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Oracle® Database Installation and Administration Guide
11g Release 2 (11.2) for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD

E27508-03
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B Oracle Environment Variables

This appendix describes variables that can be specified in the ORAENV file or the POSIX shell. Oracle parameters, such as ORACLE_SID and NLS_LANG, may be specified in the ORAENV file or POSIX shell.If you use a ORAENV file, then you must follow the ORAENV rules for specifying environment variables as described in the following sections. In the POSIX shell, you must follow the UNIX rules to set and export the environment variables.

The following table describes the variables that are categorized into three classes.

Class Description
DBA These variables are for database administration purposes. Most DBA variables are evaluated only during database startup.
USER These variables can be specified by ordinary users as well as by the DBA. When these variables are specified in a particular user's ORAENV file, they modify that user's environment only.
NET These variables apply to Oracle Net Services components. These variables should be included in the ORAENV file of the DBA.

The class (or classes) to which a variable belongs is noted in the variable descriptions in this appendix.

Any DBA or NET variables specified in an ordinary user's ORAENV file are ignored.

B.1 ORAENV Rules

You should consider the following general rules when writing ORAENV files:

  • All lines which begin with a slash or asterisk (/ or *) are ignored.

  • All variable names must be written in uppercase.

  • Spaces must not be included immediately before and after the equals sign (=).

  • Do not enclose values in quotation marks unless you want the quotation marks to be part of the value.

  • Since the variable list is conceptually open ended, errors in variable names are not recognized. This means that the value of any variable whose name is mis-typed is not modified.

  • There is only limited checking of variable assignments. An incorrect value may generate an error message, but may also be interpreted as a null value.

  • When variable assignments refer to other variables, BS2000 command file substitution syntax applies. Substitution takes place when a variable is actually used, not when it is read from the ORAENV file.

    For example:

    ORAUID=$ORAC1120
    SQLPATH=&ORAUID..RDBMS.ADMIN
    

    assigns the value $ORAC1120.RDBMS.ADMIN to the variable SQLPATH. If ORAUID is changed, then SQLPATH automatically reflects the new value.

  • The sequence of items in the ORAENV file is not generally significant. If an item occurs more than once, then the last occurrence is used.

  • If no value is given for a variable, then the default value is used, if it exists.

B.2 Built-in Variables

The following variables are always defined, and may be referenced in other variable assignments:

B.2.1 LOGNAME

The LOGNAME variable always contains the current BS2000 user ID. You cannot alter the value of this variable by assigning a different value to it in the ORAENV file.

B.2.2 ORAUID

This variable specifies the BS2000 user ID where the Oracle Database programs, installation and demonstration files are installed. The initial value is derived from the ORALOAD link name (the user ID part of the ORALOAD library name). This value is usually correct, but if necessary, you can override it by assigning a different value to it in the ORAENV file.

Format: ORAUID=$userid or ORAUID=/BS2/$userid

B.2.3 PGM

The PGM variable always contains the last part of the current START_PROGRAM program name. You cannot alter the value of this variable by assigning a different value to it in the ORAENV file.

B.2.4 TERM

The TERM variable contains the terminal type, and defaults to 'SNI9750'. This default value is usually correct, but if necessary, you can override it by assigning a different value to it in the ORAENV file.

B.2.5 TSN

The TSN variable contains the task sequence number of the current task. You cannot alter the value of this variable by assigning a different value to it in the ORAENV file.

B.3 General Variables

The following variables are for general, day-to-day use by Oracle DBAs and users.

B.3.1 CLN_BASE

This variable specifies the address of the shared code pool of customer written database applications for CORE, NLS, and NET.

Format:

CLN_BASE=address

Classification:

USER

Default:

CLN_BASE=37M

B.3.2 CLN_MPID

This variable specifies the identification of the shared code pool of customer written database applications for CORE, NLS, and NET.

Format:

CLN_MPID=sid

Classification:

USER

Default:

CLN_MPID=&ORASID

B.3.3 DEFAULT_CONNECTION

This variable provides a default host string for connect requests where no host string is specified. If you always connect to the same database, then it may be convenient to specify this. This value should contain everything you would otherwise specify after the "@" character.

Format: DEFAULT_CONNECTION=host-string

Classification: USER

Example:

DEFAULT_CONNECTION=TNS:
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=
(PROTOCOL=TCP)
(HOST=MADRID)
(PORT=1521))
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SERVICE_NAME=PROD)))

B.3.4 EXP_CLIB_FILE_IO

This variable should be set to FALSE when you use the Export utility to overcome a problem with the C library functions when an export file is written to tape.

Format: EXP_CLIB_FILE_IO=FALSE

Classification: USER

Default: EXP_CLIB_FILE_IO=TRUE

B.3.5 IMP_CLIB_FILE_IO

This variable should be set to FALSE when you use the Import utility to overcome a problem with the C library functions when an import file is read from tape.

