6.18 or later updates to 2.6.18

11.2.0.1

Linux x86-64: Oracle Linux 5 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5

2.6.18 or later updates to 2.6.18

11.2.0.2

Linux x86-64: Oracle Linux 5, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 SP3 and later

2.6.18 or later updates to 2.6.18

11.2.0.3

Linux x86-64: Oracle Linux 5, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 SP3 and later, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP1

2.6.18 or later updates to 2.6.18

Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel 2.6.32-100.34.1 and later updates to 2.6.32-100

11.2.0.3

Linux x86-64: Oracle Linux 6 (with Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel)

Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel 2.6.32-100.34.1 and later updates to 2.6.32-100

11.2.0.3.3 (Oracle Grid Infrastructure PSU)

Linux x86-64: Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 , Oracle Linux with the Red Hat Compatible Kernel

6.0, 6.1, 6.2

11.2.0.3.4 (Oracle Grid Infrastructure PSU)

Linux x86-64: Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 , Oracle Linux with the Red Hat Compatible Kernel

6.3 and later

11.2.0.3.7 (Oracle Grid Infrastructure PSU)

Linux x86-64: Oracle Linux 6 (with Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel), SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP2

Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel 2.6.39-100 and later updates to 2.6.39-100

11.2.0.4

Linux x86-64: SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP3

-


See Also:

Note:

Security Enhanced Linux (SELinux) is not supported on Oracle ACFS file systems.

Note:

Oracle recommends that you create Oracle data files in Oracle ASM disk groups. Creating Oracle data files on an Oracle ACFS file system is not supported. Oracle ACFS can be used as an option only when Oracle ASM is configured.

Oracle ACFS resources are not supported for Oracle Restart configurations on all platforms. You must manually load ACFS drivers after a system restart. Oracle ACFS database home file systems can be placed into the Oracle ACFS mount registry to be mounted along with other registered Oracle ACFS file systems.

See Also:

3.3 Enabling Oracle ACFS on Oracle Restart Configurations

To use Oracle ACFS on Oracle Restart configurations, install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server and then enable root access for Oracle ACFS using the following command:

Log in as root

# cd Grid_home/crs/install
# perl roothas.pl -lockacfs

3.4 Managing Disk Groups for Older Database Versions

Use Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA) to create and modify disk groups when you install earlier Oracle databases on Oracle Grid Infrastructure installations.

Releases prior to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 used Oracle Database Configuration Assistant (Oracle DBCA) to perform administrative tasks on Oracle ASM. Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle ASM is installed as part of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. You can no longer use Oracle DBCA to perform administrative tasks on Oracle ASM.

See Also:

Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for details about configuring disk group compatibility for databases using Oracle Database 10g or earlier software with Oracle Grid Infrastructure

3.5 Upgrading Existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management Instances

If you have an Oracle ASM installation from an earlier release installed on your server, or in an existing Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, you can use Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA) to upgrade the existing Oracle ASM instance to 11g Release 2 (11.2), and subsequently configure disk groups, Oracle ASM volumes and Oracle ASM file systems.

Note:

You must first shut down all databases and applications using an existing Oracle ASM instance before upgrading it.

During the installation, if you use Oracle ASM, and Oracle ASMCA detects that there is a prior Oracle ASM version installed in another Oracle ASM home, then after installing the Oracle ASM 11g Release 2 (11.2) binaries, you can start Oracle ASMCA to upgrade the existing Oracle ASM instance.

See Also:

3.6 Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation Considerations

In previous releases, Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) was installed as part of the Oracle Database installation. With Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle ASM is part of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, either for a cluster, or for a standalone server.

If you want to upgrade an existing Oracle ASM installation, then you must upgrade Oracle ASM by running an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade (upgrades of existing Oracle ASM installations). If you do not have Oracle ASM installed and you want to use Oracle ASM as your storage option, then you must complete an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation before you start your Oracle Database installation.

Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA) is installed as part of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server installation. You must run Oracle ASMCA for installing and configuring Oracle ASM instances, disk groups, volumes, and Oracle ACFS. In addition, you can use the ASMCA command-line interface.

See Also:

Chapter 11, "Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant" in Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for information about Oracle ASMCA

Apply the following guidelines when you install Oracle ASM:

  • You must complete the steps listed under "Preparing Disks for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation" to prepare a disk partition to use for the Oracle ASM disk groups.

  • Ensure that at least one disk is configured appropriately for use in an Oracle ASM disk group before beginning the installation.

  • When you install Oracle ASM, Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA) creates a separate server parameter file (SPFILE) and password file for the Oracle ASM instance. As soon as Oracle ASM is installed, the ASMSNMP schema and user are created. See Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for more information.

