2 Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks

This chapter describes the system configuration tasks that you must complete before you start Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster, and that you may need to complete if you intend to install Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) on the cluster.

This chapter contains the following topics:

2.1 Installation Differences Between Windows and Linux or UNIX

If you are experienced with installing Oracle components in Linux or UNIX environments, then note that many manual setup tasks required on Linux or UNIX are not required on Windows. The key differences between Windows and Linux or UNIX and installations are:

  • Environment variables

    On Windows systems, OUI updates the PATH environment variable during installation, and does not require other environment variables to be set, such as ORACLE_BASE, ORACLE_HOME, and ORACLE_SID. On Linux and UNIX systems, you must manually set these environment variables.

  • Operating System Groups

    On Windows systems, OUI creates the ORA_DBA group, which is used for operating system authentication for Oracle instances. On Linux and UNIX systems, you must create this and other operating system groups manually, and they are used for granting permission to access various Oracle software resources and for operating system authentication. Windows does not use an Oracle Inventory group.

  • Account for running OUI

    On Windows systems, you log in as the Administrator user or as a user that is a member of the local Administrators group. You do not need a separate account. On Linux and UNIX systems, you must create and use a software owner user account, and this user must belong to the Oracle Inventory group.

See Also:

"Oracle Database Windows/UNIX Differences," in Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows

2.2 Reviewing Upgrade Best Practices

Caution:

Always create a backup of existing databases before starting any configuration change.

If you have an existing Oracle installation, then record the release numbers, patches, and other configuration information. Before proceeding with installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure, review the Oracle upgrade documentation to decide the best method of upgrading your current software installation.

Note:

To upgrade Oracle Clusterware release 10.2 to Oracle Clusterware Release 11g, you must first apply the 10.2.0.3 or later patch set.

You can upgrade a clustered Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) installation without shutting down an Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) database by performing a rolling upgrade either of individual nodes, or of a set of nodes in the cluster. However, if you have a standalone database on a cluster that uses Oracle ASM, then you must shut down the standalone database before upgrading.

If you have an existing standalone, or non-clustered, Oracle ASM installation, then review Oracle upgrade documentation. The location of the Oracle ASM home changes in this release, and you may want to consider other configuration changes to simplify or customize storage administration. If you have an existing Oracle ASM home from a previous release, then it should be owned by the same user that you plan to use to upgrade Oracle Clusterware.

During rolling upgrades of the operating system, Oracle supports using different operating system binaries when both versions of the operating system are certified with the Oracle Database release you are using.

Note:

Using mixed operating system versions is only supported for the duration of an upgrade, over the period of a few hours. Oracle Clusterware does not support nodes that have processors that use different instruction sets in the same cluster. Each node must be binary compatible with the other nodes in the cluster. For example, you cannot have one node using an Intel 64 processor and another node using an Itanium processor in the same cluster. You could have one node using an Intel 64 processor and another node using an AMD64 processor in the same cluster because the processors use the same x86-64 instruction set and run the same Oracle software executable files.

Your cluster can have nodes with processors of different manufacturers, speeds, or sizes, but this is not recommended.

To find the most recent software updates, and to find best practices recommendations about preupgrade, postupgrade, compatibility, and interoperability, refer to "Oracle Upgrade Companion." "Oracle Upgrade Companion" is available through Note 785351.1 on My Oracle Support:

https://support.oracle.com

2.3 Logging In To a Remote Windows Server

During installation, you are required to perform tasks as an Administrator user on the cluster nodes. Complete the following procedure for user accounts that you want to enable for remote display.

This section contains these topics:

2.3.1 Windows Telnet Services Support

You can use a Telnet Service to enable users to log on to the operating system of a remote server and run console programs using the command line. Oracle supports the use of database command line utilities such as sqlplus, export, import and sqlldr using this feature, but does not support the database graphical user interface (GUI) tools such as OUI, Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA), and Oracle Net Configuration Assistant (NETCA).

Caution:

Because of the unencrypted nature of the telnet data stream and the fact that your username and password are also sent unencrypted over the network, using telnet is considered a security vulnerability. You can use Remote Desktop Services instead.

Note:

Ensure that the Telnet service is installed and started.

2.3.2 Configuring Remote Desktop Services and Remote Desktop Connections

Microsoft changed the name from Terminal Services to Remote Desktop Services with the release of Windows Server 2008 R2. Microsoft also introduced the Remote Desktop Connections client, which can be used to connect to a Windows server that has Terminal Services installed.

On Windows, Oracle supports installing, configuring, and running Oracle Database software through Remote Desktop Services (formerly known as Terminal Services). If you do not use Terminal Services in console mode, then you might encounter problems with configuration assistants after the installation or with starting Oracle Clusterware components after installation.

Starting Terminal Services on Windows Server 2003 Systems

For Windows Server 2003, to start Terminal Services in console mode, enter the following command:

mstsc /v:servername /f /console

When you use the /console switch, you are connected to the physical console session (also known as session 0) on the remote server.

Connecting with Remote Desktop Connection Client on Windows Server 2003 or Windows Server 2003 R2 Systems

If you use a Remote Desktop Connection client version 6.1 or later with Windows Server 2003 or Windows Server 2003 R2 to connect to a server that is running Terminal Services, then you use the /admin switch instead of the /console switch. The following example shows how to connect to the remote server node4 using the Remote Desktop Connection client on a Windows 2003 server:

mstsc /v:node4 /f /admin

Connecting with Remote Desktop Connection Client on Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2, or Windows Server 2012 Systems

Due to changes implemented in Windows Server 2008, you no longer need to connect to session 0 for installation. Use the Remote Desktop Connection client, but do not specify the /console switch, as shown in the following example:

mstsc /v:servername /f

2.4 Checking Hardware and Software Certification on My Oracle Support

The hardware and software requirements included in this installation guide were current at the time this guide was published. However, because new platforms and operating system software versions might be certified after this guide is published, review the certification matrix on the My Oracle Support web site for the most up-to-date list of certified hardware platforms and operating system versions. This web site also provides compatible client and database versions, patches, and workaround information for bugs.

You can view certification on both Oracle Technology Network (OTN) and My Oracle Support.

The OTN certification page can be found on the following web site:

http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/clustering/overview/index.html

You can view hardware certification details for Microsoft Windows platforms on Oracle Technology Network, at the following URL:

http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/clustering/tech-generic-windows-new-166584.html

My Oracle Support contains guidance about supported hardware options that can assist you with your purchasing decisions and installation planning. The My Oracle Support certifications page contains more detailed information about certified hardware and has information specific to each release and platform. My Oracle Support is available at the following URL:

http://support.oracle.com/

You must register online before using My Oracle Support. To locate the certification information for your platform, click the Certifications tab. Select Microsoft Windows x64 (64-bit) as the Platform/Version to limit the search results.

