2 Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks

This chapter describes the tasks that you must complete before you start Oracle Universal Installer (OUI).

This guide contains information required to install Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2). Ensure that you review information related to the platform on which you intend to install Oracle Database 11g.

Note:

  • To use Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) or Oracle Restart, you must first install Oracle Grid Infrastructure before you install and create the database. Otherwise, you must manually register the database with Oracle Restart.

  • Additionally, see "Requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation" before you proceed with the database preinstallation tasks.

It includes information about the following topics:

See Also:

2.1 Logging In to the System as root

Before you install the Oracle software, you must complete several tasks as the root user. To log in as the root user, complete one of the following procedures:

Note:

Unless you intend to complete a silent-mode installation, you must install the software from an X Window System workstation, an X terminal, a PC, or other system with X server software installed.

For more information about silent-mode installations, see Appendix A.

  • To install the software from an X Window System workstation or X terminal:

    1. Start a local terminal session, for example, an X terminal (xterm).

    2. If you are not installing the software on the local system, then enter the following command to enable the remote host to display X applications on the local X server:

      $ xhost fully_qualified_remote_host_name
      

      For example:

      $ xhost somehost.example.com
      
    3. If you are not installing the software on the local system, then use the ssh, rlogin, or telnet command to connect to the system where you want to install the software:

      $ telnet fully_qualified_remote_host_name
      
    4. If you are not logged in as the root user, then enter the following command to switch the user to root:

      $ su - root
      password:
      #
      
  • To install the software from a PC or other system with X server software:

    Note:

    If necessary, see the X server documentation, or contact your X server vendor or system administrator for more information about completing this procedure. Depending on the X server software that you are using, you may have to complete the tasks in a different order.
    1. Start the X server software.

    2. Configure the security settings of the X server software to permit remote hosts to display X applications on the local system.

    3. Connect to the remote system where you want to install the software and start a terminal session on that system, for example, an X terminal (xterm).

    4. If you are not logged in as the root user on the remote system, then enter the following command to switch the user to root:

      $ su - root
      password:
      #
      

2.2 Checking the Hardware Requirements

The system must meet the following minimum hardware requirements:

2.2.1 Memory Requirements

The following are the memory requirements for installing Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2):

Minimum: 1 GB of RAM

Recommended: 2 GB of RAM or more

  • To determine the RAM size, enter the following command:

    # /usr/sbin/lsattr -E -l sys0 -a realmem
    

    If the size of the RAM is less than the required size, then you must install more memory before continuing.

  • The following table describes the relationship between the installed RAM and the configured swap space recommendation:

    RAM Swap Space
    Between 1 GB and 2 GB 1.5 times the size of the RAM
    Between 2 GB and 16 GB Equal to the size of the RAM
    More than 16 GB 16 GB

If the size of the RAM is less than the required size, then you must install more memory before continuing.

To determine the size of the configured swap space, enter the following command:

# /usr/sbin/lsps -a

If necessary, see the operating system documentation for information about how to configure additional swap space.

Note:

  • Oracle recommends that you take multiple values for the available RAM and swap space before finalizing a value. This is because the available RAM and swap space keep changing depending on the user interactions with the computer.

  • Contact your operating system vendor for swap space allocation guidance for your server. The vendor guidelines supersede the swap space requirements listed in this guide.

2.2.2 System Architecture

To determine if the system architecture can run the software, enter the following command:

# /usr/bin/getconf HARDWARE_BITMODE

The expected output of this command is 64. If you do not see the expected output, then you cannot install the software on this system.

To determine if the system is started in 64-bit mode, enter the following command:

# bootinfo -K

The result of this command must be 64, indicating that the 64-bit kernel is enabled.

Verify that the processor architecture matches the Oracle software release to install. If you do not see the expected output, then you cannot install the software on this system.

Note:

For AIX Based Systems, Oracle Database 11g supports 64-bit kernel and does not provide support for 32-bit kernel applications.

2.2.3 Disk Space Requirements

The following are the disk space requirements for installing Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2):

  • At least 1 GB of space in the /tmp directory

    To determine the amount of space available in the /tmp directory, enter the following command:

    # df -k /tmp
    

    If the free space available in the /tmp directory is less than what is required, then complete one of the following steps:

    • Delete unnecessary files from the /tmp directory to meet the disk space requirement.

    • Set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables when setting the oracle user's environment.

      See Also:

      "Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment" for more information about setting TMP and TMPDIR
    • Extend the file system that contains the /tmp directory. If necessary, contact the system administrator for information about extending file systems.

  • The following tables describe the disk space requirements for software files and data files for each installation type on AIX Based Systems:

    Installation Type Requirement for Software Files (GB)
    Enterprise Edition 7.8
    Standard Edition 7.5

    Installation Type Disk Space for Data Files (GB)
    Enterprise Edition 1.75
    Standard Edition 1.73

To determine the amount of free disk space on the system, enter the following command:

# df -k

Additional disk space, either on a file system or on an Oracle ASM disk group is required for the fast recovery area if you configure automated backups.

2.2.4 Display Requirements

The minimum resolution for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) is 1024 x 768 or higher.

2.2.5 Run Level Requirement

Ensure that the system is started with run level 2.

2.3 Checking the Software Requirements

Depending on the products that you intend to install, verify that the following software is installed on your system:

Note:

  • This guide contains information required to install Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2). Ensure that you review information related to the platform on which you intend to install Oracle Database 11g.

  • Oracle Universal Installer performs checks on the system to verify that it meets the listed requirements. To ensure that these checks pass, verify the requirements before you start Oracle Universal Installer.

2.3.1 Operating System Requirements

The following operating system versions (or later) are required for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2):

  • AIX 5L V5.3 TL 09 SP1 ("5300-09-01"), 64 bit kernel

  • AIX 6.1 TL 02 SP1 ("6100-02-01), 64-bit kernel

  • AIX 7.1 TL 0 SP1 ("7100-00-01-1037"), 64-bit kernel

The following operating system filesets are required for AIX 5L:

  • bos.adt.base

  • bos.adt.lib

  • bos.adt.libm

  • bos.perf.libperfstat 5.3.9.0 or later

  • bos.perf.perfstat

  • bos.perf.proctools

  • xlC.aix50.rte.10.1.0.0 or later

  • xlC.rte.10.1.0.0 or later

  • gpfs.base 3.2.1.8 or later

The following operating system filesets are required for AIX 6.1:

  • bos.adt.base

  • bos.adt.lib

  • bos.adt.libm

  • bos.perf.libperfstat 6.1.2.1 or later

  • bos.perf.perfstat

  • bos.perf.proctools

  • xlC.aix61.rte:10.1.0.0 or later

  • xlC.rte.10.1.0.0 or later

  • gpfs.base 3.2.1.8 or later

The following operating system filesets are required for AIX 7.1:

  • bos.adt.base

  • bos.adt.lib

  • bos.adt.libm

  • bos.perf.libperfstat

  • bos.perf.perfstat

  • bos.perf.proctools

  • xlC.rte.11.1.0.2 or later

  • gpfs.base 3.3.0.11 or later

Note:

  • On AIX 5L operating system, if you set the value of LOCK_SGA parameter to true, then you must ensure that the CAP_BYPASS_RAC_VMM and CAP_PROPAGATE privileges are enabled for the operating system account that is used to start the respective database instances. Otherwise, setting the value of LOCK_SGA parameter to TRUE alone does not ensure startup of the database instance.