  • The Oracle ASM instance that manages the existing disk group runs in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home directory.

3.7 Preparing Disks for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation

This section describes how to configure disks for use with Oracle ASM. The following sections describe how to identify the requirements and configure the disks on each platform:

Note:

Oracle does not recommend using identifiers for database object names that must be quoted. While these quoted identifiers may be valid as names in the SQL CREATE statement, such as CREATE DISKGROUP "1data" ..., the names may not be valid when using other tools that manage the database object.

See Also:

"Creating Disk Groups for a New Oracle Installation" in Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for information about creating and managing disk groups

3.7.1 General Steps for Configuring Oracle Automatic Storage Management

The following are the general steps to configure Oracle ASM:

  1. Identify the storage requirements of the site.

  2. If you are creating a new Oracle ASM disk group, create partitions for DAS or SAN disks.

  3. Configure the disks for use with Oracle ASM. You must provide the Oracle ASM disk configuration information during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.

3.7.2 Step 1: Identifying Storage Requirements for Oracle Automatic Storage Management

To identify the storage requirements for using Oracle ASM, you must determine the number of devices and the amount of free disk space that you require. To complete this task:

  1. Determine whether you want to use Oracle ASM for Oracle Database files, recovery files, or both.

    Note:

    You do not have to use the same storage mechanism for Oracle Database files and recovery files. You can use a file system for one file type and Oracle ASM for the other.

    If you enable automated backups and you do not have a shared file system available, then you must choose Oracle ASM for recovery file storage.

    During the database installation, if you plan to enable automated backups, then you can choose Oracle ASM as the storage mechanism for recovery files by specifying an Oracle ASM disk group for the fast recovery area. Depending on how you create a database during the database installation, you have the following options:

    • You can run Oracle ASMCA in interactive mode to create and configure the required disk groups.

      During the database installation, if you select an installation method that runs Database Configuration Assistant in interactive mode (Advanced Installation type), then you can select the disk groups that you created using Oracle ASMCA.

      You have the option to use the disk groups you created using Oracle ASMCA both for database files and recovery files, or you can use different disk groups for each file type. Ideally, create separate Oracle ASM disk groups for data files and for recovery files.

    • If you run Oracle ASMCA in noninteractive mode, then you must use the same Oracle ASM disk group for data files and recovery files. During the database installation (Typical Installation type), you must select the same disk group for both data files and recovery files.

    See Also:

  2. Choose the Oracle ASM redundancy level to use for each Oracle ASM disk group that you create.

    The redundancy level that you choose for the Oracle ASM disk group determines how Oracle ASM mirrors files in the disk group and determines the number of disks and amount of disk space that you require, as follows:

    • External redundancy

      This option does not allow Oracle ASM to mirror the contents of the disk group. Oracle recommends that you select this redundancy level either when the disk group contains devices, such as RAID devices, that provide their own data protection or when the database does not require uninterrupted access to data.

    • Normal redundancy

      To optimize performance and reliability in a normal redundancy disk group, Oracle ASM uses two-way mirroring for data files and three-way mirroring for control files, by default. In addition, you can choose the mirroring characteristics for individual files in a disk group. You can use two-way mirroring or no mirroring.

      A normal redundancy disk group requires a minimum of two failure groups (or two disk devices) if you are using two-way mirroring. The effective disk space in a normal redundancy disk group is half the sum of the disk space of all of its devices.

      For most installations, Oracle recommends that you use normal redundancy disk groups.

    • High redundancy

      The contents of the disk group are three-way mirrored by default. To create a disk group with high redundancy, you must specify at least three failure groups (a minimum of three devices).

      Although high-redundancy disk groups provide a high level of data protection, you must consider the higher cost of additional storage devices before deciding to use this redundancy level.

  3. Determine the total amount of disk space that you require for the database files and recovery files.

    If an Oracle ASM instance is running on the system, then you can use an existing disk group to meet these storage requirements. If necessary, you can add disks to an existing disk group during the database installation.

    Use the following table to determine the minimum number of disks and the minimum disk space requirements for the installation:

    Redundancy Level Minimum Number of Disks Data Files Recovery Files Both File Types
    External 1 1.8 GB 3.6 GB 5.4 GB
    Normal 2 3.6 GB 7.2 GB 10.8 GB
    High 3 5.4 GB 10.8 GB 16.2 GB

  4. Optionally, identify failure groups for the Oracle ASM disk group devices.

    If you intend to use a normal or high redundancy disk group, then you can further protect the database against hardware failure by associating a set of disk devices in a custom failure group. By default, each device is included in its failure group. However, if two disk devices in a normal redundancy disk group are attached to the same SCSI controller, then the disk group becomes unavailable if the controller fails. The controller in this example is a single point of failure.