Note:

Contact your Oracle sales representative if you do not have a My Oracle Support account.

2.5 Checking the Hardware Requirements

When selecting servers to act as nodes in your cluster, select servers that have the same type of processors, or processors that use the same instruction set; running x86 and x64 Oracle software versions in the same cluster stack is not supported. Each server must run the same operating system and Oracle executable files. However, Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC support servers with different hardware in the same cluster.Each system must meet the following minimum hardware requirements:

Table 2-1 Minimum Hardware Requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation

Hardware Component Requirements

Memory (RAM)

Oracle Grid Infrastructure installations: At least 5 gigabyte (GB) of physical RAM for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster installations, including installations where you plan to install Oracle RAC. This includes additional space for Cluster Health Monitor (CHM) and the Oracle ACFS files.

Virtual memory (swap)

1.5 times the amount of RAM, with a suggested maximum size of 32 GB

Video adapter

256 color and at least 1024 x 768 display resolution, so that OUI displays correctly

Processor

  • x64: Intel Extended Memory 64 Technology (EM64T) or AMD 64

The minimum processor speed is 1 gigahertz (GHz) for all supported Windows Servers except for Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2012, where the minimum supported processor speed is 1.4 GHz


Note:

While Oracle Database for Microsoft Windows can run on supported x86 systems, Oracle Real Application Clusters, Oracle Clusterware, and Oracle Automatic Storage Management are only supported on x64 Windows systems.

To determine the amount of available memory (RAM):

To determine the physical RAM size, open System in the control panel and select the General tab.

To check the configured virtual memory:

To determine the size of the configured virtual memory (also known as paging file size) perform the following steps:

  1. Open the Control Panel and select System.

  2. Select the Advanced tab and then click Settings in the Performance section.

  3. In the Performance Options window, click the Advanced tab to see the virtual memory configuration.

If necessary, refer to your operating system documentation for information about how to configure additional virtual memory.

To determine the operating system and processor type (x86, x64, or Itanium):

To determine whether your computer is running a x64 Windows operating system, perform the following steps:

  1. Right-click My Computer and select Properties.

  2. On the General tab, under the heading of System, view the displayed text.

    • On Windows Server 2003 and Windows Server 2003 R2, you will see text similar to "x64 Edition" if you have the x64 version of the operating system installed.

    • On Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2, or Windows Server 2012, you will see text similar to "64-bit Operating System" if you have the x64 version of the operating system installed.

To determine the type and speed of the processor:

To view your processor speed, perform the following steps:

  1. From the Start menu, select Run ... In the Run window, type in msinfo32.exe.

  2. In the System Summary display, locate the System Type entry. If the value for System Type is x64-based PC, then you have an x64 system. If the value for System Type is x86-based PC, then you have an x86 system.

  3. Locate the Processor entry. If necessary, scroll to the right until you can see the end of the Processor value. The last part of this string shows the processor speed, for example, ~2612 megahertz (MHz), which corresponds to 2.61 GHz.

2.6 Checking the Network Requirements

Review the following sections to check that you have the networking hardware and internet protocol (IP) addresses required for an Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster installation:

Note:

For the most up-to-date information about supported network protocols and hardware for Oracle RAC installations, refer to the Certify pages on the My Oracle Support web site. See Section 2.4, "Checking Hardware and Software Certification on My Oracle Support" for instructions.

2.6.1 Network Hardware Requirements

The following is a list of requirements for network configuration:

  • The host name of each node must use only the characters a-z, A-Z, 0-9, and the dash or minus sign (-). Host names using underscores (_) are not allowed.

  • Each node must have at least two network adapters or network interface cards (NICs): one for the public network interface, and one for the private network interface, or the interconnect. Each network adapter is referred to by its network connection name.

    To configure multiple public network adapters, use a third-party technology for your platform to aggregate the multiple public network adapters before you start installation, and then select the single network connection name for the combined network adapters as the public interface. Oracle recommends that you do not identify multiple public network connection names during Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. Note that if you configure two network adapters as public network adapters in the cluster without using an aggregation technology, the failure of one public network adapter on a node does not result in automatic VIP failover to the other public network adapter.

  • The private and public network connection names must be different from each other and cannot contain any multibyte language characters. The names are case-sensitive.

  • If you use OUI to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure, then the public network connection names associated with the public network adapters for each network must be the same on all nodes, and the private network connection names associated with the private network adapters must be the same on all nodes.

    For example, if you have a two-node cluster, you cannot configure network adapters on node1 with NIC1 as the public network connection name and on node2 have NIC2 as the public network connection name. Public network connection names must be the same, so you must configure NIC1 as the public network connection name on both nodes. You must also use the same network connection name for the private network adapters for each network. If PrivNIC is the private network connection name for node1, then PrivNIC must be the private network connection name for node2.

  • In Windows Networking Properties, the public network connection on each node must be listed first in the binding order (the order in which network services access the node). The private network connection should be listed second.

    To ensure that your public adapter is first in the binding order, follow these steps:

    1. Right click My Network Places and choose Properties.

    2. In the Advanced menu, click Advanced Settings.

    3. If the public network connection name is not the first name listed under the Adapters and Bindings tab, then select it and click the arrow to move it to the top of the list.

    4. Click OK to save the settings and then exit the network setup dialog.

  • For the public network, each network adapter must support transmission control protocol and internet protocol (TCP/IP).

  • Oracle Grid Infrastructure does not support the IPv6 protocol, so the IPv6 components must be disabled prior to installation. See "Disable IPv6 Components" for details.

  • For the private network, the network adapters must support the user datagram protocol (UDP) using high-speed network adapters and switches that support TCP/IP (minimum requirement is 1 Gigabit Ethernet).

    Note:

    UDP is the default interconnect protocol for Oracle RAC, and TCP is the interconnect protocol for Oracle Clusterware. You must use a switch for the interconnect. Oracle recommends that you use a dedicated switch.

    Oracle does not support token-rings or crossover cables for the interconnect.

  • Windows Media Sensing must be disabled for the private network adapters.

