PK FJoa,mimetypeapplication/epub+zipPKFJOEBPS/index.htm Index

Index

A  B  C  D  E  F  H  I  L  M  N  O  P  R  S  T  U  W  X 

Numerics

32-bit to 64-bit conversion. See word size

A

access control lists (ACLs)
granting access to network utility packages, 3.4.1.2
access control to network utility packages, A.2.13.2
access-control lists (ACLs)
changed behavior in 11g release 1 (11.1), A.2.15
applications
compatibility, 5.2
linking with newer libraries, 5.3.2.2.1
running against older server, 5.3.2.1.2
upgrading, 5, 5
client/server configurations, 5.3.1
compatibility rules, 5.3.2
options, 5.3.3
relinking rules, 5.3.2
apxrelod.sql file
reloading after downgrade, 6.5
ASM
database upgrade after, 4.7.4.1
disk group compatibility, A.2.7
optional tasks after upgrade, 4.7.4
ASM_PREFERRED_READ_FAILURE_GROUPS, 4.8.3
automatic maintenance tasks management
AutoTask, A.2.5
Automatic Storage Management (ASM)
disk group compatibility, 4.8.2
file access control, 3.1.4.5
preferred read failure groups, 4.8.3
rolling upgrades
ASM, 1.8.1
upgrading, 3.1.4, 3.12
automatic undo management
migrating to, 4.4.1.8
UNDO_MANAGEMENT, A.2.20
AutoTask, A.2.5

B

backups
after upgrading, 4.4.1.1
before downgrading, 6.4
preparing a strategy, 2.1.6
binary XML storage, A.2.12

C

capturing and replaying database workload, 2.1.5.6.1
case sensitivity
for passwords, 4.4.1.2
catdwgrd.sql script, 6.5
CATRELOD.SQL script, 6.5, 6.5
CATUPGRD.SQL script, 3.8.3
change passwords
for oracle-supplied accounts, 4.5.1
client software
upgrading, 5.3.2.2
client-server configurations, 1.4.2
collecting optimizer statistics, B
commands
crsctl, 4.6.2.1
compatibility
applications, 5.2
checking for incompatibilities, 6.2
COMPATIBLE initialization parameter, 1.5.1.1
downgrading, 1.5.1.3
original Export utility, 7.2.2
COMPATIBLE initialization parameter, 1.5.1.1, 4.8.2
setting, 4.5.6.1

D

data copying
using Export/Import, 7
data mining models, A.2.9
Data Pump
advantages of using, 2.1.3.3
Data Pump Export/Import
recommendations, 2.1.3.3, 7.1
versus Original Export/Import, 7.1
when to use, 7.1
database links
downgrading and, 6.6.5
Database Replay
database workloads before upgrading, 2.1.5.6.1
database upgrade
termination due to ORA_00904, 3.8.3
termination due to ORA_00942, 3.8.3
termination due to ORA_01722, 3.8.3
Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA)
advantages, 2.1.3.1
registering the database in the listener.ora file, 3.5
running, 3.6
silent mode, 3.7.2
starting, 3.6.2, 3.6.3
database upgrade process
overview, 1.2
databases
downgrading, 6.5
upgrading, 1.2
upgrading the client software, 5.3.2.2
DB_BLOCK_SIZE
new default value, A.4.23
DB_BLOCK_SIZE initialization parameter
compatibility, A.4.23
dblinks
ORA-00600, 6.6.5
DBMS_DST PL/SQL package
ORA-01822 error, 3.9.6
DBMS_STATS package
upgrading statistics tables, 4.3.5
DBMS_STATS procedure
use when creating a statistics table, B.2
DBUA. See Database Upgrade Assistant
Developer/2000 Applications
upgrading, 5.5
DGConnectIdentifier property, 4.4.1.9
direct upgrades, 2.1.2
disk group compatibility, 4.8.2
disks
specifying preferred read failure groups, 4.8.3
DMSYS schema objects, A.2.9
downgrading
backing up your database, 6.4
binary XML storage, A.2.12
CATRELOD.SQL, 6.5, 6.5
checking for incompatibilities, 6.2
ORADIM, 6.5
patchset releases, 6.1
procedure for, 6.5
scripts, 6.5
rerunning, 6.5
downstream capture
upgrading, 3.1.9
dump files
generated by export utilities, 7.2

E

enforcing case-sensitivity for passwords, 4.4.1.2
environment variables
required for upgrading, 3.8.3
evaluation of numeric literals, 5.4.1, A.4.21
export and import
recommendations, 2.1.3.3, 7.1
Export utility, 7.1
data copying, 7
requirements, 7.2
Export/Import
advantages and disadvantages, 2.1.3.3
benefits, 2.1.3.3.2
effects on upgraded databases, 2.1.3.3.1
incompatible data, 7.2.3
time requirements, 2.1.3.3.3
upgrading, 7.3
extended distance cluster configurations
preferred read disks, 4.8.3
extents
reading from secondary, 4.8.3
extusrupgrade, 4.3.6

F

FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS initialization parameter
DEFAULT limit, A.3.7
Fast Recovery Area, 3.9.2
file access control
with the SYSASM role, 3.1.4.5
fine-grained access control to network utility packages, 3.4.1.2
Forms
upgrading Oracle Forms applications, 5.5

H

Hardware Assisted Resilient Data (HARD)
upgrading systems, 4.5.6.1

I

Import utility, 7.1
data copying, 7
requirements, 7.2
importing
dump files for downgrades, 7.2
incompatibilities
checking for, 6.2
incompatible data
Export/Import, 7.2.3
initialization parameters
adjusting for Oracle Database 10g, 4.5.6
adjusting for Oracle Database 11g, 3.8.2
ASM_PREFERRED_READ_FAILURE_GROUPS, 4.8.3
compatibility
DB_BLOCK_SIZE, A.4.23
SESSION_CACHED_CURSORS, A.4.22
COMPATIBLE, 1.5.1.1
initialization parameters, COMPATIBLE, 4.8.2
installation
Oracle Database 11g release 1 (11.1), 3.2
instances
starting after a downgrade, 6.5
INTEGER arithmetic
evaluation of numeric literals, 5.4.1, A.4.21
intermediate releases
upgrading, 2.1.2
interoperability, 1.5.2

L

listener.ora file
modifying, 3.5
listeners
modifying with Oracle Net Configuration Assistant, 3.5
load testing, 2.1.5.7
LocalListenerAddress property
Oracle Data Guard, 4.4.1.9
logical standby databases
rolling upgrades, 1.8.1
login
new DEFAULT limit, A.3.7
lsinventory command, 4.2

M

maintenance tasks
scheduling with AutoTask, A.2.5
manual upgrade
advantages, 2.1.3.2
backup the database, 3.8.1
OCR configuration, 4.5.5
migrating data
to a different operating system, 3.1.8
moving data with export/import, 7.1
multiversioning, 1.4.2
My Oracle Support
link to The Upgrade Companion web site, Preface, 1.1, 1.1, 2.1.5.4, 3.1.8

N

network utility packages
access control to, A.2.13.2
networks
granting ACL access to network utility packages, 3.4.1.2
new features
adding after upgrade, 4.4.1.5
NUMBER arithmetic
evaluation of numeric literals, 5.4.1, A.4.21
numeric computation
evaluation of numeric literals, 5.4.1, A.4.21
numeric literals
evaluating, 5.4.1, A.4.21

O

OCI application
statically-linked, 5.3.2.2.2
OCI applications
changing, 5.3.3.3.2
dynamically-linked, 5.3.2.2.3
upgrading, 5.3
upgrading options, 5.3.3
OFA, 1.6
one-off patches, 1.8
OPatch lsinventory command, 4.2
OPatch utility
rolling upgrades, 1.8.1
operating system
migrating data to, 3.1.8
Optimal Flexible Architecture. See OFA
optimizer statistics
collecting for dictionary objects, B
creating a table to collect, B.2
ORA_TZFILE
unsetting after downgrade, 6.5
ORA-00904
"TZ_VERSION"
invalid identifier, 3.8.3
ORA-00942
table or view does not exist, 3.8.3, 3.8.3
ORA-01408 error message, 3.9.5
ORA-01722
invalid number, 3.8.3
ORA-01822 error message, 3.9.6
Oracle Application Express
apexrelod.sql file, 6.5
update, 4.3.8
Oracle Application Express configuration, 4.3.8
Oracle ASM
installed with Oracle grid infrastructure, 3.1.3
Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR)
upgrading manually, 4.5.5
Oracle Clusterware
upgrading, 3.1.4
Oracle Data Guard
configuring broker properties, 4.4.1.9
rolling upgrades, 1.8.1
Oracle Database Express Edition
upgrading to Oracle Database, 1.11
Oracle Database XE
upgrading to Oracle Database, 1.11
Oracle Express Edition
recommended tasks after upgrade, 4.4.3
Oracle grid infrastructure home, 3.1.4
upgrading ASM instances, 1.8.1, 3.12
Oracle home
multiple, 1.4.2.1
Oracle Net Configuration Assistant, 3.5
Oracle Real Application Clusters
rolling upgrades with OPatch, 1.8.1
upgrading, 3.1.4
Oracle release numbers, 1.4
Oracle Restart
for single-instance databases, 3.1.4
Oracle Streams
downstream capture
upgrading, 3.1.9
Oracle Universal Installer, 1.2
Oracle XML Database
binary XML storage, A.2.12
oracle-supplied accounts
change passwords, 4.5.1
ORADIM
downgrading, 6.5
upgrading, 3.8.3
original Export utility
downward compatibility, 7.2.2
Original Export/Import
versus Data Pump Export/Import, 7.1
when to use, 7.1

P

passwords
case sensitive, 4.4.1.2
patchset releases
downgrading, 6.1
physical standby database
performing rolling upgrades, 1.8.1, 3.1.6
PLS-00306 error, 6.5
PL/SQL Native Compilation, A.2.13.1
post-upgrade status tool, 3.8.3, 3.8.3, 3.8.3, 3.8.3.1, 3.8.3.1
precompilers
applications
changing, 5.3.3.3.1
upgrading options, 5.3.3
upgrading applications, 5.3
preferred read failure groups
setting up, 4.8.3
preparing to upgrade
collecting optimizer statistics, B

R

recovery catalog
upgrading, 4.3.3
releases
definition, 1.4
multiple, 1.4.2
upgrade paths, 2.1.2
rollback segments
migrating to automatic undo management, 4.4.1.8
rolling upgrades
methods, 1.8
Oracle Real Application Clusters and OPatch, 1.8.1
to clustered ASM instances, 3.12
with logical standby databases, 3.1.6
with logical standby databases and SQL Apply, 1.8.1
with physical standby database, 1.8.1, 3.1.6
with SQL Apply and logical standby databases, 1.8.1, 3.1.6
running multiple Oracle releases on the same computer, 1.4.2

S

scheduling
AutoTask, A.2.5
schemas
collecting system component statistics, B.1
scripts
downgrading, 6.5
rerunning, 6.5
upgrading, 3.4, 3.8.3, 3.8.3
security
case-sensitive passwords, 4.4.1.2
server parameter file
migrating to, 4.5.3
SESSION_CACHED_CURSORS
change in behavior, A.4.22
SESSION_CACHED_CURSORS initialization parameter
compatibility, A.4.22
shared pool subpools, A.4.27
SHARED_POOL_SIZE in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), A.4.27
single-instance ASM upgrade
ASM
single-instance upgrade, 4.7.2
SPFILE
upgrading systems with HARD-compliant storage, 4.5.6.1
SPNC_COMMANDS file
release 10.1, A.4.20
SQL Access Advisor, A.2.17
SQL Apply
performing rolling upgrades, 1.8.1, 3.1.6
SQL Management Base (SMB), 2.1.5.6.3
SQL Performance Analyzer, 2.1.5.6.2
SQL plan baseline, A.2.11
SQL plan management, 2.1.5.6.3, 2.1.5.6.3, A.2.11
SQL Tuning Set (STS), 2.1.5.6.3
SQL*Plus
scripts
upgrading, 5.4
Standard Edition
moving to Enterprise Edition, 1.9
starter database, A.2.18
STARTUP UPGRADE command, 6.5
statistics
collecting for dictionary objects, B
collecting for system component schemas, B.1
creating a table for, B.2
importing with DBMS_STATS PL/SQL procedure, B.2
statistics tables
upgrading, 4.3.5
status tools
for upgrades and post-upgrade, 3.8.3, 3.8.3, 3.8.3, 3.8.3.1, 3.8.3.1
subpools, A.4.27
SYSASM Privilege, A.2.6
SYSASM role
ASM file access control, 3.1.4.5
system component schemas
collecting statistics for, B.1

T

testing
applications for upgrade, 2.3, 4.4.1.11
developing a plan, 2.1.5
functional for upgrade, 2.1.5.3
high availability for upgrading, 2.1.5.4
integration for upgrading, 2.1.5.5
minimal for upgrade, 2.1.5.2
performance for upgrade, 2.1.5.6
the upgrade process, 2.2
the upgraded test database, 2.3
using Database Replay, 2.1.5.6.1
volume/load stress for upgrade, 2.1.5.7
time zone file
unsetting after downgrade, 6.5
time zone file version mismatch, 3.9.6
TIMESTAMP WITH TIMEZONE data type, 3.4.1.5
troubleshooting
upgrades, 3.9

U

UNDO_MANAGEMENT initialization parameter, 4.4.1.8
default, A.2.20
Upgrade Companion
link to web site from My Oracle Support, Preface, 1.1, 1.1, 2.1.5.4, 3.1.8
upgrade methods
choosing, 2.1.3
Database Upgrade Assistant, 1.2, 2.1.3.1
Export/Import, 2.1.3.3, 7.3
manual, 2.1.3.2, 3.8
silent mode, 3.7.2
upgrade paths, 2.1.2
upgrade status tool, 3.8.3, 3.8.3, 3.8.3, 3.8.3.1, 3.8.3.1
upgrading
abandoning, 3.11
applications, 5, 5
compatibility rules, 5.3.2
options, 5.3.3
relinking, 5.3.2
ASM, 3.1.4
backup strategy, 2.1.6
binary XML storage, A.2.12
initialization parameters, 3.8.2
new administrative procedures, 4.4.1.6
Oracle Application Express, 4.3.8
Oracle Clusterware, 3.1.4
Oracle Forms applications, 5.5
Oracle Real Application Clusters, 3.1.4
ORADIM, 3.8.3
post upgrade actions, 4
preparation, 2.1
recovery catalog, 4.3.3
rolling upgrades, 1.8
running the CATUPGRD.SQL script, 3.8.3
scripts, 3.4, 3.8.3, 3.8.3
SQL*Plus scripts, 5.4
statistics tables, 4.3.5
testing, 2.1.5
troubleshooting, 3.9
using the Database Upgrade Assistant, 3.6
utlu112s.sql
example, 3.8.3, 3.8.3, 3.8.3, 3.8.3.1, 3.8.3.1

W

word size
64-bit software, 1.7
workloads
capturing and replaying, 2.1.5.6.1

X

xsrelod.sql script, 6.5
PKr\PKFJOEBPS/preup.htm Preparing to Upgrade Oracle Database

2 Preparing to Upgrade Oracle Database

The process of upgrading Oracle Database includes understanding system considerations and requirements and troubleshooting various issues before actually performing the upgrade steps. Before you upgrade Oracle Database, you must become familiar with the new features and behavior changes. In preparation for upgrading you install the new Oracle software. The new Oracle software for this release provides the latest Pre-Upgrade Information Tool to help you understand requirements and complete pre-upgrade tasks.

This chapter contains the following topics:

The Main Steps for Preparing to Upgrade Oracle Database

In preparation for upgrading Oracle Database, you review the new features, determine the best upgrade path and method. Oracle recommends that you test the upgrade process and prepare a backup strategy.

Complete the following tasks to prepare to upgrade:

Become Familiar with New Oracle Database Features for Upgrading

Before you plan the upgrade process, become familiar with the features of the new Oracle Database 11g release. Oracle Database New Features Guide is a good starting point for learning the differences between Oracle Database releases. Also, check specific guides in the Oracle Database 11g documentation library to find information about new features for a certain component. For example, see Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide for changes in Oracle Real Application Clusters.


Note:



See Also:

My Oracle Support Note ID 854428.1, "Patch Set Updates for Oracle Products" at https://support.oracle.com

Determine the Upgrade Path for Upgrading Oracle Database

The path that you must take to upgrade to the new Oracle Database 11g release depends on the release number of your current database. It might not be possible to directly upgrade from your current release of Oracle Database to the latest release. Depending on your current release, you might be required to upgrade through one or more intermediate releases to upgrade to the new Oracle Database 11g release.

For example, if the current database is running release 9i, then follow these steps:

  1. Upgrade release 9.0.1.4 to release 10.2.0.4 using the instructions in Oracle Database Upgrade Guide Release 2 (10.2).

  2. Upgrade release 10.2.0.4 to the new Oracle Database 11g release using the instructions in this guide.

Table 2-1 contains the required upgrade path for each release of Oracle Database. Use the upgrade path and the specified documentation to upgrade your database.

Table 2-1 Supported Upgrade Paths for Upgrading Oracle Database

Current ReleaseUpgrade Path

9.0.1.3 (or earlier)

Direct upgrade is not supported. Upgrade to an intermediate Oracle Database release before you can upgrade to the new Oracle Database 11g release, as follows:

  • 9.0.1.3 (or earlier) -> 9.0.1.4 -> 10.2.0.4 -> 11.2

When upgrading to an intermediate Oracle Database release, follow the instructions in the intermediate release's documentation. Then, upgrade the intermediate release database to the new Oracle Database 11g release using the instructions in Chapter 3, "Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database".

9.2.0.8

10.1.0.5

10.2.0.2

11.1.0.6

Direct upgrade to the new Oracle Database 11g release is supported from 9.2.0.8 or higher, 10.1.0.5 or higher, 10.2.0.2 or higher, and 11.1.0.6 or higher. Note that Oracle Clusterware release 10.2.0.n must be at release 10.2.0.3 (or higher), before you attempt to upgrade it to Oracle Clusterware 11g. See "About Upgrading an Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) Database".

For release 9.2.0.3, you must first upgrade to an intermediate Oracle Database release, as follows:

9.2.0.3 (or earlier) -> 9.2.0.8 -> 11.2

To upgrade to the new Oracle Database 11g release, follow the instructions in Chapter 3, "Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database".



See Also:

"Supported Releases for Downgrading Oracle Database" for information related to downgrading your database

Choose an Upgrade Method for Upgrading Oracle Database

The upgrade methods you can use to upgrade your database to the new Oracle Database 11g release are:

Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA)

Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA) interactively steps you through the upgrade process and configures the database for the new Oracle Database 11g release. DBUA automates the upgrade process by performing all of the tasks normally performed manually. DBUA makes appropriate recommendations for configuration options such as tablespaces and redo logs. You can then act on these recommendations.

DBUA provides support for Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC). In an Oracle RAC environment, DBUA upgrades all the database and configuration files on all nodes in the cluster.

Manual Upgrade

A manual upgrade consists of running SQL scripts and utilities from a command line to upgrade a database to the new Oracle Database 11g release.

While a manual upgrade gives you finer control over the upgrade process, it is more susceptible to error if any of the upgrade or pre-upgrade steps are either not followed or are performed out of order.

Before the Upgrade

The following list provides a high-level summary of the manual upgrade steps:

  • Analyze the database using the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool. The Pre-Upgrade Information Tool is a SQL script that is supplied with the new Oracle Database 11g release, and DBUA uses this script as part of its upgrade process. Run the script on the database you are upgrading.

    The Pre-Upgrade Information Tool displays warnings about possible upgrade issues with the database. It also displays information about required initialization parameters for the new Oracle Database 11g release.

  • Prepare the new Oracle home.

  • Perform a backup of the database.

Depending on the release of the database being upgraded, you might be required to perform additional pre-upgrade steps:

After the Upgrade

Review the upgrade spool log file and use the Post-Upgrade Status Tool. The Post-Upgrade Status Tool is a SQL script that ships with the new Oracle Database 11g release. You run the Post-Upgrade Status Tool in the environment of the new release. The Post-Upgrade Status Tool can be run any time after upgrading the database.

Oracle Data Pump Export and Import and Oracle Database Upgrade

Unlike DBUA or a manual upgrade, the Oracle Data Pump Export and Import utilities physically copy data from your current database to a new database. When upgrading from Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) or higher, Data Pump Export and Import are recommended for higher performance and to ensure support for new datatypes.

The Export utility of the current database copies specified parts of the database into an export dump file. Then, the Import utility of the new Oracle Database 11g release loads the exported data into a new database. However, the new Oracle Database 11g database must currently exist before it can be loaded from the export dump file.

When importing data from an earlier release, the Import utility of the new Oracle Database 11g release makes appropriate changes to data definitions as it reads export dump files from earlier releases.

The following sections highlight aspects of Export/Import that might help you to decide whether to use Export/Import to upgrade your database.


Note:

  • If your database is earlier than Oracle Database release 10.1, then you can use the original Export and Import utilities to perform a full or partial export from your database, followed by a full or partial import into a new Oracle Database 11g database. Export/Import can copy a subset of the data in a database, leaving the original database unchanged.

  • The original Export utility is no longer being updated to support new datatypes.


Export/Import Effects on Upgraded Databases

The Export/Import upgrade method does not change the current database, which enables the database to remain available throughout the upgrade process. However, if a consistent snapshot of the database is required (for data integrity or other purposes), then the database must run in restricted mode or must otherwise be protected from changes during the export procedure. Because the current database can remain available, you can, for example, keep an existing production database running while the new Oracle Database 11g database is being built at the same time by Export/Import. During the upgrade, to maintain complete database consistency, changes to the data in the database cannot be permitted without the same changes to the data in the new Oracle Database 11g database.

Most importantly, the Export/Import operation results in a completely new database. Although the current database ultimately contains a copy of the specified data, the upgraded database might perform differently from the original database. For example, although Export/Import creates an identical copy of the database, other factors, such as disk placement of data and unset tuning parameters, might cause unexpected performance problems.

Export/Import Benefits

Upgrading using Data Pump Export/Import:

  • Defragments the data. You can compress the imported data to improve performance.

  • Restructures the database. You can create new tablespaces or modify existing tables, tablespaces, or partitions to be populated by imported data.

  • Facilitates side-by-side testing of the old and new versions of Oracle Database because an entirely new database is created.

  • Enables the copying of specified database objects or users. Importing only the objects, users, and other items you need is useful for establishing a test environment for the new software on only a subset of the production data. Data Pump Export / Import provides flexible data subsetting capabilities.

  • Serves as a backup archive - you can use a full database export as an archive of the current database.

  • Enables the upgraded database to be established on an operating system or hardware platform that is different from that which is supporting the database being upgraded.Network-based Data Pump Import allows the new Oracle database to be directly loaded across the network from the old database being upgraded. Thus, no intervening dump files are required.

Time Requirements for Export/Import

Upgrading an entire database by using Export/Import can take a long time, especially compared to using DBUA or performing a manual upgrade. Therefore, you might be required to schedule the upgrade during non-peak hours or make provisions for propagating to the new database any changes that are made to the current database during the upgrade.

Choose a Location for the New Oracle Home for Upgrading Oracle Database

You must choose a location for Oracle home on the new Oracle Database 11g release that is separate from the Oracle home of your current release. You cannot install the new software into the same location for Oracle home as your current release, unless you are installing an Oracle Database 11g patchset release. For a patchset release, you can use the same Oracle Database 11g Oracle home.

Using separate installation directories enables you to keep your existing software installed along with the new software. This method enables you to test the upgrade process on a test database before replacing your production environment entirely.

Develop a Testing Plan to Upgrade Oracle Database

You need a series of carefully designed tests to validate all stages of the upgrade process. Executed rigorously and completed successfully, these tests ensure that the process of upgrading the production database is well understood, predictable, and successful. Perform as much testing as possible before upgrading the production database. Do not underestimate the importance of a complete and repeatable testing process.

The types of tests to perform are the same whether you use Real Application Testing features like Database Replay or SQL Performance Analyzer, or perform testing manually.

Your test plan must include these types of tests:

Oracle Database Upgrade Testing

Upgrade testing entails planning and testing the upgrade path from your current software to the new Oracle Database 11g release, whether you use DBUA, perform a manual upgrade, or use Export/Import or other data-copying methods. Regardless of the upgrade method you choose, you must establish, test, and validate an upgrade plan.

Minimal Testing for Upgrading Oracle Database

Minimal testing entails moving all or part of an application from the current database to the new database and running the application without enabling any new database features. Minimal testing might not reveal problems that would appear in an actual production environment. However, minimal testing immediately reveals any application startup or invocation problems.

Functional Testing for Upgrading Oracle Database

Functional testing is a set of tests in which new and existing features and functions of the system are tested after the upgrade. Functional testing includes all database, networking, and application components. The objective of functional testing is to verify that each component of the system functions as it did before upgrading and to verify that new functions are working properly.

High Availability Testing for Upgrading Oracle Database

High availability testing entails:

  • Ensuring that Recovery Time Objective (RTO) and Recovery Point Objective (RPO) business requirements are still met by the upgraded system. For example, in an Oracle RAC environment, injecting node or instance failures during stress testing help evaluate if the Oracle RAC recovery capability has changed.

  • Testing your fallback plans and procedures.

  • Checking the database performance and stability, and resolving performance problems.


See Also:

The Oracle Database High Availability Overview and "The Upgrade Companion" Web site available in Note 785351.1 on My Oracle Support at http://support.oracle.com/.

Integration Testing for Upgrading Oracle Database

Integration testing examines the interactions among components of the system. Consider the following factors when you plan your integration testing:

  • Pro*C/C++ applications running against a new Oracle Database 11g instance should be tested to ensure that there are no problems with the new software.

  • Graphical user interfaces should be tested with other components.

  • Subtle changes in the new Oracle Database 11g release, such as data types, data in the data dictionary (additional rows in the data dictionary, object type changes, and so on) can have an effect all the way up to the front-end application, even if the application is not directly connected to a new Oracle Database 11g instance.

  • If the connection between two components involves Oracle Net or Oracle Net Services, then those connections should also be tested and stress tested.

Performance Testing for Upgrading Oracle Database

Performance testing of the new database compares the performance of various SQL statements in the new database with the performance of those same statements in the current database. Before upgrading, you should understand the performance profile of the application under the current database. Specifically, you should understand the calls the application makes to the database server.

This section describes the following types of performance testing:

Database Replay

Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), you can use the new Database Replay feature to perform real-world testing of a database upgrade on your site's production workload before actually upgrading the production database. This feature captures the actual database workload on the production system and replays it on the test system. It also provides analysis and reporting to highlight potential problems—for example, errors encountered, divergence in performance, and so forth. In addition, all the regular Enterprise Manager performance monitoring and reporting tools such as Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor, Automatic Workload Repository (AWR), and Activity Session History are available to address any problems.


Note:

You can change the stored procedure logic in the database but the stored PL/SQL procedures that implement the application logic must maintain the same interfaces as before the upgrade. If an upgrade affects the stored procedures of an application, then the workload might not be replayable. By using the Database Replay tool in this way, you have good diagnostics to see if the new application logic in the server is performing as expected after the upgrade.


See Also:

Oracle Database Real Application Testing User's Guide for complete information about how to capture and replay workloads

SQL Performance Analyzer

Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), you can use the SQL Performance Analyzer to forecast the impact of system changes on a SQL workload. SQL Performance Analyzer enables evaluating the impact of a change such as database upgrade by identifying the SQL statements impacted by the upgrade and measuring their performance divergence. The analysis enables you to assess the overall effect of the upgrade on SQL performance and makes it possible to avoid any negative outcome before users can be impacted.


See Also:

Oracle Database Real Application Testing User's Guide for complete information and examples using the SQL Performance Analyzer to perform what-if analysis on potential database changes

SQL Plan Management

SQL plan management prevents performance regressions resulting from sudden changes to the execution plan of a SQL statement by providing components for capturing, selecting, and evolving SQL plan information. SQL plan management is a preventative mechanism that records and evaluates the execution plans of SQL statements over time, and builds SQL plan baselines composed of a set of existing plans known to be efficient. The SQL plan baselines are then used to preserve performance of corresponding SQL statements, regardless of changes occurring in the system.

A database upgrade that installs a new optimizer version usually results in plan changes for a small percentage of SQL statements, with most of the plan changes resulting in either no performance change or improvement. However, certain plan changes may cause performance regressions.

SQL plan management prevents performance regressions resulting from sudden changes to the execution plan of a SQL statement by providing components for capturing, selecting, and evolving SQL plan information. If you are performing a database upgrade that installs a new optimizer version, then it can result in plan changes for a small percentage of SQL statements, with most of the plan changes resulting in either no performance change or improvement. However, certain plan changes may cause performance regressions.