    For instance, to avoid failures of this type, you can use two small computer system interface (SCSI) controllers, each with two disks, and define a failure group for the disks attached to each controller. This configuration would enable the disk group to tolerate the failure of one SCSI controller.

    Note:

    If you define custom failure groups, then you must specify a minimum of two failure groups for normal redundancy disk groups and three failure groups for high redundancy disk groups.
  5. If you are sure that a suitable disk group does not exist on the system, then install or identify appropriate disk devices to add to a new disk group. Apply the following guidelines when identifying appropriate disk devices:

    • The disk devices must be owned by the user performing the grid installation.

      See Also:

      "Example of a Rules File with User grid" for information about creating or modifying permissions
    • All the devices in an Oracle ASM disk group must be the same size and have the same performance characteristics.

    • Do not specify multiple partitions on a single physical disk as a disk group device. Oracle ASM expects each disk group device to be on a separate physical disk.

    • Although you can specify a logical volume as a device in an Oracle ASM disk group, Oracle does not recommend their use because it adds a layer of complexity that is unnecessary with Oracle ASM. Oracle recommends that if you choose to use a logical volume manager, then use the logical volume manager to represent a single logical unit number (LUN) without striping or mirroring, so that you can minimize the effect on storage performance of the additional storage layer.

    See Also:

3.7.3 Step 2: Creating DAS or SAN Disk Partitions for Oracle Automatic Storage Management

In order to use a DAS or SAN disk in Oracle ASM, the disk must have a partition table. Oracle recommends creating exactly one partition for each disk.

Note:

You can use any physical disk for Oracle ASM, if it is partitioned.

3.7.4 Step 3: Configuring Disks for Oracle Automatic Storage Management

Oracle provides an Oracle ASM library driver that you can use to simplify the configuration and management of the disk devices to use with Oracle ASM. A disk that is configured for Oracle ASM is known as a candidate disk.

If you intend to use Oracle ASM for database storage, then Oracle recommends that you install the Automatic Storage Management library driver (ASMLIB) and associated utilities and use them to configure the devices to include in an Oracle ASM disk group.

Note:

If you configure disks using the Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver, then you must change the default disk discovery string to ORCL:*. If the diskstring is set to ORCL:*, or is left empty (""), then the installer discovers these disks.

This section describes how to configure storage for use with Oracle ASM.

3.7.4.1 Configuring Disks for Oracle Automatic Storage Management Using the Automatic Storage Management Library Driver (ASMLIB)

To use the Automatic Storage Management library driver to configure Automatic Storage Management devices, complete the following tasks:

Installing and Configuring the Automatic Storage Management Library Driver Software

To install and configure the Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver software:

  1. Enter the following command to determine the kernel version and architecture of the system:

    # uname -rm
    
  2. If necessary, download the required Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver packages from the Oracle Technology Network website:

    http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/topics/linux/asmlib/index-101839.html

    You must install the following packages, where version is the version of the Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver, arch is the system architecture, and kernel is the version of the kernel that you are using:

    oracleasm-support-version.arch.rpm
    oracleasm-kernel-version.arch.rpm
    oracleasmlib-version.arch.rpm
    
  3. Enter a command similar to the following to install the packages:

    # sudo rpm -Uvh oracleasm-support-version.arch.rpm \
               oracleasm-kernel-version.arch.rpm \
               oracleasmlib-version.arch.rpm
    

    If you are using the Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS 3.0 enterprise kernel on an x86 system, then enter a command similar to the following:

    # sudo rpm -Uvh oracleasm-support-1.0.0-1.i386.rpm \
               oracleasm-2.4.9-e-enterprise-1.0.0-1.i686.rpm \
               oracleasmlib-1.0.0-1.i386.rpm
    
  4. Enter a command similar to the following to determine the UID of the Oracle software owner user that you are using for this installation and the GID of the OSASM group:

    # id oracle
    
  5. Enter the following command to run the oracleasm initialization script with the configure option:

    # /etc/init.d/oracleasm configure
    
  6. Enter the following information in response to the prompts that the script displays:

    Prompt Suggested Response
    Default UID to own the driver interface: Specify the UID of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure owner user (typically, grid).
    Default GID to own the driver interface: Specify the GID of the OSASM group (typically, asmadmin).
    Start Oracle Automatic Storage Management Library driver on start (y/n): Enter y to start the Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver when the system starts.
    Scan for Oracle ASM disks on boot (y/n): Enter y to scan for the presence of any Oracle Automatic Storage Management disks when the system starts.