    To disable Windows Media Sensing for TCP/IP, you must set the value of the DisableDHCPMediaSense parameter to 1 on each node. Because you must modify the Windows registry to disable Media Sensing, you should first backup the registry and confirm that you can restore it, using the methods described in your Windows documentation. Disable Media Sensing by completing the following steps on each node of your cluster:

    1. Backup the Windows registry.

    2. Use Registry Editor (Regedt32.exe) to view the following key in the registry:

      HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters
      
    3. Add the following registry value of type DWORD:

      Value Name: DisableDHCPMediaSense
      Data Type: REG_DWORD -Boolean
      Value: 1
      
    4. Restart the computer.

  • Deselect Automatic Registration with DNS for the Public Network Interface on Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2, or Windows Server 2012 servers.

    If you are using Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2, or Windows Server 2012, then for the Publilc Network interface, you must deselect Register this connection's addresses in DNS to avoid issues with host, VIP and SCAN IP bindings when you restart the server. Refer to Section 1.2.2.6, "Deselect Automatic Registration with DNS for the Public Network Interface" for instructions. Make sure you perform this procedure on each node of your cluster.

  • If you are using Windows Server 2012, then manually configure the Automatic Metric value for the public and private network interface, as described in Section 1.2.2.7, "Manually Configure Automatic Metric Values."

  • Each node's private interface for interconnects must be on the same subnet, and those subnets must connect to every node of the cluster. For example, if the private interfaces have a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0, then your private network is in the range 192.168.0.0--192.168.0.255, and your private addresses must be in the range of 192.168.0.[0-255]. If the private interfaces have a subnet mask of 255.255.0.0, then your private addresses can be in the range of 192.168.[0-255].[0-255].

  • For the private network adapters, the endpoints of all designated network connection names must be completely reachable on the network. There should be no node that is not connected to every other node on the private network. You can test if an interconnect interface is reachable using ping.

2.6.2 IP Address Requirements

Before starting the installation, you must have at least two network adapters configured on each node: One for the private IP address and one for the public IP address.

You can configure IP addresses with one of the following options:

  • Dynamic IP address assignment using Oracle Grid Naming Service (GNS). If you select this option, then network administrators assign static IP address for the physical host name and dynamically allocated IPs for the Oracle Clusterware managed VIP addresses. In this case, IP addresses for the VIPs are assigned by a DHCP and resolved using a multicast domain name server configured as part of Oracle Clusterware within the cluster. If you plan to use GNS, then you must have the following:

    • A DHCP service running on the public network for the cluster

    • Enough addresses on the DHCP to provide 1 IP address for each node's virtual IP, and 3 IP addresses for the cluster used by the Single Client Access Name (SCAN) for the cluster

  • Static IP address assignment. If you select this option, then network administrators assign a fixed IP address for each physical host name in the cluster and for IPs for the Oracle Clusterware managed VIPs. In addition, domain name system (DNS) based static name resolution is used for each node. Selecting this option requires that you request network administration updates when you modify the cluster.

Note:

Oracle recommends that you use a static host name for all server node public host names.

Public IP addresses and virtual IP addresses must be in the same subnet.

2.6.2.1 IP Address Requirements with Grid Naming Service

If you enable GNS, then name resolution requests to the cluster are delegated to the GNS, which listens on the GNS VIP address. You define this address in the DNS domain before installation. The DNS must be configured to delegate resolution requests for cluster names (any names in the subdomain delegated to the cluster) to the GNS. When a request comes to the domain, GNS processes the requests and responds with the appropriate addresses for the name requested.

To use GNS, before installation the DNS administrator must establish DNS Lookup to direct DNS resolution of a subdomain to the cluster. If you enable GNS, then you must have a DHCP server on the public network that allows the cluster to dynamically allocate the VIP addresses as required by the cluster.

See Also:

"DNS Configuration for Domain Delegation to Grid Naming Service" for information on how to configure DNS delegation

2.6.2.2 IP Address Requirements for Manual Configuration

If you do not enable GNS, then the public and VIP addresses for each node must be static IP addresses, configured before installation for each node, but not currently in use. Public and VIP addresses must be on the same subnet.

IP addresses on the subnet you identify as private are assigned as private IP addresses for cluster member nodes. Oracle Clusterware manages private IP addresses in the private subnet. You do not have to configure these addresses manually in a hosts file.

The cluster must have the following addresses configured:

  • A public IP address for each node

  • A VIP address for each node

  • A Single Client Access Name (SCAN) configured on the DNS for Round Robin resolution to three addresses (recommended) or at least one address.

The SCAN is a name used to provide service access for clients to the cluster. Because the SCAN is associated with the cluster as a whole, rather than to a particular node, the SCAN makes it possible to add or remove nodes from the cluster without needing to reconfigure clients. It also adds location independence for the databases, so that client configuration does not have to depend on which nodes are running a particular database. Clients can continue to access the cluster in the same way as with previous releases, but Oracle recommends that clients access the cluster using the SCAN.

The SCAN addresses must be on the same subnet as VIP addresses and public IP addresses. For high availability and scalability, Oracle recommends that you configure the SCAN to use Round Robin resolution to three addresses. The name for the SCAN cannot begin with a numeral. For installation to succeed, the SCAN must resolve to at least one address.

Note:

Oracle strongly recommends that you do not configure SCAN VIP addresses in the system hosts file. Use DNS resolution for SCAN VIPs. If you use the system hosts file to resolve the SCAN, then you will only be able to resolve to one IP address and you will have only one SCAN address.

See Also:

Section C.1.3, "Understanding Network Addresses"for more information about network addresses

2.6.3 Broadcast Requirements for Networks Used by Oracle Grid Infrastructure

Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2), broadcast communications (address resolution protocol (ARP) and UDP) must work properly across all the public and private interfaces configured for use by Oracle Grid Infrastructure. The broadcast communications must work across any configured virtual local area networks (VLANs) that are used by the public or private network interfaces.

2.6.4 Multicast Requirements for Networks Used by Oracle Grid Infrastructure

With Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g Release 2 (11.2), the Oracle multicast DNS (mDNS) daemon uses multicasting on a network interface to communicate with other nodes in the cluster.

Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2), multicasting is required for mDNS. You must enable multicasting for a network interface on each node that is:

  • Used for either the public or private interconnect

  • The same type of network interface (public or private) configured for multicasting on other nodes in the cluster

  • On the IP address subnet ranges 224.0.0.0/24

You do not need to enable multicast communications across routers.

2.6.5 DNS Configuration for Domain Delegation to Grid Naming Service

If you plan to use GNS, then before installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure, you must configure DNS to send to GNS any name resolution requests for the subdomain served by GNS. The subdomain that GNS serves represents the cluster member nodes.