With SQL plan management, the optimizer automatically manages execution plans and ensures that only known or verified plans are used. When a new plan is found for a SQL statement, the plan is not used until it has been verified by the database to have comparable or better performance than the current plan. Therefore, if you seed SQL plan management with your current (pre-Oracle Database 11g) execution plan, which is to become the SQL plan baseline for each statement, then the optimizer uses these plans after the upgrade. If the Oracle Database 11g optimizer determines that a different plan is necessary, then the new plan is queued for verification and is not used until it has been confirmed to have comparable or better performance than the current plan.

There are two ways to seed or populate a SQL Management Base (SMB) with execution plans:

  • Automatic capture of execution plans (available starting with Oracle Database 11g)

  • Bulk load execution plans or preexisting SQL plan baselines

Bulk loading of execution plans or SQL plan baselines is especially useful when upgrading a database from a previous release to Oracle Database 11g. SQL plans that are bulk loaded are automatically accepted and added to existing or new plan histories as SQL plan baselines.

To bulk load the SQL Management Base as part of an upgrade:

Bulk Loading a SQL Management Base with a SQL Tuning Set (STS)

To bulk load the SQL Management Base with an execution plan from an STS 

  1. In Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), create an STS that includes the execution plan for each of the SQL statements.

  2. Load the STS into a staging table and export the staging table into a dump file.

  3. Import the staging table from a dump file into Oracle Database 11g and unload the STS.

  4. Use Oracle Enterprise Manager or DBMS_SPM.LOAD_PLANS_FROM_SQLSET to load the execution plans into the SQL Management Base.

Unpacking Existing Oracle Database SQL Plan Baselines from a Staging Table

Perform the steps in this procedure to test and tune all of your critical SQL queries on an Oracle Database 11g test environment and then move those exact SQL execution plans to your Oracle Database 11g production environment.

To test and tune your critical SQL queries on an Oracle Database 11g test environment 

  1. On the Oracle Database 11g test system, after completing all testing and tuning, use the DBMS_SPM.LOAD_PLAN_FROM_CURSOR_CACHE procedure or Enterprise Manager to load all of the execution plans in the cursor cache into the SQL Management Base.

  2. Create a staging table using the DBMS_SPM.CREATE_STGTAB_BASELINE procedure.

  3. Pack the SQL plan baselines you created in step 1 into the staging table using the DBMS_SPM.PACK_STGTAB_BASELINE function.

  4. Export the staging table into a flat file using the Export command or Data Pump.

  5. Transfer this flat file to the target system.

  6. Import the staging table from the flat file using the Import command or Data Pump.

  7. Unpack the SQL plan baselines from the staging table into the SQL Management Base on the target system using the DBMS_SPM.UNPACK_STGTAB_BASELINE function.


See Also:

Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide for more information about using SQL Plan Management

Volume and Load Stress Testing for Upgrading Oracle Database

Volume and load stress testing tests the entire upgraded database under high volume and loads. Volume describes the amount of data being manipulated. Load describes the level of concurrent demand on the system. The objective of volume and load testing is to emulate how a production system might behave under various volumes and loads.

Volume and load stress testing is crucial, but is commonly overlooked. Oracle has found that customers often do not conduct any kind of volume or load stress testing. Instead, customers often rely on benchmarks that do not characterize business applications. Benchmarks of the application should be conducted to uncover problems relating to functions, performance, and integration, but they cannot replace volume and load stress testing.

Load testing involves running an application load against the new release of the database to ensure that the application does not encounter problems such as new errors or performance issues under load conditions likely to be encountered in production. Many times, problems manifest under certain load conditions and are normally not seen in functional testing. The Database Replay feature is ideal for such load testing as it enables capturing the system workload from a production environment and replay it in identical fashion on the test system.

Prepare a Backup Strategy for Upgrading Oracle Database

The ultimate success of your upgrade depends heavily on the design and execution of an appropriate backup strategy.

To develop a backup strategy, consider the following questions:

  • How long can the production database remain inoperable before business consequences become intolerable?

  • What backup strategy is necessary to meet your availability requirements?

  • Are backups archived in a safe, offsite location?

  • How quickly can backups be restored (including backups in offsite storage)?

  • Have recovery procedures been tested successfully?

Your backup strategy should answer all of these questions and include procedures for successfully backing up and recovering your database.


See Also:

Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for information on database backups

Testing the Upgrade Process for Oracle Database

Create a test environment that does not interfere with the current production database.

Your test environment depends on the upgrade method you have chosen:

  • If you plan to use DBUA or perform a manual upgrade, then create a test version (typically a subset) of the current production database to test the upgrade.

  • If you plan to use Export/Import, then export and import small test pieces of the current production database.

Practice upgrading the database using the test environment. The best upgrade test, if possible for you to create, is performed on an exact copy of the database to be upgraded, rather than on a downsized copy or test data. If for some reason an exact copy is impractical, then carefully chose a representative subset of your data to move over to your test environment and test the upgrade on that data.

Ensure that you upgrade any OCI and precompiler applications that you plan to use with your new Oracle database. Then, you can test these applications on a sample database before upgrading your current production database.


See Also:

"Upgrading Precompiler and OCI Applications" for more information

Testing the Upgraded Test Oracle Database

Perform the planned tests on the current database and on the test database that you upgraded to the new Oracle Database 11g release. Compare the results, noting anomalies. Repeat the test upgrade as many times as necessary.

Test the newly upgraded test database with existing applications to verify that they operate properly with a new Oracle database. You also might test enhanced functions by adding available Oracle Database features. However, first ensure that the applications operate in the same manner as they did in the current database.


See Also:

Chapter 5, "Upgrading Applications After Upgrading Oracle Database" for more information on using applications with Oracle Database

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Oracle® Database

Upgrade Guide

11g Release 2 (11.2)

E23633-11

May 2014


Oracle Database Upgrade Guide, 11g Release 2 (11.2)

E23633-11

Copyright © 2002, 2014, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Primary Author: Cathy Shea

Contributors: Toshinori Ami, Vickie Carbonneau, Ian Dai, Mike Dietrich, Joseph Errede, Ayako Ito, Masakazu Ito, Cindy Lim, Brian McCarthy, Tony Morales, Carol Palmer, Satish Panchumarthy, Ravi Pattabhi, Kathy Rich, Mark Richwine, Craig Santelman, Viv Schupmann, Janet Stern, Carol Tagliaferri, Venkateshwaran Venkataramani, Douglas Williams

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PKu8IDPKFJ OEBPS/app.htm:~Ł Upgrading Applications After Upgrading Oracle Database

5 Upgrading Applications After Upgrading Oracle Database

Many new features and enhancements are available after upgrading to a new release of Oracle Database. To take advantage of the new features, you must upgrade applications running in the new release.

This chapter contains the following topics:

Overview of Upgrading Applications

You are not required to modify existing applications that do not use features available in the new Oracle Database 11g release. Existing applications running against a new Oracle Database 11g database function the same as they did in prior releases and achieve the same, or enhanced, performance.

Many new features and enhancements are available after upgrading to the new Oracle Database 11g release. Some of these features provide added features and functions, while others provide improved performance. Before you upgrade your applications, you should review these new features to decide which ones you want to use.


See Also:

Oracle Database New Features Guide for information about the features available in the new Oracle Database 11g release

Compatibility Issues for Applications When Upgrading

There might be compatibility issues between different releases of Oracle Database that could affect your applications. These compatibility issues result from differences in Oracle Database in various releases. Also, in each new release of Oracle Database, new Oracle reserved words might be added, changes might be made to initialization parameters, and changes might be made to the data dictionary.

When you upgrade your Oracle Database software to a new release, make sure that your applications do not use any Oracle reserved words, that your applications are compatible with the initialization parameters of the database, and that your applications are compatible with the data dictionary of the database. Finally, a new release of Oracle Database software might require certain operating system releases or the application of certain patchsets.


See Also:


Upgrading Precompiler and OCI Applications

The upgrade path is very similar for precompiler and OCI applications. This section guides you through your upgrade options for these applications and notes differences between precompiler and OCI applications whenever necessary.

Create a test environment before you upgrade your production environment. Your test environment should include your upgraded application and the new Oracle Database software. Also, your test environment should provide a realistic test of your application.

This section contains these topics:


See Also:

Pro*C/C++ Programmer's Guide, Pro*COBOL Programmer's Guide, and Oracle Call Interface Programmer's Guide for more information about using these programming environments.

Understanding Software Upgrades and Your Client/Server Configuration

To understand your options for upgrading precompiler and OCI applications, you first must understand the type of software upgrade you are performing and your client/server configuration.

This section contains these topics:

Types of Software Upgrades for Oracle Database

When you upgrade Oracle Database, you are typically upgrading to a major release or you are applying patches for a maintenance release. The types of upgrades possible for Oracle Database client and server software are as follows:

Major Database Release Upgrade

The upgrade changes the first digit of the release number. For example, upgrading from Oracle9i to Oracle Database 11g is a major database release upgrade.

Database Maintenance Release Upgrade

The upgrade changes the second digit of the release number. For example, upgrading from Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) is a database maintenance release upgrade.

Possible Client/Server Configurations

Your precompiler and OCI applications run on the client in a client/server environment, where the Oracle Database server is the server. You can use one or more of the following client/server configurations in your environment:

Different Computers

The client software and the server software are on different computers, and they are connected through a network. The client and server environments are separate.

Different Oracle Home Directories on the Same Computer

The client software and the server software are on the same computer, but they are installed in different Oracle home directories. Again, the client and server environments are separate.

Same Oracle Home

The client software and server software are installed in the same Oracle home on the same computer. In this case, any upgrade of the server software is also an upgrade of the client software.


See Also:

Oracle Database Concepts and Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity User's Guide for more information about client/server environments

Compatibility Rules for Applications When Upgrading Client/Server Software

This section covers compatibility rules that apply when you upgrade Oracle Database client or server software. The rules are based on the type of software upgrade you are performing and on your client/server configuration.

The following sections contain compatibility rules for the following types of upgrades:


Note:

This section uses the terms introduced in "Understanding Software Upgrades and Your Client/Server Configuration".

Upgrading the Oracle Database Server Software

The following rules apply when you upgrade the Oracle Database server software.

If You Do Not Change the Client Environment, Then You Are Not Required to Relink.

If your client and server are on different computers or are in different Oracle home directories on the same computer, and you upgrade the Oracle Database server software without changing the client software, then you are not required to precompile, compile, or relink your applications. In these cases, the client software is separate from the server software and continues to function against the server.

However, if your applications are using the same Oracle home as the Oracle Database server, then your server upgrade also upgrades your client software, and you must follow the rules in "Upgrading the Oracle Database Client Software".


Note:

It is possible to upgrade the Oracle Database server software but not install the new precompiler or OCI client software when you are using the same Oracle home for both. In this case, the client software is not upgraded. However, such a configuration is not recommended.

Applications Can Run Against Newer or Older Oracle Database Server Releases

When you run a precompiler or OCI application against a database server, Oracle recommends that the release of the database server software be equal to or higher than the client software release, but this configuration is not strictly required. For example, if your client software is Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2.0.8), then it is recommended that your server software be Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2.0.8) or higher to run a precompiler application on the client against the server.

Upgrading the Oracle Database Client Software

Oracle recommends that you upgrade your client software to match the current server software. For example, if you upgrade your server to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), then Oracle recommends upgrading the client software to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) as well. Keeping the server and client software at the same release number ensures the maximum stability for your applications. In addition, the latest Oracle Database client software might provide added features and performance enhancements that were not available with previous releases.

The following rules apply when you upgrade the Oracle Database client software:

Applications Can Be Linked with Newer Libraries

The code generated by precompiler applications can be linked with a release of the client library that is equal to or higher than the server release.

OCI applications can be linked with a version of the OCI runtime library that is equal to or higher than the version of the OCI library with which the application was developed.

Statically Linked Applications Must Always Be Relinked

Statically linked OCI applications need to be re-linked for both major and minor releases, because the statically linked Oracle client-side library code may be incompatible with the error messages in the upgraded ORACLE_HOME. For example, if an error message was updated with additional parameters, then it will not be compatible with the statically-linked code.

Relinking Dynamically Linked Applications

Dynamically linked OCI applications from Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) and later releases are upward compatible with the current release. That is, the Oracle client-side dynamic library is upward compatible with the previous version of the library. Oracle Universal Installer creates a symbolic link for the previous version of the library that resolves to the current version. Therefore, an application that is dynamically linked with the previous version of the Oracle client-side dynamic library does not need to be relinked to operate with the current version of the Oracle client-side library.


Note:

If the application is linked with a runtime library search path (such as -rpath on Linux), then the application may still run with the version of the Oracle client-side library with which it is linked. To run with the current version of the Oracle client-side library, it must be relinked.

If the application is linked with the deferred option (for example, statically-linked application), it must be relinked.

If the application is from a release before Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), then it must be relinked.


Upgrading Options for Your Precompiler and OCI Applications

You have the following options for upgrading your precompiler and OCI applications:

These options are listed in order of increasing difficulty and increasing potential benefits. That is, Option 1 is the least difficult option, but it offers the least potential benefits, while Option 3 is the most difficult option, but it offers the most potential benefits. These options are discussed in the following sections.

Option 1: Leave the Application Unchanged

This option requires that the Oracle home environment of the application is not upgraded. You can leave the application unchanged, and it continues to work with the new Oracle Database 11g server. The major advantage to this option is that it is simple and easy. In addition, this option requires the least amount of administration, because you are not required to upgrade any of your client computers. If you have a large number of client computers, then avoiding the administrative costs of upgrading all of them can become very important.

The major disadvantage to this option is that your application cannot use the features that are available in the new Oracle Database 11g release. In addition, your application cannot leverage some of the possible performance benefits of the new Oracle Database 11g release.

Option 2: Precompile or Compile the Application Using the New Software

When upgrading from a maintenance release to the new Oracle Database 11g software, you must precompile or compile the application with the new software after making necessary code changes to account for APIs that are deprecated or changed. Recompiling is not required if you are upgrading to a minor release within Oracle Database 11g software.

This option requires that you install the new Oracle Database client software on each client computer. You are required to precompile or compile, and relink your application only once, regardless of the number of clients you have.

By recompiling, you perform a syntax check of your application code. Some problems in the application code that were not detected by previous releases of the Oracle software might emerge when you precompile or compile with the new Oracle software. Therefore, precompiling and compiling with the new software often helps you detect and correct problems in the application code that might have gone unnoticed before.

Also, recompiling affords maximum stability for your application, because you are sure that it works with the new Oracle software. Further, your environment is ready for new development using the latest tools and features available. In addition, you might benefit from performance improvements that are available with the new Oracle software only after you recompile and relink.

Option 3: Change the Application Code to Use New Oracle Database 11g Features

You can make code changes to your application to take advantage of new Oracle Database 11g features. This option is the most difficult, but it can provide the most potential benefits. You gain all of the advantages described in "Option 2: Precompile or Compile the Application Using the New Software". In addition, you also benefit from changes to your application that might leverage performance and scalability benefits available with the new Oracle Database 11g release. Further, you can add new features to your application that are available only with the new Oracle Database 11g release.

Become familiar with the features of the new Oracle Database 11g release by reading Oracle Database New Features Guide. Also, consult the Oracle documentation for your development environment so that you understand how to implement the features you want to use. For the precompilers, see Pro*C/C++ Programmer's Guide and Pro*COBOL Programmer's Guide. For OCI, see Oracle Call Interface Programmer's Guide.

When you have decided on the new features you want to use, change the code of your application to use these features. Follow the appropriate instructions in the following sections based on your development environment:

Changing Precompiler Applications

Complete the following steps to change your precompiler application to use features of the new Oracle Database 11g release:

  1. If you want to take advantage of features of the new Oracle Database 11g release, then incorporate the code for these new features into the existing application.

  2. Precompile the application using the Oracle precompiler.

  3. Compile the application.

  4. Relink the application with the runtime library of the new Oracle Database 11g release, SQLLIB, which is included with the precompiler.

Changing OCI Applications

Complete the following steps to change your OCI application to use features of the new Oracle Database 11g release:

  1. Incorporate OCI calls of the new Oracle Database 11g release into the existing application.

  2. Compile the application.

  3. Relink the application with the runtime library of the new Oracle Database 11g release.

Upgrading SQL*Plus Scripts and PL/SQL

To use features and functions of the new Oracle Database 11g release, change existing SQL scripts to use the syntax of the new Oracle Database 11g release. Existing SQL scripts run unchanged on the new Oracle Database 11g release, and require no modification, if they do not use features and functions of the new Oracle Database 11g release.

Note that improved error checking in the new Oracle Database 11g release might now identify errors at compile time rather than at run time.

Related topic:

Change to Evaluation of Numeric Literals

Evaluation of numeric literals has changed such that at least one of the constants in a numeric computation with literals must be a decimal specified to the 10th place. This is because Oracle Database releases after Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) use INTEGER arithmetic (approximately 9 significant digits) for some expressions whereas Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2) used NUMBER arithmetic (approximately 38 significant digits).

Therefore, if you are dealing with results of greater than 9 significant digits, then one of the literals should be in decimal format to prevent numeric overflow errors. For example, in Oracle Database 10g, the computation of v1 in the following example causes a numeric overflow error:

DECLARE
  v1 NUMBER(38);
BEGIN
  v1 := 256*256*256*256;
  DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(v1);
END;
/

The solution to the error is to specify one of the numeric literals as a decimal (256.0), as follows:

DECLARE
  v1 NUMBER(38);
BEGIN
  v1 := 256*256*256*256.0;
  DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(v1);
END;
/

See Also:


Upgrading Oracle Forms or Oracle Developer Applications

Forms applications run the same on Oracle9i, Oracle Database 10g, and Oracle Database 11g. However, review the new features described in Oracle Database New Features Guide to determine whether any of the features of the new Oracle Database 11g release would be beneficial to your applications or might otherwise affect them. Information about the ways in which the features of the new Oracle Database 11g release interact with forms and developer applications is provided in the Oracle Developer documentation set. Also, the Oracle Developer documentation for your operating system contains instructions for upgrading your forms or developer applications.


Note:

New releases of Oracle Developer might introduce new reserved words that are specific to Oracle Developer. Code changes might be required if your application uses any of these new reserved words.

PK/;YH?~:~PKFJOEBPS/preface.htmj" Preface

Preface

This manual guides you through the process of planning and executing Oracle Database upgrades. In addition, this manual provides information about compatibility, upgrading applications, and important changes in the new Oracle Database release, such as initialization parameter changes and data dictionary changes.

Oracle Database Upgrade Guide contains information that describes the features and functions of Oracle Database (also known as the standard edition) and Oracle Database Enterprise Edition products. Oracle Database and Oracle Database Enterprise Edition have the same basic features. However, several advanced features are available only with the Enterprise Edition, and some of these are optional. For example, to use application failover, you must have the Enterprise Edition with the Oracle Real Application Clusters option.


See Also:

Oracle Database New Features Guide for information about the differences between Oracle Database and Oracle Database Enterprise Edition and the features and options that are available to you.

This preface contains these topics:

Audience

Oracle Database Upgrade Guide is intended for database administrators (DBAs), application developers, security administrators, system operators, and anyone who plans or executes Oracle Database upgrades.

To use this document, you must be familiar with the following:

  • Relational database concepts

  • Your current release of Oracle Database

  • Your operating system environment

Documentation Accessibility

For information about Oracle's commitment to accessibility, visit the Oracle Accessibility Program website at http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=docacc.

Access to Oracle Support

Oracle customers have access to electronic support through My Oracle Support. For information, visit http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=info or visit http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=trs if you are hearing impaired.

Related Documentation

For more information, see these Oracle resources:

Many of the examples in this guide use the sample schemas, which are installed by default when you select the Basic Installation option with an Oracle Database installation. Refer to Oracle Database Sample Schemas for information on how these schemas were created and how you can use them yourself.

Conventions

The following text conventions are used in this document:

ConventionMeaning
boldfaceBoldface type indicates graphical user interface elements associated with an action, or terms defined in text or the glossary.
italicItalic type indicates book titles, emphasis, or placeholder variables for which you supply particular values.
monospaceMonospace type indicates commands within a paragraph, URLs, code in examples, text that appears on the screen, or text that you enter.

PKruo"j"PKFJOEBPS/upgrade.htm Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database

3 Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database

Upgrading to a new release of Oracle Database is a basic part of database maintenance and administration. Oracle provides the Database Upgrade Assistant and specialized scripts and tools to assist with the upgrade process and to automate many steps. This chapter discusses important information and requirements and guides you through the process of upgrading a database to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2).

This chapter contains the following topics:


Caution:

If you retain the old Oracle software, then never start the upgraded database with the old Oracle software. Only start the database with the executables in the new Oracle Database installation.


System Considerations and Requirements for Upgrading Oracle Database

When you upgrade to a new release of Oracle Database, typically there are new or changed system requirements. The following topics describe the various checks and considerations to perform before starting an upgrade of Oracle Database:


Important:

To upgrade to this release, you must install the Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database software into a new Oracle home instead of applying a patch set to the existing Oracle home. This is referred to as an out-of-place upgrade and is different from patch set releases for earlier releases of Oracle Database, where the patch set was always installed in place.


Note:

Oracle Grid Infrastructure does not support in-place upgrade. Only out-of-place upgrade into a new grid intrastructure home is supported.


See Also:


Relocating Existing Data Files to the New Oracle Database Environment

Before you remove the old Oracle environment, you must relocate any data files in that environment to the new Oracle Database environment.

To relocate data files to the new Oracle Database environment 

  • Use Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA) and select the Move Database Files option during the upgrade.


See Also:

"Upgrading with Database Upgrade Assistant on Linux, UNIX, and Windows" for more information

Oracle Database Administrator's Guide, if you perform a manual upgrade, for information about relocating data files


About Upgrading PL/SQL Packages That Are Not Installed by Default

Packages that were previously installed on the database for which you are preparing to upgrade to the current release may not be upgraded automatically. You may need to separately check if the package is available in the current release and reinstall that package to ensure you have the latest version.

About Upgrading Oracle ASM Installed with Oracle Grid Infrastructure

Oracle ASM is upgraded as part of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade. You cannot upgrade Oracle ASM before you upgrade Oracle Grid Infrastucture.

Considerations for Upgrading Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM Instances

Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1), Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) must be installed into a separate, new home from the existing installation. This reduces the downtime required to upgrade a node in the cluster and facilitates the provisioning of clusters within an enterprise. The reduction in planned outage time required for cluster upgrades helps in meeting availability service levels and also makes it easier to provide a standard installation across the enterprise.

The following considerations pertain to upgrading Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM instances:

  • For releases earlier than Oracle Database 11g, either all Oracle software installations were owned by the Oracle user, typically oracle, or Oracle Database software was owned by the user oracle, and Oracle Clusterware software was owned by a separate user, typically crsuser.

  • Starting with Oracle Database 11g, the user account that is designated as owner of the release 10g Cluster Ready Services (CRS) software must perform the Oracle Clusterware 11g upgrade. The user account that is performing this upgrade must also be the user that owns the ASM home of the earlier release (that is, previous to release 11.2). If the pre-11.2 ASM home has a different owner, then the owner account must be changed before performing the upgrade.

  • As of Oracle Database 11g release 2 (11.2), the Oracle Clusterware software must be upgraded to a new home location in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home. Additionally, Oracle ASM and Oracle Clusterware (and Oracle Restart for single-instance databases) must run in the same Oracle Grid Infrastructure home. When upgrading Oracle Clusterware to release 11.2, OUI automatically calls Oracle ASM Cluster Assistant (ASMCA) to perform the upgrade into the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home.

  • To upgrade to Oracle Database release 11.2.0.3, you must install the Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database software into a new Oracle home instead of into the existing Oracle home.

  • For a single-instance configuration, Oracle ASM and Oracle Restart run from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home, and the cluster synchronization services daemon (CSS) runs from this same home. Thus, Oracle ASM and CSS are upgraded to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) at the same time.

  • For Oracle Database release 11.1 and earlier releases, if your configuration does not include Oracle ASM, then you must shut down the CSS daemon and delete the CSS service from the system by running the localconfig command with the delete option. For example:

    ORACLE_HOME/bin/localconfig delete
    
  • You must ensure that the database compatibility attribute for Oracle ASM disk groups matches the compatibility parameter that is set in init.ora.

Determining If Oracle ASM is Included in the Current Database Configuration

If you do not know whether or not your configuration includes Oracle ASM, then issue the following SQL statement on the database instance:

select count(*) from v$asm_client where status = 'CONNECTED';

If this statement returns one or more rows, then the database is actively using an Oracle ASM disk group.

About Upgrading an Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) Database

You can use Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA) to upgrade an existing Oracle RAC database to the current release of Oracle Database. DBUA guides you through the upgrade process and configures your database for the new release. DBUA automates the upgrade process and makes appropriate recommendations for configuration options such as tablespaces and online redo log files.

If you are manually upgrading an Oracle RAC database, then most of the actions are to be performed on only one node of the system. Actions that must be performed on more than one node are indicated in the relevant steps.

About Requirements for Time Synchronization on Oracle RAC

Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 (11.2) requires time synchronization across all nodes within a cluster when Oracle RAC is deployed.

You can use one of the following options for time synchronizaion:

  • Your operating system-configured network time protocol (NTP)

  • Oracle Cluster Time Synchronization Service


See Also:

Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for your operating system for information on configuring NTP and Oracle Cluster Time Synchronization Service

Considerations for Upgrading Oracle RAC and Databases That Use Oracle ASM

If you are upgrading Oracle RAC and your databases use Oracle ASM for data file storage, then you need to consider additional restrictions and requirements.

  • A subset of nodes cannot be selected when upgrading from an earlier release to 11.2.0.3.

    Before the new database release 11.2.0.3 software can be installed on the system, the root script for upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure invokes ASMCA to upgrade Oracle ASM to release 11.2.0.3.

  • Where Oracle Clusterware software has been upgraded to release 11.2.0.1, but where Oracle ASM is running an earlier release, then DBUA displays an error indicating that the Oracle ASM cluster has not been upgraded. In this case, the root script invokes Oracle ASM Cluster Assistant (ASMCA) to upgrade Oracle ASM to release 11.2.0.1 before installing any Oracle Database release 11.2.0.3 software on the system.

  • When upgrading from release 11.2.0.1 to 11.2.0.3, DBUA needs the Oracle Clusterware stack to be up. If DBUA finds that the Oracle Clusterware stack is down on the local node, then it displays an error message indicating the commands that need to be run to start up the stack on the local node.

  • DBUA does not permit a single-instance database (SIDB) release 11.2.0.3 to be installed on 11.2.0.1 clusters.

  • If DBUA detects Oracle Restart, then it presents a page asking you whether to register the database with Oracle Restart. If you choose to register with Oracle Restart, then DBUA displays a message prompting you to first upgrade Oracle Grid infrastructure to release 11.2.0.3.


Note:

Oracle Restart was previously referred to as Oracle Single-Instance High Availability (SIHA).

About Upgrading System Authentication for Oracle ASM Instances

Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), you should use the SYSASM privilege to separate database management and storage management responsibilities. Also, you have the option to create separate operating system credentials for Oracle ASM and each database. This separation allows for an even greater division of database management and storage management responsibilities. For instance, if there are n databases using Oracle ASM on a given node, then you can configure n + 1 sets of operating system credentials groups whose members have SYS privileges: one OSDBA group for each database with SYSDBA privileges, and one OSASM group for the Oracle ASM instance with SYSASM privileges.

Considerations for Upgrading an Oracle ASM Instance

Before upgrading an Oracle ASM instance to the new Oracle Database 11g release, you must add a user and password combination to the password file that is local to a node's Oracle ASM instance using the SQL*Plus CREATE USER statement:

CREATE USER user_name IDENTIFIED BY password;
  • It is only necessary to add a user and password combination to the password file when upgrading the Oracle ASM instance. It is not necessary when upgrading a database to the new Oracle Database 11g release without upgrading Oracle ASM.

  • If the default Oracle Database 11g security settings are in place, then passwords must be at least eight characters, and passwords such as welcome and oracle are not allowed.


See Also:


About Upgrading with Read-Only and Offline Tablespaces

Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) and later releases can read file headers created in previous releases, so you are not required to do anything to them during the upgrade. The only exception to this is if you want to transport tablespaces created previously than Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) to another platform. In this case, the file headers must be made read/write at some point before the transport. However, there are no special actions required on them during the upgrade.

The file headers of offline data files are updated later when they are brought online, and the file headers of read-only tablespaces are updated if and when they are made read/write sometime after the upgrade. You are never required to make read-only tablespaces read/write in any other circumstance.


See Also:

Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about read-only tablespaces and transporting tablespaces between databases

About Upgrading Using Standby Databases

To upgrade the Oracle Database software when standby databases are present in an Oracle Data Guard configuration, see Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration. To upgrade or downgrade Oracle Database and Oracle Enterprise Manager software in an Oracle Data Guard broker configuration, see Oracle Data Guard Broker.