Configuring the Disk Devices to Use the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Library Driver

To configure the disk devices to use in an Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk group:

  1. If you intend to use IDE, SCSI, or RAID devices in the Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk group, then:

    1. If necessary, install or configure the disk devices that you intend to use for the disk group and restart the system.

    2. To identify the device name for the disks to use, enter the following command:

      # /sbin/fdisk -l
      

      Depending on the type of disk, the device name can vary:

      Disk Type Device Name Format Description
      IDE disk
      /dev/hdxn
      
      In this example, x is a letter that identifies the IDE disk, and n is the partition number. For example, /dev/hda is the first disk on the first IDE bus.
      SCSI disk
      /dev/sdxn
      
      In this example, x is a letter that identifies the SCSI disk, and n is the partition number. For example, /dev/sda is the first disk on the first SCSI bus.
      RAID disk
      /dev/rd/cxdypz
      /dev/ida/cxdypz
      
      Depending on the RAID controller, RAID devices can have different device names. In the examples shown, x is a number that identifies the controller, y is a number that identifies the disk, and z is a number that identifies the partition. For example, /dev/ida/c0d1 is the second logical drive on the first controller.

      Note:

      Oracle recommends that you create a single whole-disk partition on each disk to use.
    3. Use either fdisk or parted to create a single whole-disk partition on the disk devices to use.

  2. Enter a command similar to the following to mark a disk as an Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk:

    # /etc/init.d/oracleasm createdisk DISK1 /dev/sdb1
    

    In this example, DISK1 is a name assigned to the disk.

    Note:

    • If you are using a multipathing disk driver with Oracle Automatic Storage Management, then ensure that you specify the correct logical device name for the disk.

      The disk names that you specify can contain uppercase letters, numbers, and the underscore character. They must start with an uppercase letter.

    • To create a database during the installation using the Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver, you must change the default disk discovery string to ORCL:*.

Administering the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Library Driver and Disks

To administer the Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver and disks, use the /usr/sbin/oracleasm initialization script with different options, as described in Table 3-2:

Table 3-2 Disk Management Tasks Using ORACLEASM

Task Command Example Description

Configure or reconfigure ASMLIB

oracleasm configure -i

Use the configure option to reconfigure the Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver, if necessary.

To see command options, enter oracleasm configure without the -i flag.

Change system restart load options for ASMLIB

oracleasm enable

Options are disable and enable.

Use the disable and enable options to change the actions of the Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver when the system starts. The enable option causes the Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver to load when the system starts.

Load or unload ASMLIB without restarting the system

oracleasm restart

Options are start, stop and restart.

Use the start, stop, and restart options to load or unload the Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver without restarting the system.

Mark a disk for use with ASMLIB

oracleasm createdisk VOL1 /dev/sda1

Use the createdisk option to mark a disk device for use with the Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver and give it a name, where labelname is the name you want to use to mark the device, and devicepath is the path to the device:

oracleasm createdisk labelname devicepath

Unmark a named disk device

oracleasm deletedisk VOL1

Use the deletedisk option to unmark a named disk device, where diskname is the name of the disk:

oracleasm deletedisk diskname

Caution: Do not use this command to unmark disks that are being used by an Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk group. You must delete the disk from the Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk group before you unmark it.

Determine if ASMLIB is using a disk device

oracleasm querydisk

Use the querydisk option to determine if a disk device or disk name is being used by the Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver, where diskname_devicename is the name of the disk or device that you want to query:

oracleasm querydisk diskname_devicename

List Oracle ASMLIB disks

oracleasm listdisks

Use the listdisks option to list the disk names of marked Oracle ASM library driver disks.

Identify disks marked as ASMLIB disks

oracleasm scandisks

Use the scandisks option to enable cluster nodes to identify which shared disks have been marked as ASMLIB disks on another node.

Rename ASMLIB disks

oracleasm renamedisk VOL1 VOL2

Use the renamedisk option to change the label of an Oracle ASM library driver disk or device by using the following syntax, where manager specifies the manager device, label_device specifies the disk you intend to rename, as specified either by OracleASM label name or by the device path, and new_label specifies the new label you want to use for the disk:

oracleasm renamedisk [-l manager] [-v] label_device new_label

Use the -v flag to provide a verbose output for debugging.

Caution: You must ensure that all Oracle Database and Oracle ASM instances have ceased using the disk before you relabel the disk. If you do not do this, then you may lose data.