You must configure the DNS to send GNS name resolution requests using DNS forwarders. If the DNS server is running on Windows server that you administer, then the following steps must be performed to configure DNS:

  1. Click Start, then select Programs. Select Administrative Tools and then click DNS manager. The DNS server configuration wizard starts automatically.

  2. Use the wizard to create an entry for the GNS virtual IP address, where the address uses the form gns-server.CLUSTERNAME.DOMAINNAME. For example, if the cluster name is mycluster, and the domain name is example.com, and the IP address is 192.0.2.1, create an entry similar to the following:

    mycluster-gns.example.com: 192.0.2.1
    

    The address you provide must be static and routable.

  3. To configure DNS forwarders, click Start, select Administrative Tools, and then select DNS.

  4. Right-click ServerName, where ServerName is the name of the server, and then click the Forwarders tab.

  5. Click New, then type the name of the DNS domain for which you want to forward queries in the DNS domain box, for example, clusterdomain.example.com. Click OK.

  6. In the selected domain's forwarder IP address box, type the GNS VIP address, and then click Add.

  7. Click OK to exit.

If the DNS server is running on a different operating system, then refer to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for that platform, or your operating system documentation.

Note:

Experienced DNS administrators may want to create a reverse lookup zone to enable resolution of reverse lookups. A reverse lookup resolves an IP address to a host name with a Pointer Resource (PTR) record. If you have reverse DNS zones configured, then you can automatically create associated reverse records when you create your original forward record.

2.6.6 Grid Naming Service Configuration Example

If you use GNS, then you must specify a static IP address for the GNS VIP address, and delegate a subdomain to be delegated to that static GNS VIP address.

As nodes are added to the cluster, your organization's DHCP server can provide addresses for these nodes dynamically. These addresses are then registered automatically in GNS, and GNS provides resolution within the subdomain to cluster node addresses registered with GNS.

Because allocation and configuration of addresses is performed automatically with GNS, no further configuration is required. Oracle Clusterware provides dynamic network configuration as nodes are added to or removed from the cluster. The following example is provided only for information.

With a two node cluster where you have defined the GNS VIP, after installation you might have a configuration similar to that shown in Table 2-2, where the cluster name is mycluster, the GNS parent domain is example.com, the subdomain is grid.example.com, the 192.0.2 portion of the IP addresses represents the cluster public IP address network, and 192.168.0 represents the private IP address network.

Table 2-2 Example of a Grid Naming Service Network

Identity Home Node Host Node Given Name Type Address Address Assigned By Resolved By

GNS VIP

None

Selected by Oracle Clusterware

mycluster-gns.example.com

Virtual

192.0.2.1

Fixed by network administrator

DNS

Node 1 Public

Node 1

node1

node1Foot 1 

Public

192.0.2.101

Fixed

GNS

Node 1 VIP

Node 1

Selected by Oracle Clusterware

node1-vip

Virtual

192.0.2.104

DHCP

GNS

Node 1 Private

Node 1

node1

node1-priv

Private

192.168.0.1

Fixed or DHCP

GNS

Node 2 Public

Node 2

node2

node2Footref 1

Public

192.0.2.102

Fixed

GNS

Node 2 VIP

Node 2

Selected by Oracle Clusterware

node2-vip

Virtual

192.0.2.105

DHCP

GNS

Node 2 Private

Node 2

node2

node2-priv

Private

192.168.0.2

Fixed or DHCP

GNS

SCAN VIP 1

none

Selected by Oracle Clusterware

mycluster-scan.grid.example.com

Virtual

192.0.2.201

DHCP

GNS

SCAN VIP 2

none

Selected by Oracle Clusterware

mycluster-scan.grid.example.com

Virtual

192.0.2.202

DHCP

GNS

SCAN VIP 3

none

Selected by Oracle Clusterware

mycluster-scan.grid.example.com

Virtual

192.0.2.203

DHCP

GNS


Footnote 1 Node host names may resolve to multiple addresses, including VIP addresses currently running on that host.

2.6.7 Manual IP Address Configuration Example

If you choose not to use GNS, then before installation you must configure public, virtual, and private IP addresses. Also, check that the default gateway can be accessed by a ping command. To find the default gateway, use the ipconfig command, as described in your operating system's help utility.

For example, with a two node cluster where the cluster name is mycluster, and each node has one public and one private interface, and you have defined a SCAN domain address to resolve on your DNS to one of three IP addresses, you might have the configuration shown in Table 2-3 for your network interfaces.

Table 2-3 Manual Network Configuration Example

Identity Home Node Host Node Given Name Type Address Address Assigned By Resolved By

Node 1 Public

Node 1

node1

node1Foot 1 

Public

192.0.2.101

Fixed

DNS

Node 1 VIP

Node 1

Selected by Oracle Clusterware

node1-vip

Virtual

192.0.2.104

Fixed

DNS, hosts file

Node 1 Private

Node 1

node1

node1-priv

Private

192.168.0.1

Fixed

DNS, hosts file, or none

Node 2 Public

Node 2

node2

node2Footref 1

Public

192.0.2.102

Fixed

DNS

Node 2 VIP

Node 2

Selected by Oracle Clusterware

node2-vip

Virtual

192.0.2.105

Fixed

DNS, hosts file

Node 2 Private

Node 2

node2

node2-priv

Private

192.168.0.2

Fixed

DNS, hosts file, or none

SCAN VIP 1

none

Selected by Oracle Clusterware

mycluster-scan

Virtual

192.0.2.201

Fixed

DNS

SCAN VIP 2

none

Selected by Oracle Clusterware

mycluster-scan

Virtual

192.0.2.202

Fixed

DNS

SCAN VIP 3

none

Selected by Oracle Clusterware

mycluster-scan

Virtual

192.0.2.203

Fixed

DNS


Footnote 1 Node host names may resolve to multiple addresses.

You do not have to provide a private name for the interconnect. If you want name resolution for the interconnect, then you can configure private IP names in the system hosts file or DNS. However, Oracle Clusterware assigns interconnect addresses on the interface defined during installation as the private interface (Local Area Connection 2, for example), and to the subnet used for the private subnet.

The addresses to which the SCAN resolves are assigned by Oracle Clusterware, so they are not fixed to a particular node. To enable VIP failover, the configuration shown in the preceding table defines the SCAN addresses and the public and VIP addresses of both nodes on the same subnet, 192.0.2.

Note:

All host names must conform to the Internet Engineering Task Force RFC 952 standard, which permits alphanumeric characters. Host names using underscores ("_") are not allowed.