During a rolling upgrade, you can run different releases of Oracle Database software on the primary and standby databases while you upgrade them, one at a time, incurring minimal downtime on the primary database by using either of the following methods:

  • SQL Apply and logical standby databases

    Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1.0.3), you can use Oracle Data Guard SQL Apply on a logical standby database to perform a rolling upgrade to the new Oracle Database 11g release. For example, you can upgrade the Oracle Database software from patch set release 10.1.0.n to the next database 10.1.0.(n+1) patch set release, or upgrade Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2).

  • Use of physical standby database for rolling upgrades

    A physical standby database can now take advantage of the rolling upgrade feature provided by a logical standby. Through the use of the new KEEP IDENTITY clause option to the SQL ALTER DATABASE RECOVER TO LOGICAL STANDBY statement, a physical standby database can be temporarily converted into a logical standby database for the rolling upgrade, and then reverted back to the original configuration of a primary database and a physical standby database when the upgrade is done.


See Also:


About Upgrading Your Operating System

When you upgrade to a new release of Oracle software, the operating system requirements may have changed. If required, upgrade the operating system before upgrading Oracle Database.


See Also:

  • The Oracle Database Installation Guide for your platform to obtain a list of supported operating systems

  • Your operating system-specific documentation for information about how to perform an operating system upgrade


Migrating Data to a Different Operating System

When using DBUA or when performing a manual upgrade, you cannot migrate data in a database on one operating system to a database on another operating system. For example, you cannot migrate data in an Oracle9i database on Solaris to an Oracle 11g database on Windows using DBUA.

To migrate Oracle Database software to a different operating system 

  1. Upgrade to the new Oracle Database 11g release on your current operating system platform following the instructions in this guide.

  2. Test the upgraded database on your current operating system platform.

  3. Use Oracle Data Guard and physical standby databases to migrate between operating systems.


    See Also:

    Note 413484.1 on My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink) at https://support.oracle.com/ for more information on Oracle Data Guard support for heterogeneous primary and standby systems in the same Oracle Data Guard configuration

  4. If cross-platform physical standby database is not available for the platform combination to be migrated, then you can use the Oracle Database 11g cross-platform transportable tablespace feature or the Oracle Data Pump Export and Import utilities to migrate the upgraded database to the different operating system.


    Note:

    Transportable tablespaces do not support migrating SYSTEM or SYSAUX tablespaces. All non-segment user data, such as roles, triggers, views, and procedures, must be moved to the new operating system with scripts or export/import.

  5. If the two operating systems are in the same endianness group, then you can use the Oracle Database 11g cross-platform transportable database feature to migrate the entire database.

  6. You can also use Oracle Streams to migrate data between operating systems. Oracle Streams has data type limitations and restrictions, such as for advanced queues and object types, and it requires additional administrative overhead.


See Also:


About Upgrading Databases That Use Oracle Streams Downstream Capture

In an Oracle Streams replication environment, downstream captures means that a capture process runs on a database other than the source database. When you upgrade the databases in such an environment, upgrade the database with the downstream capture process before you upgrade the source database. Upgrading the databases in this order ensures that the downstream capture database can continue to function after the source database is upgraded.


See Also:

Oracle Streams Concepts and Administration for more information about downstream capture

About Upgrading Databases That Use Oracle Database Vault

When upgrading from Oracle Database release 10.2 or 11.1, if you have enabled Oracle Database Vault in your current Oracle home, then you must disable Oracle Database Vault in the target Oracle home where the new release 11.2 software is installed. You must do this before upgrading the database. Enable Oracle Database Vault again once the upgrade is complete.

When running Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA), if a warning appears like Database Vault option is enabled in Oracle Home: C:\oracle\cdctest\product\11.2.0\dbhome_1. This option needs to be disabled prior to upgrade., then you must disable Oracle Database Vault in the target Oracle home where the new release 11.2 software is installed too.


See Also:

Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide for instructions about disabling Oracle Database Vault

Installing the New Oracle Database Software for the Upgrade

You must install the software for the new Oracle Database release before you can perform the upgrade of Oracle Database. The installation procedure for the new Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) installs the Oracle software into a new Oracle home. This is referred to as an out-of-place upgrade and is different from patch set releases for earlier releases of Oracle Database, where the patch set was always installed in place. Oracle strongly recommends that you follow the steps in this procedure to ensure minimal downtime for the upgrade process and integrity of the new binaries and software libraries.


Important:

It is not possible to upgrade a database using DBUA when the source and target Oracle homes are owned by different users. Attempting to do so returns error PRKH-1014. Either ensure that the source and target databases have the same owner, or perform the manual steps described in "Upgrading Oracle Database Manually".

To install the new Oracle Database software for this release 

  1. If you are upgrading an Oracle RAC database, then you must perform the following steps in the order shown:

    1. Upgrade Oracle Clusterware first as described in "Considerations for Upgrading Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM Instances".


      Note:

      When upgrading a non-Oracle RAC database, you must run Oracle Net Configuration Assistant (NETCA) before running DBUA. See "Configuring the Listener When Upgrading from Oracle9i". When upgrading an Oracle RAC database, as part of the Oracle Clusterware upgrade, OUI automatically runs NETCA to upgrade the network listener. Therefore, you do not need to manually run NETCA.

    2. Mount the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation media.

    3. Perform operating system prerequisite checks on each of the nodes that you intend to upgrade, to ensure that they meet the system prerequisites for Oracle Grid Infrastructure (Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM).

    4. If necessary, perform patch upgrades of the earlier release of Oracle Clusterware or Oracle Cluster Ready Services software to the most recent patch version.

    5. Ensure that you are logged in as the user that you want to own the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, and run the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. Provide information as prompted by the installer.

    6. When prompted, open a separate terminal session, log in as root, and run root.sh.

  2. After upgrading Oracle Clusterware, follow the instructions in your Oracle operating system-specific documentation to prepare for installation of Oracle Database software and start the Oracle Universal Installer.

    When installation of Oracle Database software has completed successfully, click Exit to close Oracle Universal Installer.

About the Latest Patch Set Updates and Any Required Patches

The software for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) contains a full release that includes all the latest patches and updates for Oracle Database. It is not necessary to check for patch set updates before proceeding with the upgrade process for this release. However, Oracle recommends that you periodically check for patches and patch set updates as a part of database administration.


See Also:


Using the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool

After you have installed the software for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) and any required patches, Oracle recommends that you analyze your database before upgrading it to the new release. This is done by running the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool from the environment of the database you are to upgrade. The Pre-Upgrade Information Tool is a SQL script included with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) software. This is a required step if you are upgrading manually; otherwise, the catupgrd.sql script terminates with errors. Running the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool is also recommended if you are upgrading with DBUA, so that you can preview the items that DBUA checks.

These topics contain additional information about the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool:


See Also:

Note 884522.1 "How to Download and Run Oracle's Database Pre-Upgrade Utility" available from My Oracle Support at https://support.oracle.com, which contains the latest version of the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool. Oracle strongly recommends that you use the latest version of this script available in Note 884522.1.

To run the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool 

  1. Log in to the system as the owner of the environment of the database being upgraded.


    Important:

    The Pre-Upgrade Information Tool must be copied to and must be run from the environment of the database being upgraded.

  2. Start SQL*Plus.

  3. Connect to the database instance as a user with SYSDBA privileges.

  4. Set the system to spool results to a log file for later analysis:

    SQL> SPOOL upgrade_info.log
    
  5. Run the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool:

    SQL> @$11g_ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/utlu112i.sql
    
  6. Turn off the spooling of script results to the log file:

    SQL> SPOOL OFF
    

    Check the output of the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool in upgrade_info.log.


Note:

Oracle interMedia became Oracle Multimedia in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1).

About the Output of the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool

The Pre-Upgrade Information Tool displays warnings about possible upgrade issues with the database. The output in Example 3-1 shows the report that is generated from running the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool after installing the software for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2). In addition to the warnings that the tool displays, you must address any errors described in the output of the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool before performing the upgrade.

For invalid objects or invalid components, Oracle recommends running the the utlrp.sql before starting the upgrade as a means to minimize the number of invalid objects and components marked with WARNING.

The following topics contain sample output of the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool and provide descriptions of each section of the output.


Important:

If you see a warning about the presence of the release 10g DMSYS schema in the database, then you must drop the DMSYS schema before proceeding with the upgrade. See Oracle Data Mining Administrator's Guide for procedures.


Example 3-1 Pre-Upgrade Information Tool Sample Output

Oracle Database 11.2 Pre-Upgrade Information Tool 07-12-2011 12:51:34
Script Version: 11.2.0.3.0 Build: 001
.
**********************************************************************
Database:
**********************************************************************
--> name:          O112
--> version:       11.2.0.1.0
--> compatible:    11.2.0.0.0
--> blocksize:     8192
--> platform:      Linux x86 64-bit
--> timezone file: V11
.
**********************************************************************
Tablespaces: [make adjustments in the current environment]
**********************************************************************
--> SYSTEM tablespace is adequate for the upgrade.
.... minimum required size: 701 MB
--> SYSAUX tablespace is adequate for the upgrade.
.... minimum required size: 453 MB
--> UNDOTBS1 tablespace is adequate for the upgrade.
.... minimum required size: 400 MB
--> TEMP tablespace is adequate for the upgrade.
.... minimum required size: 60 MB
--> EXAMPLE tablespace is adequate for the upgrade.
.... minimum required size: 78 MB
.
**********************************************************************
Flashback: OFF
**********************************************************************
**********************************************************************
Update Parameters: [Update Oracle Database 11.2 init.ora or spfile]
Note: Pre-upgrade tool was run on a lower version 64-bit database.
**********************************************************************
--> If Target Oracle is 32-Bit, refer here for Update Parameters:
-- No update parameter changes are required.
.
 
--> If Target Oracle is 64-Bit, refer here for Update Parameters:
-- No update parameter changes are required.
.
**********************************************************************
Renamed Parameters: [Update Oracle Database 11.2 init.ora or spfile]
**********************************************************************
-- No renamed parameters found. No changes are required.
.
**********************************************************************
Obsolete/Deprecated Parameters: [Update Oracle Database 11.2 init.ora or spfile]
**********************************************************************
-- No obsolete parameters found. No changes are required
.
 
**********************************************************************
Components: [The following database components will be upgraded or installed]
**********************************************************************
--> Oracle Catalog Views         [upgrade]  VALID
--> Oracle Packages and Types    [upgrade]  VALID
--> JServer JAVA Virtual Machine [upgrade]  VALID
--> Oracle XDK for Java          [upgrade]  VALID
--> Oracle Workspace Manager     [upgrade]  VALID
--> OLAP Analytic Workspace      [upgrade]  VALID
--> OLAP Catalog                 [upgrade]  VALID
--> Oracle Label Security        [upgrade]  VALID
--> Oracle Database Vault        [upgrade]  VALID
... To successfully upgrade Oracle Database Vault, choose
... 'Select Options' in Oracle installer and then select
... Oracle Label Security.
--> EM Repository                [upgrade]  VALID
--> Oracle Text                  [upgrade]  VALID
--> Oracle XML Database          [upgrade]  VALID
--> Oracle Java Packages         [upgrade]  VALID
--> Oracle interMedia            [upgrade]  VALID
--> Spatial                      [upgrade]  VALID
--> Expression Filter            [upgrade]  VALID
--> Rule Manager                 [upgrade]  VALID
--> Oracle Application Express   [upgrade]  VALID
... APEX will only be upgraded if the version of APEX in
... the target Oracle home is higher than the current one.
--> Oracle OLAP API              [upgrade]  VALID
.
**********************************************************************
Miscellaneous Warnings
**********************************************************************
WARNING: --> Database is using a timezone file older than version 14.
.... After the release migration, it is recommended that DBMS_DST package
.... be used to upgrade the 11.2.0.1.0 database timezone version
.... to the latest version which comes with the new release.
WARNING: --> Database contains schemas with objects dependent on DBMS_LDAP package.
.... Refer to the 11g Upgrade Guide for instructions to configure Network ACLs.
.... USER APEX_030200 has dependent objects.
.
**********************************************************************
Recommendations
**********************************************************************
Oracle recommends gathering dictionary statistics prior to
upgrading the database.
To gather dictionary statistics execute the following command
while connected as SYSDBA:
 
    EXECUTE dbms_stats.gather_dictionary_stats;
 
**********************************************************************
Oracle recommends reviewing any defined events prior to upgrading.
 
To view existing non-default events execute the following commands
while connected AS SYSDBA:
  Events:
    SELECT (translate(value,chr(13)||chr(10),' ')) FROM sys.v$parameter2
      WHERE  UPPER(name) ='EVENT' AND  isdefault='FALSE'
 
  Trace Events:
    SELECT (translate(value,chr(13)||chr(10),' ')) from sys.v$parameter2
      WHERE UPPER(name) = '_TRACE_EVENTS' AND isdefault='FALSE'
 
Changes will need to be made in the init.ora or spfile.
 
**********************************************************************

Database Section Contents

The Database section displays global database information about the current database, such as the database name, release number (version), compatibility level, blocksize, OS platform, and time zone file. A warning is displayed if you must adjust the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter before the database is upgraded.


See Also:

"Setting the COMPATIBLE Initialization Parameter" for information about setting the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter

Tablespaces Section Contents

The Tablespaces section displays a list of tablespaces in the current database. For each tablespace, the tablespace name and minimum required size is displayed. In addition, a message displays next to each tablespace confirming that the tablespace is adequate for the upgrade. If the minimum required size is not met, then you must make adjustments, which the tool recommends.

In a manual upgrade using SQL scripts and utilities, space must be added to tablespaces that do not have enough free space in the current database. These tablespace adjustments must be made before the database is upgraded. Some of these tasks are performed automatically by DBUA.

Rollback Segments Section Contents

The Rollback Segments section shows the status for rollback segments in the SYSTEM tablespace and displays a warning about any adjustments that need to be made before performing the upgrade. This section only appears if there are rollback segments.

Flashback Section Contents

The Flashback section shows whether flashback is ON or OFF, and displays warnings about pool size and cache size that must be increased. The status of undo_management is also displayed with any adjustment that must be made. You can execute an ALTER SYSTEM SET command to change the pool sizes and database cache size.

For example execute the following command to to set the java_pool_size to the recommended size as follows:

SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET java_pool_size='nnnM' SCOPE=spfile;

The same can be done for changing the other settings.

Update Parameters Section Contents

The Update Parameters section displays a list of initialization parameters in the parameter file (init.ora or spfile) of the current database that must be adjusted before the database is upgraded. The adjustments must be made to the parameter file after it is copied to the new Oracle Database 11g release.

If you are using Oracle ASM disk groups, then you must ensure that the database compatibility attribute for the disk groups matches the compatibility parameter that is set in init.ora.


See Also:

Appendix A, "Behavior Changes After Upgrading Oracle Database" for more information about changes to initialization parameters in this Oracle Database 11g release

Renamed Parameters Section Contents

The Renamed Parameters section displays a list of initialization parameters in the parameter file of the current database that are renamed in the new Oracle Database 11g release. New default values are also given.


See Also:

Appendix A, "Behavior Changes After Upgrading Oracle Database" for initialization parameters that are renamed in the new Oracle Database 11g release

Obsolete/Deprecated Parameters Section Contents

The Obsolete/Deprecated Parameters section displays a list of initialization parameters in the parameter file of the current database that are obsolete or deprecated in the new Oracle Database 11g release. Obsolete initialization parameters must be removed from the parameter file before the database is upgraded.


See Also:

Appendix A, "Behavior Changes After Upgrading Oracle Database" for a list of initialization parameters that are obsolete or deprecated in the new Oracle Database 11g release

Components Section Contents

The Components section displays a list of database components in the database to be upgraded or installed when the current database is upgraded to the new Oracle Database 11g release. Software components are pre-built code libraries that provide specific database funtionality like Oracle Text, Oracle Java packages, and Oracle RAC.

Miscellaneous Warnings Section Contents

The Miscellaneous Warnings section provides warnings about specific situations that require attention before or after the upgrade. For example, if the database is using a time zone file that is a version older than what is required for the upgrade, then a warning displays with the required action.

Recommendations Section Contents

The Recommendations section provides Oracle recommendations, including the recommended SQL statements and commands, that should be performed before upgrading to the new Oracle Database 11g release.

Pre-Upgrade Information Tool Miscellaneous Warnings

Before upgrading to the new Oracle Database 11g release, Oracle recommends analysis of the information and warnings displayed by the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool. The following topics describe warnings and the appropriate actions to take.

Updating the CONNECT Role from Earlier Releases

After upgrading to the new Oracle Database 11g release from Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2) or Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the CONNECT role has only the CREATE SESSION privilege. The other privileges granted to the CONNECT role in earlier releases are revoked during the upgrade.

To identify which users and roles in your database are granted the CONNECT role 

  1. Perform the following query:

    SELECT grantee FROM dba_role_privs
         WHERE granted_role = 'CONNECT' and
                         grantee NOT IN (
                                    'SYS', 'OUTLN', 'SYSTEM', 'CTXSYS', 'DBSNMP', 
                                    'LOGSTDBY_ADMINISTRATOR', 'ORDSYS',
                                    'ORDPLUGINS',  'OEM_MONITOR', 'WKSYS', 'WKPROXY', 
                                    'WK_TEST', 'WKUSER', 'MDSYS', 'LBACSYS', 'DMSYS',
                                    'WMSYS', 'EXFSYS', 'SYSMAN', 'MDDATA',
                                     'SI_INFORMTN_SCHEMA', 'XDB', 'ODM');
    
    
  2. If users or roles require privileges other than CREATE SESSION, then grant the specific required privileges before upgrading.

    The upgrade scripts provided by Oracle adjust the privileges for the Oracle-supplied users.

Managing and Updating Access Control Lists and Network Utility Packages

The new Oracle Database 11g release includes fine-grained access control to the UTL_TCP, UTL_SMTP, UTL_MAIL, UTL_HTTP, and UTL_INADDR packages using Oracle XML DB. If you have applications that use one of these packages, then you must install Oracle XML DB if it is not currently installed.

To update ACLs and Network Utility packages 

  1. Install Oracle XML DB if it is not currently installed.

  2. New behavior for the DBMS_LDAP PL/SQL package and the HttpUriType type requires the creation or update of access control lists (ACLs) after performing the upgrade to the new Oracle Database release 11.2.

    For example, if your application depends on the DBMS_LDAP package, then the error "ORA-24247: network access denied by access control list (ACL)" may occur. The logged-in user must have the connect privilege for the host and port specified by DBMS_LDAP.init.

  3. If Oracle XML DB is installed on the database to be upgraded, and therefore one or all of the UTL_TCP, UTL_SMTP, UTL_MAIL, UTL_HTTP, and UTL_INADDR packages are installed, then you may need to re-install these packages after performing the upgrade to ensure that you have the latest version of these packages for the new release.

Assessing Dependencies and Adding ACLs for Network Utility Packages

After upgrading to the new Oracle Database 11g release, you may need to assess the dependencies of network utility packages and provide access by adding the appropriate access control lists (ACLs).

To check the status of access and add ACLs for network utility packages 

  1. Run the pre-upgrade information tool as described in "Using the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool".

  2. Check the output from the pre-upgrade information tool (upgrade_info.log) for messages such as the following:

    WARNING: --> Database contains schemas with objects dependent on network packages.
    .... Refer to the 11g Upgrade Guide for instructions to configure Network ACLs.
    .... USER WKSYS has dependent objects.
    .... USER SYSMAN has dependent objects.
    .... USER FLOWS_010600 has dependent objects.
    .
    
  3. Query the DBA_DEPENDENCIES view to obtain more information about the dependencies. For example:

    SELECT * FROM DBA_DEPENDENCIES
    WHERE referenced_name IN ('UTL_TCP','UTL_SMTP','UTL_MAIL','UTL_HTTP','UTL_INADDR','DBMS_LDAP')
      AND owner NOT IN ('SYS','PUBLIC','ORDPLUGINS');
    
  4. Prepare post-upgrade scripts now to make the scripts available for use in the test environment. This ensures the new access controls are part of your upgrade testing.

    To configure network access control lists (ACLs) in the database so that these packages can work as they did in prior releases, see the example script provided in "Configuring Fine-Grained Access to External Network Services After Upgrading Oracle Database". This script shows how to use the DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN package to create, assign, and add privileges to the access control list.

  5. After the upgrade, you must grant the specific required privileges. Access is based on the usage in the original database.

About Downgrading and Database Links from Earlier Releases

This information is important only if you need to downgrade to your original database release after performing the upgrade. During the upgrade to the new Oracle Database 11g release from Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2) or Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), any passwords in database links are encrypted.

  • To downgrade to the original release, all of the database links with encrypted passwords must be dropped before the downgrade. Consequently, the database links are nonexistent in the downgraded database.

  • Use Oracle Data Pump full database export with INCLUDE=DBLINK to export all database links into a dump file suitable for import into the downgraded database. This dump file can then be used to replace the database links after the downgrade.

  • Ensure that you know the password for any newly-created database links (that is, database links that you may have created while running the new release. Knowing the database link password is necessary because you will need to reset the database link password after downgrading to an earlier release.

About Warnings for TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE Data Type

The time zone files that are supplied with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) have been updated to reflect changes in transition rules for some time-zone regions. The changes might affect existing data of the TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE data type.

The time zone behavior for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) has changed significantly from earlier releases. You must make sure to obtain the latest time zone files before you upgrade the database. If the time zone file version of the database being upgraded is not the most recent version of the time zone file available for the new 11.2 release, then the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool displays a warning and describes how to proceed. Table 3-1 describes the warnings and summarizes how to resolve a mismatch in time zone file versions.


Caution:

The TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE data stored in the database can become corrupted during the upgrade if there is a time zone file version mismatch.


Table 3-1 Choices for Fixing the Time Zone File Version

IF the time zone version on the database being upgraded is...THEN fix the time zone files...

Earlier than the most current version included in the new database release and the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool displays "Database is using a time zone file older than version n."

After completing the database upgrade.

Use the DBMS_DST PL/SQL package and follow the instructions in "Steps to Upgrade Time Zone File and Timestamp with Time Zone Data" in Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide.

Later than the version included in the new database release and the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool displays "Database is using a time zone file greater than version n."

Before beginning the database upgrade.

You must patch (RDBMS DST patch) the new Oracle home with the same version of the time zone file as the one currently used in the database being upgraded. Otherwise the upgrade will fail.

You must patch the Oracle home with the appropriate patch for the time zone file version in use. Apply the patch for each database to be upgraded. Otherwise, the upgrade script terminates without upgrading the database.



See Also:


Decreasing Downtime for Gathering Optimizer Statistics (Optional)

When upgrading to the new Oracle Database 11g release, optimizer statistics are collected for dictionary tables that lack statistics. This statistics collection process can be time consuming for databases with a large number of dictionary tables, but statistics gathering only occurs for those tables that lack statistics or are significantly changed during the upgrade.

To decrease the amount of downtime incurred when collecting statistics 

  • Collect statistics before performing the actual database upgrade. Oracle recommends that you use the DBMS_STATS.GATHER_DICTIONARY_STATS procedure to gather these statistics. For example, you can enter the following SQL statement:

    EXEC DBMS_STATS.GATHER_DICTIONARY_STATS;
    

Note:

If you are using Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2), then you should use the DBMS_STATS.GATHER_SCHEMA_STATS procedure to gather statistics. To do this, you can run the scripts provided in Appendix B in this guide.

System Components and Schemas Used for Optimizer Statistics

Table 3-2 lists the system components and schemas that are checked for statistics collection during the upgrade.

Table 3-2 Statistics Collection for System Components and Schemas

Component NameSchema

JServer JAVA Virtual Machine

SYS

OLAP Analytic Workspace

SYS

Oracle Database Catalog Views

SYS

Oracle Database JAVA Packages

SYS

Oracle Database Packages and Types

SYS, DBSNMP, OUTLN, SYSTEM, DIP

Oracle Database Vault

DVSYS

Oracle Enterprise Manager

SYSMAN

Oracle Expression Filter

EXFSYS

Oracle Multimedia

ORDSYS, ORDPLUGINS, SI_INFORMTN_SCHEMA

Oracle Label Security

LBACSYS

Oracle OLAP API

SYS

Oracle Spatial

MDSYS, MDDATA

Oracle Text

CTXSYS

Oracle Workspace Manager

WMSYS

Oracle XDK

SYS

Oracle XML Database

XDB


Identifying Invalid Objects

Any invalid SYS/SYSTEM objects found before upgrading the database are stored in the table named registry$sys_inv_objs. Any invalid non-SYS/SYSTEM objects found before upgrading the database are stored in registry$nonsys_inv_objs.

To identify any new invalid objects due to the upgrade 

  • After the upgrade, run ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/utluiobj.sql

Saving Database Control Files and Data with the emdwgrd Utility

If you plan to downgrade Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control after upgrading to the new Oracle Database 11g release, then you must save your database control files and data before upgrading your database. Oracle provides the emdwgrd utility to use before upgrading your database to keep a copy of your database control files and data.

The emdwgrd utility resides in the ORACLE_HOME/bin directory in the new Oracle Database 11g release. The emdwgrd utility consists of emdwgrd and emdwgrd.pl for Linux and UNIX, and emdwgrd.bat and emdwgrd.pl for Windows. Before running the utility, you must install the software for the new Oracle Database 11g release, and then invoke the script from the new Oracle home. The emdwgrd utility, however, requires that you set ORACLE_HOME to the old Oracle home.

To save your database control files and data using emdwgrd 

  1. Install the software for the new Oracle Database 11g release. (This step is not required for an in-place patch set upgrade.)

  2. Set ORACLE_HOME to your old Oracle home. (This step is not required for an in-place patch set upgrade.)

  3. Set ORACLE_SID to the SID of the database being upgraded.

  4. Set PATH, LD_LIBRARY_PATH, and SHLIB_PATH to point to the Oracle home from which the database is being upgraded.

  5. Go to the Oracle home of the new Oracle Database 11g release.

  6. Execute one of the following commands:

    • For a single-instance database, run the following command, where old_SID is the SID of the database being upgraded and save_directory is the path to the storage place you have chosen for your database control files and data:

      emdwgrd -save -sid old_SID -path save_directory
      

      Note:

      The script is in emdwgrd.sh on Linux and UNIX platforms. On Windows, the script is in emdwgrd.bat.

    • If the database is an Oracle RAC database, remote copy is required across the cluster nodes. Define an environment variable to indicate which remote copy is configured. For example:

      setenv EM_REMCP /usr/bin/scp
      

      Then, execute the following save command:

      emdwgrd -save -cluster -sid old_SID -path save_directory
      

      If the release 10g Oracle home is on a shared device, add -shared to the previous command line.

  7. Enter the SYS password for the database to be upgraded.


Note:

The DBUA backup and restore process also allows you to revert to your previous Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control environment after upgrading your database. However, all user data that is accumulated between the time of upgrade and restore operations is lost. Saving your database control files and data enables you to downgrade both your database and database control. All user data is retained even though all database control data that is accumulated between the time of upgrade and downgrade is lost.

Verifying That Materialized View Refreshes Have Completed

You must wait until all materialized views have completed refreshing before upgrading. You can query the system to determine if there are any materialized view refreshes still in progress.

To determine if there are any materialized view refreshes still in progress

  • Run the following query

    SQL> SELECT * FROM sys.obj$ o, sys.user$ u, sys.sum$ s
    WHERE o.type# = 42 AND bitand(s.mflags, 8) = 8;
    

Ensuring That No Files Need Media Recovery

Before upgrading the database, you must ensure that there are no files requiring media recovery. You can query the system to get a list of files and then recover them as appropriate.

To get a list of files that require media recovery

  • Issue the following statement:

    SQL> SELECT * FROM v$recover_file;
    

Ensuring That No Files Are in Backup Mode

Files must not be in backup mode when performing the upgrade; therefore, you must wait until backups are completed. You can query the system to see a list of any files in backup mode and then take appropriate action by either waiting for the backup to complete, or by aborting any backups that are not needed.

To get a list of files in backup mode

  • Issue the following statement:

    SQL> SELECT * FROM v$backup WHERE status != 'NOT ACTIVE';
    

Resolving Outstanding Distributed Transactions

You must resolve outstanding distributed transactions before performing the upgrade. You can do this by first querying to see any pending transactions, and then committing the transactions. You must wait until all pending distributed transactions have been committed.

To resolve outstanding distributed transactions

  1. Issue the following statement:

    SQL> SELECT * FROM dba_2pc_pending;
    
  2. If the query in the previous step returns any rows, then issue the following statements:

    SQL> SELECT local_tran_id FROM dba_2pc_pending;
    SQL> EXECUTE dbms_transaction.purge_lost_db_entry('');
    SQL> COMMIT;
    

Synchronizing a Standby Database with the Primary Database

If a standby database exists, then you must synchronize it with the primary database.

