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Oracle® Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
11g Release 2 (11.2)

E40393-06
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B Authentication Parameters

This appendix illustrates some sample configuration files with the profile file (sqlnet.ora) and the database initialization file authentication parameters, when using Kerberos, RADIUS, or SSL authentication.

This appendix contains the following topics:

B.1 Parameters for Clients and Servers using Kerberos Authentication

Following is a list of parameters to insert into the configuration files for clients and servers using Kerberos.

Table B-1 Kerberos Authentication Parameters

File Name Configuration Parameters

sqlnet.ora

SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES=(KERBEROS5)  
SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_KERBEROS5_SERVICE=oracle     
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CC_NAME=/usr/tmp/DCE-CC   
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CLOCKSKEW=1200   
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CONF=/krb5/krb.conf      
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CONF_MIT=(FALSE)
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_REALMS=/krb5/krb.realms  
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_KEYTAB=/krb5/v5srvtab

initialization parameter file

OS_AUTHENT_PREFIX=""

B.2 Parameters for Clients and Servers using RADIUS Authentication

The following sections describe the parameters for RADIUS authentication

B.2.1 sqlnet.ora File Parameters

The following sections describe the sqlnet.ora parameters that are used to specify RADIUS authentication.

B.2.1.1 SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES Parameter

This parameter configures the client or the server to use the RADIUS adapter. Table B-2 describes this parameter's attributes.

Table B-2 SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES=(radius)

Default setting

None


B.2.1.2 SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION Parameter

This parameter sets the location of the primary RADIUS server, either host name or dotted decimal format. If the RADIUS server is on a different computer from the Oracle server, you must specify either the host name or the IP address of that computer. Table B-3 describes this parameter's attributes.

Table B-3 SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION=RADIUS_server_IP_address

Default setting

localhost


B.2.1.3 SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_PORT Parameter

This parameter sets the listening port of the primary RADIUS server. Table B-4 describes this parameter's attributes.

Table B-4 SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_PORT Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_PORT=port_number

Default setting

1645


B.2.1.4 SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_TIMEOUT Parameter

This parameter sets the time to wait for response. Table B-5 describes this parameter's attributes.

Table B-5 SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_TIMEOUT Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_TIMEOUT=time_in_seconds

Default setting

5


B.2.1.5 SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_RETRIES Parameter

This parameter sets the number of times to resend authentication information. Table B-6 describes this parameter's attributes.

Table B-6 SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_RETRIES Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_RETRIES=n_times_to_resend

Default setting

3


B.2.1.6 SQLNET.RADIUS_SEND_ACCOUNTING Parameter

This parameter turns accounting on and off. If you enable accounting, packets will be sent to the active RADIUS server at the listening port plus one. By default, packets are sent to port 1646. You need to turn this feature on only when your RADIUS server supports accounting and you want to keep track of the number of times the user is logging on to the system. Table B-7 describes this parameter's attributes.

Table B-7 SQLNET.RADIUS_SEND_ACCOUNTING Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.RADIUS_SEND_ACCOUNTING=on

Default setting

off


B.2.1.7 SQLNET.RADIUS_SECRET Parameter

This parameter specifies the file name and location of the RADIUS secret key. Table B-8 describes this parameter's attributes.

Table B-8 SQLNET.RADIUS_SECRET Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.RADIUS_SECRET=path_to_RADIUS_secret_key

Default setting

$ORACLE_HOME/network/security/radius.key


B.2.1.8 SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE Parameter

This parameter sets the location of an alternate RADIUS server to be used in case the primary server becomes unavailable for fault tolerance. Table B-9 describes this parameter's attributes.

Table B-9 SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE=alternate_RADIUS_server_hostname_or_IP_address

Default setting

off


B.2.1.9 SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_PORT Parameter

This parameter sets the listening port for the alternate RADIUS server. Table B-10 describes this parameter's attributes.

Table B-10 SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_PORT Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_PORT=alternate_RADIUS_server_listening_port_number

Default setting

1645


B.2.1.10 SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_TIMEOUT Parameter

This parameter sets the time to wait for response for the alternate RADIUS server. Table B-11 describes this parameter's attributes.

Table B-11 SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_TIMEOUT Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_TIMEOUT=time_in_seconds

Default setting

5


B.2.1.11 SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_RETRIES Parameter

This parameter sets the number of times that the alternate RADIUS server resends messages. Table B-12 describes this parameter's attributes.