  • The GPFS fileset is required only if you want to use the IBM GPFS cluster file system as the shared storage for Oracle clusterware or database files.

  1. To determine the distribution and version of AIX installed, enter the following command:

    # oslevel -s
    

    For AIX 5L: If the operating system version is lower than AIX 5.3 TL 9 SP 1, then upgrade your operating system to this, or a later, level.

    For AIX 6.1: If the operating system version is lower than AIX 6.1 TL 2 SP 1, then upgrade your operating system to this, or a later, level.

    For AIX 7.1: If the operating system version is lower than AIX 7.1 TL 0 SP 1, then upgrade your operating system to this, or a later, level.

    AIX maintenance packages are available from the following website:

    http://www-933.ibm.com/support/fixcentral/

  2. To determine if the required filesets are installed and committed, enter a command similar to the following:

    # lslpp -l bos.adt.base bos.adt.lib bos.adt.libm bos.perf.perfstat \
    bos.perf.libperfstat bos.perf.proctools
    
  3. To determine the supported kernel mode, enter a command similar to the following:

    # getconf KERNEL_BITMODE
    

    Note:

    • The expected output of this command is 64. If you do not see the expected output, then you cannot install the software on this system.

    • Oracle Database 11g supports 64-bit kernel and does not provide support for 32-bit kernel applications.

2.3.2 Compiler Requirements

The following is the minimum compiler requirement for Pro*C/C++, Oracle Call Interface, Oracle C++ Call Interface, and Oracle XML Developer's Kit (XDK) with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2):

IBM XL C/C++ Enterprise Edition for AIX, V9.0 April 2008 PTF:

You can download this software from the following link:

http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg24019055

Note:

Even if you do not install the IBM XL C/C++ compiler, you require the compiler for AIX Runtime Environment Component. The runtime environment file sets can be downloaded with no license requirements. The minimum recommended runtime environment for AIX 5.3 and AIX 6.1 is available at the following URL:

For AIX 5.3 and AIX 6.1:

IBM XL C/C++ for AIX, V10.1 Runtime Environment

http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?rs=2239&uid=swg24019829

For AIX 7.1:

September 2010 Runtime for XL C/C++ for AIX, V11.1

http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg24028034

2.3.3 Additional Software Requirements

Depending on the components you want to use, you must ensure that the following software is installed:

2.3.3.1 ODBC Drivers

Oracle ODBC driver on AIX is certified with ODBC Driver Manager 2.2.12. You can download and install the Driver Manager from the following link:

http://www.unixodbc.org

ODBC Driver Manager is not required to install Oracle Database.

To use ODBC, install gcc 3.4.5.

2.3.3.2 Oracle JDBC/OCI Drivers

Use JDK 6 (Java 6 64-bit 6.0.0.50 IZ30726 (SR2)) or JDK 5 (Java 5 64-bit 5.0.0.250 IZ55274 (SR10)) with the JNDI extension with the Oracle Java Database Connectivity and Oracle Call Interface drivers. However, these are not mandatory for the database installation. JDK 1.5 is installed with this release.

2.3.3.3 Oracle Messaging Gateway

Oracle Messaging Gateway supports the integration of Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing (AQ) with the following software:

  • Tibco Rendezvous 7.2

  • IBM WebSphere MQ for AIX V6.0.2.3

    mqm.Client.Bnd
    mqm.Server.Bnd
    
  • IBM WebSphere MQ for AIX V7.0.1.3

If you require a CSD for WebSphere MQ, then see the following Web site for download and installation information:

http://www-947.ibm.com/support/entry/portal/Downloads/Software/WebSphere/WebSphere_MQ

2.3.3.4 Programming Languages

The following products are certified for use with:

  • Pro* COBOL

    • IBM COBOL for AIX Version 4.1 (September 2010 PTF)

    • IBM COBOL for AIX Version 3.1

    • Micro Focus Server Express 5.1

  • Pro* FORTRAN

    • IBM XL Fortran Enterprise Edition for AIX, V11.1, April 2008 PTF

  • Ada

    • OC Systems PowerAda 5.5

For more information about OC Systems and PowerAda, refer to:

http://www.ocsystems.com/contact.html

2.3.3.5 Browser Requirements

You do not require a web browser to install Oracle Database. However, browsers are required to access documentation, and if you intend to use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control and Oracle Application Express. Web browsers must support JavaScript, and the HTML 4.0 and CSS 1.0 standards.

Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control supports the following browsers:

  • Microsoft Internet Explorer 10.0 (supports Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control 11.2.0.3 and higher)

  • Microsoft Internet Explorer 9.0

  • Microsoft Internet Explorer 8.0

  • Microsoft Internet Explorer 7.0 SP1

  • Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 SP2

  • Firefox 21.0 (supports Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control 11.2.0.4)

  • Firefox 17.0.6 ESR (supports Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control 11.2.0.4)

  • Firefox 3.6

  • Firefox 3.5

  • Firefox 3.0.7

  • Firefox 2.0

  • Safari 4.0.x

  • Safari 3.2

  • Safari 3.1

  • Google Chrome 27.0 (supports Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control 11.2.0.4)

  • Google Chrome 4.0

  • Google Chrome 3.0

  • Netscape Navigator 9.0

  • Netscape Navigator 8.1

2.3.3.6 Oracle Database Vault Preinstallation Requirement

To install Oracle Database Vault, set the DB_BLOCK_SIZE initialization parameter to 4096 or larger. If the value is less than 4096, then you cannot change it. The only way to change the DB_BLOCK_SIZE value is by re-creating the database.

2.3.4 Patch Requirements

The following, or later, patches are required for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) for AIX Based Systems:

Note:

  • AIX APAR numbers are tied to AIX versions and technology levels (TL). Download and install the APAR that matches your AIX versions and TLs from the IBM fix central web site at the following URL:

    http://www-933.ibm.com/support/fixcentral/

  • If you are using a later TL level than the minimum level listed for this release, then check with IBM to determine if the required APARs listed here are included in the TL level that you have on your system. If they are included, then you do not have to install them. If they are not included, then you must install the equivalent APAR for the appropriate TL level.

Installation Type or Product Requirement
All installations Authorized Problem Analysis Reports (APARs) for AIX 5L:

If you are using the minimum operating system TL level for AIX 5L listed above, then install the following Authorized Problem Analysis Reports (APARs) for AIX 5L V5.3 TL 09 SP1:

  • IZ42940

  • IZ49516

  • IZ52331

These 5.3 fixes are present in the following TL levels:

  • AIX 5.3 TL 09 SP 05 and later

  • AIX 5.3 TL 10 SP 02 and later

  • AIX 5.3 TL 11

All installations Authorized Problem Analysis Reports (APARs) for AIX 6.1:

If you are using the minimum operating system TL level for AIX 6.1 listed above, then install the following Authorized Problem Analysis Reports (APARs) for AIX 6.1 TL 02 SP1:

  • IZ41855

  • IZ51456

  • IZ52319

  • IZ97457

  • IZ89165

These 6.1 fixes are present in the following TL levels:

  • AIX 6.1 TL 02 SP 04 and later

  • AIX 6.1 TL 03 SP 02 and later

  • AIX 6.1 TL 04

If you are using a later TL level than the minimum level listed for this release, apply the following additional operating system patch for defect:

BIND64 CORES WITH -BLAZY OPTION

Download the appropriate patch for your operating system TL level using the following APAR numbers:

  • AIX 6.1 TL 03 - use AIX APAR IZ89304

  • AIX 6.1 TL 04 - use AIX APAR IZ89302

  • AIX 6.1 TL 05 - use AIX APAR IZ89300

  • AIX 6.1 TL 06 SP 4 - use AIX APAR IZ88711

  • AIX 6.1 TL 06 SP 5 - use AIX APAR IZ89514

  • AIX 6.1 TL 07 - use AIX APAR IZ88880

All installations Authorized Problem Analysis Reports (APARs) for AIX 7.1:

If you are using the minimum operating system TL level for AIX 7.1 listed above, then install the following Authorized Problem Analysis Reports (APARs) for AIX 7.1 TL 0 SP1:

  • IZ87216

  • IZ87564

  • IZ89165

  • IZ97035


The following procedure describes how to check these requirements:

2.4 Reviewing Operating System Security Common Practices

Secure operating systems are an important basis for general system security. Ensure that your operating system deployment is in compliance with common security practices as described in your operating system vendor security guide.

2.5 Installation Fixup Scripts

During installation, for certain prerequisite verification failures, click Fix & Check Again to generate a fixup script (runfixup.sh). You can run this script as the root user to complete the required preinstallation steps.

The fixup script:

  • Checks for and sets kernel parameters to values required for successful installation, including:

    • Shared memory parameters

    • Open file descriptor and UDP send/receive parameters

Oracle recommends that you do not modify the contents of the generated fixup script.

Note:

Using fixup scripts does not ensure that all the prerequisites for installing Oracle Database are met. You must still verify that all the preinstallation requirements are met to ensure a successful installation.

2.6 Verifying UDP and TCP Kernel Parameters

Use NDD to ensure that the kernel TCP/IP ephemeral port range is broad enough to provide enough ephemeral ports for the anticipated server workload. Ensure that the lower range is set to at least 9000 or higher, to avoid Well Known ports, and to avoid ports in the Registered Ports range commonly used by Oracle and other server ports. Set the port range high enough to avoid reserved ports for any applications you may intend to use. If the lower value of the range you have is greater than 9000, and the range is large enough for your anticipated workload, then you can ignore OUI warnings regarding the ephemeral port range.

Use the following command to check your current range for ephemeral ports:

# /usr/sbin/no -a | fgrep ephemeral
     tcp_ephemeral_low = 32768
     tcp_ephemeral_high = 65535
     udp_ephemeral_low = 32768
     udp_ephemeral_high = 65535

In the preceding example, the TCP and UDP ephemeral ports are set to the default range (32768-65536).

If you expect your workload to require a high number of ephemeral ports, such as high node counts or heavy use of Parallel Query, then update the UDP and TCP ephemeral port range to a broader range. For example:

# /usr/sbin/no -p -o tcp_ephemeral_low=9000 -o tcp_ephemeral_high=65500
# /usr/sbin/no -p -o udp_ephemeral_low=9000 -o udp_ephemeral_high=65500

2.7 Confirming Host Name Resolution

Typically, the computer on which you want to install Oracle Database is connected to a network. Ensure that the computer host name is resolvable through a Domain Name System (DNS), a network information service (NIS), or a centrally-maintained TCP/IP host file, such as /etc/hosts. Use the ping command to ensure that your computer host name is resolvable. For example:

ping myhostname
pinging myhostname.example.com [192.0.2.2] with 32 bytes of data:
Reply from 192.0.2.2: bytes=32 time=138ms TTL=56

If your computer host name does not resolve, then contact your system administrator.

2.8 Checking the Network Setup

Typically, the computer on which you want to install Oracle Database is connected to the network. The computer has local storage to store the Oracle Database installation. It also contains a display monitor and DVD drive. This section describes how to install Oracle Database on computers that do not meet the typical scenario. It describes the following cases:

2.8.1 Confirm Host Name Resolution

Typically, the computer on which you want to install Oracle Database is connected to a network. Ensure that the computer host name is resolvable through a Domain Name System (DNS), a network information service (NIS), or a centrally-maintained TCP/IP host file, such as /etc/hosts. Use the ping command to ensure that your computer host name is resolvable. For example:

$ ping myhostname
pinging myhostname.example.com [192.0.2.2] with 32 bytes of data:
Reply from 192.0.2.2: bytes=32 time=138ms TTL=56

If your computer host name does not resolve, then contact your system administrator.

2.8.2 Installing on Multihomed Computers

You can install Oracle Database on a multihomed computer. A multihomed computer is associated with multiple IP addresses. This is typically achieved by having multiple network cards on the computer. Each IP address is associated with a host name. In addition, you can set up aliases for the host name. By default, Oracle Universal Installer uses the ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable setting to find the host name. If ORACLE_HOSTNAME is not set and you are installing on a computer that has multiple network cards, then Oracle Universal Installer determines the host name from the /etc/hosts file.

Clients must be able to access the computer either by using this host name or by using aliases for this host name. To verify, ping the host name from the client computers using the short name (host name only) and the full name (host name and domain name). Both tests must be successful.

Setting the ORACLE_HOSTNAME Environment Variable

Use the following procedure to set the ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable. For example, if the fully qualified host name is somehost.example.com, then enter one of the following commands:

In Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

$ ORACLE_HOSTNAME=somehost.example.com
$ export ORACLE_HOSTNAME

In C shell:

% setenv ORACLE_HOSTNAME somehost.example.com

2.8.3 Installing on Computers with Multiple Aliases

A computer with multiple aliases is registered with the naming service under a single IP but with multiple aliases. The naming service resolves any of those aliases to the same computer. Before installing Oracle Database on such a computer, set the ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable to the computer whose host name you want to use.

2.8.4 Installing on Non-Networked Computers

You can install Oracle Database on a non-networked computer. If the computer, such as a laptop, is configured for DHCP and you plan to connect the computer to the network after the Oracle Database installation, then use the ping command on the computer on which you want to install the database to check if the computer can connect to itself. Perform this step by first using only the host name and then using the fully qualified name, which should be in the /etc/hosts file.

Note:

When you run the ping command on the computer itself, the ping command should return the IP address of the computer.

If the ping command fails, then contact the system administrator.

Connecting the Computer to the Network after Installation

If you connect the computer to a network after installation, then the Oracle Database instance on the computer can work with other instances on the network. The computer can use a static IP or DHCP, depending on the network to which you are connected.

2.9 Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users

Depending on if this is the first time Oracle software is being installed on this system and on the products that you are installing, you may have to create several operating system groups and users.

If you prefer to allocate operating system user privileges so that you can use one administrative user and one group for operating system authentication for all administrative privileges, then you can use the oracle user as the installation owner, and use one group as the primary group for any user requiring administrative privileges for Oracle ASM, and Oracle Database administration. This group must also be the Oracle Inventory group. To simplify using the defaults for Oracle tools the group name should be oinstall.

You can also create custom configuration groups and users based on job role separation. A custom configuration is a configuration with groups and users that divide access privileges granted by membership in separate operating system groups and users. You can create a single user (for example, oracle) to own both Oracle Database, and Oracle Grid Infrastructure installations. Alternatively, you can create a separate user (for example, grid) to own the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.