To check if a standby database exists and to synchronize it 

  1. Issue the following query:

    SQL> SELECT SUBSTR(value,INSTR(value,'=',INSTR(UPPER(value),'SERVICE'))+1)
    FROM v$parameter
    WHERE name LIKE 'log_archive_dest%' AND UPPER(value) LIKE 'SERVICE%';
    
  2. If the query in the previous step returns a row, then synchronize the standby database with the primary database.

    • Make sure all the logs are transported to the standby server after a final log switch in the primary.

    • Start the recovery of the standby database with the NODELAY option.

Purging the Database Recycle Bin

The database recycle bin must be empty before you begin the upgrade process. You use the PURGE statement to remove items and their associated objects from the recycle bin and release their storage space.

To empty the database recycle bin

  • Issue the following command:

    SQL> PURGE dba_recyclebin
    

Caution:

The database recycle bin must be empty during the upgrade process to avoid possible ORA-00600 errors and to minimize the upgrade time.


Configuring the Listener When Upgrading from Oracle9i

If you are upgrading from Oracle9i and a listener was not configured in the Oracle9i repository, then you must run Oracle Net Configuration Assistant to configure the listening protocol address and service information for the new Oracle Database 11g database, including a listener.ora file, before running DBUA. A new version of the listener is required for an Oracle Database 11g database. Previous versions of the listener are not supported for use with an Oracle Database 11g database. However, it is possible to use the new version of the listener with previous versions of Oracle Database.

If you are upgrading an Oracle RAC database, then you have the following options:

  • Upgrade the Oracle RAC database with DBUA, which automatically migrates the listener from your old Oracle home to the new Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g Release 2 home.


    Note:

    Beginning with Oracle Database 11g Release 2, you must administer the listener by using the lsnrctl command in the Oracle Grid infrastructure home. Do not attempt to use the lsnrctl commands from Oracle home locations for previous releases.

  • If you are upgrading from Oracle9i or upgrading manually without using DBUA, then run Oracle Net Configuration Assistant before upgrading the Oracle RAC database.

    This is a two-step option. You must first run Oracle Net Configuration Assistant from the old Oracle home to remove the old listener. Then you must run Oracle Net Configuration Assistant again from the Oracle home of the new Oracle Database 11g release to create a new listener.

    You must remove the old listener before creating a new one. If you attempt to create a new listener from the new Oracle home first, and use the same name and port as the old listener, then Oracle Net Configuration Assistant returns an error.


    See Also:

    Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for complete information about using Oracle Net Configuration Assistant

Upgrading with Database Upgrade Assistant on Linux, UNIX, and Windows

DBUA provides a graphical user interface (GUI) to guide you through the upgrade of a database, or you can invoke it in silent mode, which does not present a user interface. The following topics guide you through the process of upgrading a database using Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA).

Considerations for Using DBUA

  • Important: If you terminate the upgrade, but do not restore the database, then you cannot restart DBUA. Instead, you must continue with a manual (command line) upgrade as described in "Manually Upgrading Oracle Database".

  • DBUA can be used to upgrade from earlier Oracle Database 11g patch releases as well as from earlier major Oracle Database releases on both Oracle RAC databases and Oracle Database single-instance databases. The procedure to upgrade patch releases is no different from the normal upgrade procedure.

  • You must run the Oracle Net Configuration Assistant before running DBUA. See "Configuring the Listener When Upgrading from Oracle9i".

    If you are upgrading an existing Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control or if you are configuring a new Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control for the new Oracle Database 11g release, then the listener must be running before upgrading Oracle Enterprise Manager. If DBUA detects that an Oracle Enterprise Manager upgrade or configuration is requested, and DBUA does not see a listener running, then it prompts you and starts the default listener in either of these cases.

  • If you upgrade a cluster database using DBUA, then you must make sure the CLUSTER_DATABASE initialization parameter is set to TRUE.

  • If the database instance is not running, then DBUA tries to start the instance with the default initialization parameter file. If that fails, then DBUA prompts you to provide the name of the correct initialization parameter file or to start the instance. If the instance is up and running, then DBUA connects to it.

  • If you terminate the upgrade, but do not restore the database, then you cannot restart DBUA until you start up the existing database in UPGRADE mode using the new Oracle Database 11g server. You cannot go back to the original server unless you restore your database.

    For Oracle RAC, you cannot re-run DBUA once you terminate the upgrade. If you need to re-run the upgrade, then you must run DBUA from the restored backup of the database you are upgrading.

  • If you restore your database manually (not using DBUA), then remove the Welcome_SID.txt file, which is located in the ORACLE_HOME/cfgtoollogs/dbua/logs/ directory, before starting DBUA. The presence of this file indicates to DBUA that this is a re-run operation.

About the DBUA Graphical User Interface

If you installed Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) and specified that you are upgrading an existing database, then DBUA starts automatically. However, if you did not specify that you are upgrading an existing database, then you can start DBUA independently after installation is complete.

While the upgrade is in process, DBUA shows the upgrade progress for each component. DBUA writes detailed trace and log files and produces a complete HTML report for later reference. To enhance security, DBUA automatically locks new user accounts in the upgraded database. DBUA then proceeds to create new configuration files (parameter and listener files) in the new Oracle home.

DBUA does not begin the upgrade until all of the pre-upgrade steps are completed.

These topics provide additional information about DBUA:

Checks Performed by Oracle DBUA

DBUA performs the following checks before the upgrade:

  • Invalid user accounts or roles

  • Invalid data types or invalid objects

  • Desupported character sets

  • Adequate resources, including rollback segments, tablespaces, and free disk space

  • Missing SQL scripts needed for the upgrade

  • Listener running (if Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control upgrade or configuration is requested)

  • Oracle Database software linked with Database Vault option


    Note:

    If Database Vault is enabled, then DBUA returns an error asking you to disable Database Vault before upgrading. See "About Upgrading Databases That Use Oracle Database Vault".

Upgrade Scripts Invoked by Oracle DBUA

During the upgrade, DBUA automatically modifies or creates new required tablespaces and invokes the appropriate upgrade scripts, as follows:

  • If the datafiles are auto extensible and have enough disk space to grow, then DBUA continues with the upgrade.

  • If the datafiles are not autoextensible, then DBUA prompts you and makes the files auto extensible.

  • If the tablespaces are auto extensible and the MAXSIZE initialization parameter needs adjustment, then DBUA prompts for the same and adjusts the MAXSIZE parameter.

  • If there is not enough disk space to grow, then DBUA prompts you to create space (by adding more datafiles). DBUA does not add new datafiles because DBUA cannot determine where to create the files.

Optionally, DBUA backs up all necessary files.

Using DBUA to Upgrade the Database on Linux, UNIX, and Windows Systems

Complete the following steps to upgrade a database using the DBUA graphical user interface. These steps are performed from within the new Oracle home where the latest database software has been installed as described in "Installing the New Oracle Database Software for the Upgrade" .


Important:

If you terminate the upgrade, but do not restore the database, then you cannot restart DBUA. Instead, you must continue with a manual (command line) upgrade as described in "Manually Upgrading Oracle Database".


To upgrade a database using DBUA on Linux, UNIX, and Windows

  1. Start DBUA from the Oracle home where the new database software has been installed:

    • On Linux or UNIX platforms, enter the following command at a system prompt in the new Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) home:

      dbua
      

      Note:

      The dbua executable is usually located in the ORACLE_HOME/bin directory.

    • On Windows operating systems, select Start > Programs > Oracle - HOME_NAME > Configuration and Migration Tools > Database Upgrade Assistant.

    The DBUA Welcome screen displays.

    Description of dbua01.jpg follows

  2. If you need help at any screen or want to consult more documentation about DBUA, then click Help to open the online help.

    Click Next.

    The Select Database page appears, listing the databases available for upgrade.

    Description of dbua02.jpg follows

  3. Select the database you want to upgrade to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2).

    You can select only one database at a time. If you do not see the database that you want, then make sure an entry with the database name exists in the oratab file in the etc directory.

    If you are running DBUA from a user account that does not have SYSDBA privileges, then you must enter the user name and password credentials to enable SYSDBA privileges for the selected database.

    Click Next.

    DBUA analyzes the database, performing pre-upgrade checks and displaying warnings as necessary. Examples of DBUA database checks include:

    • Redo log files whose size is less than 4 MB. If such files are found, then DBUA gives the option to drop/create new redo log files.

    • Obsolete or deprecated initialization parameters.

    When DBUA finishes its checks, the Upgrade Options screen displays.

    Description of dbua03.jpg follows

  4. The Upgrade Options screens enables you to set the following options:

    Recompile invalid objects at the end of upgrade

    Select Recompile invalid objects at the end of upgrade if you want DBUA to recompile all invalid PL/SQL modules after the upgrade is complete.

    When you upgrade a database to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), many of the PL/SQL modules in your database become invalid. As a result, all existing PL/SQL modules in an INVALID state must be recompiled, such as packages, procedures, types, and so on.

    By default, Oracle Database recompiles invalid PL/SQL modules as they are used. The time it takes to recompile the module can result in poor performance when you begin to use your newly upgraded database.

    To eliminate these performance issues, select Recompile invalid objects at the end of upgrade. When you select this option, DBUA recompiles all the invalid PL/SQL modules immediately after the upgrade is performed. This ensures that you do not experience any performance issues later, as you begin using your newly upgraded database.


    Note:

    Selecting Recompile invalid objects at the end of upgrade is equivalent to running the utlrp.sql script, located in the ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin directory, which is used to recompile stored PL/SQL and Java code.

    The task of recompiling all the invalid PL/SQL modules in your database can take a significant amount of time and increase the time it takes to complete your database upgrade. If you have multiple CPUs, then you can reduce the time it takes to perform this task by taking advantage of parallel processing on your available CPUs. If you have multiple CPUs available, then DBUA automatically adds an additional section to the Recompile Invalid Objects screen and automatically determines the number of CPUs you have available.

    Degree of Parallelism

    DBUA also provides a recommended degree of parallelism, which determines how many parallel processes are used to recompile your invalid PL/SQL modules. Specifically, DBUA sets the degree of parallelism to one less than the number of CPUs you have available. For example, if you have three CPUs available for processing, then DBUA selects 2 from the Degree of Parallelism menu. You can adjust this default value by selecting a new value from the Degree of Parallelism menu.

    Backup Database

    Select Backup database if you want DBUA to back up your database for you.


    Important:

    Oracle strongly recommends that you back up your database before starting the upgrade. If errors occur during the upgrade, then you might be required to restore the database from the backup.


    If you use DBUA to back up your database, then it makes a copy of all your database files in the directory you specify in the Backup Directory field. DBUA performs this cold backup automatically after it shuts down the database and before it begins performing the upgrade procedure. The cold backup does not compress your database files, and the backup directory must be a valid file system path. You cannot specify a raw device for the cold backup files.

    In addition, DBUA creates a batch file in the specified directory. You can use this batch file to restore the database files:

    • On Windows operating systems, the file is called db_name_restore.bat.

    • On Linux or UNIX platforms, the file is called db_name_restore.sh.

    If you choose not to use DBUA for your backup, then Oracle assumes you have backed up your database using your own backup procedures.


    Note:

    DBUA does not back up Oracle ASM databases. You must manually back them up on your own.

    Click Next.

    If you are upgrading a single-instance database or Oracle Express Edition (XE), then the Move Database Files screen appears. If you are upgrading an Oracle Real Application Clusters database, then the Move Database Files screen does not display.

    Description of dbua04.jpg follows

  5. Select one of the following options:

    • Do Not Move Database Files as Part of Upgrade

    • Move Database Files during Upgrade

    If you choose to move database files, then you must also make one of the following selections:

    • File System

      Your database files are moved to the host file system.

    • Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM)

      Your database files are moved to Oracle ASM storage, which must currently exist on your system. If you do not have an Oracle ASM instance, then you can create one using Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant (ASMCA) from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home and then restart DBUA.


      See Also:


      Click Next.

      The Recovery and Diagnostic Locations screen displays, where you can designate a flash recovery area for your database.

      Description of dbua05.jpg follows

    Flash recovery area is an Oracle managed disk location used for storing backup and recovery related files. Oracle strongly recommends configuring a flash recovery area, because it significantly enhances speed, reliability, and manageability of the database recovery process. The location of the flash recovery area is also used by Enterprise Manager if you enable local management and daily backups on the Management Options screen.

    If you selected the Move Database Files during Upgrade option in step 5, or if an Oracle Express Edition database is being upgraded to Oracle Enterprise Edition, then you must configure a flash recovery area. If a flash recovery area is currently configured, then the current settings are retained but the screen displays to allow you to override these values.

  6. Do one of the following:

    • Accept the default flash recovery area location

    • Enter the full path to a different location in the Flash Recovery Area field

    • Click Browse and select a different flash recovery area location

    Do one of the following:

    • Accept the default size for the flash recovery area

    • Enter a different value in the Flash Recovery Area Size field

    • Click the up or down arrows to adjust the flash recovery area size


    See Also:

    Oracle Database 2 Day DBA for more information about configuring the flash recovery area

    Click Next.

    If no other database is currently being monitored with Enterprise Manager, then the Management Options screen displays.

    Description of dbua06.jpg follows

    At the Management Options screen, you have the option of setting up your database so it can be managed with Enterprise Manager. Enterprise Manager provides Web-based management tools for managing individual database instances, as well as central management tools for managing your entire Oracle environment, including multiple databases, hosts, application servers, and other components of your network.

    Before you can register the database with Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control, an Oracle Enterprise Manager Agent must be configured on the host computer.

  7. To set up your database to be managed with Enterprise Manager, select Configure the Database with Enterprise Manager and then select one of the following options:

    • Register with Grid Control for centralized management

      If you select this option, then you must also select an Oracle Management Service from the Management Service drop-down list. When you run DBUA, it checks to see if the Oracle Management Agent has been installed on the host computer. If no Oracle Management Agent is found, then the Grid Control option is not available.

      When you finish installing the Oracle Database software, the database is automatically available as a managed target within Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control.

    • Configure Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control for local management

      If you are not centrally managing your Oracle environment, then you can still use Enterprise Manager to manage your database. When you install Oracle Database, you automatically install Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control, which provides Web-based features for monitoring and administering the single-instance or cluster database you are installing.

      Do the following steps if you want the SYSMAN user (the default Super Administrator and owner of the Management Repository schema) to receive E-mail notification when a metric for a specified condition reaches a critical or warning threshold:

      • Select Enable Alert Notifications

      • Enter the name of the e-mail server you want to use for notifications in the Outgoing Mail (SMTP) Server field

      • Enter the e-mail address of the SYSMAN user in the Recipient Email Address field

      For example, Enterprise Manager can send an e-mail when a target goes down or when there are database space usage problems. E-mail notifications are enabled immediately upon installation.

      Do the following steps to use the Oracle suggested backup strategy to back up your entire database with a minimum amount of configuration:

      • Select Enable Daily Disk Backup to Recovery Area

      • Enter a start time in the Backup Start Time field

      • Enter host credentials in the OS Username and Password fields

      If you select the Enable Daily Disk Backup to Recovery Area option, then Enterprise Manager is configured to back up your database immediately after you finish upgrading Oracle Database. Enterprise Manager backs up the database to the flash recovery area. Later, you can use Enterprise Manager to customize your backup strategy further.

      On Windows the user whose credentials you enter for the backup must be granted the Logon as a batch job privilege in the Local Security Policies of Windows. If the chosen user does not have this privilege, then the backup job fails.

    Click Next.

    The Database Credentials screen displays.

    Description of dbua07.jpg follows

  8. Select one of the following options:

    • Use Different Passwords

      If you choose to use different passwords, then you must enter a password in the Password and Confirm Password columns for each account in the table.

    • Use the Same Password for All Accounts

      If you choose to use the same password, then you must enter that password in the Password and Confirm Password fields.


      Note:

      If the default Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) security settings are in place, then new passwords must be at least eight characters, and passwords such as welcome and oracle are not allowed. See Oracle Database Security Guide for more information.

    Click Next.

    The Summary screen appears.

    Description of dbua08.jpg follows

  9. The Summary screen shows the following information about the upgrade before it starts:

    • Name, version, and Oracle home of the old and new databases

    • Database backup location, available space, and space required

    • Warnings ignored

    • Database components to be upgraded

    • Initialization parameters changes

    • Database files location

    • Listener registration


    See Also:

    "Setting the COMPATIBLE Initialization Parameter" for information about setting the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter after the upgrade

    Check all of the specifications. Then do one of the following:

    • Click Back if anything is incorrect until you reach the screen where you can correct it.

    • Click Finish if everything is correct.

    The Progress screen displays and DBUA begins the upgrade.

  10. After the upgrade has completed, the following message is displayed on the Progress screen:

    Upgrade is complete. Click "OK" to see the results of the upgrade.
    
  11. The Upgrade Results screen displays a description of the original and upgraded databases and changes made to the initialization parameters. The screen also shows the directory where various log files are stored after the upgrade. You can examine these log files to obtain more details about the upgrade process.


    Note:

    An HTML version of the Upgrade Results is also saved in the log files directory.

    1. Click Configure Database Passwords to display the Password Management dialog box.

      The Password Management dialog box enables you to change the default password for a user after you upgrade the database. For security reasons, all users are locked except for the following users:

      • SYS

      • SYSTEM

      If you have enabled Local Management with Enterprise Manager, then the SYSMAN and DBSNMP accounts are also unlocked. These accounts provide Enterprise Manager with access to the database so it can gather monitoring data and so you can perform administration tasks with Enterprise Manager.

      If you have enabled Central Management with Enterprise Manager, then the DBSNMP account is unlocked, as well as the SYS and SYSTEM user accounts.


      Note:

      To prevent unauthorized use of the database, Oracle recommends that you change all user passwords immediately after you upgrade your database.

      If the default Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) security settings are in place, then passwords must be at least eight characters, and passwords such as welcome and oracle are not allowed. See Oracle Database Security Guide for more information.


    2. Click Restore Database if you are not satisfied with the upgrade results.

      Depending on the method you used to back up your database, the Restore operation performs one of two tasks:

      • If you used DBUA to back up your database, then clicking Restore restores the original database and the original database settings from the backup.

      • If you used your own backup procedure to back up the database, then clicking Restore restores only the original database settings. To restore the database itself, you must restore the backup you created with your own backup utilities.

    If you are satisfied with the upgrade results, then click Exit to quit DBUA and use your newly upgraded database.

    1. DBUA modifies the SID_DESC entry for the upgraded database in the Oracle Database listener.ora file in one of the following ways:

      A simple case: Suppose the old listener.ora has the following SID_DESC entry:

      ...
         (SID_DESC =
            (SID_NAME = ORCL)
         )
      ...
      

      If the database name is SAL, the domain name is COM, and the Oracle home is /oracle/product/9.2, then the assistant adds the following entry:

      ...
         (SID_DESC =
             (GLOBAL_DBNAME = sal.com)
                (ORACLE_HOME = /oracle/product/9.2)
                (SID_NAME = SAL)
          )
      ...
      

      A more complicated case: Suppose the old listener.ora has the following SID_DESC entry:

      ...
         (SID_DESC =
             (GLOBAL_DBNAME = an_entry)
             (SID_NAME = ORCL)
          )
      ...
      

      If an_entry does not match the GLOBAL_DBNAME of the migrated database, and if the database name is SAL, the domain name is COM, and the Oracle home is /oracle/product/9.2, then the assistant adds the following entry:

      ...
         (SID_DESC =
             (GLOBAL_DBNAME = sal.com)
                (ORACLE_HOME = /oracle/product/9.2)
                (SID_NAME = SAL)
          )
      ...
      

      This entry is the same as the entry in the simple case, but DBUA also adds the entry an_entry to the SERVICE_NAMES parameter in the initialization parameter file. Therefore, DBUA changes the SERVICE_NAMES parameter to the following:

      SERVICE_NAMES = sal.com, an_entry
      
    2. DBUA removes the entry of the upgraded database from the old listener.ora file.

    3. DBUA reloads the listener.ora file in both the old and new Oracle Database environments.

  12. >>The following steps were deleted, either because the screens no longer appear or because they have been replaced with rewritten steps covering the same screens, as per IOUG presentation by Ravi Pattabhi 3/26/07. CBF 3/30/07

    Specify the attributes for the SYSAUX tablespace, which is added automatically to all new Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) databases you create.


    See Also:

    Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about the SYSAUX tablespace

    Many of the attributes of the SYSAUX tablespace are set automatically and cannot be modified. For example, the SYSAUX tablespace is set to use Automatic Segment-Space Management. However, you can specify the location of the data file, the default size of the SYSAUX tablespace, and its autoextend attributes.


    Note:

    If you specify an existing datafile for the SYSAUX tablespace, then you must select Reuse Existing File Name. Otherwise, DBUA alerts you to the fact that the file currently exists.

    Click Next.

    The Recompiling Invalid Objects screen appears.

  13. Secure your database with passwords for the Enterprise Manager accounts. You can set a single password, which is applied to each of the listed Enterprise Manager user accounts, or enhance the security of the accounts by providing unique passwords for each user.

    Click Next.

    The Recovery Configuration screen appears.

  14. Specify a flash recovery area and enable archiving. When you are managing your database, it is important to configure the database so you can recover your data in the event of a system failure.

    The Flash Recovery Area can be used to recover data that would otherwise be lost during a system failure. This location is also used by Enterprise Manager if you enabled local management and daily backups on the Management Options screen.

    Click Next.

    The Network Configuration screen appears.

  15. At the Upgrade Operations page, do one of the following:

    • Select the option to upgrade only the Oracle ASM instance

    • Select the option to upgrade the database

      If you choose to upgrade the database, and the database is using Oracle ASM, then DBUA asks if you want to upgrade the Oracle ASM instance along with the database. Oracle recommends that you upgrade the database and Oracle ASM in separate DBUA sessions, in separate Oracle homes.

    Click Next.

    The Selecting a Database Instance screen appears.

  16. At the Changes in Default Behavior screen, DBUA displays some changes in the behavior of Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) from that of previous releases. In some cases the default values of some initialization parameters have changed. In other cases some new behavior/requirement has been introduced that might affect current scripts or applications.

  17. Complete the procedures described in Chapter 4, "Post-Upgrade Tasks for Oracle Database".

Optionally Performing an In-Place Upgrade (Into the Same Oracle Home)

Oracle recommends when upgrading to Oracle Database 11g R2 (11.2) that you perform an out-of-place mode upgrade, which installs the new software into a new Oracle home. This means that you provide a different Oracle home location for the new upgrade. However, there may be cases where you need to perform an in-place upgrade, which maintains the same Oracle home. This section provides the information on how to keep the existing Oracle home.

The considerations and options for performing in-place upgrades are provided in these topics:

Known Issue When Starting an In-Place Upgrade

When performing an in-place upgrade, which uses the same Oracle home location, an error messages appears stating that the installer detects Oracle Database software in the location that you specified.

Message: The installer has detected that the software location you have specified contains Oracle Database software release 11.2.0.1. Oracle recommends that when upgrading, you perform an out-of-place installation of the software into a new Oracle home and then upgrade the database using the new software binaries.

Cause: The installer has detected that the software location you have specified contains Oracle Database software release 11.2.0.1.

Action: Either perform an in-place upgrade as described in this section, or perform an out-of-place upgrade, into a new Oracle home, as described in "Installing the New Oracle Database Software for the Upgrade".

Performing an In-Place Upgrade for Single-Instance Oracle Database

If you must perform an in-place upgrade, then the procedure is to back up the current installation, move it to a different location, and then install the new software in the old location, as described in the following procedure.


WARNING:

Oracle strongly recommends that you do not upgrade Oracle Database to release 11.2.0.2 or 11.2.0.3 using the existing Oracle home. This procedure is provided only if for some reason you have no alternative but to use the existing Oracle home.


To perform an in-place upgrade for a single-instance database

  1. Obtain the Oracle Database release 11.2 software from My Oracle Support at https://support.oracle.com/.

  2. Back up the configuration data by backing up the following directories:

    • ORACLE_HOME/dbs

    • ORACLE_HOME/network/admin

    • ORACLE_HOME/owb/bin/admin

    • ORACLE_HOME/hostname_dbname

    • ORACLE_HOME/oc4j/j2ee/OC4J_DBConsole_hostname_dbname

  3. Depending on which release you are upgrading from, in the software location for the release 11.2.0.1 or 11.2.0.2 software, detach the ORACLE_HOME with the following command:

    ORACLE_HOME/oui/bin/runInstaller -detachHome ORACLE_HOME=11.2.x.x.x software location
    
  4. Rename or move this ORACLE_HOME software directory to a temporary name:

    mv ORACLE_HOME ORACLE_HOME.backup
    
  5. Start OUI and select release 11.2.0.3. Software Only.

  6. For Location, select the same location as used for release 11.2.0.1 or 11.2.0.2 (depending on which release you are upgrading from).

  7. After the installation completes, restore the configuration data for the old Oracle home. Restore the backed up configuration data files (from the backups you made of /dbs and network/admin), and also restore the following directories: /hostname_dbname, /owb/bin/admin, and /oc4j/j2ee/OC4J_DBConsole_hostname_dbname. Specify the actual name for hostname_dbname where hostname is the actual hostname and dbname is the actual database name.

  8. Run DBUA from ORACLE_HOME/bin directory and select the 11.2.0.1.0 or 11.2.0.2.0 database instance to perform the upgrade to 11.2.0.3.0.

Performing an In-Place Upgrade for an Oracle RAC Database

Performing an in-place upgrade of an Oracle RAC database is similar to the procedure described in "Performing an In-Place Upgrade for Single-Instance Oracle Database". You must back up the current Oracle home and installation, move it to a different location, and then install the new software in the old location, as described in the following steps.


WARNING:

Oracle strongly recommends that you do not upgrade Oracle Database to release 11.2.0.2 or later using the existing Oracle home. This procedure is provided only if for some reason you have no alternative but to use the existing Oracle home.


To perform an in-place upgrade for Oracle RAC Database instances

  1. Back up the configuration data by backing up the following directories on all cluster nodes:

    • ORACLE_HOME/dbs

    • ORACLE_HOME/network/admin

    • ORACLE_HOME/owb/bin/admin

    • ORACLE_HOME/hostname_dbname

    • ORACLE_HOME/oc4j/j2ee/OC4J_DBConsole_hostname_dbname

  2. Run the following command on each of the nodes to detach the old Oracle RAC ORACLE_HOME. For example:

    ORACLE_HOME/oui/bin/runInstaller -detachHome ORACLE_HOME=11.2 software location
    
  3. Rename this Oracle RAC ORACLE_HOME directory on all the nodes to a temporary name.

  4. Install Oracle Database Software Only on all nodes.

  5. On all nodes, restore into the 11.2.0.4 ORACLE_HOME software location the backed up configuration data files (from the backups you made of /dbs and network/admin), and also restore the following directories: /hostname_dbname, /owb/bin/admin, and /oc4j/j2ee/OC4J_DBConsole_hostname_dbname. Specify the actual name for hostname_dbname.

  6. Run DBUA from the 11.2.0.4 ORACLE_HOME/bin directory on the local node and select the Oracle RAC database instance to upgrade it to release 11.2.0.4.0.

In-Place Upgrade on Windows

Oracle recommends that you perform the out-of-place upgrade into a new Oracle home. This procedure is provided only if for some reason you must use the old Oracle home.

The following topics discuss how to perform an upgrade into an existing Oracle home on Windows platforms:


Important:


Considerations for In-Place Upgrade of Oracle Database on Windows Platforms

On Windows, you must shut down all services that invoke or lock Oracle files. To do this, set the services to disable in Windows service manager. A reboot may be required after you disable some services in order to free their associated locked objects. On Windows platforms, ORADIM manages Windows Services (operating system processes). DBCA manages Oracle database instances and database services.

Performing an In-Place Upgrade of Oracle Database on Windows

This procedure is provided only if you have no alternative but to use the old Oracle home when upgrading to the new Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) release. This is not the perferred method for upgrading Oracle Database to release 11.2. If you must perform an in-place upgrade, then you must perform the steps listed in this section. The procedure describes how to backup the current installation, move the current installation to a new location, and then install the new software into the old location.


WARNING:

Oracle strongly recommends that you do not upgrade Oracle Database to release 11.2.0.2 or later using the existing Oracle home. This procedure is provided only if for some reason you have no alternative but to use the existing Oracle home.