3.7.4.2 Configuring Disk Devices Manually for Oracle Automatic Storage Management

By default, the 2.6 kernel device file naming scheme udev dynamically creates device file names when the server is started, and assigns ownership of them to root. If udev applies default settings, then it changes device file names and owners for the disks, corrupting them when an Oracle ASM instance is restarted. If you use ASMLIB, then you do not have to ensure permissions and device path persistency in udev.

If you do not use ASMLIB, then you must create a custom rules file. When udev is started, it sequentially carries out rules (configuration directives) defined in rules files. These files are in the path /etc/udev/rules.d/. Rules files are read in lexical order. For example, rules in the file 10-wacom.rules are parsed and carried out before rules in the rules file 90-ib.rules.

Where rules files describe the same devices, on Asianux, Red Hat, and Oracle Linux, the last file read is the one that is applied. On SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 2.6 kernels, the first file read is the one that is applied.

To configure a permissions file for disk devices, complete the following tasks:

  1. Configure SCSI devices as trusted devices, white listed, by editing the /etc/scsi_id.config file and adding "options=-g" to the file. For example:

    # cat > /etc/scsi_id.config
    vendor="ATA",options=-p 0x80
    options=-g
    
  2. Using a text editor, create a udev rules file for the Oracle ASM devices, setting permissions to 0660 for the installation owner and the group whose members are administrators of the grid infrastructure software.

    For example, on Oracle Linux, to create a role-based configuration rules.d file, where the installation owner is grid, and the OSASM group is asmadmin, enter commands similar to the following:

    # vi /etc/udev/rules.d/99-oracle-asmdevices.rules
    
    KERNEL=="sd?1", BUS=="scsi", PROGRAM=="/sbin/scsi_id",
    RESULT=="14f70656e66696c00000000", OWNER="grid", GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660"
    KERNEL=="sd?2", BUS=="scsi", PROGRAM=="/sbin/scsi_id",
    RESULT=="14f70656e66696c00000000", OWNER="grid", GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660"
    KERNEL=="sd?3", BUS=="scsi", PROGRAM=="/sbin/scsi_id",
    RESULT=="14f70656e66696c00000000", OWNER="grid", GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660"
    
  3. Load updated block device partition tables on the server using: /sbin/partprobe devicename. You must do this as the root user.

  4. Enter the command to restart the udev service.

    On Asianux, Oracle Linux 5, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5, the commands are:

    # /sbin/udevcontrol reload_rules
    # /sbin/start_udev
    

    On SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11, the command is:

    # /etc/init.d boot.udev restart
    

    Verify that your system is configured correctly.

3.8 Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure Using a Software-Only Installation

A software-only installation only copies the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server binaries to the specified location. Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server and Oracle ASM must be done manually after the installation is finished.

When you perform a software-only installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure software, you must complete a few manual configuration steps to enable Oracle Restart after you install the software.

Note:

Oracle recommends that only advanced users perform the software-only installation because this installation method provides no validation of the installation, and this installation option requires manual postinstallation steps to enable the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software.

Performing a software-only installation involves the following steps:

  1. Installing the Software Binaries

  2. Configuring the Software Binaries

3.8.1 Installing the Software Binaries

  1. Run the runInstaller command from the relevant directory on the Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) installation media or download directory.

  2. Complete a software-only installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure.

    See "Configuring the Software Binaries" for information about configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure after performing a software-only installation.

  3. Verify that the server meets the installation requirements using the command runcluvfy.sh stage -pre hacfg. Ensure that you complete all storage and server preinstallation requirements.

3.8.2 Configuring the Software Binaries

To configure and activate a software-only Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation for Oracle Restart, complete the following tasks:

  1. Login as root and run the roothas.pl script from Grid_home using the following syntax:

    Grid_home/perl/bin/perl -I Grid_home/perl/lib -I Grid_home/crs/install 
    Grid_home/crs/install/roothas.pl
    

    For example, if your Oracle Grid Infrastructure home is /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid, then run the following script:

    # /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid/perl/bin/perl -I /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid/perl/lib -I /u01/app/oracle/product
    /11.2.0/grid/crs/install /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid/crs/install/roothas.pl
    
  2. Change the directory to Grid_home/oui/bin, where Grid_home is the path of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home.

  3. Login as the Oracle Restart software owner user and enter the following command:

    ./runInstaller -updateNodeList ORACLE_HOME=Grid_home -defaultHomeName CLUSTER_NODES= CRS=TRUE
    

    For example:

    $ ./runInstaller -updateNodeList ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid
    -defaultHomeName CLUSTER_NODES= CRS=TRUE
    
  4. Use the SRVCTL utility along with Network Configuration Assistant and Oracle ASMCA to add the listener, the Oracle ASM instance, and all Oracle ASM disk groups to the Oracle Restart configuration.