The Oracle Database, and the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installation owner users must be members of the Oracle Inventory group (oinstall).

Note:

In Oracle documentation, a user created to own only Oracle Grid Infrastructure software installations is called the grid user. A user created to own either all Oracle installations, or only Oracle database installations, is called the oracle user.

2.9.1 Creating Custom Configuration Groups and Users for Job Roles

This section provides an overview of how to create users and groups to divide access privileges by job roles. Log in as root to create these groups and users.

2.9.1.1 Understanding Restrictions for Oracle Installations with Job Role Separation

Oracle recommends that you create one software owner to own each Oracle software installation (typically, oracle, for the database software and grid for the Oracle Restart owner user). You must create at least one software owner the first time you install Oracle software on the system.

To create separate Oracle software owners, to create separate users, and separate operating system privileges groups for different Oracle software installations, each of these users must have the Oracle central inventory group (oraInventory group) as their primary group. Members of this group have write privileges to the Oracle central inventory (oraInventory) directory, and and are also granted permissions for various Oracle Restart resources and directories in the Oracle Restart home to which DBAs need write access, and other necessary privileges. In Oracle documentation, this group is represented as oinstall in code examples. See "Creating the Oracle Inventory Group".

The database software owner (typically, oracle) must also have the OSDBA group of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home so that database instances can log on to Oracle ASM, and (if you create it) the OSOPER group as secondary groups. In Oracle documentation, the Oracle software owner users are referred to as oracle users.

The Oracle Database, and the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installation owner users (oracle and grid respectively) must belong to the Oracle Inventory group (oinstall).

Each Oracle software owner must be a member of the same central inventory group. Oracle recommends that you do not have more than one central inventory for Oracle installations. If an Oracle software owner has a different central inventory group, then you may corrupt the central inventory.

For Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, the grid user (grid) must be in the OSDBA group of every database home.

See Also:

Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about the OSDBA, OSASM and OSOPER groups, and the SYSDBA, SYSASM and SYSOPER privileges

2.9.1.2 Database Groups for Job Role Installations

Create the following operating system groups if you are installing Oracle Database:

  • The OSDBA group (typically, dba)

    You must create this group the first time you install Oracle Database software on the system. This group identifies operating system user accounts that have database administrative privileges (the SYSDBA privilege). The name used for this group in Oracle code examples is dba.

  • The OSOPER group for Oracle Database (typically, oper)

    This is an optional group. Create this group if you want a separate group of operating system users to have a limited set of database administrative privileges (the SYSOPER privilege). This group cannot directly connect as SYSOPER, unless explicitly granted. However, they have the privileges granted by the SYSOPER privilege. By default, members of the OSDBA group have all privileges granted by the SYSOPER privilege.

    Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to specify the name of this group. The usual name chosen for this group is oper.

2.9.1.3 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Groups for Job Role Installations

Create the following operating system groups if you are installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure:

Note:

You can designate a unique group, separate from database administrator groups, or you can use the same group as the OSASM and OSDBA groups, to grant system privileges to administer both the Oracle ASM instances and Oracle Database instances.
  • The OSDBA group for Oracle ASM (typically, asmdba)

    The OSDBA group for Oracle ASM can be the same group used as the OSDBA group for the database, or you can create a separate OSDBA group for Oracle ASM (typically, asmdba) to provide administrative access to Oracle ASM instances.

    The Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner (typically, grid) must be a member of the OSDBA group. Membership in the OSDBA group enables access to the files managed by Oracle ASM. If you have a separate OSDBA group for Oracle ASM, then the Oracle Restart software owner must be a member of the OSDBA group for each database and the OSDBA group for Oracle ASM.

  • The OSASM group for Oracle ASM (typically, asmadmin)

    SYSASM privileges for Oracle ASM files provide administrator privileges for storage file. In Oracle documentation, the operating system group whose members are granted SYSASM privileges is called the OSASM group, and in command lines, is referred to as asmadmin. Oracle ASM can support multiple databases.

    Members of the OSASM group can use SQL to connect to an Oracle ASM instance as SYSASM using operating system authentication. The SYSASM privileges permit mounting and dismounting of disk groups, and other storage administration tasks. SYSASM privileges provide no access privileges on an RDBMS instance.

    If you do not designate a separate group as the OSASM group, then the OSDBA group you define is also, by default, the OSASM group.

  • The OSOPER group for Oracle ASM (typically, asmoper)

    This is an optional group. Create this group if you want a separate group of operating system users to have a limited set of Oracle instance administrative privileges (the SYSOPER for ASM privilege), including starting up and stopping the Oracle ASM instance. By default, members of the OSASM group also have all privileges granted by the SYSOPER for ASM privilege.

    If you want to have an OSOPER group for Oracle ASM, then the Oracle Grid Infrastructure owner must be a member of this group.

2.9.2 Creating Database Operating System Groups and Users with Job Role Separation

The following sections describe how to create the required operating system user and groups:

Note:

  • After you create the required operating system groups described in this section, you must add the Oracle software owner user (typically, oracle) to these groups, otherwise these groups will not be available as an option in Oracle Universal Installer while performing the database installation.

  • The UIDs and GIDs mentioned in this section are illustrative only. Oracle recommends that you do not use the UID and GID defaults. Instead, provide common assigned group and user IDs, and confirm that they are unused before you create or modify groups and users.

  • If necessary, contact your system administrator before using or modifying an existing user.

2.9.2.1 Creating the Oracle Inventory Group

When you install Oracle software on the system for the first time, Oracle Universal Installer creates the oraInst.loc file. This file identifies the name of the Oracle Inventory group (typically, oinstall) and the path of the Oracle Inventory directory.

You can configure one group to be the access control group for Oracle Inventory, for database administrators (OSDBA), and for all other access control groups used by Oracle software for operating system authentication. However, this group then must be the primary group for all users granted administrative privileges.

Log in as root, and use the following instructions to locate or create the Oracle Inventory group and a software owner:

Determining if the Oracle Inventory Group Exists

An oraInst.loc file has content similar to the following:

inventory_loc=central_inventory_location
inst_group=group

In the preceding example, central_inventory_location is the location of the Oracle Central Inventory, and group is the name of the group that has permissions to write to the central inventory.

If you have an existing Oracle Inventory, then ensure that you use the same Oracle Inventory for all Oracle software installations, and ensure that all Oracle software users you intend to use for installation have permissions to write to this directory.

To determine if the Oracle Inventory group exist, enter the following command:

# grep oinstall /etc/group

To determine if the oraInst.loc file exists, enter the following command:

# more /etc/oraInst.loc

If the oraInst.loc file exists, then the output from this command is similar to the following:

inventory_loc=/u01/app/oraInventory
inst_group=oinstall

In the previous output example:

  • The inventory_loc group shows the location of the Oracle Inventory

  • The inst_group parameter shows the name of the Oracle Inventory group (in this example, oinstall).