To perform an in-place upgrade on Windows

  1. Back up the configuration data by backing up the following directories on the single node or all cluster nodes:

    • ORACLE_HOME/dbs

    • ORACLE_HOME/database

    • ORACLE_HOME/network/admin

    • ORACLE_HOME/owb/bin/admin

    • ORACLE_HOME/hostname_dbname

    • ORACLE_HOME/oc4j/j2ee/OC4J_DBConsole_hostname_dbname

  2. Skip this step if you are upgrading a single instance database. If you are upgrading an Oracle RAC database, then installation of the software for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) requires that you upgrade Oracle Clusterware first. See "Considerations for Upgrading Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM Instances"

  3. Shut down the instances running on ORACLE_HOME:

    SQL> SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
    

    Note:

    On an Oracle RAC Database, you must shut down the database instances on all nodes, and stop all interfering services on all nodes in the cluster.

  4. On all instances, use NET STOP to stop the Oracle services that may interfere with this Oracle home. For example:

    C:\> NET STOP OracleServiceORACLE_SID
    
    
    

    where OracleService is the name of the service, and ORACLE_SID is the SID of the database instance.

    Oracle services that may need to be stopped include:

    • the TNSListener

    • HTTP server

    • Oracle Management Server

    • OLAP Agent

    • Intelligent Agent


    See Also:

    My Oracle Support at https://support.oracle.com:
    • Note ID 1291682.1, "In-Place Upgrade to 11.2.0.2 on Windows Platform" for information on 11.2.0.2 and 11.2.0.3

    • Note ID 294350.1, "Write Errors, or Files In Use, or NoServicesForProcessException During Patch Installation" for information on files that are locked by interfering processes

    • Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows for information on using ORADIM to administer a database instance



    Note:

    The list of services to stop is not inclusive. There may be Windows-specific and vendor-specific services running that need to be stopped.

  5. Run the following command on each of the nodes to detach this Oracle RAC ORACLE_HOME:

    ORACLE_HOME/oui/bin/setup -detachHome ORACLE_HOME=this software location
    
  6. Rename this Oracle RAC ORACLE_HOME directory on all the nodes to a temporary name.

  7. Install release 11.2.0.3 Software Only on all nodes.

  8. If needed, use ORADIM to create a new instance:

    C:\oracle\bin\oradim –NEW -SID ORACLE_SID
    
    
    

    where ORACLE_SID is the SID of the database instance. This will enable the instance to be listed with DBUA for upgrading.


    See Also:

    Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows for information on creating an instance with ORADIM

  9. On all nodes, restore into this ORACLE_HOME software location the backed up configuration data files (from the backups you made of /dbs, /database, and network/admin), and also restore the following directories: /hostname_dbname, /owb/bin/admin, and /oc4j/j2ee/OC4J_DBConsole_hostname_dbname. Specify the actual name for hostname_dbname.

  10. Run DBUA from this ORACLE_HOME/bin directory on the local node. If you are upgrading an Oracle RAC database, then select the 11.2.0.1.0 or 11.2.0.2.0 Oracle RAC database instance to upgrade to release 11.2.0.3.0.


See Also:

Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows for information on postinstallation tasks for the database

Using DBUA in Silent Mode to Upgrade Oracle Database

When invoked with the -silent command line option, DBUA operates in silent mode. In silent mode, DBUA does not present a user interface. It also writes any messages (including information, errors, and warnings) to a log file in ORACLE_HOME/cfgtoollogs/dbua/SID/upgraden, where n is the number of upgrades that DBUA has performed as of this upgrade.

To upgrade a database with DBUA in silent mode 

  • Issue the following command

    dbua -silent -sid ORCL &
    

    where the database is named ORCL in this example.

Oracle DBUA Command Line Options for Silent Mode

Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA) supports command line options when run in silent mode. Table 3-3 describes the various options and the corresponding parameters that are supported by DBUA.


Note:

If the default Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) security settings are in place, then passwords must be at least eight characters, and passwords such as welcome and oracle are not allowed. See Oracle Database Security Guide for more information.

Table 3-3 DBUA Command Line Options

OptionDescription

-silent

Specifies that DBUA should operate in silent mode.

-sid SID

Specifies the system identifier (SID) of the database to upgrade

-oracleHome home_name

Specifies the Oracle Database home directory of the database to upgrade

-oracleBase base_name

Specifies the Oracle Database base directory of the database to upgrade

-diagnosticDest diagnostic_destination

Specifies the default location to store Oracle trace and diagnostic files. It replaces the initialization parameter settings for background dump destination and user dump destination from earlier releases.

-sysDBAUserName SYSDBA_user

Specifies a user with SYSDBA privileges.

-sysDBAPassword SYSDBA_pwd

Specifies the password for SYSDBA_user.

-autoextendFiles

Autoextends database files during the upgrade. Data files revert to their original autoextend settings after the upgrade.

-newGlobalDbName db_name

Specifies a new global database name. This option applies only if you are moving data files or upgrading an Oracle XE database.

-newSid new_SID

Specifies a new system identifier (SID) of the database to upgrade. This option applies only if you are moving data files or upgrading an Oracle XE database.

-upgradeTimezone

Upgrades the timezone file version for the database.

-generateMapFile

Applies only if you are moving data files or upgrading an Oracle XE database. If you specify this option, then DBUA only generates a database map file in the log location and then exits.

-useASM

Applies only if you are moving data files or upgrading an Oracle XE database. If the database to upgrade has an Oracle ASM instance, then this option tells DBUA to use it for the upgrade.

-commonFileLocation common_files

Specifies a common location to store database files. This option applies only if you are moving data files or upgrading an Oracle XE database.

-omfLocation omf_area

Specifies a database area for Oracle Managed Files. This option applies only if you are moving data files or upgrading an Oracle XE database.

-databaseMapFile map_file_name

Specifies the full name of the map file to map database files. This option applies only if you are moving data files or upgrading an Oracle XE database.

-newRecoveryArea recover_area

Specifies the recovery area for a database that is moved during upgrade. This option applies only if you are moving data files or upgrading an Oracle XE database.

-newRecoveryAreaSize recover_size

Specifies the recovery area size (MB) for a database that is moved during upgrade. This option applies only if you are moving data files or upgrading an Oracle XE database.

-apexAdminPassword apex_pwd

Specifies the password for the Application Express Administrator.

-disableUpgradeScriptLogging

Disables the detailed log generation for running SQL scripts during the upgrade process. This is enabled by default. To enable log generation, do not specify this option.

-backupLocation directory

Specifies a directory to back up your database before the upgrade starts

-sysauxTablespace

Creates a new SYSAUX tablespace

-datafileName name

Specifies the complete path of the data file for creating the new SYSAUX tablespace

-datafileSize size

Specifies the size of the data file for creating the new SYSAUX tablespace {500M, 10G}

-datafileSizeNext size

Specifies the next extent for the data file

-datafileSizeMax size

Specifies the maximum size of the data file

-postUpgradeScripts script [, script ] ...

Specifies a comma-delimited list of SQL scripts. Specify complete path names. The scripts are executed at the end of the upgrade.

-initParam parameter=value [, parameter=value ] ...

Specifies a comma-delimited list of initialization parameter values of the form name=value

-disableArchiveLogMode

Turns off archiving and flashback logging for the duration of the upgrade.

-recompile_invalid_objects true|false

When you specify TRUE for this option, DBUA recompiles all invalid PL/SQL modules immediately after the upgrade is performed.

-degree_of_parallelism cpu_number

Specifies the number of CPUs to be used for parallel recompilation.


-emConfiguration
{CENTRAL|LOCAL|ALL|NOBACKUP|
NOEMAIL|NONE}

Specifies Oracle Enterprise Manager management options:

  • CENTRAL - Database is centrally managed by Oracle Enterprise Manager.

  • LOCAL - Database is locally managed by Oracle Enterprise Manager.

  • ALL - This option configures Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control, enables daily backups, and enables e-mail notifications

  • NOBACKUP - Automatic daily backups of the database are not enabled.

  • NOEMAIL - E-mail notifications are not enabled.

  • NONE - Database is not managed by Enterprise Manager.

-dbsnmpPassword password

Specifies the DBSNMP user password. This option applies only if you are configuring Oracle Enterprise Manager.

-sysmanPassword password

Specifies the SYSMAN user password. This option applies only if you are configuring Oracle Enterprise Manager.

-asmPassword password

Specifies the SYS password for the Oracle ASM instance. This option applies only if you are configuring Oracle Enterprise Manager.

-hostUserName hostname

Specifies the host user name for the Oracle Enterprise Manager backup job. This option applies only if you are configuring Oracle Enterprise Manager.

-hostUserPassword password

Specifies the host user password for the Oracle Enterprise Manager backup job. This option applies only if you are configuring Oracle Enterprise Manager.

-backupSchedule hh:mm

Specifies the daily backup schedule in the form hh:mm (hours and minutes). This option applies only if you are configuring Oracle Enterprise Manager.

-smtpServer server_name

Specifies the outgoing mail (SMTP) server for E-mail notifications. This option applies only if you are configuring Oracle Enterprise Manager.

-emailAddress address

Specifies the E-mail address for E-mail notifications. This option applies only if you are configuring Oracle Enterprise Manager.

-centralAgent location

Specifies the Oracle Enterprise Manager central agent location. This option applies only if you are configuring Oracle Enterprise Manager.

-recoveryAreaDestination directory

Specifies the destination directory for all recovery files. This option applies only if you are moving data files, upgrading an Oracle XE database, or configuring Oracle Enterprise Manager.

[-localRacSid SID

Specifies the local SID of the cluster database if the cluster database is not registered in the Oracle Cluster Registry

-h | -help

Displays help for DBUA


DBUA Command Line Syntax for Silent Mode

You can specify all valid options from the command line using the following syntax:

dbua [ -silent ] [ -sid SID ] [-oracleHome home_name] [-oracleBase base_name]
[-diagnosticDest diagnostic_destination]
[-sysDBAUserName SYSDBA_user] [-sysDBAPassword SYSDBA_pwd]
[-upgradeASM] [-autoextendFiles] [-newGlobalDbName db_name] [-newSid new_SID]
[-generateMapFile] [-useASM] [-commonFileLocation common_files]
[-omfLocation omf_area] [-databaseMapFile map_file_name]
[-newRecoveryArea recover_area] [-newRecoveryAreaSize recover_size]
[-apexAdminPassword apex_pwd] [-disableUpgradeScriptLogging ] 
[-backupLocation directory]
[-sysauxTablespace -datafileName name -datafileSize size 
  -datafileSizeNext size -datafileSizeMax size]
[-postUpgradeScripts script [, script ] ... ]
[-initParam parameter=value [, parameter=value ] ... ]
[-disableArchiveLogMode] [-recompile_invalid_objects true | false]
[-degree_of_parallelism cpu_number]
[-emConfiguration {CENTRAL|LOCAL|ALL|NOBACKUP|NOEMAIL|NONE}
  -dbsnmpPassword password -sysmanPassword password -asmPassword password 
  -hostUserName hostname -hostUserPassword password -backupSchedule hh:mm
  [-smtpServer server_name -emailAddress address]
  [-centralAgent location] [-localRacSid SID]]
[-recoveryAreaDestination directory] [-h|-help]

Upgrading Oracle Database Manually

There may be cases where you need to upgrade Oracle Database manually instead of using DBUA. After installing the new Oracle Database software as described in "Installing the New Oracle Database Software for the Upgrade", backing up your database, and preparing the new Oracle home, you are ready to proceed with a manual upgrade. The procedure for manually upgrading your database assumes that you have previously run the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool as described in "Using the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool".

The following topics guide you through the process of performing a manual upgrade.

Backing Up Oracle Database for a Manual Upgrade

After running the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool and cleanly shutting down the instance, Oracle recommends that you back up the database as described in this section. If you encounter problems with the upgrade and wish to abandon the upgrade completely, then you must restore the database from this backup. Therefore, Oracle recommends that you back up your database now as a precaution.

To perform a full backup of the database to be upgraded

  1. Sign on to RMAN:

    rman "target / nocatalog"
    
  2. Issue the following RMAN commands:

    RUN
    {
        ALLOCATE CHANNEL chan_name TYPE DISK;
        BACKUP DATABASE FORMAT 'some_backup_directory%U' TAG before_upgrade;
        BACKUP CURRENT CONTROLFILE FORMAT 'controlfile location and name';
    }
    

Preparing the New Oracle Home for a Manual Upgrade

After backing up the database to be upgraded, prepare the new Oracle home in a new location. Do this for any release of Oracle Database for which you are upgrading, whether the database is release 11.2 or earlier. Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.3), you install the Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database software into a new Oracle home instead of applying a patch set to the existing Oracle home.

To prepare the new Oracle home 

  1. Copy configuration files from the Oracle home of the database being upgraded to the new Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) Oracle home:

    1. If your parameter file resides within the old environment's Oracle home, then copy it to the new Oracle home. By default, Oracle looks for the parameter file in the ORACLE_HOME/dbs directory on Linux or UNIX platforms and in the ORACLE_HOME\database directory on Windows operating systems. The parameter file can reside anywhere you wish, but it should not reside in the old environment's Oracle home after you upgrade to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2).


      Note:

      It might be necessary to create a text initialization parameter file (PFILE) from the server parameter file (SPFILE) so that you can edit the initialization parameters.

    2. If your parameter file resides within an Oracle ASM instance, then back up the parameter file using the following command:

      CREATE pfile FROM spfile;
      

      If you must downgrade the database and your SPFILE resided within Oracle ASM, then the parameter file must be restored before the downgrade.

    3. If your parameter file is a text-based initialization parameter file with either an IFILE (include file) or a SPFILE (server parameter file) entry, and the file specified in the IFILE or SPFILE entry resides within the old environment's Oracle home, then copy the file specified by the IFILE or SPFILE entry to the new Oracle home. The file specified in the IFILE or SPFILE entry contains additional initialization parameters.

    4. If you have a password file that resides within the old environment's Oracle home, then move or copy the password file to the Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) Oracle home.

      The name and location of the password file are operating system-specific. On Linux or UNIX platforms, the default password file is orapwsid, located in the ORACLE_HOME/dbs directory. On Windows operating systems, the default password file is pwdsid.ora, located in the ORACLE_HOME\database directory. In both cases, sid is your Oracle instance ID.

    5. If you are upgrading a cluster database and your initdb_name.ora file resides within the old environment's Oracle home, then move or copy the initdb_name.ora file to the new Oracle home.


    Note:

    If you are upgrading a cluster database, then perform this step on all nodes in which this cluster database has instances configured.

  2. If you are upgrading an Oracle Enterprise Edition database, you must copy the Enterprise Manager Database Console directory from the old Oracle Home into the new Oracle Home. Note that DBUA automatically copies and upgrades the Enterprise Manager Database Console directory.

  3. Adjust your parameter file in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) by completing the following steps:

    1. Remove obsolete initialization parameters and adjust deprecated initialization parameters. Certain parameters are obsolete in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), while other parameters have become deprecated. Remove all obsolete parameters from any parameter file that starts an Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) instance. Obsolete parameters might cause errors in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2). Also, alter any parameter whose syntax has changed in the new release.

      The Pre-Upgrade Information Tool displays any deprecated parameters and obsolete parameters it finds in the Deprecated Parameters and Obsolete Parameters sections, respectively.


      See Also:

      Appendix A, "Behavior Changes After Upgrading Oracle Database" for a list of initialization parameters that have been deprecated or have become obsolete, and for information on initialization parameters that have changed in ways that raise compatibility issues between different releases of Oracle Database software

    2. Make sure the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter is properly set for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2). The Pre-Upgrade Information Tool displays a warning in the Database section if COMPATIBLE is not properly set.

    3. Adjust the values of the initialization parameters to at least the minimum values indicated by the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool.

    4. Make sure all path names in the parameter file are fully specified. You should not have relative path names in the parameter file.

    5. If the parameter file contains an IFILE entry, then change the IFILE entry in the parameter file to point to the new location of the include file that you specified in Step 1c. Then, edit the file specified in the IFILE entry in the same way that you edited the parameter file in Step a through Step d.

    6. If you are upgrading a cluster database, then modify the initdb_name.ora file in the same way that you modified the parameter file.

    Make sure you save all of the files you modified after making these adjustments.


    Note:

    If you are upgrading a cluster database, then perform this step on all nodes in which this cluster database has instances configured.

  4. If you are upgrading a cluster database, then set the CLUSTER_DATABASE initialization parameter to false. After the upgrade, you must set this initialization parameter back to TRUE.

Manually Upgrading Oracle Database

After installing the new Oracle Database software as described in "Installing the New Oracle Database Software for the Upgrade" and preparing the new Oracle home as described in "Preparing the New Oracle Home for a Manual Upgrade", you are ready to proceed with the manual upgrade.

To manually upgrade the database 

  1. Shut down the instance:

    SQL> SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
    
  2. If your operating system is Windows, then complete the following steps:

    1. Stop the OracleServiceSID Oracle service of the database you are upgrading, where SID is the instance name. For example, if your SID is ORCL, then enter the following at a command prompt:

      C:\> NET STOP OracleServiceORCL
      
    2. Delete the Oracle service at a command prompt using ORADIM.

      If your SID is ORCL, then enter the following command:

      C:\> ORADIM -DELETE -SID ORCL
      
    3. Create the Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) service at a command prompt using the ORADIM command of the new Oracle Database release:

      C:\> ORADIM -NEW -SID SID -SYSPWD PASSWORD -MAXUSERS USERS
           -STARTMODE AUTO -PFILE ORACLE_HOME\DATABASE\INITSID.ORA
      

      This syntax includes the following variables:

      VariableDescription
      SIDThe same SID name as the SID of the database you are upgrading.
      PASSWORDThe password for the new Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) database instance. This is the password for the user connected with SYSDBA privileges. The -SYSPWD option is not required. If you do not specify it, then operating system authentication is used, and no password is required.

      If the default Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) security settings are in place, then passwords must be at least eight characters, and passwords such as welcome and oracle are not allowed. See Oracle Database Security Guide for more information.

      USERSThe maximum number of users who can be granted SYSDBA and SYSOPER privileges.
      ORACLE_HOMEThe Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) Oracle home directory. Ensure that you specify the full path name with the -PFILE option, including the drive letter of the Oracle home directory.

      For example, if your SID is ORCL, your password (SYSPWD) is TWxy5791, the maximum number of users (MAXUSERS) is 10, and the ORACLE_HOME directory is C:\ORACLE\PRODUCT\11.2.0\DB, then enter the following command:

      C:\> ORADIM -NEW -SID ORCL -SYSPWD TWxy5791 -MAXUSERS 10
      -STARTMODE AUTO -PFILE C:\ORACLE\PRODUCT\11.2.0\DB\DATABASE\INITORCL.ORA
      

      ORADIM writes a log file to the ORACLE_HOME\database directory.

  3. If your operating system is Linux or UNIX, then perform the following checks:

    1. Your ORACLE_SID is set correctly

    2. The oratab file points to your Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) Oracle home

    3. The following environment variables point to the Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) directories:

      • ORACLE_HOME

      • PATH

    4. Any scripts that clients use to set the ORACLE_HOME value must point to the new Oracle home.


    Note:

    If you are upgrading a cluster database, then perform these checks on all nodes on which this cluster database has instances configured.


    See Also:

    Oracle Database Installation Guide for your operating system-specific Oracle Database procedures for information about setting other important environment variables on your operating system

  4. If there is a different user and group for Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database, then run the setasmgidwrap script, which is located in the GRID_HOME/bin directory, against the new ORACLE_HOME/bin/oracle directory with the -o option as shown in the following example:

    $GRID_HOME/bin/setasmgidwrap o=ORACLE_HOME/bin/oracle
    
  5. Log in to the system as the owner of the Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) Oracle home directory.

  6. At a system prompt, change to the ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin directory.

  7. Start SQL*Plus.

  8. Connect to the database instance as a user with SYSDBA privileges.

  9. Start the instance by issuing the following command:

    SQL> STARTUP UPGRADE
    

    Note:

    The UPGRADE keyword enables you to open a database based on an earlier Oracle Database release. It also restricts logons to AS SYSDBA sessions, disables system triggers, and performs additional operations that prepare the environment for the upgrade.

    You might be required to use the PFILE option to specify the location of your initialization parameter file.

    Once the database is started in upgrade mode, only queries on fixed views execute without errors until after the catupgrd.sql script is run. Before running catupgrd.sql, queries on any other view or the use of PL/SQL returns an error.

    The following are common errors that might occur when attempting to start the new Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) database. Some of these errors are written to the alert log and not to your session. If you receive any of these errors, then issue the SHUTDOWN ABORT command to shut down the database and correct the problem.

    • ORA-00401: the value for parameter compatible is not supported by this release

      The COMPATIBLE initialization parameter is set to a value less than 10.0.0.

    • ORA-39701: database must be mounted EXCLUSIVE for UPGRADE or DOWNGRADE

      The CLUSTER_DATABASE initialization parameter is set to TRUE instead of FALSE.

    • ORA-39700: database must be opened with UPGRADE option

      The STARTUP command was issued without the UPGRADE keyword.

    • ORA-00336: log file size xxxx blocks is less than minimum 8192 blocks

      A redo log file size is less than 4 MB:

    If errors appear listing obsolete initialization parameters, then make a note of the obsolete initialization parameters and continue with the upgrade. Remove the obsolete initialization parameters the next time you shut down the database.

  10. Perform this step only if you are upgrading from Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2). Otherwise, skip to the next step.

    Create a SYSAUX tablespace. In the new Oracle Database 11g release, the SYSAUX tablespace is used to consolidate data from a number of tablespaces that were separate in previous releases.

    The SYSAUX tablespace must be created with the following mandatory attributes:

    • ONLINE

    • PERMANENT

    • READ WRITE

    • EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL

    • SEGMENT SPACE MANAGEMENT AUTO

    Table 3-4 can be used to determine an optimal size for the SYSAUX tablespace. Also, the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool provides an estimate of the minimum required size for the SYSAUX tablespace under the SYSAUX Tablespace section.

    Table 3-4 Guidelines for Sizing the SYSAUX Tablespace

    FactorSmallMediumLarge

    Number of CPUs

    2

    8

    32

    Number of concurrently active sessions

    5

    20

    100

    Number of user objects (tables and indexes)

    500

    5,000

    50,000

    Estimated SYSAUX size at steady state with default configuration

    500 MB

    2 GB

    5 GB


    The following SQL statement would create a 500 MB SYSAUX tablespace for the database:

    SQL> CREATE TABLESPACE sysaux DATAFILE 'sysaux01.dbf'
             SIZE 500M REUSE
             EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL
             SEGMENT SPACE MANAGEMENT AUTO
             ONLINE;
    

    See Also:

    Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about the SYSAUX tablespace

  11. Set the system to spool results to a log file for later verification of success:

    SQL> SPOOL upgrade.log
    
  12. Run the catupgrd.sql script:

    SQL> @catupgrd.sql
    

    The catupgrd.sql script determines which upgrade scripts must be run, runs them, and then shuts down the database. You must run the script in the Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) environment.

    The upgrade script creates and alters certain data dictionary tables. It also upgrades or installs the following database components in the new Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) database:

    • Oracle Database Catalog Views

    • Oracle Database Packages and Types

    • JServer JAVA Virtual Machine

    • Oracle Database Java Packages

    • Oracle XDK

    • Oracle Real Application Clusters

    • Oracle Workspace Manager

    • Oracle Multimedia

    • Oracle XML Database

    • OLAP Analytic Workspace

    • Oracle OLAP API

    • OLAP Catalog

    • Oracle Text

    • Spatial

    • Oracle Data Mining

    • Oracle Label Security

    • Messaging Gateway

    • Oracle Expression Filter

    • Oracle Rules Manager

    • Oracle Enterprise Manager Repository

    • Oracle Database Vault

    • Oracle Application Express


    Note:

    If you did not run the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool, the catupgrd.sql script terminates with one of the following errors:
    ORA-00942: table or view does not exist
    ORA-00904: "TZ_VERSION": invalid identifier
    ORA-01722: invalid number 
    

    If you receive any of these errors, issue the SHUTDOWN ABORT statement, revert to the original Oracle home directory, and run the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool (utlu112i.sql) as described in "Using the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool".


  13. Restart the instance to reinitialize the system parameters for normal operation.

    SQL> STARTUP
    

    This restart, following the database shutdown performed as part of the catupgrd.sql script, flushes all caches, clears buffers, and performs other housekeeping activities. These measures are an important final step to ensure the integrity and consistency of the newly upgraded Oracle Database software.

  14. If you encountered a message listing obsolete initialization parameters when you started the database in Step 9, then remove the obsolete initialization parameters from the parameter file before restarting. If necessary, convert the SPFILE to a PFILE so you can edit the file to delete parameters. See the chapter about managing initialization parameters using a server parameter file in Oracle Database Administrator's Guide.

  15. Run utlu112s.sql, the Post-Upgrade Status Tool, which provides a summary of the upgrade at the end of the spool log. You can run utlu112s.sql any time after completing the upgrade. See "About the Post-Upgrade Status Tool" for more information.

    Run utlu112s.sql to display the results of the upgrade as follows:

    SQL> @utlu112s.sql
    

    If the Post-Upgrade Status Tool returns errors or shows components that are not VALID or not the most recent release, then see "Troubleshooting the Upgrade of Oracle Database" for more information.

  16. Run catuppst.sql to perform upgrade actions that do not require the database to be in UPGRADE mode:

    SQL> @catuppst.sql
    

    This may generate the following informational messages:

    Generating apply and rollback scripts...
    Check the following file for errors:
    Apply script: .*
    Rollback script: .*
    Executing script file...
    Updating registry...
    Check the following log file for errors: 
    
    Generating apply and rollback scripts...
    Check the following file for errors:
    .../cfgtoollogs/catbundle/catbundle_PSU_*.log
    Apply script:
    .../rdbms/admin/catbundle_PSU_*_APPLY.sql
    Rollback script:
    .../rdbms/admin/catbundle_PSU_*_ROLLBACK.sql
    Executing script file... 
    
    Updating registry...
    Check the following log file for errors:
    .../cfgtoollogs/catbundle/catbundle_PSU_*.log 
    
  17. Run utlrp.sql to recompile any remaining stored PL/SQL and Java code.

    SQL> @utlrp.sql
    

    Verify that all expected packages and classes are valid:

    SQL> SELECT count(*) FROM dba_invalid_objects;
    SQL> SELECT distinct object_name FROM dba_invalid_objects;
    

    Note:

    If the pre-upgrade information tool detected INVALID objects and populated the registry$sys_inv_objs and registry$nonsys_inv_objs tables, then execute ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/utluiobj.sql to display only those objects which are newly invalid because of the upgrade process. The utluiobj.sql script only displays objects that are now INVALID but which were VALID before the upgrade.

  18. Exit SQL*Plus.

  19. If you are upgrading a cluster database from releases 10.2, 11.1, or 11.2, then upgrade the database configuration in Oracle Clusterware using the following command:

    $ srvctl upgrade database -d db-unique-name -o oraclehome
    

    where db-unique-name is the database name assigned to it (not the instance name), and oraclehome is the Oracle home location in which the database is being upgraded.

Your database is now upgraded to the new Oracle Database 11g release. You are ready to complete the procedures described in Chapter 4, "Post-Upgrade Tasks for Oracle Database".


Note:

Oracle Warehouse Builder components are not upgraded as part of the catupgrd.sql script and, therefore, its version will not be updated during the upgrade process.


Caution:

If you retain the old Oracle software, then never start the upgraded database with the old software. Only start the database with the executables in the new Oracle Database installation. Also, before you remove the old Oracle environment, make sure you relocate any data files in that environment to the new Oracle Database environment. See the Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information about relocating data files.


About the Post-Upgrade Status Tool

The Post-Upgrade Status Tool, which is the utlu112s.sql script, displays the status of the database components in the upgraded database and the time required to complete each component upgrade. Any errors that occur during the upgrade are listed with each component and must be addressed. The utlu112s.sql script can be run any time after you run catupgrd.sql, but not after running utlrp.sql.