Table B-12 SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_RETRIES Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_RETRIES=n_times_to_resend

Default setting

3


B.2.1.12 SQLNET.RADIUS_CHALLENGE_RESPONSE Parameter

This parameter turns on or turns off the challenge-response or asynchronous mode support. Table B-13 describes this parameter's attributes.

Table B-13 SQLNET.RADIUS_CHALLENGE_RESPONSE Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.RADIUS_CHALLENGE_RESPONSE=on

Default setting

off


B.2.1.13 SQLNET.RADIUS_CHALLENGE_KEYWORD Parameter

This parameter sets the keyword to request a challenge from the RADIUS server. User types no password on the client. Table B-14 describes this parameter's attributes.

Table B-14 SQLNET.RADIUS_CHALLENGE_KEYWORD Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.RADIUS_CHALLENGE_KEYWORD=keyword

Default setting

challenge


B.2.1.14 SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_INTERFACE Parameter

This parameter sets the name of the Java class that contains the graphical user interface when RADIUS is in the challenge-response (asynchronous) mode. Table B-15 describes this parameter's attributes.

Table B-15 SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_INTERFACE Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_INTERFACE=Java_class_name

Default setting

DefaultRadiusInterface (oracle/net/radius/DefaultRadiusInterface)


B.2.1.15 SQLNET.RADIUS_CLASSPATH Parameter

If you decide to use the challenge-response authentication mode, RADIUS presents the user with a Java-based graphical interface requesting first a password, then additional information, for example, a dynamic password that the user obtains from a token card. Add the SQLNET.RADIUS_CLASSPATH parameter in the sqlnet.ora file to set the path for the Java classes for that graphical interface, and to set the path to the JDK Java libraries. Table B-16 describes this parameter's attributes.

Table B-16 SQLNET.RADIUS_CLASSPATH Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.RADIUS_CLASSPATH=path_to_GUI_Java_classes

Default setting

$ORACLE_HOME/jlib/netradius.jar:$ORACLE_HOME/JRE/lib/sparc/native_threads


B.2.2 Minimum RADIUS Parameters

sqlnet.authentication_services = (radius)
sqlnet.radius.authentication = IP-address-of-RADIUS-server

B.2.3 Initialization File Parameters

OS_AUTHENT_PREFIX=""

B.3 Parameters for Clients and Servers Using Secure Sockets Layer

There are two ways to configure a parameter:

  • Static: The name of the parameter that exists in the sqlnet.ora file. Parameters like SSL_CIPHER_SUITES and SSL_VERSION can also be configured using the listener.ora file.

  • Dynamic: The name of the parameter used in the security subsection of the Oracle Net address.

B.3.1 Secure Sockets Layer Authentication Parameters

This section describes the static and dynamic parameters for configuring SSL on the server.

Attribute Description
Parameter Name (static) SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES
Parameter Name (dynamic) AUTHENTICATION
Parameter Type String LIST
Parameter Class Static
Permitted Values Add TCPS to the list of available authentication services.
Default Value No default value.
Description To control which authentication services a user wants to use.

Note: The dynamic version supports only the setting of one type.

Existing/New Parameter

Existing

Syntax (static) SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES = (TCPS, selected_method_1, selected_method_2)
Example (static) SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES = (TCPS, radius)
Syntax (dynamic) AUTHENTICATION = string
Example (dynamic)

AUTHENTICATION = (TCPS)


B.3.2 Cipher Suite Parameters

This section describes the static and dynamic parameters for configuring cipher suites.

Attribute Description
Parameter Name (static) SSL_CIPHER_SUITES
Parameter Name (dynamic) SSL_CIPHER_SUITES
Parameter Type String LIST
Parameter Class Static
Permitted Values Any known SSL cipher suite
Default Value No default
Description Controls the combination of encryption and data integrity used by SSL.
Existing/New Parameter Existing
Syntax (static) SSL_CIPHER_SUITES=(SSL_cipher_suite1[, SSL_cipher_suite2, ... SSL_cipher_suiteN])
Example (static) SSL_CIPHER_SUITES=(SSL_DH_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA)
Syntax (dynamic) SSL_CIPHER_SUITES=(SSL_cipher_suite1

[, SSL_cipher_suite2, ...SSL_cipher_suiteN])

Example (dynamic) SSL_CIPHER_SUITES=(SSL_DH_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA)

B.3.2.1 Supported SSL Cipher Suites

Oracle Advanced Security supports the following cipher suites:

  • SSL_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA

  • SSL_DH_anon_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA

  • SSL_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA

  • SSL_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA

Note that the cipher suites that use Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) work with Transport Layer Security (TLS 1.0) only.