Creating the Oracle Inventory Group

If the oraInst.loc file does not exist, then create the Oracle Inventory group using the following procedure:

  1. Enter the following command:

    # smit security
    
  2. Choose the appropriate menu items to create the Oracle Inventory (oinstall) group.

  3. Press F10 to exit.

2.9.2.2 Creating the OSDBA Group for Database Installations

You must create an OSDBA group in the following circumstances:

  • An OSDBA group does not exist, for example, if this is the first installation of Oracle Database software on the system

  • An OSDBA group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating system users database administrative privileges for a new Oracle Database installation

If the OSDBA group does not exist or if you require a new OSDBA group, then create it as follows. In the following procedure, use the group name dba unless a group with that name exists:

  1. Enter the following command:

    # smit security
    
  2. Choose the appropriate menu items to create the dba group.

  3. Press F10 to exit.

2.9.2.3 Creating an OSOPER Group for Database Installations

Create an OSOPER group only to identify a group of operating system users with a limited set of database administrative privileges (SYSOPER operator privileges). For most installations, it is sufficient to create only the OSDBA group. If you want to use an OSOPER group, then you must create it in the following circumstances:

  • If an OSOPER group does not exist; for example, if this is the first installation of Oracle Database software on the system

  • If an OSOPER group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating system users database operator privileges in a new Oracle installation

If you require a new OSOPER group (typically, oper), then create it as follows. In the following, use the group name oper unless a group with that name exists:

  1. Enter the following command:

    # smit security
    
  2. Choose the appropriate menu items to create the oper group.

  3. Press F10 to exit.

2.9.2.4 Creating the OSASM Group for Oracle Automatic Storage Management

If the OSASM group does not exist or if you require a new OSASM group, then create it as follows. In the following procedure, use the group name asmadmin unless a group with that name exists:

  1. Enter the following command:

    # smit security
    
  2. Choose the appropriate menu items to create the asmadmin group.

  3. Press F10 to exit.

2.9.2.5 Creating the OSDBA Group for Oracle Automatic Storage Management

If you require a new OSDBA group for Oracle ASM, then create it as follows. In the following procedure, use the group name asmdba unless a group with that name exists:

  1. Enter the following command:

    # smit security
    
  2. Choose the appropriate menu items to create the asmdba group.

  3. Press F10 to exit.

2.9.2.6 Creating the OSOPER Group for Oracle Automatic Storage Management

If you require an OSOPER group, then create it as follows. In the following procedure, use the group name asmoper unless a group with that name exists:

  1. Enter the following command:

    # smit security
    
  2. Choose the appropriate menu items to create the asmoper group.

  3. Press F10 to exit.

2.9.2.7 Creating the Oracle Software Owner User

You must create an Oracle software owner user in the following circumstances:

  • If an Oracle software owner user does not exist; for example, if this is the first installation of Oracle software on the system.

  • If an Oracle software owner user exists, but you want to use a different operating system user, with different group membership, to give database administrative privileges to those groups in a new Oracle Database installation.

  • If you have created an Oracle software owner for Oracle Grid Infrastructure, such as grid, and you want to create a separate Oracle software owner for Oracle Database software, such as oracle.

2.9.2.7.1 Determining if an Oracle Software Owner User Exists

To determine if an Oracle software owner user named oracle, or grid exists, enter a command similar to the following:

# id oracle
# id grid

If the oracle user exists, then the output from this command is similar to the following:

uid=501(oracle) gid=501(oinstall) groups=502(dba),503(oper)

If the grid user exists, then the output from this command is similar to the following:

uid=8001(grid) gid=8001(oinstall) groups=8001(oinstall),8002(asmadmin),8003(asmdba),8006(dba)

Ensure that the Oracle software owner user (oracle or grid) has the Oracle Inventory group (oinstall) as its primary group and is a member of the appropriate OSDBA, ASMDBA, OSBACKUPDBA, OSDGDBA, and OSKMDBA groups you created in the preceding sections. Depending on whether you want to create a new user, or use an existing user to do this, see the following sections:

Note:

If necessary, contact your system administrator before using or modifying an existing user.
2.9.2.7.2 Creating an Oracle Software Owner User

If the Oracle software owner user does not exist, or if you require a new Oracle software owner user, such as oracle or grid, then create it as described in this section (in this case to create the oracle user).

In the following procedure, use the user name oracle unless a user with that name exists:

asmdba, or oper.
  1. Enter the following command:

    # smit security
    
  2. Choose the appropriate menu items to create the oracle user, specifying the following information:

    • In the Primary GROUP field, specify the Oracle Inventory group, for example oinstall.

    • In the Group SET field, specify the OSDBA group and if required, the OSOPER group. For example dba, asmdba, or oper.

  3. Press F10 to exit.

  4. Set the password of the oracle user:

    # passwd oracle
    
2.9.2.7.3 Modifying an Existing Oracle Software Owner User

If the oracle user exists, but its primary group is not oinstall, or it is not a member of the appropriate OSDBA or OSOPER groups, then modify it as follows:

  1. Enter the following command:

    # smit security
    
  2. Choose the appropriate menu items to modify the oracle user.

  3. In the Primary GROUP field, specify the Oracle Inventory group, for example oinstall.

  4. In the Group SET field, specify the required secondary groups, for example dba, asmdba, or oper.

  5. Press F10 to exit.

2.10 Configure Shell Limits and System Configuration Parameters

This section contains the following topics:

Note:

The parameter and shell limit values shown in this section are recommended values only. For production database systems, Oracle recommends that you tune these values to optimize the performance of the system. See your operating system documentation for more information about tuning kernel parameters.

Oracle recommends that you set shell limits and system configuration parameters as described in this section.

2.10.1 Configure Shell Limits

For AIX, it is the ulimit settings that determine process memory related resource limits. Verify that the shell limits displayed in the following table are set to the values shown:

Shell Limit (As Shown in smit) Recommended Value
Soft FILE size -1 (Unlimited)
Soft CPU time -1 (Unlimited)

Note: This is the default value.

Soft DATA segment -1 (Unlimited)
Soft STACK size -1 (Unlimited)
Soft Real Memory size -1 (Unlimited)
Processes (per user) -1 (Unlimited)

Note: This limit is available only in AIX 6.1 or later. Refer to "Configure System Configuration Parameters" for information on configuration of processes per user limits.


To display the current value specified for these shell limits, and to change them if necessary perform the following steps:

  1. Enter the following command:

    # smit chuser
    
  2. In the User NAME field, enter the user name of the Oracle software owner, for example oracle.

  3. Scroll down the list and verify that the value shown for the soft limits listed in the previous table is -1.

    If necessary, edit the existing value. To edit the values, you can use the smit utility. However, to set the value of Soft Real Memory size, you must edit the file /etc/security/limits. If you have permissions to run smit utility, then you automatically have the permissions to edit the limits file.

  4. When you have finished making changes, press F10 to exit.

2.10.2 Configure System Configuration Parameters

If you cannot use the Fixup scripts, then verify that the kernel parameters shown in the following table are set to values greater than or equal to the minimum value shown. If the current value for any parameter is greater than the value listed in this table, then the Fixup scripts do not change the value of that parameter.

Parameter Recommended Value
maxuprocs 16384
ncargs 128
tcp_ephemeral_low 32768
tcp_ephemeral_high 65535
udp_ephemeral_low 32768
udp_ephemeral_high 65535

Ensure that you set the TCP and UDP parameters by following the procedure described in the Verifying UDP and TCP Kernel Parameters section.

The following procedure describes how to verify and set the values manually.

  • To verify that the maximum number of processes allowed per user is set to 16384 or greater, use the following steps:

    Note:

    For production systems, this value should be at least 128 plus the sum of the PROCESSES and PARALLEL_MAX_SERVERS initialization parameters for each database running on the system.
    1. Enter the following command:

      # smit chgsys
      
    2. Verify that the value shown for Maximum number of PROCESSES allowed per user is greater than or equal to 16384.

      If necessary, edit the existing value.