2.6.8 Network Interface Configuration Options

The precise configuration you choose for your network depends on the size and use of the cluster you want to configure, and the level of availability you require.

If certified Network-attached Storage (NAS) is used for Oracle RAC and this storage is connected through Ethernet-based networks, then you must have a third network interface for NAS I/O. Failing to provide three separate interfaces in this case can cause performance and stability problems under heavy system loads.

2.7 Checking the Disk Space Requirements

The requirements for disk space on your server are described in the following sections:

2.7.1 Disk Format Requirements

Oracle recommends that you install Oracle software, or binaries, on New Technology File System (NTFS) formatted drives or partitions. Because it is difficult for OUI to estimate NTFS and file allocation table (FAT) disk sizes on Windows, the system requirements documented in this section are likely more accurate than the values reported on the OUI Summary screen.

Note:

Oracle Grid Infrastructure software is not supported on Network File System (NFS).

You cannot use NTFS formatted disks or partitions for Oracle Clusterware files or data files because they cannot be shared. Oracle Clusterware shared files and Oracle Database data files can be placed on unformatted basic disks or disk partitions, called raw partitions, that are managed by Oracle ASM or Oracle Cluster File System for Windows (Oracle OCFS for Windows).

Oracle ASM is recommended for storing Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Database data files.

2.7.2 Disk Space Requirements for Oracle Home Directories

Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure release 11.2.0.3, a minimum of 5 GB of disk space is required or the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home (Grid home). A minimum of 3 GB of disk space is required for the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home (Grid home) for release 11.2.0.2 or earlier. The Grid home includes Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM software, configuration files, and log files. In Oracle Grid Infrastructure release 11.2.0.3, additional disk space is required for the ACFS log files and for the Cluster Health Monitor (CHM). In addition to the Grid home, you must configure additional disk space on a cluster file system or shared disks for the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) and voting files used by Oracle Clusterware.

To determine the amount of free disk space, open My Computer, right-click the drive where the Oracle software is to be installed, and choose Properties.

If you are installing Oracle RAC, then you must configure additional disk space for:

  • The Oracle RAC software and log files

  • The shared data files and, optionally, the shared Fast Recovery Area on either a file system or in an Oracle ASM disk group

2.7.3 TEMP Disk Space Requirements

The amount of available disk space in the TEMP directory is equivalent to the total amount of free disk space, minus what will be needed for the Oracle software to be installed.

You must have 1 GB of disk space available in the TEMP directory. If you do not have sufficient space, then first delete all unnecessary files. If the temp disk space is still less than the required amount, then set the TEMP environment variable to point to a different hard drive.

To modify the TEMP environment variable open the System control panel, select the Advanced tab, and click Environment Variables.

See Also:

Section 1.2.1.4, "TEMP Space Requirements" for more information

Note:

The temporary directory must reside in the same directory path on each node in the cluster.

2.8 Identifying Software Requirements

Depending on the products that you intend to install, verify that the following operating system software listed in Table 2-4, "Oracle Grid Software Requirements for Windows Systems" is installed on each node of your cluster. Table 2-4 lists the software requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC 11g Release 2 (11.2).

Requirements listed here are current as of the initial release date. To obtain the most current information about kernel requirements, refer to the online version on the Oracle Technology Network (OTN) at the following URL:

http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/indexes/documentation/index.html

OUI performs checks on your system to verify that it meets the listed operating system requirements. To ensure that these checks complete successfully, verify the requirements before you start OUI.

Note:

Oracle does not support running different operating system versions on cluster members, unless an operating system is being upgraded. You cannot run different operating system version binaries on members of the same cluster, even if each operating system is supported.

Table 2-4 Oracle Grid Software Requirements for Windows Systems

Requirement Value

System Architecture

Processor: AMD64, or Intel Extended memory (EM64T)

Note: Oracle provides only x64 versions of Oracle Database with Oracle RAC for Windows.

The x64 version of Oracle RAC runs on the x64 version of Windows on AMD64 and EM64T hardware. For additional information, visit My Oracle Support, as described in Section 2.4, "Checking Hardware and Software Certification on My Oracle Support".

Operating system

Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC for x64 Windows:

  • Windows Server 2003 x64 with service pack 2 (SP2) - Standard, Enterprise, and Data Center editions

  • Windows Server 2003 R2 x64 with service pack 2 (SP2) - Standard, Enterprise, and Data Center editions.

  • Windows Server 2008 x64 with service pack 2 (SP2) - Standard, Enterprise, DataCenter, and Web editions.

  • Windows Server 2008 R2 x64 - Foundation, Standard, Enterprise, DataCenter, and Web editions.

  • Windows Server 2012 x64 - Foundation, Standard, Essentials, and DataCenter editions

The Windows Multilingual User Interface Pack and Terminal Services are supported.

NOTE: Oracle Clusterware, Oracle ASM and Oracle RAC 11g Release 2 are not supported on any x86 Windows operating systems.

Compilers

Pro*Cobol has been tested and is certified with Micro Focus Net Express 5.0. Object Oriented COBOL (OOCOBOL) specifications are not supported.

The following components are supported with the Microsoft Visual C++ .NET 2005 9.0 and Intel 10.1 C compilers:

  • Oracle Call Interface (OCI)

  • Pro*C/C++

  • External callouts

  • Oracle XML Developer's Kit (XDK)

Oracle C++ Call Interface (OCCI) is supported with:

  • Microsoft Visual C++ .NET 2005 8.0

  • Microsoft Visual C++ .NET 2008 9.0 - OCCI libraries are installed under ORACLE_HOME\oci\lib\msvc\vc9. When developing OCCI applications with MSVC++ 9.0, ensure that the OCCI libraries are correctly selected from this directory for linking and executing.

  • Intel 10.1 C++ compiler with the relevant Microsoft Visual C++ .NET STLs

Java Development Kit (JDK)

JDK 5 x64 - 1.5.0_17 1.5.0_17

Microsoft SDK

  • Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 SDK - Service Pack 1 VS2005-SP1 SP1

  • Windows Driver Kit - 6001.18000 6001.18000

    Note: The Windows Driver kit is only needed for building device drivers, for example, for OCFS for Windows or Oracle ACFS.


If you are currently running an operating system version that is not supported by Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), such as Windows Server 2003 x86, then see Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows.

2.8.1 Windows Firewall Feature on Windows Servers

When installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure software or Oracle RAC software on Windows servers, it is mandatory to disable the Windows Firewall feature. If the windows firewall is enabled, then remote copy and configuration assistants such as virtual IP configuration assistant (VIPCA), Network Configuration Assistant (NETCA) and Oracle Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) will fail during Oracle RAC installation. Thus, the firewall must be disabled on all the nodes of a cluster before performing an Oracle RAC installation.