3.9 Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server

If you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure and then create your database, the database is automatically added to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure configuration and is automatically restarted when required. However, if you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure on a host computer on which a database exists, you must manually add the database, the listener, the Oracle ASM instance, and other components to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure configuration.

Note:

Oracle Grid Infrastructure can accommodate multiple single-instance databases on a single host computer.

This section includes the following topics:

3.9.1 Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure with a New Database Installation

Perform the following steps to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure and then create a database that is managed by Oracle Restart. First install Oracle Grid Infrastructure, which installs Oracle Restart and Oracle ASM, then configure Oracle ASM with at least one disk group, and then install Oracle Database that stores database files in Oracle ASM disk groups. Click the help button on the Oracle Universal Installer page for page level assistance.

You may have to shut down existing Oracle processes before you proceed with the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. See "Stopping Existing Oracle Processes" for more information.

To install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server with a new database installation:

  1. Start Oracle Universal Installer as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner user. Complete one of the following steps depending on the location of the installation files:

    • If the installation files are on installation media, enter commands similar to the following, where directory_path is the path of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure directory on the installation media:

      $ /directory_path/runInstaller
      

      Note:

      You must install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure media.
    • If the installation files are on the hard disk, change the directory to the path of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure (clusterware) directory and enter the following command:

      $ ./runInstaller
      
    • Downloading Updates Before Installation

      Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2), if you plan to run the installation in a secured data center, then you can download updates before starting the installation by starting Oracle Universal Installer on a system that has Internet access in update download mode. To start Oracle Universal Installer to download updates, enter the following command:

      $ ./runInstaller -downloadUpdates
      

      Provide the My Oracle Support user name and password, and provide proxy settings if needed. After you download updates, transfer the update file to a directory on the server where you plan to run the installation.

      See Also:

    Note:

    Start Oracle Universal Installer from the terminal session where you logged in as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner user and set the user's environment.

    If Oracle Universal Installer is not displayed, see "X Window Display Errors" and "Remote Terminal Installation Error" for information about troubleshooting.

  2. Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2), you can use the Software Updates feature to dynamically download and apply the latest updates. In the Download Software Updates screen, select one of the following options and click Next:

    • Use My Oracle Support credentials for download: Select this option to download and apply the latest software updates.

      Click Proxy Settings to configure a proxy for Oracle Universal Installer to use to connect to the Internet. Provide the proxy server information for your site, along with a user account that has access to the local area network through which the server is connecting. Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.3) you can enter the Proxy Realm information. The proxy realm information is case-sensitive. If you do not have a proxy realm, then you do not have to provide an entry for the Proxy Username, Proxy Password, and Proxy Realm fields.

      Click Test Connection to ensure that your proxy settings are correctly entered, and the installer can download the updates.

    • Use pre-downloaded software updates: Select this option to apply the software updates previously downloaded using the -downloadUpdates flag.

    • Skip software updates: Select this option if you do not want to apply any updates.

  3. The Apply Software Updates screen is displayed if you select to download the software updates, or provide the pre-downloaded software updates location.

    1. If you selected Use My Oracle Support credentials for download in the previous screen, select Download and apply all updates, and then click Next to apply the updates.

      By default, the download location for software updates is placed in the home directory of the Oracle installation owner you are using to run this installation. If you choose to download the software updates in another location, then click Browse and select a different location on your server.

    2. If you selected Use pre-downloaded software updates in the previous screen, select Apply all updates, and then click Next to apply the updates downloaded before starting the installation.

  4. In the Select Installation Option screen, select the Configure Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server option to install and configure Oracle Restart and Oracle ASM. Click Next.

  5. In the Select Product Languages screen, select one or more languages. Move the languages from the Available Languages list to the Selected Languages list. Click Next.

  6. The Create ASM Disk Group screen lists all the Oracle ASM disks.

    Click Change Discovery Path to select any devices to be used by Oracle ASM but are not listed in the screen. In the Change Disk Discovery Path window, enter a string to use to search for devices that Oracle ASM will use. If the disk string is set to ORCL:* or is left empty (""), then the installer discovers these disks. Click OK.

    After you finish selecting the disks to be used by Oracle ASM, click Next.

    Note:

    During installation, disk paths mounted on Oracle ASM and registered on ASMLIB with the string ORCL:* are listed as default database storage candidate disks.

    Consider the following information about disk devices while performing this step:

    • The default Disk Group Name is DATA. You can enter a new name for the disk group, or use the default name.