    3. When you have finished making changes, press F10 to exit.

  • To verify that long commands can be executed from shell, use the following steps:

    Note:

    Oracle recommends that you set the ncargs system attribute to a value greater than or equal to 128. The ncargs attribute determines the maximum number of values that can be passed as command line arguments.
    1. Enter the following command:

      # smit chgsys
      
    2. Verify that the value shown for ARG/ENV list size in 4K byte blocks is greater than or equal to 128.

      If necessary, edit the existing value.

    3. When you have finished making changes, press F10 to exit.

2.10.3 Checking Asynchronous Input Output Processes

On AIX 5, run the rootpre.sh script to enable the AIO (Asynchronous Input Output) device drivers. On AIX 6, the AIO device drivers are enabled by default. For both AIX 5 and AIX 6, increase the number of aioserver processes from the default value. The recommended value for aio_maxreqs is 64k (65536). Confirm this value for both AIX 5 and AIX 6.

Confirm the aio_maxreqs value using the procedure for your release:

On AIX 6.1 and AIX 7.1:

# ioo –o aio_maxreqs
aio_maxreqs = 65536

On AIX 5.3:

# lsattr -El aio0 -a maxreqs
maxreqs 65536 Maximum number of REQUESTS True

When performing an asynchronous I/O to a file system, each asynchronous I/O operation is tied to an asynchronous I/O server. Thus, the number of asynchronous I/O servers limits the number of concurrent asynchronous I/O operations in the system.

The initial number of servers that are started during a system restart is determined by the minservers parameter. As concurrent asynchronous I/O operations occur, additional asynchronous I/O servers are started, up to a maximum of the value set in the maxservers parameter.

On AIX 5.3, if you are using Oracle Database with data files on a file system then increase the default values for minservers and maxservers, as the default values for these parameters are too small. Increase the minservers and maxservers values based on I/O kprocs for each processor.

In general, to set the number of asynchronous I/O servers, complete the following procedure:

  1. Adjust the initial value of maxservers to 10 times the number of logical disks divided by the number of CPUs that are to be used concurrently but no more than 80.

  2. Monitor the performance effects on the system during periods of high I/O activity. If all AIO server processes are started, then increase the maxservers value. Also, continue to monitor the system performance during peak I/O activity to determine if there was a benefit from the additional AIO servers. Too many asynchronous I/O servers increase memory and processor overload of additional processes, but this disadvantage is small. See your operating system vendor documentation for information about tuning AIO parameters.

To monitor the number of AIO server processes that have started, enter the following:

# ps -ek|grep -v grep|grep –v posix_aioserver|grep -c aioserver

Note:

Starting with AIX 6.1, minservers and maxservers are replaced by the aio_minservers and aio_maxservers parameters respectively.

2.11 Identifying Required Software Directories

You must identify or create the following directories for the Oracle software:

Note:

  • Ensure that the paths you select for Oracle software, such as the Oracle home path and the Oracle base path, use only ASCII characters. Because installation owner names are used by default for some paths, this ASCII character restriction applies to user names, file names, and directory names.

  • Ensure that all paths used by the database software, such as the Oracle home path and the Oracle base path, use characters only from the following set: "# % & ' () * + , - . / : ; < = > ? @ _ A-Z a-z 0-9. This includes user names, file names, and directory names. At the time of this release, the use of other characters for an Oracle Grid Infrastructure home or Oracle Database home is not supported. The set of characters provided is further restricted by user and file naming rules of the operating system.

2.11.1 Oracle Base Directory

The Oracle base directory is a top-level directory for Oracle software installations. The Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines recommend that you use a path similar to the following for the Oracle base directory:

/mount_point/app/software_owner

In this example:

  • mount_point is the mount point directory for the file system that contains the Oracle software.

    The examples in this guide use /u01 for the mount point directory.

  • software_owner is the operating system user name of the software owner installing the Oracle software, for example oracle or grid.

Note:

If you start a database instance using the server parameter file (spfile) with the ORACLE_BASE environment variable set, then its value is automatically stored in spfile. If you unset the ORACLE_BASE environment variable and start the instance again, then the database uses the value of the Oracle base directory stored in spfile.

You must specify the Oracle base directory that contains all Oracle products.

Note:

If you have an existing Oracle base directory, then you can select it from the Oracle Base list during the database installation. If you do not have an Oracle base, then you can create one by editing the text in the list box. By default, the list contains the existing value for the Oracle base. See "Installing the Oracle Database Software" for more information.

You can use the same Oracle base directory for multiple installations or you can create separate Oracle base directories for different installations. If different operating system users install Oracle software on the same system, then each user must create a separate Oracle base directory. The following are examples of Oracle base directories that can exist on the same system:

/u01/app/oracle
/u01/app/orauser

See "Creating an Oracle Base Directory".

2.11.2 Oracle Inventory Directory

The Oracle Inventory directory (oraInventory) stores an inventory of all software installed on the system. It is required and shared by all Oracle software installations on a single system. If you have an existing Oracle Inventory path, then Oracle Universal Installer continues to use that Oracle Inventory.

The first time you install Oracle software on a system, Oracle Universal Installer provides an Optimal Flexible Architecture-compliant path in the format /u[01-09]/app, such as /u01/app. The user running the installation has permissions to write to that path. If this is true, then Oracle Universal Installer creates the Oracle Inventory directory in the path /u[01-09]/app/oraInventory. For example:

/u01/app/oraInventory

If you have set ORACLE_BASE for the oracle user during installation, then Oracle Universal Installer creates the Oracle Inventory directory in the path ORACLE_BASE/../oraInventory. For example, if ORACLE_BASE is set to /u01/app/oracle, then the Oracle Inventory directory is created in the path /u01/app/oraInventory.

If you have neither created an OFA-compliant path nor set ORACLE_BASE, then the Oracle Inventory directory is placed in the home directory of the user that is performing the installation. For example:

/home/oracle/oraInventory

Oracle Universal Installer creates the directory that you specify and sets the correct owner, group, and permissions for it. You do not have to create it.

Note:

  • All Oracle software installations rely on the Oracle Inventory directory. Ensure that you back it up regularly.

  • Do not delete this directory unless you have completely removed all Oracle software from the system.

  • By default, the Oracle Inventory directory is not installed under the Oracle Base directory. This is because all Oracle software installations share a common Oracle Inventory, so there is only one Oracle Inventory for all users. Whereas, there is a separate Oracle Base for each user.

2.11.3 Oracle Home Directory

The Oracle home directory is the directory where you install the software for a particular Oracle product. You must install different Oracle products or different releases of the same Oracle product in separate Oracle home directories. When you run Oracle Universal Installer, it prompts you to specify the path to this directory and a name that identifies it. In accordance with the OFA guidelines, Oracle strongly recommends that the Oracle home directory you specify is a subdirectory of the Oracle base directory for the user account performing the installation. Oracle recommends that you specify a path similar to the following for the Oracle home directory:

oracle_base/product/11.1.0/dbhome_1
oracle_base/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1
oracle_base/product/11.2.0/grid

Oracle Universal Installer creates the directory path that you specify under the Oracle base directory. It also sets the correct owner, group, and permissions on it. You do not have to create this directory.