Note:

The Windows Firewall should never be enabled on a NIC that is used as a cluster interconnect (private network interface).

After the installation is successful, you can enable the Windows Firewall for the public connections. However, to ensure correct operation of the Oracle software, you must add certain executables and ports to the Firewall exception list on all the nodes of a cluster. See Section 5.1.2, "Configure Exceptions for the Windows Firewall" for details.

Additionally, the Windows Firewall must be disabled on all the nodes in the cluster before performing any clusterwide configuration changes, such as:

  • Adding a node

  • Deleting a node

  • Upgrading to patch release

  • Applying a patch bundle or an emergency patch

If you do not disable the Windows Firewall before performing these actions, then the changes might not be propagated correctly to all the nodes of the cluster.

2.9 Checking Individual Component Requirements

This section contains these topics:

2.9.1 Oracle Advanced Security Requirements

You must meet hardware and software requirements to use authentication support with Oracle components. Some Oracle Advanced Security components can use a Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) such as Oracle Internet Directory. These requirements are not listed in this document.

2.9.2 Oracle Enterprise Manager Requirements

All Oracle Enterprise Manager products that you use on your system must be of the same release. Earlier versions of Enterprise Manager are not supported with the current release (Oracle Database 11g Release 2).

Note:

All Oracle Enterprise Manager products, except Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control, are released on the Enterprise Manager Grid Control installation media. Enterprise Manager Database Control is available on the Oracle Database installation media.

See Also:

Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control Installation and Basic Configuration available on the Enterprise Manager Grid Control installation media

2.10 Supported Web Browsers

For a list of supported web browsers for use with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 and Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control or Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control, see the Oracle Enterprise Manager certification matrix on My Oracle Support at:

https://support.oracle.com

2.11 Configuring Time Synchronization for the Cluster

Oracle Clusterware requires the same time zone setting on all cluster nodes. During installation, the installation process picks up the time zone (TZ) setting of the Grid installation owner on the node where OUI runs, and uses that value on all nodes as the default TZ setting for all processes managed by Oracle Clusterware. This default TZ setting is used for databases, Oracle ASM, and any other managed processes.

You have three options for time synchronization between cluster nodes: the Windows Time service, an operating system configured network time protocol (NTP), or Oracle Cluster Time Synchronization Service. Oracle Cluster Time Synchronization Service is designed for organizations whose cluster servers are unable to access NTP services. If you use NTP, then the Oracle Cluster Time Synchronization daemon (ctssd) starts up in observer mode. If neither NTP or the Windows Time service is found, then ctssd starts up in active mode and synchronizes time among cluster members without contacting an external time server.

Note:

Before starting the installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure, Oracle recommends that you ensure the clocks on all nodes are set to the same time.

Follow the instructions in one of the following sections to configure time synchronization for your cluster nodes:

2.11.1 Configuring the Windows Time Service

The Windows Time service (W32Time) provides network clock synchronization on computers running Microsoft Windows. If you are using Windows Time service, and you prefer to continue using it instead of Cluster Time Synchronization Service, then you must modify the Windows Time service settings to jumps in time and allow the time to gradually match with the reference time. Restart the Windows Time service after you complete this task.

To configure Windows Time service, use the following command on each node:

C:\> W32tm /register

To modify the Windows Time service to work in an Oracle RAC environment, perform the following steps:

  1. Open the Registry Editor (regedit).

  2. Locate the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\W32Time\Config key.

  3. Set the following Windows Time service parameters to these values:

    • MaxPosPhaseCorrection to 600

    • MaxNegPhaseCorrection to 600

    • MaxAllowedPhaseOffset to 600

    These parameter settings specify that small time adjustments are allowed when the time difference between the reference and cluster nodes is under 10 minutes.

    Note:

    You should configure the Windows Time service to meet the requirements of your environment, with assistance from Microsoft, if necessary. The recommended settings provided for the three parameters are the settings that Oracle recommends to allow time adjustments to happen through slewing (gradually adjusting the clock using small changes) rather than in large steps (setting the clock to a new time). Large time adjustments in a single step are not supported.
  4. To put the changes into effect, use the following command:

    C:\>W32tm /config /update
    

See Also:

For more information about using and configuring the Windows Time Service, see:
  • Microsoft® Support article ID 816042: "How to configure an authoritative time server in Windows Server"

  • Microsoft® Support article ID 939322: "Support boundary to configure the Windows Time service for high accuracy environments"

  • "The NTP FAQ and HOWTO" at http://www.ntp.org/ntpfaq/

2.11.2 Configuring Network Time Protocol

The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a client/server application. Each server must have NTP client software installed and configured to synchronize its clock to the network time server. The Windows Time service is not an exact implementation of the NTP, but is based on the NTP specifications. You can find more information about NTP and NTP client software at the following web site:

http://ntp.org

If you decide to use NTP instead of the Windows Time service, then, after you have installed the NTP client software on each node server, you must start the NTP service with the -x option to prevent time from being adjusted backward.

To ensure the NTP service is running with the -x option, perform the following steps:

  1. Use the registry editor to edit the value for the ntpd executable under HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\NTP

  2. Add the -x option to the ImagePath key value, behind %INSTALLDIR%\ntpd.exe.

  3. Restart the NTP service using the following commands:

    net stop NTP
    net start NTP
    

2.11.3 Configuring Cluster Time Synchronization Service

To use Cluster Time Synchronization Service to provide synchronization service in the cluster, disable the Windows Time service and stop the NTP service. If you have an NTP service on your server but you cannot use the service to synchronize time with a time server, then you must deactivate and deinstall the NTP to use Cluster Time Synchronization Service.

When OUI discovers that neither the Windows Time service or NTP service are active, the Cluster Time Synchronization Service is installed in active mode and synchronizes the time across the nodes. If the Windows Time service or NTP service is found on the server, then the Cluster Time Synchronization Service is started in observer mode, and no active time synchronization is performed by Oracle Clusterware within the cluster.

To confirm that the Cluster Time Synchronization Service is active after installation, enter the following command as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation owner:

crsctl check ctss

2.12 Enabling Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)

Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) provides a set of common interfaces to computer hardware and firmware that system administrators can use to monitor system health and manage the system. With Oracle Database 11g Release 2, Oracle Clusterware can integrate IPMI to provide failure isolation support and to ensure cluster integrity.