    • The disk devices must be owned by the user performing the grid installation.

      See Also:

      "Example of a Rules File with User grid" for information about creating or modifying permissions
    • Check with your system administrator to determine if the disks used by Oracle ASM are mirrored at the storage level. If so, select External for the redundancy. If the disks are not mirrored at the storage level, then select Normal for the redundancy.

      Note:

      For normal redundancy, you require twice as much disk space to hold the same amount of data. For example, if your database is 100 GB, then you require approximately 200 GB of storage.
    • Every Oracle ASM disk is divided into allocation units (AU). An allocation unit is the fundamental unit of allocation within a disk group. Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.3), you can select the AU Size value from 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 or 64 MB, depending on the specific disk group compatibility level. The default value is set to 1 MB.

  7. In the Specify ASM Password screen, enter the password required to connect to the Oracle ASM instance. The Oracle ASM instance is managed by a privileged role called SYSASM, which grants full access to Oracle ASM disk groups. Oracle recommends that you create a less privileged user, ASMSNMP, with SYSDBA privileges to monitor the Oracle ASM instance.

    Enter passwords for the SYS and ASMSNMP user accounts. The passwords should be at least eight characters in length and include at least 1 alphabetic, 1 numeric, and 1 of the following three punctuation mark characters: hyphens (-), underscores (_), or number sign (#). No other special characters are allowed in the password field.

    Optionally, you can use the same password for all accounts. However, Oracle recommends that you specify a different password for each account. You must remember the passwords that you specify.

  8. In the Privileged Operating System Groups screen, select the name of the operating system group you created for the OSDBA group, the OSASM group, and the database operator group OSOPER. If you create only the dba group, then you can use that group for all three privileged groups. If you created a separate asmadmin group, then use that value for the OSASM group. Click Next.

  9. In the Specify Installation Location screen, enter the following information, and click Next:

    • Oracle Base: Enter the location for the Oracle base directory. Do not include spaces in the path.

    • Software Location: Accept the default value or enter the directory path in which you want to install the software.The directory path must not contain spaces..

    See Also:

  10. If you have not installed Oracle software previously on this server, the Create Inventory screen appears.

    Change the path for the Inventory Directory, if required. Select oinstall for the oraInventory Group Name, if required. Click Next.

  11. The Perform Prerequisite Checks screen checks if the minimum system requirements are met to perform the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. If all the system requirements are met, then you are directed to the Summary screen. If an installation fails, you can review the error.

    If you click Check Again, then you can run the prerequisite check again to see if the minimum requirements are met to carry on with the database installation.

    Click Fix & Check Again, if you want the installer to fix the problem and check the system requirements again.

    Note:

    The Fix & Check Again option generates a script that you must run as the root user. This generated script sets some system parameter values. Oracle recommends that you do not modify the contents of this script. See "Installation Fixup Scripts" for more information.

    To get a list of failed requirements, select Show Failed from the list. To get a list of all the prerequisites checks run by the OUI, select Show All. To get a list of the prerequisites checks that are successful, select Show Succeeded.

    Note:

    Oracle recommends that you use caution when selecting the Ignore All option. If you select this option, then Oracle Universal Installer may not confirm that your system can install Oracle Database successfully.
  12. Review the contents of the Summary screen, and click Install.

    Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), you can click Save Response File to save all the installation steps into a response file. This file can be used for a silent installation.

  13. The Install Product screen displays the progress of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. During the installation process, the Execute Configuration Scripts window appears. Do not click OK until you run the scripts mentioned in this screen.

    Run the root.sh and, if required, the orainstRoot.sh configuration scripts as the root user.

  14. The Finish screen displays the installation status. Click Close to end the installation, then click Yes to exit Oracle Universal Installer.

    If you encounter any problems, see the configuration log for information. The path to the configuration log is displayed on the Configuration Assistants window.

  15. Oracle ASMCA is installed as part of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server installation. To create additional disk groups, run the Oracle ASMCA utility. For example, you can create another disk group named RECOVERY to store the fast recovery area.

    Note:

    To verify that the Oracle High Availability Service is installed properly, run ./crsctl check has command from Grid_home/bin directory.

    Grid_home is the path to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home for a standalone server. ohasd is a daemon installed with Oracle Grid Infrastructure that starts software services, such as Oracle ASM.

  16. Install Oracle Database. See "Installing the Oracle Database Software".

    Note:

    • If a new database is installed after a grid infrastructure installation, then the listener runs from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home. Because Oracle ASM is installed as part of Oracle Grid Infrastructure, the default listener is created and runs from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home. If you perform a database installation, then the database must use the same listener created during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.