Note:

During the installation, you must not specify an existing directory that has predefined permissions applied to it as the Oracle home directory. If you do, then you may experience installation failure due to file and group ownership permission errors.

2.12 Identifying or Creating an Oracle Base Directory

Before starting the installation, you must either identify an existing Oracle base directory or, if required, create one. This section contains information about the following topics:

Note:

You can create an Oracle base directory, even if other Oracle base directories exist on the system.

2.12.1 Identifying an Existing Oracle Base Directory

Existing Oracle base directories may not have paths that follow the Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines. However, if you identify an existing Oracle Inventory directory or existing Oracle home directories, then you can usually identify the Oracle base directories, as follows:

  • Identifying an existing Oracle Inventory directory. See "Creating the Oracle Inventory Group" for more information.

    Note:

    Oracle recommends that you do not put the oraInventory directory under the Oracle base directory for a new installation. If you have an existing installation, then follow the steps in this section.
  • Identifying an existing Oracle home directory

    Enter the following command to display the contents of the oratab file:

    # more /etc/oratab
    

    If the oratab file exists, then it contains lines of code similar to the following:

    *:/u03/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1:N
    *:/opt/orauser/infra_904:N
    *:/oracle/9.2.0:N
    

    The directory paths specified on each line identify Oracle home directories. Directory paths that end with the user name of the Oracle software owner to use are valid choices for an Oracle base directory. If you intend to use the oracle user to install the software, then you can choose one of the following directories listed in the previous example:

    /u03/app/oracle
    /oracle
    

    Note:

    If possible, choose a directory path similar to the first one (/u03/app/oracle). This path complies with the OFA guidelines.
  • Identifying an existing Oracle base directory

    After you locate the Oracle home directory, run a similar command to confirm the location of Oracle base:

    cat /u01/app/oraInventory/ContentsXML/inventory.xml
    

Before deciding to use an existing Oracle base directory for this installation, ensure that it meets the following conditions:

  • It is not on the same file system as the operating system.

  • The Oracle base directory requires a free disk space of 7.5 GB for its software files.

    To determine the free disk space on the file system where the Oracle base directory is located, enter the following command:

    # df -k oracle_base_path
    

See the following sections for more information:

2.12.2 Creating an Oracle Base Directory

Before you create an Oracle base directory, you must identify an appropriate file system with sufficient free disk space.

To identify an appropriate file system:

  1. To determine the free disk space on each mounted file system, use the following command:

    # df -k
    
  2. From the display, identify a file system that has the appropriate amount of free space.

    The file system that you identify can be a local file system, a cluster file system, or an NFS file system on a certified NAS device.

  3. Note the name of the mount point directory for the file system that you identified.

To create the Oracle base directory and specify the correct owner, group, and permissions for it:

  1. Enter commands similar to the following to create the recommended subdirectories in the mount point directory that you identified and set the appropriate owner, group, and permissions on them:

    # mkdir -p /mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner
    # chown -R oracle:oinstall /mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner
    # chmod -R 775 /mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner
    

    For example:

    # mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle
    # chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle
    # chmod -R 775 /u01/app/oracle
    
  2. When you configure the oracle user's environment later in this chapter, set the ORACLE_BASE environment variable to specify the Oracle base directory that you created.

2.13 Choosing a Storage Option for Oracle Database and Recovery Files

Oracle Database files include data files, control files, redo log files, the server parameter file, and the password file. For all installations, you must choose the storage option to use for Oracle Database files. If you want to enable automated backups during the installation, then you must also choose the storage option to use for recovery files (the fast recovery area). You do not have to use the same storage option for each file type.

Note:

Database files and recovery files are supported on file systems and Oracle ASM.

Use the following guidelines when choosing the storage options for each file type:

For information on how to configure disk storage before you start the installation, see one of the following sections depending on your choice:

2.14 Creating Directories for Oracle Database or Recovery Files

This section contains the following topics:

2.14.1 Guidelines for Placing Oracle Database Files on a File System

If you choose to place the Oracle Database files on a file system, then use the following guidelines when deciding where to place them:

  • The default path suggested by Oracle Universal Installer for the database file directory is a subdirectory of the Oracle base directory.

  • You can choose either a single file system or more than one file system to store the database files:

    • If you want to use a single file system, then choose a file system on a physical device that is dedicated to the database.

      For best performance and reliability, choose a RAID device or a logical volume on more than one physical device and implement the stripe-and-mirror-everything (SAME) methodology.

    • If you want to use more than one file system, then choose file systems on separate physical devices that are dedicated to the database.

      This method enables you to distribute physical input-output operations and create separate control files on different devices for increased reliability. It also enables you to fully implement the OFA guidelines. You can choose the Advanced database creation option to implement this method.

  • If you intend to create a preconfigured database during the installation, then the file system (or file systems) that you choose must have at least 2 GB of free disk space.

    For production databases, you must estimate the disk space requirement depending on the use of the database.

  • For optimum performance, the file systems that you choose must be on physical devices that are used only by the database.

  • The oracle user must have write permissions to create the files in the path that you specify.

2.14.2 Creating Required Directories

Note:

You must perform this procedure only to place the Oracle Database or recovery files on a separate file system from the Oracle base directory.

To create directories for the Oracle database or recovery files on separate file systems from the Oracle base directory:

  1. Use the following to determine the free disk space on each mounted file system:

    # df -k
    
  2. From the display, identify the file systems to use:

    File Type File System Requirements
    Database files Choose either:
    • A single file system with at least 2 GB of free disk space

    • Two or more file systems with at least 2 GB of free disk space in total

    Recovery files Choose a file system with at least 2.4 GB of free disk space

    If you are using the same file system for many file types, then add the disk space requirements for each type to determine the total disk space requirement.

  3. Note the names of the mount point directories for the file systems that you identified.

  4. Enter commands similar to the following to create the recommended subdirectories in each of the mount point directories and set the appropriate owner, group, and permissions on them:

    • Database file directory:

      # mkdir /mount_point/oradata
      # chown oracle:oinstall /mount_point/oradata
      # chmod 775 /mount_point/oradata
      

      The default location for the database file directory is $ORACLE_BASE/oradata.

    • Recovery file directory (fast recovery area):

      # mkdir /mount_point/fast_recovery_area
      # chown oracle:oinstall /mount_point/fast_recovery_area
      # chmod 775 /mount_point/fast_recovery_area
      

      The default fast recovery area is $ORACLE_BASE/fast_recovery_area. Oracle recommends that you keep the fast recovery area on a separate physical disk than that of the database file directory. This enables you to use the fast recovery area to retrieve data if the disk containing oradata is unusable for any reason.

  5. If you also want to use Oracle ASM for storage, then see "Preparing Disks for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation" and "Stopping Existing Oracle Processes" section.

2.15 Stopping Existing Oracle Processes

Note:

If you are installing additional Oracle Database 11g products in an existing Oracle home, then stop all processes, including the listener and database, running in the Oracle home. You must complete this task to enable Oracle Universal Installer to relink certain executables and libraries.

Consider the following before you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure or Oracle Database:

  • If you plan to use Oracle Restart, then you must install Oracle Grid Infrastructure before you install and create the database. When you perform a database installation, the database must use the same listener created during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, thereafter you do not have to perform the steps listed in this section.