Format: IMP_CLIB_FILE_IO=FALSE

Classification: USER

Default: IMP_CLIB_FILE_IO=TRUE

B.3.6 NLS_LANG

This variable specifies the default language and character set. For example:

NLS_LANG=GERMAN_GERMANY.D8BS2000

Format: NLS_LANG=language_territory.character-set

Classification: USER, DBA

Default: NLS_LANG=AMERICAN_AMERICA.WE8BS2000

B.3.7 OPS_JID

This variable is used for concatenation with the OS_AUTHENT_PREFIX, refer to initialization parameter. The default value concatenates the value of the parameter OS_AUTHENT_PREFIX with the BS2000 user ID. Using OPS_JID, you can specify that the BS2000 jobname, /.jobname LOGON..., is used instead. This is useful when many users are sharing one BS2000 user ID.

Format: OPS_JID=userid/jobname

Classification: DBA

Default: userid

B.3.8 ORASID

This variable defines the database that is used if no database identification is given at connect time.This variable is a synonym of the ORACLE_SID variable.

Format: ORASID=sid (sid is a characterstring where 1 <= length <= 4)

Classification: USER, DBA

Note:

Oracle recommends that you use the ORACLE_SID variable.

B.3.9 PRINTPAR

This variable specifies optional variables for the /PRINT command issued for SPOOL OUT spool files. Using this variable, the user can modify the spooled job, and, for example, route the job to a remote printer, add print options for laser printers, and so on. The BS2000 /PRINT command for spool files is issued as follows:

/PRINT temp.spoolfile,&PRINTPAR

Format: PRINTPAR=print-options

Classification: USER

B.3.10 SQLPATH

This variable specifies a path where SQL*Plus looks for command files. Elements of the path are separated by semicolons (;). For example:

SQLPATH=PRIVATE;$ORAC1120

This assignment causes SQL*Plus to look for filename.SQL, then for PRIVATE.filename.SQL, and finally for $ORAC1120.filename.SQL.

Format: SQLPATH=search-path

Classification: USER, DBA

B.3.11 SSSIDPWF

This variable specifies the password file for remote instance start. For further information, refer to Chapter 5, " Administering Oracle Database".

Format: SSSIDPWF=password-file

Classification: DBA

B.4 DBA Startup Variables

The following variables are used during database and network startup. They supplement (and in some cases provide defaults for) variables contained in the initialization file.

Oracle recommends that database startup and shutdown, background jobs, and network jobs should all refer to the same ORAENV file to ensure that the variables are consistent.

Note that the default values listed in the following section are built-in defaults, most of them are over-ridden by settings in the shipped DEMO.P.ORAENV.

B.4.1 Address and Size Specification

Several of the variables described in this section define memory addresses and sizes. The notation used to specify these items is as follows:

  • A number with no modifiers is interpreted as a decimal number

  • A number followed by K or M is interpreted as a decimal number multiplied by 1024 or 1048576 (1024*1024) respectively

  • A number enclosed in single quotation marks and preceded by the letter X is interpreted as a hexadecimal number

For example, the following all set the KNL_BASE variable to 8M:

KNL_BASE=8M
KNL_BASE=8388608
KNL_BASE=X'800000'

B.4.2 BGJPAR

This variable specifies the parameters for the ENTER-PROCEDURE command used when starting background jobs. The ENTER-PROCEDURE command is used to submit jobs as follows:

.jobname ENTER-PROCEDURE jobfile, &BGJPAR

Format: BGJPAR=parameters

Classification: DBA

Note:

The BGJPAR variable is set up by the installation procedure.

B.4.3 BGJPRC_UID / BGJPRC_SID

These variables specify the user ID and orasid of the file for the background enter jobs. If the use of a special enter job file is desired, then the parameters must be set to the desired userid and orasid.

Format:

BGJPRC_UID=$userid
BGJPRC_SID=sid

Classification: DBA, NET

Default:

BGJPRC_UID=&ORAUID
BGJPRC_SID=DEMO

B.4.4 BGJ_LOG_JOBSTART

This variable specifies whether the operating system message that a new job was accepted should be logged on SYSOUT or not.

Format: BGJ_LOG_JOBSTART=Y/N

Classification: DBA,USER, NET

Default: BGJ_LOG_JOBSTART=N

B.4.5 sid_BGJPAR

This variable specifies the parameters, which are used by the ENTER-PROCEDURE command to start a server process for the instance specified by SID.

Format: sid_BGJPAR=parameters

Syntax: sid is a string of at the most 4 alphanumeric characters

parameters is the parameters for the ENTER-PROCEDURE command as described in the BS2000/OSD commands

Classification: DBA,USER, NET

B.4.6 sid_USER

This variable specifies the USER-ID where the instance assigned by SID resides.