    • If you are using Oracle Restart, then the default listener and any additional listeners must run from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home.

    See "Troubleshooting and Deconfiguring Oracle Restart" to deconfigure Oracle Restart without removing installed binaries.

3.9.2 Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for an Existing Database

Follow the high-level instructions in this section to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure and configure it for an existing Oracle database. Oracle Restart can only manage existing release 11.2 resources and hence you can install Oracle Grid Infrastructure only for an existing release 11.2 database. However, Oracle database releases before 11.2 can coexist on the same server without being managed by Oracle Restart.

To install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for an existing database:

  • On the same host computer as the database, use Oracle Universal Installer to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure, and select Configure Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server as the installation option.

    The Oracle Grid Infrastructure components are installed in a separate Oracle home.

    See "Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure with a New Database Installation" for detailed instructions.

  • Go to the Grid home's bin directory.

    Use the srvctl add database command with the -c SINGLE flag to add the database in an Oracle Restart configuration. Also use the srvctl add command to add the listener, the Oracle ASM instance, all Oracle ASM disk groups, and any database services to the Oracle Restart configuration.

    See Also:

    "srvctl add" in Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information

3.10 Modifying Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Binaries

After the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server installation, you must first stop the Oracle Restart stack to modify the software installed in your Grid home. For example, to apply a one-off patch or modify any of the DLLs used by Oracle Restart or Oracle ASM, you must follow these steps to stop and restart the Oracle Restart stack.

However, if you run the OPatch utility with the auto option, opatchauto, then do not stop and restart the Oracle Restart stack manually as OPatch stops and starts the software stack for you. If you run OPatch with the apply option, opatch apply, then you must follow the steps in this section to stop and restart the Oracle Restart stack manually.

See Also:

Oracle OPatch User's Guide for Windows and UNIX for information about using opatchauto

Caution:

Before relinking executables, you must shut down all executables that run in the Oracle home directory that you are relinking. In addition, shut down applications linked with Oracle shared libraries.

Prepare the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server home for modification using the following procedure:

  1. Log in as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner user and change the directory to the path Grid_home/bin, where Grid_home is the path to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home:

    $ cd Grid_home/bin
    
  2. Shut down the Oracle Restart stack using the following command:

    $ crsctl stop has -f
    
  3. After the Oracle Restart stack is shut down, perform the updates to the software installed in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home.

  4. Use the following command to restart the Oracle Restart stack:

    $ crsctl start has
    

Relink Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server using the following procedure:

  1. Login as root

    # cd Grid_home/crs/install
    # perl roothas.pl -unlock
    
  2. Log in as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server owner:

    $ export ORACLE_HOME=Grid_home
    $ Grid_home/bin/relink
    
  3. Login as root again:

    # cd Grid_home/rdbms/install/
    # ./rootadd_rdbms.sh
    # cd Grid_home/crs/install
    # perl roothas.pl -patch
    

    You must relink the Oracle Restart and Oracle ASM binaries every time you apply an operating system patch or after an operating system upgrade.

3.11 Manually Configuring Oracle Automatic Storage Management Disk Groups

The Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA) utility creates a new Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance if there is no Oracle ASM instance currently configured on the computer.

After installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure, you can also use Oracle ASMCA to create and configure disk groups, Oracle Oracle ADVM and Oracle ACFS.

To create additional disk groups or manually configure Oracle ASM disks, you can run the Oracle ASMCA as follows:

$ cd Grid_home/bin
$ ./asmca

Grid_home is the path to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home for a standalone server.

3.12 Testing the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation

To test the Oracle ASM installation, login using the asmcmd command-line utility, which lets you manage Oracle ASM disk group files and directories. To do this:

  1. Open a shell window, and temporarily set the ORACLE_SID and ORACLE_HOME environment variables to specify the appropriate values for the Oracle ASM instance to use.

    For example, if the Oracle ASM SID is named +ASM and the Oracle home is located in the grid subdirectory of the ORACLE_BASE directory, then enter the following commands to create the required settings:

    • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

      $ ORACLE_SID=+ASM
      $ export ORACLE_SID
      $ ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid
      $ export ORACLE_HOME
      
    • C shell:

      % setenv ORACLE_SID +ASM
      % setenv ORACLE_HOME /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid
      
  2. Use ASMCMD to list the disk groups for the Oracle ASM instance:

    $ORACLE_HOME/bin/asmcmd lsdg
    

    ASMCMD connects by default as the SYS user with SYSASM privileges.

    If the Oracle ASM instance is not running, you can start the instance with the following:

    $ORACLE_HOME/bin/asmcmd startup