    The default listener and any additional listeners must run from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home. See "Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment" to continue.

  • If you have an existing Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) running on Oracle ASM, then stop any existing Oracle ASM instances. After you finish installing the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software, start the Oracle ASM instance again.

If you create a database during the software installation, then most installation types configure and start a default Oracle Net listener using TCP/IP port 1521 and the IPC key value EXTPROC. If an existing Oracle Net listener process is using the same port or key value, Oracle Universal Installer looks for the next available port (for example, 1522) and configures and starts the new listener on this available port.

To determine if an existing listener process is running and to shut it down, if necessary:

  1. Switch user to oracle:

    # su - oracle
    
  2. Enter the following command to determine if a listener process is running and to identify its name and the Oracle home directory in which it is installed:

    $ ps -ef | grep tnslsnr
    

    This command displays information about the Oracle Net listeners running on the system:

    ... oracle_home1/bin/tnslsnr LISTENER -inherit
    

    In this example, oracle_home1 is the Oracle home directory where the listener is installed and LISTENER is the listener name.

    Note:

    If no Oracle Net listeners are running, then see the "Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment" section to continue.
  3. At the command prompt, set the ORACLE_HOME environment variable to specify the appropriate Oracle home directory for the listener:

    • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

      $ ORACLE_HOME=oracle_home1
      $ export ORACLE_HOME
      
    • C or tcsh shell:

      % setenv ORACLE_HOME oracle_home1
      
  4. Enter the following command to identify the TCP/IP port number and IPC key value that the listener is using:

    $ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/lsnrctl status listenername
    

    Note:

    If the listener uses the default name LISTENER, then you do not have to specify the listener name in this command.
  5. Enter a command similar to the following to stop the listener process:

    $ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/lsnrctl stop listenername
    
  6. Repeat this procedure to stop all listeners running on this system.

2.16 Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment

You must run Oracle Universal Installer from the oracle or grid account. However, before you start Oracle Universal Installer, you must configure the environment of the oracle or grid user. To configure the environment, you must:

  • Set the default file mode creation mask (umask) to 022 in the shell startup file.

  • Set the DISPLAY environment variable.

Caution:

Use shell programs supported by your operating system vendor. If you use a shell program that is not supported by your operating system, then you can encounter errors during installation.

To set the Oracle software owners' environments, follow these steps, for each software owner (oracle, grid). The following procedure lists the steps for the oracle user only:

  1. Start a new X terminal session (xterm).

  2. Enter the following command to ensure that X Window applications can display on this system:

    $ xhost + RemoteHost
    

    where RemoteHost is the fully qualified remote host name. For example:

    $ xhost + somehost.example.com
    
  3. If you are not logged in as the user, then switch to the software owner user you are configuring. For example, as the oracle user.

    $ su - oracle
    
  4. To determine the default shell for the oracle user, enter the following command:

    $ echo $SHELL
    
  5. Open the user's shell startup file in any text editor:

    • Bash shell (bash):

      $ vi .bash_profile
      
    • Bourne shell (sh) or Korn shell (ksh):

      $ vi .profile
      
    • C shell (csh or tcsh):

      % vi .login
      
  6. Enter or edit the following line, specifying a value of 022 for the default file mode creation mask:

    umask 022
    
  7. Save the file and exit from the text editor.

  8. To run the shell startup script, enter one of the following commands:

    • Bash shell:

      $ . ./.bash_profile
      
    • Bourne or Korn shell:

      $ . ./.profile
      
    • C shell:

      % source ./.login
      
  9. If you are not installing the software on the local computer, then run the following command on the remote computer to set the DISPLAY variable:

    • Bourne, Bash or Korn shell:

      $ export DISPLAY=local_host:0.0   
      
    • C shell:

      % setenv DISPLAY local_host:0.0
      

    In this example, local_host is the host name or IP address of the system (your workstation, or another client) on which you want to display the installer.

    Run the following command on the remote system to check if the SHELL and the DISPLAY environment variables are set correctly:

    echo $SHELL
    echo $DISPLAY
    

    To change the display location from the default display to a remote system display, run the following command on the local computer:

    $ xhost + RemoteHost
    

    To verify that the X applications display is set properly, run an X11-based program that comes with the operating system such as xclock.

    $ xclock
    

    If the DISPLAY environment variable is set correctly, then you can see xclock on your computer screen. If xclock does not start, then contact your system admimistrator.

  10. If the /tmp directory has less than 1 GB of free disk space, then identify a file system with at least 1 GB of free space and set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables to specify a temporary directory on this file system:

    1. To determine the free disk space on each mounted file system use the following command:

      # df -k /tmp
      
    2. If necessary, enter commands similar to the following to create a temporary directory on the file system that you identified, and set the appropriate permissions on the directory:

      su - root
      $ mkdir /mount_point/tmp
      $ chmod a+wr /mount_point/tmp
      #exit
      
    3. Enter commands similar to the following to set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables:

      • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

        $ TMP=/mount_point/tmp
        $ TMPDIR=/mount_point/tmp
        $ export TMP TMPDIR
        
      • C shell:

        % setenv TMP /mount_point/tmp
        % setenv TMPDIR /mount_point/tmp
        
  11. If you have had an existing installation on your system, and you are using the same user account to install this installation, then unset the ORACLE_HOME, ORACLE_BASE, ORACLE_SID, TNS_ADMIN environment variables and any other environment variable set for the Oracle installation user that is connected with Oracle software homes.

    Enter the following commands to ensure that the ORACLE_HOME, ORACLE_BASE, ORACLE_SID and TNS_ADMIN environment variables are not set:

    • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

      $ unset ORACLE_HOME
      $ unset ORACLE_BASE
      $ unset ORACLE_SID
      $ unset TNS_ADMIN
      
    • C shell:

      % unsetenv ORACLE_HOME
      % unsetenv ORACLE_BASE % unsetenv ORACLE_SID
      % unsetenv TNS_ADMIN
      

    Use the following command to check the PATH environment variable:

    $ echo $PATH
    

    Ensure that the $ORACLE_HOME/bin path is removed from your PATH environment variable.

    Note:

    If the ORACLE_HOME environment variable is set, then Oracle Universal Installer uses the value that it specifies as the default path for the Oracle home directory. If you set the ORACLE_BASE environment variable, then Oracle recommends that you unset the ORACLE_HOME environment variable and choose the default path suggested by Oracle Universal Installer.
  12. To verify that the environment has been set correctly, enter the following commands:

    $ umask
    $ env | more
    

    Verify that the umask command displays a value of 22, 022, or 0022 and that the environment variables you set in this section have the correct values.

See Also:

"Configuring the User's Environment" for information about setting the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner user's environment

2.17 Running the rootpre.sh Script

Note:

Do not run the rootpre.sh script if you have a later release of the Oracle Database software installed on this system.

Run the rootpre.sh script:

  1. Switch user to root:

    $ su - root
    password:
    #
    
  2. Complete one of the following steps, depending on the location of the installation files:

    • If the installation files are on disc, enter a command similar to the following, where directory_path is the disc mount point directory or the path of the db directory on the DVD:

      # /directory_path/rootpre/rootpre.sh 
      
    • If the installation files are on the hard disk, change the directory to the location where rootpre.sh exists and enter the following command:

      # ./rootpre.sh
      
  3. Exit from the root account:

    # exit