Format: sid_USER=userid

Syntax: sid is a string of at the most 4 alphanumeric characters

userid is a string of at most 8 alphanumeric characters which follows the rules of a BS2000/OSD USER-ID

Classification: DBA,USER, NET

B.4.7 user_ACCOUNT/ user_PASSWORD

user_ACCOUNT or user_PASSWORD define credentials of a USER-ID, which are used by the ENTER-PROCEDURE command to start a process.

Format: user_ACCOUNT=account

user_PASSWORD=password

Syntax: user is a string of at the most 8 alphanumeric characters, which follows the rules of a BS2000/OSD USER-ID and must match a USER-ID defined by the parameter sid_USER.

account is a string of at the most 8 alphanumeric characters, which follows the rules for a BS2000/OSD account number.

password is a string of at the most 8 alphanumeric characters, which follows the rules for a BS2000/OSD password.

Classification: DBA, NET

B.4.8 COM_MPID

This parameter specifies the identification of the shared code pool of the Oracle instance for CORE, NLS, and NET.

Format: COM_MPID=sid

Classification: DBA

Default: COM_MPID=&ORASID

B.4.9 COM_BASE

This parameter specifies the address of the shared code pool of the Oracle instance for CORE and NLS.

Format: COM_BASE=address

Classification: DBA

Default: COM_BASE=37M

B.4.10 JOBID

This variable is used internally in identifying the background tasks and generating task-specific names. You see it in some places, but you should never specify it yourself.

Classification: DBA

B.4.11 KNL_BASE

This variable gives the base address where the shared memory pool is mapped in memory. This must be an integral number of megabytes.

Format: KNL_BASE=address

Classification: DBA

Default: KNL_BASE=72M

B.4.12 ORACLE_HOME

The Oracle home directory is the directory in the POSIX file system which contains the installation of the software for a particular Oracle product.

Format: ORACLE_HOME=/path-name

Classification: DBA, USER

B.4.13 PGA_BASE

This variable specifies the base address of the fixed part of the PGA. The PGA is task-specific, but must be located at a fixed memory address so that the kernel can access it. The base address must lie on a 64KB boundary.

Format: PGA_BASE=address

Classification: DBA

Default: PGA_BASE=189M

Note:

The value of PGA_BASE is taken from the kernel if the shared kernel is already loaded.

B.4.14 PGA_SIZE

This variable specifies the size of the fixed part of the PGA. This variable should not be changed from its default value.

Format: PGA_SIZE=size

Classification: DBA

Default: PGA_SIZE=64K

Note:

The value of PGA_SIZE is taken from the kernel if the shared kernel is already loaded.

B.4.15 SF_PBLKSIZE

This variable specifies the physical blocksize of redo log files.

Format: SF_PBLKSIZE=2K|4K

Classification: DBA

Default: 2K

Note:

This variable cannot be changed after database creation. Once you specify a value different from the default, you must specify it in all future calls.

B.4.16 SGA_BASE

This variable gives the address where the SGA is mapped into memory, and must represent a megabyte-boundary.

Format: SGA_BASE=address

Classification: DBA

Default: SGA_BASE=190M

Note:

The value of SGA_BASE is read from the kernel if the shared kernel is already loaded. There is no corresponding SGA_SIZE variable; the size of the SGA memory pool is calculated when the database is started.

B.5 Oracle Net Services Variables

The following are the Oracle Net Services variables:

B.5.1 BREAK_HANDLING

This variable deactivates the signal routine for user interrupts, which sends a break over the network. An interrupt can be released by pressing the [K2] key.

Format:

BREAK_HANDLING=ON|OFF

Classification:

DBA, USER, NET

Default:

BREAK_HANDLING=ON

B.5.2 TNS_ADMIN

This variable specifies the user ID of the Oracle Net Services configuration files, for example, LISTENER.ORA, TNSNAMES.ORA and SQLNET.ORA. If TNS_ADMIN is not defined, then the configuration files are searched under the local user ID with the prefix NETWORK.ADMIN.

Format: TNS_ADMIN=$userid

Classification: DBA, USER, NET

B.5.3 TNS_BEQ_TIMEOUT

This variable specifies the time after which a connection between a parent and a child process is closed if there is no communication between them.

Format: TNS_BEQ_TIMEOUT=lifetime (in seconds)

Classification: NET

Default: TNS_BEQ_TIMEOUT=180

B.5.4 TNS_UPDATE_IPNODE

This variable forces the Oracle Net software to change always the server's IP-Node name to an IP-Node address.

Format: TNS_UPDATE_IPNODE=TRUE/FALSE

Classification: NET

Default: TNS_UPDATE_IPNODE=FALSE