The Post-Upgrade Status Tool displays a report similar to the following output:

Oracle Database 11.2 Post-Upgrade Status Tool           07-12-2011 12:36:25     
.                                                                               
Component                               Current      Version     Elapsed Time   
Name                                    Status       Number      HH:MM:SS       
.                                                                               
Oracle Server                                                                   
.                                         VALID      11.2.0.3.0  00:04:47       
JServer JAVA Virtual Machine                                                    
.                                         VALID      11.2.0.3.0  00:01:05       
Oracle Workspace Manager                                                        
.                                         VALID      11.2.0.3.0  00:00:18       
OLAP Analytic Workspace                                                         
.                                         VALID      11.2.0.3.0  00:00:07       
OLAP Catalog                                                                    
.                                         VALID      11.2.0.3.0  00:00:21       
Oracle OLAP API                                                                 
.                                         VALID      11.2.0.3.0  00:00:12       
Oracle Label Security                                                           
.                                         VALID      11.2.0.3.0  00:00:02       
Oracle Enterprise Manager                                                       
.                                         VALID      11.2.0.3.0  00:00:50       
Oracle XDK                                                                      
.                                         VALID      11.2.0.3.0  00:00:19       
Oracle Text                                                                     
.                                         VALID      11.2.0.3.0  00:00:11       
Oracle XML Database                                                             
.                                         VALID      11.2.0.3.0  00:01:04       
Oracle Database Java Packages                                                   
.                                         VALID      11.2.0.3.0  00:00:07       
Oracle Multimedia                                                               
.                                         VALID      11.2.0.3.0  00:01:25       
Spatial                                                                         
.                                         VALID      11.2.0.3.0  00:00:50       
Oracle Expression Filter                                                        
.                                         VALID      11.2.0.3.0  00:00:04       
Oracle Rules Manager                                                            
.                                         VALID      11.2.0.3.0  00:00:02       
Oracle Application Express                                                      
.                                         VALID     3.2.1.00.10                 
Oracle Database Vault                                                           
.                                         VALID      11.2.0.3.0  00:00:02       
Gathering Statistics                                                            
.                                                                00:00:36       
Total Upgrade Time: 00:12:30                                                    

Troubleshooting the Upgrade of Oracle Database

Oracle provides troubleshooting tips and workarounds for problems and errors that may occur during the upgrade process for Oracle Database. Also, be sure to check Oracle Database Readme.

This section contains the following topics:

Pre-Upgrade Oracle Home Removal on Oracle RAC

You may need to keep the old Oracle Home for a while after a successful upgrade. However, after you have tested the newly upgraded Oracle database, you will need to remove the old Oracle Home.

As the clusterware user on all nodes, enter the following SQL*Plus commands.

  • Detach OLD_HOME (where OLD_HOME is your pre-upgrade Oracle Home:

    $OLD_HOME/oui/bin/runInstaller -detachHome -silent -local
    
  • Confirm OLD_HOME is removed from central inventory:

    $OLD_HOME/OPatch/opatch lsinventory -all
    
  • Remove files in OLD_HOME manually:

    /bin/rm -rf $OLD_HOME
    

Resource Limits and Oracle Database Upgrade

If you run out of resources, such as disk space or memory, during the upgrade of Oracle Database, then increase the resource allocation. After increasing the resource allocation, you should perform a SHUTDOWN ABORT and restart the instance (in UPGRADE mode) before rerunning the catupgrd.sql script or restarting DBUA.

The resources that generally require increases for a new Oracle Database release are as follows:

  • SYSTEM and SYSAUX tablespaces

    Typically you receive one of the following messages during the upgrade if your SYSTEM tablespace size is insufficient:

    ORA-01650: unable to extend rollback segment string by string in tablespace string
    ORA-01651: unable to extend save undo segment by string for tablespace string
    ORA-01652: unable to extend temp segment by string in tablespace string
    ORA-01653: unable to extend table string.string by string in tablespace string
    ORA-01654: unable to extend index string.string by string in tablespace string
    ORA-01655: unable to extend cluster string.string by string in tablespace string
    

    To avoid these errors, set AUTOEXTEND ON MAXSIZE UNLIMITED for the SYSTEM and SYSAUX tablespaces.

  • Shared memory

    You might require larger shared memory pool sizes in some cases. The error message indicates which shared memory initialization parameter must be increased.

    ORA-04031: unable to allocate string bytes of shared memory ("string","string","string","string")
    

    See Also:

    Oracle Database Reference for information about shared memory initialization parameters.

  • Rollback segments/undo tablespace

    If you are using rollback segments, then you must have a single large (100 MB) PUBLIC rollback segment online while the upgrade scripts are being run. Smaller public rollback segments should be taken offline during the upgrade. Typically you get the following error if your rollback segment size is insufficient:

    ORA-01562: failed to extend rollback segment number string
    

    If you are using an undo tablespace, then be sure it is at least 400 MB.

  • Flash Recovery Area

    If you are using a Flash Recovery Area and it fills up during the upgrade, then the following error appears in the alert log, followed by suggestions for recovering from the problem:

    ORA-19815: WARNING: db_recovery_file_dest_size of string bytes is 98.99%
    used, and has string remaining bytes available.
    

    Identify the root cause of the problem and take appropriate actions to proceed with the upgrade. To avoid issues during the upgrade, increase the amount of space available in your Flash Recovery Area before starting the upgrade.

COMPATIBLE Parameter Not Set

If you see error ORA-00723, "Initialization parameter COMPATIBLE must be explicitly set," when attempting to open a database in the new Oracle home in upgrade mode, then check that COMPATIBLE is set in the pfile or spfile.


See Also:

"Setting the COMPATIBLE Initialization Parameter" for information about setting the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter

Edition Session Startup Error

If an upgrade script or command running in SQL*Plus set the EDITION parameter, then Oracle Database cannot start properly afterwards and error SP2-1540: "Oracle Database cannot startup in an Edition session" is thrown. To avoid this problem, after running catugrd.sql or any SQL*Plus session where th'*is parameter is changed, exit the SQL*Plus session and restart the instance in a different session.

Manual Workaround for ORA-01408

The ORA-01408 error is a known problem with Oracle Application databases. The workaround addresses the following scenario:

SQL> Create Index system.repcat$_audit_column_f2_idx ON
2  system.repcat$_audit_column(base_sname,base_oname,base_conflict_type_id,
3  base_reference_name)
4  /
system.repcat$_audit_column(base_sname,base_oname,base_conflict_type_id,
                          *ERROR at line 2:
ORA-01408: such column list already indexed

The workaround is to drop the REPCAT$_AUDIT_COLUMN_IDX1 index and rerun the upgrade as described in "Rerunning the Upgrade for Oracle Database".

Running the DBMS_DST Package After Upgrade Can Result in ORA-01822

Running the DBMS_DST package after upgrading to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) can result in the ORA-01882: time zone region not found error.

This error is returned if the user sets the time zone file version incorrectly, which results in the region IDs of several time zone regions being stored incorrectly in the database. For example:

ERROR at line 1:
@  ORA-01882: time zone region not found
@  ORA-06512: at "SYS.DBMS_DST", line 113
@  ORA-06512: at "SYS.DBMS_DST", line 1101
@  ORA-06512: at line 1

To fix this problem, update the time zone version as described in "About Warnings for TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE Data Type" and rerun the upgrade as described in "Rerunning the Upgrade for Oracle Database".

Understanding Component Status

The Post-Upgrade Status Tool should report VALID status for all components at the end of the upgrade. The following list shows and briefly describes other status values that you might see:

  • NO SCRIPT

    The component upgrade script was not found in ORACLE_HOME. Check the install logs, install the component software, and then rerun catupgrd.sql.

  • OPTION OFF

    The server option required for the component was not installed or was not linked with the server. Check the V$OPTION view as well as the install logs. Install the component or relink the server with the required option, and then rerun catupgrd.sql.

  • REMOVED

    The component was not upgraded because it was removed from the database.

  • INVALID

    Some objects for the component were invalid at the completion of the upgrade. If there were no errors during the component upgrade, then running utlrp.sql might change the status to VALID without rerunning the entire upgrade. Check the DBA_REGISTRY view after running utlrp.sql.

  • UPGRADING

    The component upgrade did not complete. Resolve the problem and rerun catupgrd.sql.

DBUA May Mark Invalid Components with an X Before Entire Upgrade is Done

DBUA may mark invalid components with an X on the Upgrade Progress window as the upgrade is progressing. An invalid component could be re-validated after a recompile is performed. Please check the final component status on the Upgrade Result page in DBUA after utlrp.sql recompiles have been run.

Rerunning the Upgrade for Oracle Database

You can rerun the upgrade with the catupgrd.sql script as described in the following steps.

To rerun the upgrade 

  1. Shut down the database as follows:

    SQL> SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
    
  2. Restart the database in UPGRADE mode:

    SQL> STARTUP UPGRADE
    
  3. Set the system to spool results to a log file for later verification of success:

    SQL> SPOOL upgrade.log
    
  4. Rerun catupgrd.sql:

    SQL> @catupgrd.sql
    

    Note:

    You can rerun the catupgrd.sql script as many times as necessary. The first time you run the script, there should be no error messages returned. If you rerun the script, then the ORA-00001 message is displayed. You can safely ignore this message.

  5. Rerun utlu112s.sql:

    SQL> @utlu112s.sql
    

Cancelling the Upgrade for Oracle Database

If you completed the steps in "Backing Up Oracle Database for a Manual Upgrade" to back up your database, then the easiest way to cancel the upgrade is to restore that backup as described in the following procedure.

To cancel the upgrade by restoring the previous backup 

  1. Log in to the system as the owner of the Oracle home directory of the previous release.

  2. Sign on to RMAN:

    rman "target / nocatalog"
    
  3. Issue the following RMAN commands:

    STARTUP NOMOUNT
    RUN
    {
        RESTORE CONTROLFILE FROM 'save_controlfile_location';
        ALTER DATABASE MOUNT;
        RESTORE DATABASE FROM TAG before_upgrade
        ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS;
    }
    

About Upgrading an Oracle ASM Instance

The recommended practice for upgrading Oracle ASM is to upgrade an Oracle ASM instance with the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) executable file that is located in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home directory. OUI automatically defaults to upgrade mode when it detects an Oracle ASM instance at an earlier release level.

Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant enables you to upgrade an existing Oracle ASM instance to the current software level and upgrade an older Oracle ASM instance to the latest Oracle Grid Infrastructure home.

You can upgrade an Oracle ASM instance to an Oracle Restart 11g release 2 (11.2) configuration. The recommended practice is to upgrade an Oracle ASM instance with Oracle Universal Installer (OUI).

You can also perform a rolling upgrade to clustered Oracle ASM instances in environments running Oracle Database 11g or later.


See Also:


PK:)էPKFJOEBPS/afterup.htm Post-Upgrade Tasks for Oracle Database

4 Post-Upgrade Tasks for Oracle Database

After performing the procedures for upgrading Oracle Database, you must complete required tasks and consider recommendations for the new release.

The chapter contains the following topics:

How to Show the Current State of the Oracle Data Dictionary

You can collect upgrade and migration diagnostic information about the current state of the data dictionary by running the dbupgdiag.sql script. The script can be run in SQL*Plus both before the upgrade on the source database and after the upgrade on the upgraded database as SYS user.


See Also:

Note 556610.1 Script to Collect DB Upgrade/Migrate Diagnostic Information (dbupgdiag.sql) on My Oracle Support at at http://support.oracle.com

To show the current state of the dictionary, execute a SQL query similar to the following example:

SQL> spool /tmp/regInvalid.out
SQL> set echo on
-- query registry
SQL> set lines 80 pages 100
SQL> select substr(comp_id,1,15) comp_id,substr(comp_name,1,30)
      comp_name,substr(version,1,10) version,status
from dba_registry order by modified;

To query invalid objects, execute a SQL query similar to:

SQL> select substr(owner,1,12) owner,substr(object_name,1,30) object,substr(object_type,1,30) type, status
from dba_objects where status <> 'VALID'order by owner, type;
SQL> spool off
SQL> set echo off

About OPatch Commands After Upgrading Oracle Database

After you upgrade Oracle Database, you must run OPatch commands from the new Oracle home. For example, run the lsinventory command from the new Oracle home in order to list an accurate and complete inventory of what is currently installed on the system.


See Also:

"Appendix A" in Oracle OPatch User's Guide for Windows and UNIX for OPatch syntax and commands

Required Tasks to Complete After Upgrading Oracle Database

After you upgrade Oracle Database, regardless of whether you perform the upgrade manually, or upgrade automatically by using Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA), you must complete any required tasks that are specified for your environment. You must also consider important information about your environment. The following topics contain the required procedures and information:

Setting Environment Variables on Linux and UNIX Systems After Manual Upgrades

If your operating system is Linux or UNIX, and if you performed a manual upgrade of Oracle Database, then you must ensure that certain environment variables point to the directories of the new Oracle Database release. Note that DBUA automatically makes necessary changes to environment variables. Additionally, if you are upgrading a cluster database, then perform these checks on all nodes on which the cluster database has instances configured.

Confirm that the following environment variables point to the directories of the new Oracle home:

  • ORACLE_HOME

  • PATH


See Also:


Setting oratab and Scripts to Point to the New Oracle Home After Upgrading Oracle Database

After you upgrade Oracle Database to the new release, you must ensure that your oratab file and any client scripts that set the value of ORACLE_HOME point to the new Oracle home that is created for the new Oracle Database 11g release. Although DBUA automatically points oratab to the new Oracle home, client scripts must be checked no matter which method you use to upgrade.

Upgrading the Recovery Catalog After Upgrading Oracle Database

For complete information about upgrading the recovery catalog and the UPGRADE CATALOG command, see Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for the topic that describes the procedures.

Upgrading the Time Zone File Version After Upgrading Oracle Database

If the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool instructed you to upgrade the time zone files after completing the database upgrade, then use the DBMS_DST PL/SQL package to upgrade the time zone file.

Oracle Database supplies multiple versions of time zone files, and there are two types of file associated with each one: a large file, which contains all the time zones defined in the database, and a small file, which contains only the most commonly used time zones. The large versions are designated as timezlrg_version_number.dat, while the small versions are designated as timezone_version_number.dat. The files are located in the oracore/zoneinfo subdirectory under the Oracle Database home directory.


See Also:


Upgrading Statistics Tables Created by the DBMS_STATS Package After Upgrading Oracle Database

If you created statistics tables using the DBMS_STATS.CREATE_STAT_TABLE procedure, then upgrade these tables by running the following procedure:

EXECUTE DBMS_STATS.UPGRADE_STAT_TABLE('scott', 'stat_table'); 

In the example, SCOTT is the owner of the statistics table and STAT_TABLE is the name of the statistics table. Perform this procedure for each statistics table.

Upgrading Externally Authenticated SSL Users After Upgrading Oracle Database

If you are upgrading from Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2) or Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), and you are using externally authenticated SSL users, then you must run the SSL external users conversion (extusrupgrade) script to upgrade those users. The script has the following syntax:

ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/bin/extusrupgrade --dbconnectstring 
<hostname:port_no:sid> --dbuser <db admin> --dbuserpassword 
<password> -a

Note:

If you are upgrading from Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) or higher, then you are not required to run this command.


See Also:

for more information on the extusrupgrade script

Installing Oracle Text Supplied Knowledge Bases After Upgrading Oracle Database

The Oracle Text supplied knowledge bases are part of the companion Oracle Database 11g release products and are not immediately available after an upgrade to the new Oracle Database 11g release. Any Oracle Text features dependent on the supplied knowledge bases which were available before the upgrade do not function after the upgrade. To re-enable such features, you must install the Oracle Text supplied knowledge bases from the installation media.

After an upgrade, all user extensions to the Oracle Text supplied knowledge bases must be regenerated. These changes affect all databases installed in the given Oracle home.


See Also:


Updating Your Oracle Application Express Configuration After Upgrading Oracle Database

If your database originally included Application Express Version 3.2 or higher, then there is no additional configuration necessary after upgrading to the new Oracle Database 11g release.

If your database was not an Oracle Express Edition (XE) database, but contained an earlier version of Application Express (HTML DB), then the latest version is automatically installed during the upgrade. You must complete a series of postinstallation steps to configure Application Express for use with the new Oracle Database 11g release.


See Also:

Oracle Application Express Installation Guide for postinstallation tasks for Application Express

If your database is an Oracle Express Edition (XE) database, then it contains an earlier version of Application Express, which is tailored for the XE environment. Review the OTN document describing the differences between Oracle XE and Oracle Application Express at the following URL:

http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/developer-tools/apex/overview/index.html

The database administration features available with the XE edition of Application Express are not available in version 3.2, but Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control can, optionally, be installed to provide a graphical interface for database administration.

Configuring Fine-Grained Access to External Network Services After Upgrading Oracle Database

Oracle Database 11g includes fine-grained access control to the UTL_TCP, UTL_SMTP, UTL_MAIL, UTL_HTTP, or UTL_INADDR packages using Oracle XML DB. If you have applications that use these packages, then you must install Oracle XML DB if it is not installed. You must also configure network access control lists (ACLs) in the database before these packages can work as they did in earlier releases.

The following example first looks for any ACL currently assigned to host_name. If one is found, then the example grants user_name the CONNECT privilege in the ACL, only if that user does not have this privilege. If no ACL exists for host_name, then the example creates a new ACL called ACL_name, grants the CONNECT privilege to user_name, and assigns the ACL to host_name.

DECLARE
  acl_path  VARCHAR2(4000);
BEGIN
  SELECT acl INTO acl_path FROM dba_network_acls
   WHERE host = 'host_name' AND lower_port IS NULL AND upper_port IS NULL;
IF DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN.CHECK_PRIVILEGE(acl_path, 
                                         'user_name','connect') IS NULL THEN
    DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN.ADD_PRIVILEGE(acl_path,
                                         'user_name', TRUE, 'connect');
END IF;
EXCEPTION
  WHEN no_data_found THEN
    DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN.CREATE_ACL('ACL_name.xml',
      'ACL description', 'user_name', TRUE, 'connect');
    DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN.ASSIGN_ACL('ACL_name.xml','host_name');
END;
COMMIT;

Note:

The transaction must be committed for the changes to take effect.


See Also:

Oracle Database Security Guide for more complicated situations, such as connecting some users to host A and other users to host B

Enabling Oracle Database Vault and Revoking the DV_PATCH_ADMIN Role After Upgrading Oracle Database

If you use Oracle Database Vault, then you were instructed to disable it before upgrading your database. You must now:

  • Enable Database Vault.

  • Revoke the Database Vault DV_PATCH_ADMIN role for the SYS account.


See Also:


Recommended Tasks to Complete After Upgrading Oracle Database

Performing the following tasks is recommended, but not required, after you have upgraded your database. These tasks are recommended regardless of whether you performed the upgrade manually or by using DBUA:

Recommended Tasks to Perform After All Database Upgrades

Performing the following tasks is recommended, but not required, after you have upgraded your database.

Back Up the Database

Make sure you perform a full backup of the production database.


See Also:

Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for details about backing up a database

Reset Passwords to Enforce Case-Sensitivity

Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), you can enforce case sensitivity for passwords. For example, the password hPP5620qr fails if it is entered as hpp5620QR or hPp5620Qr. In previous releases, passwords were not case sensitive.

To take advantage of enforced case-sensitive passwords, you must reset the passwords of existing users during the database upgrade procedure. For new database instances, there are no additional tasks or management requirements. For upgraded databases, each user password must be reset with an ALTER USER statement.

Alternatively, you can change the default to make the password verifier case insensitive. For regular users, set the initialization parameter sec_case_sensitive_logon to false:

sql> alter system set sec_case_sensitive_logon=false;

For sysdba and sysoper users, you can generate a new orapw file using the new command line switch ignorecase.


Note:

If the default Oracle Database release 11g security settings are in place, then passwords must be at least eight characters, and passwords such as welcome and oracle are not allowed. See Oracle Database Security Guide for more information.

Understand Changes with Oracle Grid Infrastructure

Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 and Oracle ASM 11g release 2 are both part of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.

If Oracle Grid Infrastructure is installed for a single server, then it is deployed as an Oracle Restart installation with Oracle ASM. If Oracle Grid Infrastructure is installed for a cluster, then it is deployed as an Oracle Clusterware installation with Oracle ASM.

Oracle Restart enhances the availability of Oracle Database in a single-instance environment. If you install Oracle Restart, and there is a temporary failure of any part of the Oracle Database software stack, including the database, listener, and Oracle ASM instance, Oracle Restart automatically restarts the failed component. In addition, Oracle Restart starts all these components when the database host computer is restarted. The components are started in the proper order, taking into consideration the dependencies among components.

Oracle Clusterware is portable cluster software that allows clustering of single servers so that they cooperate as a single system. Oracle Clusterware also provides the required infrastructure for Oracle RAC. In addition, Oracle Clusterware enables the protection of any Oracle application or any other application within a cluster. In any case Oracle Clusterware is the intelligence in those systems that ensures required cooperation between the cluster nodes.

Understand Oracle ASM and Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation and Upgrade

In earlier releases, Oracle ASM was installed as part of the Oracle Database installation. With Oracle Database 11g release 2 (11.2), Oracle ASM is installed when you install the grid infrastructure components and shares an Oracle home with Oracle Clusterware when installed in a cluster such as with Oracle RAC or with Oracle Restart on a standalone server.

If you have an existing Oracle ASM instance, you can either upgrade it during the installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure, or you can upgrade it after the installation. However, be aware that several Oracle ASM features are disabled until you upgrade Oracle ASM, and Oracle Clusterware management of Oracle ASM does not function correctly until Oracle ASM is upgraded, because Oracle Clusterware only manages Oracle ASM when it is running in the grid infrastructure home. For this reason, Oracle recommends that if you do not upgrade Oracle ASM at the same time as you upgrade Oracle Clusterware, then you should upgrade Oracle ASM immediately afterward.

You can upgrade an Oracle ASM instance using Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant (ASMCA).

In earlier releases, you could use Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA) to upgrade either an Oracle Database, or Oracle ASM. That is no longer the case. You can only use DBUA to upgrade an Oracle Database instance. Use Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant (ASMCA) to upgrade Oracle ASM.

Add New Features as Appropriate

Oracle Database New Features Guide describes many of the new features available in the new Oracle Database 11g release. Determine which of these new features can benefit the database and applications; then, develop a plan for using these features.

It is not necessary to make any immediate changes to begin using your new Oracle Database software. You might prefer to introduce these enhancements into your database and corresponding applications gradually.

Chapter 5, "Upgrading Applications After Upgrading Oracle Database" describes ways to enhance your applications so that you can take advantage of the features of the new Oracle Database 11g release. However, before you implement new features, test your applications and successfully run them with the upgraded database.

Develop New Administrative Procedures as Needed

After familiarizing yourself with the features of the new Oracle Database 11g release, review your database administration scripts and procedures to determine whether any changes are necessary.

Coordinate your changes to the database with the changes that are necessary for each application. For example, by enabling integrity constraints in the database, you might be able to remove some data checking from your applications.

Set Threshold Values for Tablespace Alerts

An upgraded Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) database has the Tablespace Alerts disabled (the thresholds are set to null). Tablespaces in the database that are candidates for monitoring must be identified and the appropriate threshold values set.

The default threshold values (for a newly created Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) database) are:

  • 85% full warning

  • 97% full critical

Migrate From Rollback Segments to Automatic Undo Mode

This section describes the steps to migrate the database that is being upgraded from using rollback segments (manual undo management) to automatic undo management.

Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), automatic undo management is the default undo space management mode. The UNDO_MANAGEMENT initialization parameter specifies which undo space management mode the system should use, as follows:

  • If UNDO_MANAGEMENT=AUTO (or if UNDO_MANAGEMENT is not set), then the database instance starts in automatic undo management mode.

    A null UNDO_MANAGEMENT initialization parameter defaults to automatic undo management mode in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), but it defaults to manual undo management mode in earlier releases. You must therefore use caution when upgrading a previous release to Oracle Database 11g.

  • If UNDO_MANAGEMENT=MANUAL, then undo space is allocated externally as rollback segments.

If you are currently using rollback segments to manage undo space, then Oracle recommends that you migrate your Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) database to automatic undo management. This change requires that you first create an undo tablespace before opening a newly upgraded database to use automatic undo management. The required size of undo tablespace depends upon the system workload and Flashback requirements.

To migrate to automatic undo management, perform the following steps:

  1. Set UNDO_MANAGEMENT=MANUAL.

  2. Start the instance again and run through a standard business cycle to obtain a representative workload. Doing this to assess the workload and compute the size of the undo tablespace required for automatic undo management.

  3. After the standard business cycle completes, run the following function to collect the undo tablespace size and help with the sizing of the undo tablespace (DBA privileges are required to run this function):

    DECLARE
       utbsiz_in_MB NUMBER;
    BEGIN
       utbsiz_in_MB := DBMS_UNDO_ADV.RBU_MIGRATION;
    end;
    /
    

    This function runs a PL/SQL procedure that provides information on how to size your new undo tablespace based on the configuration and usage of the rollback segments in your system. The function returns the sizing information directly.

  4. Create an undo tablespace of the required size and turn on the automatic undo management by setting UNDO_MANAGEMENT=AUTO or by removing the parameter.

  5. For Oracle RAC configurations, repeat these steps on all instances.

Configure Oracle Data Guard Broker

The Data Guard broker property LocalListenerAddress has been deprecated as of release 11.2.0.1 due to changes with broker communication and the redo transport setting.

The broker property InitialConnectIdentifier has been changed to DGConnectIdentifier. The value of DGConnectIdentifier is used for all Data Guard network traffic, all of the time. If you are upgrading an Oracle Database release 10g configuration, which requires you to first upgrade to Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), the value that exists for InitialConnectIdentifier is retained as the new value for DGConnectIdentifier for the database. When upgrading an Oracle RAC database, the database administrator must ensure that the value for the InitialConnectIdentifier property reaches all instances.

Migrate Tables from the LONG Data Type to the LOB Data Type

LOB data types (BFILE, BLOB, CLOB, and NCLOB) can provide many advantages over LONG data types. See Oracle Database Concepts for information about the differences between LONG and LOB data types.

In Oracle9i Release 1 (9.0.1) and later, you can use the ALTER TABLE statement to change the data type of a LONG column to CLOB and that of a LONG RAW column to BLOB.

In the following example, the LONG column named long_col in table long_tab is changed to data type CLOB:

SQL> ALTER TABLE Long_tab MODIFY ( long_col CLOB );

After using this method to change LONG columns to LOBs, all the existing constraints and triggers on the table are still usable. However, all the indexes, including Domain indexes and Functional indexes, on all columns of the table become unusable and must be rebuilt using an ALTER INDEX...REBUILD statement. Also, the Domain indexes on the LONG column must be dropped before changing the LONG column to a LOB.


See Also:

Oracle Database SecureFiles and Large Objects Developer's Guide for information about modifying applications to use LOB data

Test the Upgraded Production Database

If you upgraded a test database to the new Oracle Database 11g release and then tested it, then you can now repeat those tests on the production database that you upgraded to the new Oracle Database 11g release. Compare the results, noting anomalies. Repeat the test upgrade as many times as necessary.

Test the newly upgraded production database with existing applications to verify that they operate properly with a new Oracle database. You also might test enhanced functions by adding available Oracle Database features. However, first ensure that the applications operate in the same manner as they did before the upgrade.


See Also:

Chapter 5, "Upgrading Applications After Upgrading Oracle Database" for more information on using applications with Oracle Database

Recommended Tasks After Upgrading an Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) Database

Performing the following tasks is recommended, but not required, after you have upgraded from Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) or Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2).

Upgrade Change Data Capture

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), Asynchronous Change Data Capture (CDC) no longer requires the same operating system for source and target databases. This feature enables a heterogeneous CDC setup with different operating systems and Oracle Database releases, enabling asynchronous CDC to leverage any existing Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2) system as a source.


See Also:

Oracle Database Data Warehousing Guide for complete information on upgrading an Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2) or Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) database to the new Oracle Database 11g release with Change Data Capture, and supported configurations for the Distributed HotLog mode of Change Data Capture

Configure Secure HTTP

To configure HTTPS access to Oracle XML DB, follow the steps in this section to provide correct configuration information.

When a database is upgraded to Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) or later, the XML schema for the Oracle XML DB configuration file is automatically upgraded so that the Oracle XML DB configuration file (located at /xdbconfig.xml in the repository) can have two additional elements, http2-port and http2-protocol. These elements are not added to the Oracle XML DB configuration file by default during an upgrade. If you need support for HTTPS, then you must edit the configuration file to add these two new elements (see the XML schema for their exact locations), and to set the value of http2-protocol to tcps. The value of http2-port should be different from the value of http-port.

In addition to specifying the parameters http2-port and http2-protocol in the Oracle XML DB configuration file, you must configure the database and the listener to enable Oracle XML DB to use HTTPS. Additionally, if the steps in the following procedure were not performed before the upgrade, then you must perform them after the upgrade.

To enable Oracle XML DB to use HTTPS 

  1. Enable the HTTP listener and the database to use SSL

  2. Enable launching of a TCPS dispatcher

For more information on how to do this, see Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide.


Note:

If Oracle XML DB is not installed on the system, then you must install it during the upgrade procedure. Oracle XML DB is required to properly maintain the access control lists (ACLs).

Provide Anonymous Access to XML DB Repository Data Through HTTP

If anonymous access to XML DB repository data through HTTP is not required, then you are not required to perform this step. If anonymous access to XML DB repository data through HTTP is required, then you must provide correct configuration information, as described in this section. The administrator must carefully consider whether anonymous access is to be allowed, given the inherent security risks.