B.3.3 Secure Sockets Layer Version Parameters

This section describes the static and dynamic parameters for configuring the version of SSL to be used.

Attribute Description
Parameter Name (static) SSL_VERSION
Parameter Name (dynamic) SSL_VERSION
Parameter Type string
Parameter Class Static
Permitted Values Any version which is valid to SSL. (0, 1.0 (for TLS), 2.0, and 3.0).
Default Value "0"
Description To force the version of the SSL connection.
Existing/New Parameter New
Syntax (static) SSL_VERSION=version
Example (static) SSL_VERSION=3.0
Syntax (dynamic) SSL_VERSION=version
Example (dynamic) SSL_VERSION=3.0

B.3.4 Secure Sockets Layer Client Authentication Parameters

This section describes the static and dynamic parameters for configuring SSL on the client.

Attribute Description
Parameter Name (static) SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION
Parameter Name (dynamic) SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION
Parameter Type Boolean
Parameter Class Static
Permitted Values TRUE/FALSE
Default Value TRUE
Description To control whether a client, in addition to the server, is authenticated using SSL.
Existing/New Parameter New
Syntax (static) SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION={TRUE | FALSE}
Example (static) SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION=FALSE
Syntax (dynamic) SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION={TRUE | FALSE}
Example (dynamic) SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION=FALSE

B.3.4.1 SSL X.509 Server Match Parameters

This section describes the parameters that are used to validate the identity of a server that the client connects to.

B.3.4.1.1 SSL_SERVER_DN_MATCH
Attribute Description
Parameter Name SSL_SERVER_DN_MATCH
Where stored sqlnet.ora
Purpose Use this parameter to force the server's distinguished name (DN) to match its service name. If you force the match verifications, SSL ensures that the certificate is from the server. If you choose not to enforce the match verification, SSL performs the check but permits the connection, regardless of whether there is a match. Not forcing the match lets the server potentially fake its identity.
Values yes|on|true. Specify to enforce a match. If the DN matches the service name, the connection succeeds; otherwise, the connection fails.

no|off|false. Specify to not enforce a match. If the DN does not match the service name, the connection is successful, but an error is logged to the sqlnet.log file.

Default Oracle8i, or later:.FALSE. SSL client (always) checks server DN. If it does not match the service name, the connection succeeds but an error is logged to sqlnet.log file.
Usage Notes Additionally configure the tnsnames.ora parameter SSL_SERVER_CERT_DN to enable server DN matching.

B.3.4.1.2 SSL_SERVER_CERT_DN
Attribute Description
Parameter Name SSL_SERVER_CERT_DN
Where stored tnsnames.ora. It can be stored on the client, for every server it connects to, or it can be stored in the LDAP directory, for every server it connects to, updated centrally.
Purpose This parameter specifies the distinguished name (DN) of the server. The client uses this information to obtain the list of DNs it expects for each of the servers to force the server's DN to match its service name.
Values Set equal to distinguished name (DN) of the server.
Default n/a
Usage Notes Additionally configure the sqlnet.ora parameter SSL_SERVER_DN_MATCH to enable server DN matching.
Example dbalias=(description=address_list=(address=(protocol=tcps)(host=hostname)(port=portnum)))(connect_data=(sid=Finance))(security=(SSL_SERVER_CERT_DN="CN=Finance,CN=OracleContext,C=US,O=Acme"))

B.3.5 Wallet Location

For any application that must access a wallet for loading the security credentials into the process space, you must specify the wallet location parameters defined by Table B-17 in each of the following configuration files:

  • sqlnet.ora

  • listener.ora

Table B-17 Wallet Location Parameters

Static Configuration Dynamic Configuration

WALLET_LOCATION =

(SOURCE=

(METHOD=File)

(METHOD_DATA=

(DIRECTORY=your wallet location)

)

)

MY_WALLET_DIRECTORY

= your_wallet_dir


The default wallet location is the ORACLE_HOME directory.