You can configure node-termination with IPMI during installation by selecting a node-termination protocol, such as IPMI. You can also configure IPMI after installation with crsctl commands.

See Also:

Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for information about how to configure IPMI after installation

2.12.1 Requirements for Enabling IPMI

You must have the following hardware and software configured to enable cluster nodes to be managed with IPMI:

  • Each cluster member node requires a Baseboard Management Controller (BMC) running firmware compatible with IPMI version 1.5 or greater, which supports IPMI over local area networks (LANs), and configured for remote control using LAN.

    Note:

    On servers running Windows 2008, you may have to upgrade the basic I/O system (BIOS), system firmware, and BMC firmware before you can use IPMI. Refer to Microsoft Support Article ID 950257 (http://support.microsoft.com/kb/950257) for details.
  • Each cluster member node requires an IPMI driver installed on each node.

  • The cluster requires a management network for IPMI. This can be a shared network, but Oracle recommends that you configure a dedicated network.

  • Each cluster member node's Ethernet port used by BMC must be connected to the IPMI management network.

  • Each cluster member must be connected to the management network.

  • Some server platforms put their network interfaces into a power saving mode when they are powered off. In this case, they may operate only at a lower link speed (for example, 100 megabyte (MB), instead of 1 GB). For these platforms, the network switch port to which the BMC is connected must be able to auto-negotiate down to the lower speed, or IPMI will not function properly.

2.12.2 Configuring the IPMI Management Network

You can configure the BMC for DHCP, or for static IP addresses. Oracle recommends that you configure the BMC for dynamic IP address assignment using DHCP. To use this option, you must have a DHCP server configured to assign the BMC IP addresses.

Note:

If you configure IPMI, and you use GNS, then you still must configure separate addresses for the IPMI interfaces. Because the IPMI adapter is not seen directly by the host, the IPMI adapter is not visible to GNS as an address on the host.

2.12.3 Configuring the IPMI Driver

For Oracle Clusterware to communicate with the BMC, the IPMI driver must be installed permanently on each node, so that it is available on system restarts. On Windows systems, the implementation assumes the Microsoft IPMI driver (ipmidrv.sys) is installed, which is included on Windows Server 2008 and later versions of the Windows operating system. The driver is included as part of the Hardware Management feature, which includes the driver and the Windows Management Interface (WMI).

Note:

  • The ipmidrv.sys driver is not supported by default on Windows Server 2003. It is available for Windows 2003 R2, but is not installed by default.

  • An alternate driver (imbdrv.sys) is available from Intel as part of Intel Server Control, but this driver has not been tested with Oracle Clusterware.

2.12.3.1 Configuring the Hardware Management Component

Hardware Management is not installed and enabled by default on Windows Server 2003 systems. Hardware management is installed using the Add/Remove Windows Components Wizard.

  1. Press Start, then select Control Panel.

  2. Select Add or Remove Programs.

  3. Click Add/Remove Windows Components.

  4. Select (but do not check) Management and Monitoring Tools and click the Details button to display the detailed components selection window.

  5. Select the Hardware Management option.

    If a BMC is detected through the system management BIOS (SMBIOS) Table Type 38h, then a dialog box will be displayed instructing you to remove any third party drivers. If no third party IPMI drivers are installed or they have been removed from the system, then click OK to continue.

    Note:

    The Microsoft driver is incompatible with other drivers. Any third party drivers must be removed
  6. Click OK to select the Hardware Management Component, and then click Next.

    Hardware Management (including Windows Remote Management, or WinRM) will be installed.

After the driver and hardware management have been installed, the BMC should be visible in the Windows Device Manager under System devices with the label "Microsoft Generic IPMI Compliant Device". If the BMC is not automatically detected by the plug and play system, then the device must be created manually.

To create the IPMI device, run the following command:

rundll32 ipmisetp.dll,AddTheDevice

2.12.3.2 Configuring the BMC Using ipmiutil on Windows 2003 R2

For IPMI-based fencing to function properly, the BMC hardware must be configured for remote control through LAN. The BMC configuration may be effected from the boot prompt (BIOS), using a platform specific management utility or one of many publicly available utilities, which can be downloaded from the Internet, such as:

IPMIutil, which is available for Linux and Windows:

http://ipmiutil.sourceforge.net

Refer to the documentation for the configuration tool you select for details about using the tool to configure the BMC.

When you configure the BMC on each node, you must complete the following:

  • Enable IPMI over LAN, so that the BMC can be controlled over the management network.

  • Enable dynamic IP addressing using DHCP or GNS, or configure a static IP address for the BMC.

  • Establish an administrator user account and password for the BMC

  • Configure the BMC for VLAN tags, if you will use the BMC on a tagged VLAN.

The configuration tool you use does not matter, but these conditions must be met for the BMC to function properly.

Example of BMC Configuration Using ipmiutil on Windows 2003 R2

The following is an example of configuring BMC using ipmiutil (version 2.2.3):

  1. Open a command window while logged in as a member of the Administrators group.

  2. After the driver is loaded and the device special file has been created, verify that ipmiutil can communicate with the BMC through the driver:

    C:\> ipmiutil lan
    impiutil ver 2.23
    <PEFilter parameters displayed> . . .  
    pefconfig, GetLanEntry for channel 1 . . .
    Lan Param(0) Set in progress: 00
    . . . <remaining Lan Param info displayed>
    

    The following steps establish the required configuration parameters described in this example.

    Note:

    If you use the -l option, then ipmiutil sets only certain LAN parameters for enabling IPMI over LAN. If a previously established parameter is not specified on the command line, the values of these parameters might be reset to the default values when you use this command. Thus, the order of the following steps could be critical.
  3. Establish remote LAN access with Administrator privileges (-v 4) and the desired user name and password (ipmiutil will find the LAN channel on its own):

    C:\> ipmiutil lan -l -v 4 -u user_name -p password
    
  4. Configure dynamic or static IP address settings for BMC:

    • Using dynamic IP addressing (DHCP)

      Dynamic IP addressing is the default assumed by OUI. Oracle recommends that you select this option so that nodes can be added or removed from the cluster more easily, as address settings can be assigned automatically.

      Note:

      Use of DHCP requires a DHCP server on the subnet.

      Set the channel. For example, if the channel is 1, then enter the following command to enable DHCP:

      C:\> ipmiutil lan set -l -D
      
    • Using static IP Addressing

      If the BMC shares a network connection with the operating system, then the IP address must be on the same subnet. You must set not only the IP address, but also the proper values for the netmask and default gateway for your network, for example:

      C:\> impiutil lan -l -I 192.168.0.55   (IP address)
      C:\> ipmiutil lan -l -G 192.168.0.1    (gateway IP address)
      C:\> ipmiutil lan -l -S 255.255.255.0  (netmask)
      

      The specified address (192.168.0.55) will be associated with only the BMC, and will not respond to normal pings.