When a database is upgraded to Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) or later, the XML schema for the Oracle XML DB configuration file (located at /xdbconfig.xml in the repository) is automatically upgraded so that it can have an additional element, allow-repository-anonymous-access. This element is of Boolean type which means it can have a value of true or false. You can use this element to disallow unauthenticated access to your Oracle XML DB Repository data through HTTP even if you unlock the ANONYMOUS user account. The allow-repository-anonymous-access element is not added to the Oracle XML DB configuration file by default during an upgrade, but when this element is missing, it is interpreted as false.

Therefore, anonymous access to XML DB repository data through HTTP is disabled when you upgrade to Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) or later. If you want to have anonymous access to XML DB repository data through HTTP, then you must change the configuration file to set this new element to true, in addition to unlocking the ANONYMOUS user account.


Caution:

There is an inherent security risk associated with allowing unauthenticated access to the repository.


See Also:

Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for more information about the allow-repository-anonymous-access element and configuring Oracle XML DB

Recommended Tasks After Upgrading an Oracle Express Edition Database

An Oracle Express Edition database contains only a subset of the components available in a Standard Edition or Enterprise Edition database. After upgrading to the new Oracle Database 11g release, you can use the Database Configuration Assistant to install additional components into your database. If you did not install Enterprise Manager Database Control during the DBUA upgrade, then you can install it, along with any other components you would like to have in the database.

Recommended Tasks After Upgrading an Oracle RAC Database

Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) 11g Release 2 (11.2) introduces the Single Client Access Name (SCAN). The SCAN is a single name that resolves to three IP addresses in the public network. When an earlier release of an Oracle RAC database is upgraded to 11g release 2 (11.2), it is registered with SCAN listeners as remote listeners, and also continues to register with all node listeners. You can configure clients to use SCANs, or continue to use the node listeners. If you migrate all of your client connections to use SCANs, you can then remove the node listeners from the REMOTE_LISTENERS parameter. However, you cannot remove the listeners themselves, because only node listeners can create dedicated servers for the database.


See Also:

Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for more information on the Single Client Access Name (SCAN)

Tasks to Complete Only After Manually Upgrading Oracle Database

If you are performing a manual upgrade of Oracle Database rather than using DBUA, then you must perform additional tasks after your database is upgraded.

Change Passwords for Oracle Supplied Accounts

Depending on the release from which you upgraded, there might be new Oracle supplied accounts. Oracle recommends that you lock all Oracle supplied accounts except for SYS and SYSTEM, and expire their passwords, thus requiring new passwords to be specified when the accounts are unlocked.


Note:

If the default Oracle Database 11g security settings are in place, then passwords must be at least eight characters, and passwords such as welcome and oracle are not allowed. See Oracle Database Security Guide for more information.

You can view the status of all accounts by issuing the following SQL statement:

SQL> SELECT username, account_status
         FROM dba_users
         ORDER BY username;

To lock and expire passwords, issue the following SQL statement:

SQL> ALTER USER username PASSWORD EXPIRE ACCOUNT LOCK;

Create Password File with ORAPWD

If the REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE initialization parameter is set to either exclusive or shared, create a password file with ORAPWD.


See Also:

Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about creating password files

Migrate Your Initialization Parameter File to a Server Parameter File

If you are currently using a traditional initialization parameter file, then perform the following steps to migrate to a server parameter file:

  1. If the initialization parameter file is located on a client computer, then transfer the file from the client computer to the server computer.


    Note:

    If you are using Oracle RAC, then you must combine all of your instance-specific initialization parameter files into a single initialization parameter file. Instructions for doing this, and other actions unique to using a server parameter file for cluster databases, are discussed in:

  2. Create a server parameter file using the CREATE SPFILE statement. This statement reads the initialization parameter file to create a server parameter file. You are not required to start the database to issue a CREATE SPFILE statement.

  3. Start up the instance using the newly-created server parameter file.


See Also:


Upgrade Oracle Text

After an upgrade to the new Oracle Database 11g release, copy the following files from the previous Oracle home to the new Oracle home:

  • Stemming user-dictionary files

  • User-modified KOREAN_MORPH_LEXER dictionary files

  • USER_FILTER executables

These files affect all databases installed in the given Oracle home.

You can obtain a list of these files by doing the following:

  1. Looking at $ORACLE_HOME/ctx/admin/ctxf102.txt

  2. Executing $ORACLE_HOME/ctx/admin/ctxf102.sql as database user SYS, SYSTEM, or CTXSYS

If your Oracle Text index uses KOREAN_LEXER which was deprecated in Oracle 9i and desupported in Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), see Note 300172.1 on My Oracle Support for further information on manual migration from KOREAN_LEXER to KOREAN_MORPH_LEXER.


See Also:


Upgrade the Oracle Clusterware Configuration

If you are using Oracle Clusterware, then you must upgrade the Oracle Clusterware keys for the database.

Run srvctl for release 11.2.0.3 to upgrade the database. For example:

%11.2.0.3_ORACLE_HOME/bin/srvctl upgrade database -d <name> -o 11.2.0.3_ORACLE_HOME

Caution:

By default, any named user may create a server pool. To restrict the operating system users that have this privilege, Oracle strongly recommends that you add specific users to the CRS Administrators list.

See Also: Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for more information about adding users to the CRS Administrators list


Adjust the Initialization Parameter File for the New Release

Each release of Oracle Database introduces new initialization parameters, deprecates some initialization parameters, and makes some initialization parameters obsolete. You must adjust the parameter file to account for these changes and to take advantage of new initialization parameters that might be beneficial to your system. Additionally, when you perform a manual upgrade without using DBUA, the tnsnames.ora file is not automatically populated with new configuration information and settings. Therefore, you may need to manually update tnsnames.ora and adjust local_listener and remote_listener parameter references if these need to be resolved.


See Also:


Setting the COMPATIBLE Initialization Parameter

The COMPATIBLE initialization parameter controls the compatibility level of your database. When you are certain that you no longer need the ability to downgrade your database to its original release, set the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter based on the compatibility level you want for your new database.

Complete the following steps to set the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter to a higher value:

  1. Perform a backup of your database before you raise the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter (optional).

    Raising the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter might cause your database to become incompatible with earlier releases of Oracle Database, and a backup ensures that you can return to the earlier release if necessary.


    See Also:

    Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for more information about performing a backup

  2. If you are using a server parameter file, then complete the following steps:

    1. Update the server parameter file to set or change the value of the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter.

      For example, to set the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter to 11.0.0, enter the following statement:

      SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET COMPATIBLE = '11.0.0' SCOPE=SPFILE;
      
    2. Shut down and restart the instance.


    Note:

    When upgrading systems with HARD-compliant storage (Hardware Assisted Resilient Data), consider the following:
    • If the COMPATIBLE parameter is set to a release number earlier than 11.0.0, then you cannot locate the server parameter file (SPFILE) on HARD storage.

    • If the COMPATIBLE parameter is set to 11.0.0, then you can optionally locate the server parameter file on HARD storage.

    Because the default SPFILE location (ORACLE_HOME/dbs) might not be on a HARD-compliant storage system, it is likely you must provide a parameter file that specifies the location of the SPFILE.



    See Also:

    Oracle Database High Availability Overview or Oracle Database Concepts for more information on HARD storage

  3. If you are using an initialization parameter file, then complete the following steps:

    1. Shut down the instance if it is running:

      SQL> SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
      
    2. Edit the initialization parameter file to set or change the value of the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter.

      For example, to set the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter to 11.0.0, enter the following in the initialization parameter file:

      COMPATIBLE = 11.0.0
      
    3. Start the instance using STARTUP.


Note:

If you are using an ASM disk group, then the diskgroup's compatibility attribute must match or be lower than that of the database compatibility parameter in init.ora.

Configuring tnsnames.ora and Listener Parameters

After performing a manual upgrade, you may need to adjust local_listener and remote_listener parameter references if they need to be resolved in tnsnames.ora. DBUA handles changes to network naming and listeners during automatic upgrades, but during a manual upgrade, tnsnames.ora is not changed, nor are the listeners.


See Also:


Configure Enterprise Manager

If you are not yet using Oracle Enterprise Manager to manage your database, then install and configure Enterprise Manager Database Control.

If your database is being managed by Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control or Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control, then use the following command to update the configuration:

emca -upgrade (db | asm | db_asm) [-cluster] [-silent] [parameters]

You must run this from the Oracle home of the new Oracle Database 11g release. When prompted, provide the Oracle home from which the configuration is being upgraded.

You can also configure Enterprise Manager using DBCA. Select the Configure Database Options option, and then select the Enterprise Manager Repository option.

Set CLUSTER_DATABASE Initialization Parameter For Oracle RAC

For upgrades of Oracle RAC databases, in "Preparing the New Oracle Home for a Manual Upgrade", you were instructed to set the CLUSTER_DATABASE initialization parameter to false before upgrading a cluster database. Now that the upgrade is finished, you must set this parameter to true.

Required Tasks After Oracle Grid Infrastructure Upgrades

Oracle ASM release 11.2 and later are included as part of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.

If you upgrade Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM for a cluster, then Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM are both located in the same home, which is referred to as grid home. You can have one installation owner that owns all Oracle software installations, or you can use role-allocated owners, in which case you use a separate software owner for the grid infrastructure installation, and separate software owners for one or more Oracle Database installations.

The following tasks are required after an upgrade from Oracle ASM, performed as a separate installation procedure, to an Oracle ASM installation as part of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure:


See Also:

Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for your platform for more information about role-allocated installation owners

Using Environment Variables for Grid Infrastructure Installations

If your operating system is Linux or UNIX, then you may need to change environment variable settings after performing an upgrade.

If you use a single Oracle installation owner for all installations, then be aware that you should change environment variables such as ORACLE_HOME either to an Oracle Database home, or to the grid home, depending on whether you are administering an Oracle Database instance as part of database administration, or administering an Oracle ASM instance as part of storage administration.

If you use role-allocated Oracle installation owners, so that you have a separate owner for the Oracle Grid Infrastructure (Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM) software, then set the following environment variables for the grid infrastructure installation owner so that they point to the directories of the Oracle ASM home in the grid infrastructure home:

  • ORACLE_HOME

  • PATH

Also, check that your oratab file and any client scripts for Oracle ASM that set the value of ORACLE_HOME point to the Oracle ASM home in the grid infrastructure home.


Note:

If you are upgra

A Behavior Changes After Upgrading Oracle Database

Important changes in behavior exist between Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2), Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), and Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2). This appendix focuses on behavior changes that require a database administrator (also referred to as a DBA) to make an informed decision to minimize the risks that may be introduced by the changes. This appendix does not describe all changed behavior or new features in the new Oracle Database 11g release.

This appendix includes the following topics:


See Also:

  • Oracle Database New Features Guide for a complete list of all new features introduced in Oracle Database 11g release

  • The "What's New in Oracle Database Reference" section of Oracle Database Reference for a list of new initialization parameters, new static data dictionary views, and new dynamic performance views in Oracle Database 11g release



Note:

Some of the initialization parameters listed in this appendix are operating system-specific. See your operating system-specific Oracle documentation for more information about these initialization parameters.

Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)

The topics in this section describe compatibility and interoperability issues introduced in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) and actions you can take to prevent problems resulting from these changes.

Deprecation of Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control

Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control is deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), and will be desupported in the next major release of Oracle Database. Oracle will fully support Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control for the life of Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), including for all patch sets, and through the end of Extended Support.

Deprecation of SNMP Support in Oracle Net Listener

Oracle is deprecating SNMP support in Oracle Net Listener in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2). Oracle recommends not using SNMP in new implementations.


See Also:

Doc ID 1341834.1 at https://support.oracle.com

Changes to PL/SQL Procedures

The following PL/SQL procedures have been moved from package DBMS_XDB to package DBMS_XDB_ADMIN in release 11.2.0.3:

  • moveXDB_tablespace

  • rebuildHierarchicalIndex

JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES Parameter and Scheduling Jobs

Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), setting JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES to 0 causes both DBMS_SCHEDULER and DBMS_JOB jobs to not run. Previously, setting JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES to 0 caused DBMS_JOB jobs to not run, but DBMS_SCHEDULER jobs were unaffected and would still run. The default value is 1000.

Note that Oracle Database overrides the job queue setting to disable scheduler jobs during upgrade mode. Therefore, there is no need to change this setting when upgrading Oracle Database.


See Also:

Oracle Database Reference for more information on this parameter

Deprecated XML DB Constructs

The following XML DB constructs have been deprecated in release 11.2.0.3:

  • PL/SQL procedure DBMS_XDB_ADMIN.createRepositoryXMLIndex

  • PL/SQL procedure DBMS_XDB_ADMIN.XMLIndexAddPath

  • PL/SQL procedure DBMS_XDB_ADMIN.XMLIndexRemovePath

  • PL/SQL procedure DBMS_XDB_ADMIN.dropRepositoryXMLIndex

  • XML schema annotation (attribute) csx:encodingType

  • XMLIndex index on CLOB portions of hybrid XMLType storage

Cursor_sharing=similar Obsolete in Oracle Database

The cursor_sharing=similar parameter is deprecated in Oracle Database release 11.2.0.3. Use adaptive cursor sharing instead.


See Also:

Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide for information about adaptive cursor sharing

Planned Desupport of Change Data Capture

Oracle Change Data Capture will not be supported in a future release of Oracle Database and will be replaced with Oracle GoldenGate. Therefore, Oracle strongly recommends that you use Oracle GoldenGate for new applications.

For Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Change Data Capture continues to function as in earlier releases. If you are currently using Change Data Capture, then you will be able to continue to do so for the foreseeable future. However, Change Data Capture will not be further enhanced.


See Also:

http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/middleware/goldengate/overview/index.html on Oracle Technology Network for more information about Oracle GoldenGate

Initialization Parameters Deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)

A deprecated parameter behaves the same way as a regular parameter, except that a warning message is displayed at instance startup if a deprecated parameter is specified in the parameter file. In addition, all deprecated parameters are logged to the alert log at instance startup.

To get a list of all initialization parameters that are specified as deprecated for the current database, issue the following SQL statement:

SQL> SELECT name FROM v$parameter
         WHERE isdeprecated = 'TRUE';

The following initialization parameters were deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2):


ACTIVE_INSTANCE_COUNT
PARALLEL_IO_CAP_ENABLED

Initialization Parameters Obsolete in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)

The following initialization parameters were made obsolete in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2).


Note:

An attempt to start a database using one or more obsolete initialization parameters will succeed, but a warning is returned and recorded in the alert log.


DRS_START
GC_FILES_TO_LOCKS
MAX_COMMIT_PROPAGATION_DELAY
PLSQL_NATIVE_LIBRARY_DIR
PLSQL_NATIVE_LIBRARY_SUBDIR_COUNT
SQL_VERSION

Static Data Dictionary Views Deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)

These static data dictionary views were deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2):


ALL_STREAMS_STMTS (replaced by DBA_STREAMS_STMTS)
ALL_STREAMS_STMT_HANDLERS (replaced by DBA_STREAMS_STMT_HANDLERS)
DBA_COMPARISON_SCAN_SUMMARY (replaced by DBA_COMPARISON_SCAN)
USER_COMPARISON_SCAN_SUMMARY (replaced by USER_COMPARISON_SCAN)

Dynamic Performance Views Deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)

These dynamic performance views were deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2).


V$FLASH_RECOVERY_AREA_USAGE (replaced by V$RECOVERY_AREA_USAGE)

Deprecated Features in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)

These Oracle Database features have been deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2). They are supported in this release for backward compatibility. However, Oracle recommends that you migrate away from these deprecated features.

Dictionary-managed Tablespaces

Oracle recommends that you create locally managed tablespaces. Locally managed tablespaces are much more efficiently managed than dictionary-managed tablespaces.

MAX_JOB_SLAVE_PROCESSES

MAX_JOB_SLAVE_PROCESSES has been deprecated. Use JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES instead.

Changes to LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n Parameters

Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), the number of supported destinations in the LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n and the LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_STATE_n parameters have been increased from 10 to 31. Destinations LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_11 through LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_31 do not support the SYNC, ARCH, LOCATION, MANDATORY, ALTERNATE, or DEPENDENCY attributes, and cannot be specified as the target of the ALTERNATE or DEPENDENCY attributes.

LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_11 through LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_31 can only be used when the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter is set to 11.2.0 or higher.

Deprecation of -checkpasswd for QOSCTL Quality of Service (QoS) Command

The syntax qosctl -checkpasswd username password has been deprecated in this release. See Oracle Database Quality of Service Management User's Guide for information about QOSCTL syntax and commands.

Desupport of -cleanupOBase Flag of the Deinstallation Tool

The -cleanupOBase flag of the deinstallation tool is desupported with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2). There is no replacement for this flag.

Desupport of the DES, RC4, and MD5 Algorithms

The DES, RC4, and MD5 algorithms are desupported in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2).

Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)

The following sections describe compatibility and interoperability issues introduced in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) and actions you can take to prevent problems resulting from these issues.

Initialization Parameters Deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)

The following initialization parameters were deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1).

To get a list of all deprecated initialization parameters, issue the following SQL statement:

SQL> SELECT name FROM v$parameter
         WHERE isdeprecated = 'TRUE';

A deprecated parameter behaves the same way as a regular parameter, except that a warning message is displayed at instance startup if a deprecated parameter is specified in the parameter file. In addition, all deprecated parameters are logged to the alert log at instance startup.


BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST (replaced by DIAGNOSTIC_DEST)
COMMIT_WRITE
CURSOR_SPACE_FOR_TIME
INSTANCE_GROUPS
LOG_ARCHIVE_LOCAL_FIRST
PLSQL_DEBUG (replaced by PLSQL_OPTIMIZE_LEVEL)
PLSQL_V2_COMPATIBILITY
REMOTE_OS_AUTHENT
RESOURCE_MANAGER_CPU_ALLOCATION
STANDBY_ARCHIVE_DEST
TRANSACTION_LAG attribute (of the CQ_NOTIFICATION$_REG_INFO object)
USER_DUMP_DEST (replaced by DIAGNOSTIC_DEST)

Initialization Parameters Obsolete in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)

These initialization parameters were made obsolete in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1).


DDL_WAIT_FOR_LOCKS
LOGMNR_MAX_PERSISTENT_SESSIONS
PLSQL_COMPILER_FLAGS

Note:

An attempt to start a database using one or more obsolete initialization parameters will succeed, but a warning is returned and recorded in the alert log.

Static Data Dictionary Views with Dropped Columns in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)

These static data dictionary view columns were dropped in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1):

Static Data Dictionary ViewDropped Columns
V$DATAFILEPLUGGED_IN

Deprecated Features in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)

This section lists Oracle Database features deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1). They are supported in this release for backward compatibility. However, Oracle recommends that you migrate away from these deprecated features.

  • Oracle Ultra Search

  • Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.4

    Oracle recommends that you use JDK 5.0; but JDK 1.5 is also fully supported.

  • CTXXPATH index

    Oracle recommends that you use XMLIndex instead.

Automatic Maintenance Tasks Management

Automatic Maintenance Tasks Management, a new database component in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), schedules all automatic maintenance tasks in an expanded set of maintenance windows. Automatic Maintenance Tasks Management enables you to exercise finer control over maintenance task scheduling for tasks such as optimizer statistics gathering, Segment Advisor, and Automatic SQL Tuning Advisor.

Automatic Maintenance Tasks Management uses all existing maintenance windows (for example, windows that are current members of the MAINTENANCE_WINDOW_GROUP. Existing resource plans associated with the maintenance windows are used. However, AUTOTASK_CONSUMER_GROUP is replaced in the resource plans by the AutoTask Resource Subplan.

If you disable either Optimizer Statistics Gathering or Segment Advisor jobs in 10g, then the corresponding Automatic Maintenance Tasks Management feature is disabled after upgrading to Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1).

The following list shows the default settings for maintenance tasks:

  • Online backup is disabled

  • Optimizer Statistics Gathering is on

  • Segment Advisor is on

  • Automatic SQL Tuning is on

All other Automatic Maintenance Tasks Management clients are enabled by default.

Although Automatic Maintenance Tasks Management is automatically enabled when upgrading to Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), AutoTask online backup is not enabled automatically. You must configure online backup manually, if desired, after upgrading the database. If you perform a database downgrade, then Automatic Maintenance Tasks Management reverts to the default behavior for that release.


See Also:

The Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for complete information about the Automatic Maintenance Tasks Management feature

New SYSASM Privilege and OSASM Group for ASM Administration

Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) introduces a new SYSASM privilege that is specifically intended for performing ASM administration tasks. Using the SYSASM privilege instead of the SYSDBA privilege provides a clearer division of responsibility between ASM administration and database administration.

Warning messages will appear in the ASM alert.log if SYSDBA performs disk group maintenance (CREATE DISKGROUP, MOUNT/DISMOUNT, ADD/DROP DISK, ONLINE/OFFLINE DISK, DROP DISKGROUP). These tasks are deprecated for SYSDBA; they should be performed by SYSASM.

OSASM is a new operating system (OS) group that is used exclusively for ASM. Members of the OSASM group can connect AS SYSASM using OS authentication and have full access to ASM.

This feature is described in more detail in "About Upgrading System Authentication for Oracle ASM Instances".


See Also:

Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide for more information about accessing ASM instances

ASM Disk Group Compatibility

Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), you can advance the Oracle Database and the ASM disk group compatibility settings across software versions. Using the new compatibility attributes, compatible.rdbms and compatible.asm, you can specify the minimum software version required to use the disk group for the database and the disk group for ASM, respectively.

This feature enables heterogeneous environments with disk groups from Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), and Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1). By default, both attributes are set to 10.1. You must advance these attributes to take advantage of the new features.


See Also:

Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide for more information on ASM disk group compatibility

COMPUTE STATISTICS and ESTIMATE STATISTICS Clauses

In earlier releases, the ANALYZE...COMPUTE STATISTICS and ANALYZE...ESTIMATE STATISTICS clauses could be used to start or stop the collection of statistics on an index. These clauses have been made obsolete. Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) automatically collects statistics during index creation and rebuild. These clauses are no longer supported.

Oracle Data Mining Models and the DMSYS Schema Objects

During the upgrade to Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), DMSYS schema objects along with user models residing in user schemas are upgraded from any previous release without major constraints. Upon completion of the upgrade, the mining metadata is migrated into the SYS schema while the user models continue functioning with the new metadata. Oracle recommends that you drop the DMSYS schema after setting the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter to 11.0.0. In addition, the DBA will need to grant the new CREATE MINING MODEL privilege so that existing users can continue to build mining models.

Data mining models residing in a user schema are automatically upgraded as part of the model upgrade, which is an integral part of the Oracle Database upgrade process. Data mining model Export and Import utilities can also be used as a means of upgrading data mining models from one release to another.

During the database downgrade process, the data mining component is downgraded to a previous release. The downgrade process reloads DMSYS objects such as packages, types, and table objects as well as downgrading model objects residing in user schemas (if any). Objects that were created as a part of the database upgrade are removed from the SYS schema during the downgrade procedure. The process is transparent and does not require any user intervention.

After upgrading (and dropping the DMSYS schema after setting the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter to 11.0.0), importing models that were exported from Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) might have some complications due to their reference to the now nonexistent DMSYS schema. To handle this case, Oracle provides scripts to sufficiently (and minimally) mimic the DMSYS interface present in the Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) database so that the Import process can proceed. This is not a common occurrence because models become stale over time and users typically want to rebuild their models rather than import older ones.

Note that Data Mining is not protected by the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter. If COMPATIBLE is set at 10.1.0 or 10.2.0 while the database has been upgraded to Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), then all new and existing Data Mining features and functions should work. If you have built new mining models that are only available in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), and subsequently decide to downgrade the database to Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), you will be required to drop the new mining models before downgrading.

Oracle Data Mining Scoring Engine

Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), the Oracle Data Mining Scoring Engine can no longer be installed.

SQL Plan Management and Control of SQL Plan Baselines

The use of stored outlines is deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1). Instead, you should use the SQL plan management feature that enables the optimizer to maintain a history of execution plans for a SQL statement. Using the execution plan history, the optimizer is able to detect a new plan representing a plan change for a SQL statement. When the optimizer detects a new plan, it stores the new plan and marks it for performance evaluation and uses the old (currently known good) plan. The optimizer uses the new plan only after its performance is verified to be better than that of the old plan. A SQL plan baseline consists of a set of known good plans for a SQL statement.

Migration of SQL Profiles

SQL Profiles are SQL management objects that were introduced in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1). These objects resided in a section of the dictionary that was defined in SYSTEM tablespace. The dictionary tables storing the SQL profiles are restructured to accommodate the storage of SQL plan baselines, which are also SQL management objects. Further, these dictionary tables are now defined in the SYSAUX tablespace.

When you upgrade from Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) to Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), the database upgrade script moves existing SQL profiles from the SYSTEM tablespace to the SYSAUX tablespace. Thus, if an Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) database instance is up but the SYSAUX tablespace is offline, then the optimizer is not able to access SQL Management objects, which can affect the performance on some of the SQL workload. In contrast, in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), because SQL profiles were stored in SYSTEM tablespace, the unavailability of SQL profiles did not exist. Note that starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), taking the SYSAUX tablespace offline can have potential SQL performance consequences.

Backward Compatibility

In Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1):

  • If a stored outline for a SQL statement is active for the user session (for example, the stored outline category matches with the user session category), then the statement is compiled using the stored outline.

  • If a private outline is available for a SQL statement, then the statement is compiled using the private outline.

If a stored outline is available for a SQL statement, then the SQL Plan Management feature is not used. However, if another user session uses the same SQL statement but without an active stored outline, then the SQL plan management feature is used.


See Also:


Binary XML Support for Oracle XML Database

The binary XML storage option that is new in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) is available when the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter is set to 11.0.0 or higher. When you create a table or column with this storage option, the minimum compatibility requirement is checked. This also applies when storing binary XML documents directly in the XML DB repository.

When Upgrading to Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)

When the database is upgraded to Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), none of the existing user XMLType tables and instances is modified in any fashion. Existing tables can be altered and new tables can be subsequently created using the new storage format after the upgrade is completed. The XDB tables XDB$CONFIG and XDB$ACL and the corresponding XML schemas are migrated to binary XML storage when a database is upgraded to Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1).

PL/SQL Native Compilation and Access Control for Network Utility Packages

Oracle introduced compatibility and interoperability changes in PL/SQL for Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1).

PL/SQL Native Compilation

Starting with Oracle Database 11g, PL/SQL Native Compilation does not need a C compiler. Therefore, if you presently use a C compiler only to support PL/SQL Native Compilation, you can remove it from the machine where your database is installed (and from each node in an Oracle RAC configuration).

Moreover, the output of PL/SQL Native Compilation is no longer materialized on the file system. There, the Oracle Database 10g initialization parameters PLSQL_Native_Library_Dir and PLSQL_Native_Library_Subdir_Count have no significance in Oracle Database 11g. The directories that they denoted, and the contents of these directories, can be safely deleted on completion of the upgrade process.

Further, the SPNC_COMMANDS file (in the ORACLE_HOME/plsql directory) is no longer needed.

Only one initialization parameter, PLSQL_Code_Type, remains for controlling PL/SQL Native Compilation. The DBA, therefore, no longer needs to have any interest in PL/SQL Native Compilation.

Access Control for Network Utility Packages

The default behavior for access control to network utility packages has been changed to disallow network operations to all nonprivileged users. This default behavior is different from, and is incompatible with, previous versions of Oracle Database.

For database users upgrading to Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), applications that depend on the PL/SQL network utility packages compile without any issues. However, at runtime the applications might receive exceptions when attempting to perform privileged network operations. Although you can restore the compatibility by using a wildcard to grant those privileges to perform any network operations to PUBLIC, Oracle strongly advises that database administrators carefully review each situation on an individual basis and grant privileges only as needed.


Note:

Oracle XML DB is required to properly maintain the access control lists. If Oracle XML DB is not already installed on the system, then you must install it during the upgrade procedure.

PL/SQL Control Parameters

The behavior of some Oracle parameters that control the behavior of PL/SQL have changed as of Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1).

  • If PL/SQL debug code generation mode is selected by any parameter setup, then native code generation is turned off.

  • Debug code generation is on if the PLSQL_OPTIMIZE_LEVEL <= 1.

  • PLSQL_DEBUG is deprecated.

    You should use PLSQL_OPTIMIZE_LEVEL instead. A deprecation warning is issued if PLSQL_DEBUG is used.

  • If PLSQL_OPTIMIZE_LEVEL <= 1, then native code generation is turned off.

  • PLSQL_COMPILER_FLAGS is obsolete. It has no effect any longer and draws an error message that an illegal option is being set.

  • PLSQL_V2_COMPATIBILITY is deprecated.

Change in WebDAV ACL Evaluation Rules in Oracle XML DB

Oracle XML DB uses a security mechanism that is based on access-control lists (ACLs) to restrict access to any Oracle XML DB resource. An ACL is a list of access-control entries (ACEs) that determine which users, roles, and groups have access to a given resource.

There have been changes to the treatment of WebDAV ACL entries. Before Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), a <deny> entry always trumped any <allow> entry in a given ACL. Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), ACE order is irrelevant. The default behavior is determined only by the first <allow> or <deny> entry that is encountered. That is, the first entry determines the behavior for that principal and additional ACEs for that principal have no effect.

This change in the default behavior is different from, and is incompatible with, previous versions of Oracle Database. When upgrading to Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), you can get the same behavior as in previous releases by manually reordering the ACLs (if necessary). That is, if there are any ACLs that have <allow> followed somewhere by <deny>, then you should (manually) reorder the ACLs so that the <deny> entry occurs first.


See Also:

Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for more information about the ACL evaluation rules

Summary Management and SQL Access Advisor

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), the DBMS_OLAP package, which is the Summary Advisor in Summary Management, is being deprecated and has been replaced by the SQL Access Advisor.

SQL Access Advisor Tasks

Due to internal structural changes to the SQL Access Advisor repository, a database upgrade resets all existing SQL Access Advisor tasks to their initial state. This effectively deletes all recommendation information for tasks that have successfully completed before the upgrade.

After upgrade, the recommendation information can be restored by re-executing the existing SQL Access Advisor tasks.

Standard Edition Starter Database

When the Standard Edition (SE) starter database is upgraded, the following components cannot be upgraded by the SE server because they require options that are not installed in the Standard Edition:

  • OLAP Catalog

  • OLAP Analytic Workspace

  • Oracle OLAP API

After the upgrade, these components have a STATUS value of 'OPTION OFF' in the DBA_REGISTRY view, and there will be some invalid objects in the associated component schemas. The Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA) shows unsuccessful upgrades for these components.

Core Dump Location

On UNIX systems, when an application program crashes due to an unhandled signal, such as a segmentation fault, a core dump file is usually generated. The system default file name for this file is core, and it is located in the directory in which the application is currently running.

Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), applications using the Oracle Call Interface (OCI) can create a subdirectory named core_process_id, where process_id is the UNIX ID of the process that crashed. The core file is then placed in that subdirectory instead of the location where the application is running.

In sqlnet.ora, setting DIAG_SIGHANDLER_ENABLED = TRUE also puts the generated core file in the directory named core_process_id.

New Default Value for UNDO_MANAGEMENT

Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), the default value of the UNDO_MANAGEMENT parameter is AUTO so that automatic undo management is enabled by default. You must set the parameter to MANUAL to turn off automatic undo management, if required.

The UNDO_MANAGEMENT and ROLLBACK_SEGMENTS initialization parameters have changed from basic initialization parameters to non-basic initialization parameters. Most databases should be required to have only basic parameters set to run properly and efficiently.


See Also:

UNDO_MANAGEMENT in Oracle Database Reference

LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n Parameters

Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), the LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n parameter can be used to specify a local archiving destination on a database instance running Oracle Standard Edition. Previously, this parameter could only be specified on a database instance running Oracle Enterprise Edition.

SHARED_POOL_SIZE Parameter

Migration utilities for this release recommend new values for SHARED_POOL_SIZE based on the value of internal SGA overheads in the pre-upgrade environment, which you can determine by running the following query before upgrading to Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1):

SQL> SELECT SUM(BYTES) FROM v$sgastat WHERE pool = 'shared pool';

In Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), the exact value of internal SGA overhead, or Startup overhead in Shared Pool, is listed in the new v$sgainfo view.

In manual SGA mode, values of SHARED_POOL_SIZE that are too small to accommodate the internal SGA overhead result in an ORA-00371 error during startup. This generated error message includes a suggested value for the SHARED_POOL_SIZE parameter. If you are using automatic shared memory management, the size of the shared pool is tuned automatically, and the ORA-00371 error is never generated.

The amount of shared pool memory allocated by Oracle Database releases before Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) was equal to the sum of the value of the SHARED_POOL_SIZE initialization parameter and the internal SGA overhead computed during instance startup. This overhead was based on the values of several other initialization parameters.

For example, if the SHARED_POOL_SIZE parameter is 64 megabytes and the internal SGA overhead is 12 megabytes, then the real size of shared pool in the SGA would be 76 megabytes, although the value of the SHARED_POOL_SIZE parameter would still be displayed as megabytes.

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the size of internal SGA overhead is included in the value of the SHARED_POOL_SIZE parameter. The shared pool memory allocated at startup is exactly the value of SHARED_POOL_SIZE. Therefore, this parameter must be set such that it includes both the internal SGA overhead and the desired effective value of the shared pool size.

Assuming that the internal SGA overhead remains unchanged, the effective available value of shared pool after startup would be 12 megabytes less than the value of the SHARED_POOL_SIZE parameter, or 52 megabytes. To maintain 64 megabytes for the effective value of shared pool memory, set the parameter to 76 megabytes.

JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES Parameter New Default Setting

Beginning with Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), the JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES parameter is changed from a basic to a non-basic initialization parameter. Most databases must only have basic parameters set to run properly and efficiently. The default value is also changed from 0 to 1000.

Note that Oracle Database overrides the job queue setting to disable scheduler jobs during upgrade mode. Therefore, there is no need to change this setting when upgrading Oracle Database.


See Also:

Oracle Database Reference for more information on this parameter

Automatic Diagnostic Repository

The locations of alert logs and trace files are no longer set by the initialization parameters BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST and USER_DUMP_DEST. They are now kept in the Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR), whose location is set the by the initialization parameter DIAGNOSTIC_DEST.


See Also:

Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information on the management of diagnostic information

Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2)

The following sections describe compatibility and interoperability issues introduced in Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2). If you are upgrading to Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) from a release earlier than Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), then see the following sections for information about actions you can take to prevent problems resulting from these issues:

Initialization Parameters Deprecated in Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2)

The following initialization parameters were deprecated in Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2). To get a list of all deprecated initialization parameters, issue the following SQL statement:

SQL> SELECT name FROM v$parameter
         WHERE isdeprecated = 'TRUE';

A deprecated parameter behaves the same way as a regular parameter, except that a warning message is displayed at instance startup if a deprecated parameter is specified in the parameter file. In addition, all deprecated parameters are logged to the alert log at instance startup:


LOGMNR_MAX_PERSISTENT_SESSIONS
MAX_COMMIT_PROPAGATION_DELAY
REMOTE_ARCHIVE_ENABLE
SERIAL_REUSE
SQL_TRACE

Initialization Parameters Obsolete in Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2)

The following initialization parameters were made obsolete in Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2).


Note:

An attempt to start a database using one or more obsolete initialization parameters will succeed, but a warning is returned and recorded in the alert log.


ENQUEUE_RESOURCES

Static Data Dictionary Views with Dropped Columns in Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2)

The following static data dictionary view columns were dropped in Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2):

Static Data Dictionary ViewDropped Columns
DBA_HIST_SQLBINDCHILD_NUMBER

SQL

The behavior of date formats has changed when used with XML functions. The XML Schema standard specifies that dates and timestamps in XML data be in standard formats. Before Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), dates and timestamps in XML data did not follow this standard; rather, the format of dates and timestamps in generated XML was determined by the database format.

As of Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), the XML generation functions in Oracle XML DB produce dates and timestamps according to the XML schema standard.


See Also:

Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for more information

CONNECT Role

After upgrading from a release earlier than Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), the CONNECT role has only the CREATE SESSION privilege; the other privileges granted to the CONNECT role in earlier releases are revoked during the upgrade. For further information about this, see "Updating the CONNECT Role from Earlier Releases".

Time Zone Files

The time zone files that are supplied with Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) have been updated from version 4 to version 8 to reflect changes in transition rules for some time zone regions. The changes might affect existing data of TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE data type. For further information about this, see "About Warnings for TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE Data Type".

New Limit for FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS

As of Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), the limit for FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS for the DEFAULT profile is 10. Before Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), the default was UNLIMITED.

Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)

The following sections describe compatibility and interoperability issues introduced in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1). If you are upgrading to Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) from a release earlier than Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), then see the following sections for information about actions you can take to prevent problems resulting from these issues:

Initialization Parameters Deprecated in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)

The following initialization parameters were deprecated in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) To get a list of all deprecated initialization parameters, issue the following SQL statement:

SQL> SELECT name FROM v$parameter
         WHERE isdeprecated = 'TRUE';

A deprecated parameter behaves the same way as a regular parameter, except that a warning message is displayed at instance startup if a deprecated parameter is specified in the parameter file. In addition, all deprecated parameters are logged to the alert log at instance startup:


BUFFER_POOL_KEEP (replaced by DB_KEEP_CACHE_SIZE)
BUFFER_POOL_RECYCLE (replaced by DB_RECYCLE_CACHE_SIZE)
GLOBAL_CONTEXT_POOL_SIZE
LOCK_NAME_SPACE
LOG_ARCHIVE_START
MAX_ENABLED_ROLES
PARALLEL_AUTOMATIC_TUNING
PLSQL_COMPILER_FLAGS (replaced by PLSQL_CODE_TYPE and PLSQL_DEBUG)
SQL_VERSION

Initialization Parameters Obsolete in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)

The following initialization parameters were made obsolete in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1).


Note:

An attempt to start a database using one or more obsolete initialization parameters will succeed, but a warning is returned and recorded in the alert log.


DBLINK_ENCRYPT_LOGIN
HASH_JOIN_ENABLED
LOG_PARALLELISM
MAX_ROLLBACK_SEGMENTS
MTS_CIRCUITS
MTS_DISPATCHERS
MTS_LISTENER_ADDRESS
MTS_MAX_DISPATCHERS
MTS_MAX_SERVERS
MTS_MULTIPLE_LISTENERS
MTS_SERVERS
MTS_SERVICE
MTS_SESSIONS
OPTIMIZER_MAX_PERMUTATIONS
ORACLE_TRACE_COLLECTION_NAME
ORACLE_TRACE_COLLECTION_PATH
ORACLE_TRACE_COLLECTION_SIZE
ORACLE_TRACE_ENABLE
ORACLE_TRACE_FACILITY_NAME
ORACLE_TRACE_FACILITY_PATH
PARTITION_VIEW_ENABLED
PLSQL_NATIVE_C_COMPILER
PLSQL_NATIVE_LINKER
PLSQL_NATIVE_MAKE_FILE_NAME
PLSQL_NATIVE_MAKE_UTILITY
ROW_LOCKING
SERIALIZABLE
TRANSACTION_AUDITING
UNDO_SUPPRESS_ERRORS

Static Data Dictionary Views Deprecated in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)

The following static data dictionary views were deprecated in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1).


ALL_STORED_SETTINGS (replaced by ALL_PLSQL_OBJECT_SETTINGS)
DBA_STORED_SETTINGS (replaced by DBA_PLSQL_OBJECT_SETTINGS)
USER_STORED_SETTINGS (replaced by USER_PLSQL_OBJECT_SETTINGS)

Static Data Dictionary Views Obsolete in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)

The following static data dictionary views were made obsolete in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1).

ALL_ ViewsDBA_ ViewsUSER_ Views
ALL_SOURCE_TAB_COLUMNSDBA_SOURCE_TAB_COLUMNSUSER_SOURCE_TAB_COLUMNS

Dynamic Performance Views Deprecated in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)

The following dynamic performance views were deprecated in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1):


GV$CACHE
GV$CACHE_TRANSFER
GV$CLASS_CACHE_TRANSFER (replaced by GV$INSTANCE_CACHE_TRANSFER)
GV$FALSE_PING
GV$FILE_CACHE_TRANSFER (replaced by GV$INSTANCE_CACHE_TRANSFER)
GV$GC_ELEMENTS_WITH_COLLISIONS
GV$LOCK_ACTIVITY
GV$TEMP_CACHE_TRANSFER (replaced by GV$INSTANCE_CACHE_TRANSFER)
V$CACHE
V$CACHE_LOCK
V$CACHE_TRANSFER
V$CLASS_CACHE_TRANSFER (replaced by V$INSTANCE_CACHE_TRANSFER)
V$FALSE_PING
V$FILE_CACHE_TRANSFER (replaced by V$INSTANCE_CACHE_TRANSFER)
V$GC_ELEMENTS_WITH_COLLISIONS
V$LOCK_ACTIVITY
V$TEMP_CACHE_TRANSFER (replaced by V$INSTANCE_CACHE_TRANSFER)

Dynamic Performance Views Obsolete in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)

The following dynamic performance views were made obsolete in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1):

GV$ ViewsV$ Views
GV$COMPATIBILITYV$COMPATIBILITY
GV$COMPATSEGV$COMPATSEG
GV$MLS_PARAMETERSV$MLS_PARAMETERS
GV$MTSV$MTS

SQL Optimizer

This section describes compatibility and interoperability issues relating to the SQL Optimizer in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1).

Rule-Based Optimizer Desupported

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the cost-based optimizer (CBO) is now enabled by default. The rule-based optimizer is no longer supported in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1). As a result, rule and choose are no longer supported as OPTIMIZER_MODE initialization parameter values and a warning is displayed in the alert log if OPTIMIZER_MODE is set to either of these values.


See Also:

Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide for more information about the cost-based optimizer

Optimizer Statistics

Collection of optimizer statistics is now automatically performed by default for all schemas (including SYS), for pre-existing databases upgraded from a release earlier than Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), and for newly created databases. Gathering optimizer statistics on stale objects is scheduled by default to occur daily during the maintenance window.


See Also:

Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide for more information about optimizer statistics

COMPUTE STATISTICS Clause of CREATE INDEX

In earlier releases, the COMPUTE STATISTICS clause of CREATE INDEX could be used to start or stop the collection of statistics on an index. This clause has been deprecated. Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) and later releases automatically collect statistics during index creation and rebuild. This clause is supported for backward compatibility and does not cause errors.

SKIP_UNUSABLE_INDEXES

In earlier releases, SKIP_UNUSABLE_INDEXES was a session parameter only. In Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) and later releases, it is an initialization parameter and defaults to true. The true setting disables error reporting of indexes and index partitions marked UNUSABLE. This setting allows all operations (inserts, deletes, updates, and selects) on tables with unusable indexes or index partitions.


See Also:

SKIP_UNUSABLE_INDEXES in Oracle Database Reference

SQL Changes

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), CLOB <-> NCLOB implicit conversion in SQL and PL/SQL is allowed.

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), name resolution for synonyms has changed. If the base object of a synonym does not exist, then the SQL compiler now tries looking up PUBLIC.base_object.

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), VPD policies are attached to synonyms rather than the base objects.

Invalid Synonyms After an Upgrade

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), if a synonym (public or private) is pointing to an object that does not exist or is invalid, then the synonym is invalid after the upgrade.

Manageability

Database performance statistics are now automatically collected by the Automatic Workload Repository (AWR) database component for databases upgraded from a release earlier than Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) and for newly created databases. This data is stored in the SYSAUX tablespace, and is used by the database for automatic generation of performance recommendations.

If you currently use Statspack for performance data gathering, then refer to the Statspack README (spdoc.txt, located in the ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin directory) for directions on using Statspack in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) and later releases to avoid conflict with the AWR.

Transaction and Space

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), dropped objects are now moved to the recycle bin where the space is only reused when it is needed. This allows an object to be undropped using the FLASHBACK DROP feature.

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), automatic tuning of undo retention is enabled by default. The UNDO_SUPPRESS_ERRORS initialization parameter has been deprecated. Errors generated when executing rollback segment operations while in automatic undo management mode are always suppressed.

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the default AUTOEXTEND NEXT size is larger for Oracle managed files (OMF).

Recovery and Data Guard

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the LOG_ARCHIVE_START initialization parameter has been deprecated. Archiving is now automatically started when the database is placed in ARCHIVELOG mode.

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the LOG_PARALLELISM initialization parameter has been deprecated. Log file parallelism is now automatically enabled.

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the default value for the RECOVERY_PARALLELISM initialization parameter now defaults to allow parallel recovery.

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the default value for the parallel clause in the ALTER DATABASE RECOVER DATABASE statement has changed to PARALLEL.

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the default buffer size for the ASYNC attribute of the LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n initialization parameter has increased from 2,048 blocks to 61,440 blocks.

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the default values of the parameters MAX_SGA and MAX_SERVERS as set by the DBMS_LOGSTDBY.APPLY_SET() procedure have changed.

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the default values for the Data Guard broker properties ApplyParallel, AsyncBlocks, and LogXptMode have changed.

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the default behavior of the STARTUP SQL*Plus command and the ALTER DATABASE MOUNT and ALTER DATABASE OPEN SQL statements have changed for physical standby databases. The commands now automatically detect that the database is a physical standby and thus the STANDBY DATABASE and READ ONLY options are made default.

RMAN

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), RMAN now creates an empty file when restoring a file from backup and no backup of the file exists. RMAN backup of archived logs now automatically backs up logs that were created before the last resetlogs. Such logs were previously ignored.

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), RMAN now continues to run the remaining portions of a backup or restore job when it encounters an error. RMAN now tries to restore from an alternate backup if it finds the targeted backup is corrupt.

CREATE DATABASE

In Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) and later releases, a SYSAUX tablespace is always created at database creation time or whenever a database is upgraded. The SYSAUX tablespace serves as an auxiliary tablespace to the SYSTEM tablespace. Because SYSAUX is the default tablespace for many Oracle features and products that previously required their own tablespaces, it reduces the number of tablespaces that a DBA must maintain.


See Also:

Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about the SYSAUX tablespace

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the minimum and default log file sizes have increased. The minimum size is now 4 MB. The default size is 50 MB, unless using Oracle managed files (OMF) in which case the default is 100 MB.

Oracle Real Application Clusters

In Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), there is an automated high availability (HA) framework for Oracle Real Application Clusters. The framework provides detection, recovery, restart, and notification services.

Materialized Views

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), some privilege name changes have been made. The new names appear in all data dictionary views, but both the old and new names are accepted by the GRANT and REVOKE SQL statements.

  • CREATE SNAPSHOT changed to CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW

  • CREATE ANY SNAPSHOT changed to CREATE ANY MATERIALIZED VIEW

  • ALTER ANY SNAPSHOT changed to ALTER ANY MATERIALIZED VIEW

  • DROP ANY SNAPSHOT changed to DROP ANY MATERIALIZED VIEW

Change Data Capture

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the interfaces in DBMS_CDC_SUBSCRIBE and DBMS_CDC_PUBLISH now take a subscription name parameter instead of a subscription handle.

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), subscriber views are now managed automatically. There is no longer any requirement to call the DBMS_CDC_SUBSCRIBE and DBMS_CDC_PUBLISH interfaces PREPARE_SUBSCRIBER_VIEW() and DROP_SUBSCRIBER_VIEW().

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the computation of synchronous Change Data Capture's RSID$ column has been changed to facilitate joining a subscriber view to itself in order to show both old and new values in the same row. The RSID$ values for the UO and UN rows associated with the same update operation are now the same. To revert to the Oracle9i behavior where UN RSID$ value is UO RSID$ value + 1 for the same update operation, set event 10983 to level 4.

Change in the Default Archival Processing to Remote Archive Destinations

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the default archival processing to remote destinations has changed so that archiver processes on the primary database completely and successfully archive the local online redo log files before transmitting the redo data to remote standby destinations. This default behavior is equivalent to setting the LOG_ARCHIVE_LOCAL_FIRST initialization parameter to true, which is also new in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) and later releases. Note that this new default archival processing is relevant only when log transport services are defined to use archiver processes (ARCn), not the log writer process (LGWR), when the archiver processes are writing to remote destinations, and when the remote standby destination is not a mandatory destination.

Before Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the default behavior was to transmit redo data to the standby destination at the same time the online redo log file was being archived to the local online redo log files. You can achieve this behavior by setting the LOG_ARCHIVE_LOCAL_FIRST initialization parameter to false. This archival processing is also relevant only when log transport services are defined to use archiver processes (ARCn), not the log writer process (LGWR), when the archiver processes are writing to remote destinations, and when the remote standby destination is not a mandatory destination.

The benefit of the new default behavior is that local archiving, and hence, processing on the primary database, are not affected by archival to non-mandatory, remote destinations. Because local archiving is now disassociated with remote archiving, sites that might have policies to delete archived redo log files on the primary database immediately after backing them up must make sure that the standby destinations have received the corresponding redo data before deleting the archived redo log files on the primary database. You can query the V$ARCHIVED_LOG view to verify that the redo data has been received on standby destinations.


Note:

Any value specified for the LOG_ARCHIVE_LOCAL_FIRST initialization parameter is ignored for mandatory destinations (configured with the MANDATORY attribute of the LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n initialization parameters).


See Also:

Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration for complete information about setting up archival to remote destinations

Limitations on NCHAR Data Types

Starting with Oracle9i, the NCHAR data types such as NCHAR, NVARCHAR2, and NCLOB, are limited to the Unicode character set encoding, UTF8 and AL16UTF16.

PL/SQL Native Compilation

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the configuration of initialization parameters and the command setup for native compilation has been simplified. The important parameters now are PLSQL_NATIVE_LIBRARY_DIR and PLSQL_NATIVE_LIBRARY_SUBDIR_COUNT. The parameters related to the compiler, linker, and make utility have been made obsolete. Native compilation is turned on and off by a separate initialization parameter, PLSQL_CODE_TYPE, rather than being one of several options in the PLSQL_COMPILER_FLAGS parameter, which is now deprecated. The spnc_commands file, located in the ORACLE_HOME/plsql directory, contains the commands and options for compiling and linking, rather than a makefile.


See Also:


Evaluation of Numeric Literals

Evaluation of numeric literals has changed such that at least one of the constants in a numeric computation with literals must be a decimal specified to the 10th place. This is because releases after Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) use INTEGER arithmetic (approximately 9 significant digits) for some expressions whereas Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2) used NUMBER arithmetic (approximately 38 significant digits).

Therefore, if you are dealing with results of greater than 9 significant digits, then one of the literals should be in decimal format to prevent numeric overflow errors. For example, in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the computation of v1 in the following example causes a numeric overflow error:

DECLARE
  v1 NUMBER(38);
BEGIN
  v1 := 256*256*256*256;
  DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(v1);
END;
/

The solution to the error is to specify one of the numeric literals as a decimal (256.0), as follows:

DECLARE
  v1 NUMBER(38);
BEGIN
  v1 := 256*256*256*256.0;
  DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(v1);
END;
/

See Also:


Change in Behavior for SESSION_CACHED_CURSORS

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the number of cached cursors is determined by the SESSION_CACHED_CURSORS initialization parameter. In previous Oracle Database releases, the number of SQL cursors cached by PL/SQL was determined by the OPEN_CURSORS initialization parameter.


See Also:

SESSION_CACHED_CURSORS in Oracle Database Reference

New Default Value for DB_BLOCK_SIZE

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the default value of DB_BLOCK_SIZE is operating system specific, but is typically 8 KB (8192 bytes). In previous Oracle Database releases, the default value was 2 KB (2048 bytes). If DB_BLOCK_SIZE is not specified in the parameter file when upgrading from Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2), then you receive an error when attempting to start up your database. Add the following to your parameter file:

DB_BLOCK_SIZE = 2048

If DB_BLOCK_SIZE is specified in the parameter file, then Oracle Database uses this value instead of the default value of 8 KB.

OPTIMIZER_MAX_PERMUTATIONS and OPTIMIZER_FEATURES_ENABLE

Starting with Oracle Database 10g, the OPTIMIZER_MAX_PERMUTATIONS initialization parameter has been made obsolete. If you are upgrading from Oracle9i and have OPTIMIZER_FEATURES_ENABLE set to 8.1.7 or earlier and OPTIMIZER_MAX_PERMUTATIONS explicitly set to 2000 in the parameter file, then the release 8.1.7 default of 80000 is used when you start up the Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) database.

Setting OPTIMIZER_FEATURES_ENABLE to 9.0.0 or higher sets the default to 2000

Change in Behavior for LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), if the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter is set to 10.0.0 or higher, then archive log file names must contain each of the elements %s (sequence), %t (thread), and %r (resetlogs ID) to ensure that all archive log file names are unique. If the LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT initialization parameter is set in the parameter file, then make sure the parameter value contains the %s, %t, and %r elements.

New Default Value for PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), Automatic PGA Memory Management is now enabled by default (unless PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET is explicitly set to 0 or WORKAREA_SIZE_POLICY is explicitly set to MANUAL). PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET defaults to 20% of the size of the SGA, unless explicitly set. Oracle recommends tuning the value of PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET after upgrading.

Change in Behavior for SHARED_POOL_SIZE

In previous releases, the amount of shared pool memory that was allocated was equal to the value of the SHARED_POOL_SIZE initialization parameter plus the amount of internal SGA overhead computed during instance startup. Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the value of SHARED_POOL_SIZE must now also accommodate this shared pool overhead.

Since Oracle Database release 9.2, the shared pool can be partitioned into multiple parts. The partitions are called shared pool subpools and there can be up to seven subpools. Although there is no standard recommendation, you should configure the shared pool memory in a way that generates larger subpools than the default size. For example, 256M and 500M seem to work better as subpool sizes for Oracle Database releases 9i and 10g, respectively. Having adequate sizes allocated for shared pool subpools can avoid raising ORA-4031 errors.

Shared Server Parameters

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the recommended way to turn on shared server mode is to set SHARED_SERVERS to a value greater than 0. This can be done at startup or dynamically after the instance is started. If shared server mode is turned off by setting SHARED_SERVERS to 0, then this only affects new clients (that is, no new clients can connect in shared mode; clients that are already connected in shared mode continue to be serviced by shared servers).

In previous releases, the recommended way to turn on shared server mode was to set DISPATCHERS. If SHARED_SERVERS was changed to 0 and shared server clients were still connected, then client requests would hang.

Before Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the following shared server parameters could not be changed dynamically:

  • MAX_SHARED_SERVERS

  • MAX_DISPATCHERS

  • SHARED_SERVER_SESSIONS

  • CIRCUITS

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), these shared server parameters are dynamically modifiable.

New Default Value for DISPATCHERS

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the default for DISPATCHERS is '(PROTOCOL=TCP)'. DISPATCHERS is given this default value if it is not set or if it is set to '' and SHARED_SERVERS is set to 1 or higher.

In previous releases, there was no default value for DISPATCHERS.

New Default Value for SHARED_SERVERS

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), if DISPATCHERS is set such that the total number of dispatchers is equal to 0, then SHARED_SERVERS defaults to 0. If DISPATCHERS is set such that the total number of dispatchers is greater than 0, then SHARED_SERVERS defaults to 1 as in previous releases.

In previous releases, if DISPATCHERS was set such that the number of dispatchers is equal to 0, then SHARED_SERVERS defaulted to 1.

New Default Value for MAX_SHARED_SERVERS

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), there is no preset default for MAX_SHARED_SERVERS. The maximum number of shared servers varies depending on the number of free process slots. If MAX_SHARED_SERVERS is not set or is set to a value greater than or equal to PROCESSES, then PMON does not spawn any more shared servers if the number of free process slots is either 2 (if PROCESSES is less than 24) or is less than 1 / 8, unless the existing servers are involved in a deadlock situation. If the existing servers are involved in a deadlock situation, then no matter the transaction load, a new server is spawned if there is a free process slot.

In previous releases, the default for MAX_SHARED_SERVERS is 20, or 2 * SHARED_SERVERS, whichever is greater, subject to the condition that MAX_SHARED_SERVERS does not exceed PROCESSES.

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), SHARED_SERVERS can be set higher than MAX_SHARED_SERVERS, in which case the number of servers remains constant at the level set for SHARED_SERVERS. This is to allow the range SHARED_SERVERS - MAX_SHARED_SERVERS to be changed without having to change these parameters in a specific order.

In previous releases, SHARED_SERVERS cannot be set higher than MAX_SHARED_SERVERS.

New Default Value for SHARED_SERVER_SESSIONS

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), there is no preset default for SHARED_SERVER_SESSIONS. That is, if SHARED_SERVER_SESSIONS is not specified, then shared server sessions can be created as needed and as permitted by the session limit.

In previous releases, the default for SHARED_SERVER_SESSIONS was the maximum number of virtual circuits (CIRCUITS), or the maximum number of database sessions (SESSIONS) - 5, whichever is smaller.

New Default Value for CIRCUITS

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), there is no preset default for CIRCUITS. That is, if CIRCUITS is not specified, then circuits can be created as needed and as permitted by dispatcher constraints and system resources.

In previous releases, the default for CIRCUITS was the maximum number of database sessions (SESSIONS) if shared server mode was enabled, 0 otherwise.

New Default Value for MAX_DISPATCHERS

Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), there is no preset default for MAX_DISPATCHERS. MAX_DISPATCHERS no longer limits the number of dispatchers; the user can increase the number of dispatchers with the DISPATCHERS parameter as long as there are free process slots and system resources.

In previous releases, the default for MAX_DISPATCHERS was 5, or the total number of dispatchers specified with the DISPATCHERS parameter, whichever was greater.