      Note:

      Enabling IPMI over LAN with the -l option will reset the subnet mask to a value obtained from the operating system. Thus, when setting parameters one at a time using the impiutil lan -l command, the -S option should be specified last, as shown in the previous example.
  5. Verify the setup.

    After the previous configuration steps have been completed, you can verify your settings on the node being configured as follows (the items in bold text reflect the settings just made):

    C:\> impiutil lan
    
    ipmiutil ver 2.23
    peconfig ver 2.23
    -- BMC version 1.40, IPMI version 1.5
    pefconfig, GetPefEntry ...
    PEFilter(01): 04 h : event ... <skipping PEF entries>
    ...
    
    pefconfig, GetLanEntry for channel 1 ...
    Lan Param(0) Set in progress: 00
    Lan Param(1) Auth type support: 17 : None MD2 MD5 Pswd
    Lan Param(2) Auth type enables: 16 16 16 16 00
    Lan Param(3) IP address: 192 168 0 55
    Lan Param(4) IP address src: 01 : Static
    Lan Param(5) MAC addr: 00 11 43 d7 4f bd
    Lan Param(6) Subnet mask: 255 255 255 0
    Lan Param(7) IPv4 header: 40 40 10
    GetLanEntry: completion code=cc
    GetLanEntry(10), ret = -1
    GetLanEntry: completion code=cc
    GetLanEntry(11), ret = -1
    Lan Param(12) Def gateway IP: 192 168 0 1
    Lan Param(13) Def gateway MAC: 00 00 0c 07 ac dc
    ...
    Get User Access(1): 0a 01 01 0f : No access ()
    Get User Access(2): 0a 01 01 14 : IPMI, Admin (user_name)
    Get User Access(3): 0a 01 01 0f : No access ()
    pefconfig, completed successfully
    
  6. Finally, you can verify that the BMC is accessible and controllable from a remote node in your cluster:

    C:\> ipmiutil health -N 192.168.0.55 -U user_name -P password
    ipmiutil ver 2.23
    bmchealth ver 2.23
    Opening connection to node 192.168.0.55 ...
    Connected to node racnode1.example.com 192.168.0.31
    BMC version 1.23, IPMI version 1.5
    BMC manufacturer = 0002a2 (Dell), product = 0000
    Chassis Status   = 01   (on, restore_policy=stay_off)
    Power State      = 00   (S0: working)
    Selftest status  = 0055 (OK)
    Channel 1 Auth Types: MD2 MD5
             Status = 14, OEM ID 000000 OEM Aux 00
    bmchealth, completed successfully
    

2.13 Configuring User Accounts

To install the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software, you must use a user that is a member of the Administrators group. If you use a local user account for the installation, then the user account must exist on all nodes in the cluster and the user name and password must be the same on all nodes.

If you use a domain account for the installation, then the domain user must be explicitly declared as a member of the local Administrators group on each node in the cluster. It is not sufficient if the domain user has inherited membership from another group. The user performing the installation must be in the same domain on each node. For example, you cannot have a dba1 user on the first node in the DBADMIN domain and a dba1 user on the second node in the RACDBA domain.

For example, assume that you have one Oracle installation owner, and the user name for this Oracle installation owner is oracle. The oracle user must be either a local Administrator user or a domain user, and the same user must exist (same user name, password, and domain) on each node in the cluster.

Note:

Oracle strongly recommends the use of domain users for Oracle RAC installations on Windows platforms.

2.13.1 Configuring Environment Variables for the Software Installation Owner

Before starting the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, ensure the %TEMP% environment variable is set correctly. See Section 1.2.1.4, "TEMP Space Requirements".

2.13.2 Verifying User Privileges to Update Remote Nodes

Before running OUI, from the node where you intend to run the installer, verify that the user account you are using for the installation is configured as a member of the Administrators group on each node in the cluster. To do this, enter the following command for each node that is a part of the cluster where nodename is the node name:

net use \\nodename\C$

If you will be using other disk drives in addition to the C: drive, then repeat this command for every node in the cluster, substituting the drive letter for each drive you plan to use.

The installation user must also be able to update the Windows registry on each node in the cluster. To verify the installation user is configured to do this, perform the following steps:

  1. Run regedit from the Run menu or the command prompt.

  2. From the File menu select Connect Network Registry.

  3. In the &rsquor;Enter the object name…' edit box enter the name of a remote node in the cluster, then click OK.

  4. Wait for the node to appear in the registry tree.

If the remote node does not appear in the registry tree or you are prompted to fill in a username and password, then you must resolve the permissions issue at the operating system level before proceeding with the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.

Note:

For the installation to be successful, you must use the same user name and password on each node in a cluster or use a domain user. If you use a domain user, then you must have explicitly granted membership in the local Administrators group to the domain user on all of the nodes in your cluster.

2.13.3 Operating System Groups for Oracle RAC

If you intend to install Oracle Database or Oracle RAC, then the user performing the installation must be part of the ORA_DBA group. During installation of Oracle Database or Oracle RAC, OUI creates the ORA_DBA group on all nodes and the user performing the installation is automatically added to this group. If you use a domain user, then you must make sure the domain user on each node is a member of the ORA_DBA group.

Note:

Oracle strongly recommends the use of domain users for Oracle RAC installations on Windows platforms.

2.13.4 Managing User Accounts with User Account Control

To ensure that only trusted applications run on your computer, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2, and Windows Server 2012 provide User Account Control. If you have enabled this security feature, then depending on how you have configured it, OUI prompts you for either your consent or your credentials when installing Oracle Database. Provide either the consent or your Windows Administrator credentials as appropriate.

You must have Administrator privileges to run some Oracle tools, such as DBCA, NETCA, and OPatch, or to run any tool or application that writes to any directory within the Oracle home. If User Account Control is enabled and you are logged in as the local Administrator, then you can successfully run each of these commands. However, if you are logged in as "a member of the Administrators group," then you must explicitly run these tools with Windows Administrator privileges.

All of the Oracle shortcuts that require Administrator privileges are invoked as "Administrator" automatically when you click the shortcuts. However, if you run the previously mentioned tools from a Windows command prompt, then you must run them from an Administrator command prompt. OPatch does not have a shortcut and has to be run from an Administrator command prompt.