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20 Using the Metadata APIs

This chapter describes use of the Metadata APIs, DBMS_METADATA and DBMS_METADATA_DIFF.

The DBMS_METADATA API enables you to do the following:

The DBMS_METADATA_DIFF API lets you compare objects between databases to identify metadata changes over time in objects of the same type.

The following topics are discussed in this chapter:

Why Use the DBMS_METADATA API?

Over time, as you have used the Oracle database, you may have developed your own code for extracting metadata from the dictionary, manipulating the metadata (adding columns, changing column datatypes, and so on) and then converting the metadata to DDL so that you could re-create the object on the same or another database. Keeping that code updated to support new dictionary features has probably proven to be challenging.

The DBMS_METADATA API eliminates the need for you to write and maintain your own code for metadata extraction. It provides a centralized facility for the extraction, manipulation, and re-creation of dictionary metadata. And it supports all dictionary objects at their most current level.

Although the DBMS_METADATA API can dramatically decrease the amount of custom code you are writing and maintaining, it does not involve any changes to your normal database procedures. The DBMS_METADATA API is installed in the same way as data dictionary views, by running catproc.sql to invoke a SQL script at database installation time. Once it is installed, it is available whenever the instance is operational, even in restricted mode.

The DBMS_METADATA API does not require you to make any source code changes when you change database releases because it is upwardly compatible across different Oracle releases. XML documents retrieved by one release can be processed by the submit interface on the same or later release. For example, XML documents retrieved by an Oracle9i database can be submitted to Oracle Database 10g.

Overview of the DBMS_METADATA API

For the purposes of the DBMS_METADATA API, every entity in the database is modeled as an object that belongs to an object type. For example, the table scott.emp is an object and its object type is TABLE. When you fetch an object's metadata you must specify the object type.

To fetch a particular object or set of objects within an object type, you specify a filter. Different filters are defined for each object type. For example, two of the filters defined for the TABLE object type are SCHEMA and NAME. They allow you to say, for example, that you want the table whose schema is scott and whose name is emp.

The DBMS_METADATA API makes use of XML (Extensible Markup Language) and XSLT (Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation). The DBMS_METADATA API represents object metadata as XML because it is a universal format that can be easily parsed and transformed. The DBMS_METADATA API uses XSLT to transform XML documents into either other XML documents or into SQL DDL.

You can use the DBMS_METADATA API to specify one or more transforms (XSLT scripts) to be applied to the XML when the metadata is fetched (or when it is resubmitted). The API provides some predefined transforms, including one named DDL that transforms the XML document into SQL creation DDL.

You can then specify conditions on the transform by using transform parameters. You can also specify optional parse items to access specific attributes of an object's metadata. For more details about all of these options and examples of their implementation, see the following sections:

Using the DBMS_METADATA API to Retrieve an Object's Metadata

The retrieval interface of the DBMS_METADATA API lets you specify the kind of object to be retrieved. This can be either a particular object type (such as a table, index, or procedure) or a heterogeneous collection of object types that form a logical unit (such as a database export or schema export). By default, metadata that you fetch is returned in an XML document.

Note:

To access objects that are not in your own schema you must have the SELECT_CATALOG_ROLE role. However, roles are disabled within many PL/SQL objects (stored procedures, functions, definer's rights APIs). Therefore, if you are writing a PL/SQL program that will access objects in another schema (or, in general, any objects for which you need the SELECT_CATALOG_ROLE role), then you must put the code in an invoker's rights API.

You can use the programmatic interface for casual browsing, or you can use it to develop applications. You would use the browsing interface if you simply wanted to make ad hoc queries of the system metadata. You would use the programmatic interface when you want to extract dictionary metadata as part of an application. In such cases, the procedures provided by the DBMS_METADATA API can be used in place of SQL scripts and customized code that you may be currently using to do the same thing.

Typical Steps Used for Basic Metadata Retrieval

When you retrieve metadata, you use the DBMS_METADATA PL/SQL API. The following examples illustrate the programmatic and browsing interfaces.

See Also:

Example 20-1 provides a basic demonstration of how you might use the DBMS_METADATA programmatic interface to retrieve metadata for one table. It creates a DBMS_METADATA program that creates a function named get_table_md. This function returns metadata for one table.

Example 20-1 Using the DBMS_METADATA Programmatic Interface to Retrieve Data

  1. Create a DBMS_METADATA program that creates a function named get_table_md, which will return the metadata for one table, timecards, in the hr schema. The content of such a program looks as follows. (For this example, name the program metadata_program.sql.)

    CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION get_table_md RETURN CLOB IS
    -- Define local variables.
    h NUMBER; --handle returned by OPEN
    th NUMBER; -- handle returned by ADD_TRANSFORM
    doc CLOB;
    BEGIN
    
    -- Specify the object type.
    h := DBMS_METADATA.OPEN('TABLE');
    
    -- Use filters to specify the particular object desired.
    DBMS_METADATA.SET_FILTER(h,'SCHEMA','HR');
    DBMS_METADATA.SET_FILTER(h,'NAME','TIMECARDS');
    
     -- Request that the metadata be transformed into creation DDL.
    th := DBMS_METADATA.ADD_TRANSFORM(h,'DDL');
    
     -- Fetch the object.
    doc := DBMS_METADATA.FETCH_CLOB(h);
    
     -- Release resources.
    DBMS_METADATA.CLOSE(h);
    RETURN doc;
    END;
    / 
    
  2. Connect as user hr.

  3. Run the program to create the get_table_md function:

    SQL> @metadata_program

  4. Use the newly created get_table_md function in a select operation. To generate complete, uninterrupted output, set the PAGESIZE to 0 and set LONG to some large number, as shown, before executing your query:

    SQL> SET PAGESIZE 0
    SQL> SET LONG 1000000
    SQL> SELECT get_table_md FROM dual;
    
  5. The output, which shows the metadata for the timecards table in the hr schema, looks similar to the following:

      CREATE TABLE "HR"."TIMECARDS"
       (    "EMPLOYEE_ID" NUMBER(6,0),
            "WEEK" NUMBER(2,0),
            "JOB_ID" VARCHAR2(10),
            "HOURS_WORKED" NUMBER(4,2),
             FOREIGN KEY ("EMPLOYEE_ID")
              REFERENCES "HR"."EMPLOYEES" ("EMPLOYEE_ID") ENABLE
       ) PCTFREE 10 PCTUSED 40 INITRANS 1 MAXTRANS 255 NOCOMPRESS LOGGING
      STORAGE(INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 2147483645
      PCTINCREASE 0 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1 BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT)
      TABLESPACE "EXAMPLE"
    

You can use the browsing interface and get the same results, as shown in Example 20-2.

Example 20-2 Using the DBMS_METADATA Browsing Interface to Retrieve Data

SQL> SET PAGESIZE 0
SQL> SET LONG 1000000
SQL> SELECT DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('TABLE','TIMECARDS','HR') FROM dual;

The results will be the same as shown in step 5 for Example 20-1.

Retrieving Multiple Objects

In Example 20-1, the FETCH_CLOB procedure was called only once, because it was known that there was only one object. However, you can also retrieve multiple objects, for example, all the tables in schema scott. To do this, you need to use the following construct:

  LOOP
    doc := DBMS_METADATA.FETCH_CLOB(h);
    --
    -- When there are no more objects to be retrieved, FETCH_CLOB returns NULL.
    --
    EXIT WHEN doc IS NULL;
  END LOOP;

Example 20-3 demonstrates use of this construct and retrieving multiple objects. Connect as user scott for this example. The password is tiger.

Example 20-3 Retrieving Multiple Objects

  1. Create a table named my_metadata and a procedure named get_tables_md, as follows. Because not all objects can be returned, they are stored in a table and queried at the end.

    DROP TABLE my_metadata;
    CREATE TABLE my_metadata (md clob);
    CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE get_tables_md IS
    -- Define local variables
    h       NUMBER;         -- handle returned by 'OPEN'
    th      NUMBER;         -- handle returned by 'ADD_TRANSFORM'
    doc     CLOB;           -- metadata is returned in a CLOB
    BEGIN
    
     -- Specify the object type.
     h := DBMS_METADATA.OPEN('TABLE');
    
     -- Use filters to specify the schema.
     DBMS_METADATA.SET_FILTER(h,'SCHEMA','SCOTT');
    
     -- Request that the metadata be transformed into creation DDL.
     th := DBMS_METADATA.ADD_TRANSFORM(h,'DDL');
    
     -- Fetch the objects.
     LOOP
       doc := DBMS_METADATA.FETCH_CLOB(h);
    
      -- When there are no more objects to be retrieved, FETCH_CLOB returns NULL.
       EXIT WHEN doc IS NULL;
    
       -- Store the metadata in a table.
       INSERT INTO my_metadata(md) VALUES (doc);
       COMMIT;
     END LOOP;
     
     -- Release resources.
     DBMS_METADATA.CLOSE(h);
    END;
    /
    
  2. Execute the procedure:

    EXECUTE get_tables_md;
    
  3. Query the my_metadata table to see what was retrieved:

    SET LONG 9000000
    SET PAGES 0
    SELECT * FROM my_metadata;
    

Placing Conditions on Transforms

You can use transform parameters to specify conditions on the transforms you add. To do this, you use the SET_TRANSFORM_PARAM procedure. For example, if you have added the DDL transform for a TABLE object, then you can specify the SEGMENT_ATTRIBUTES transform parameter to indicate that you do not want segment attributes (physical, storage, logging, and so on) to appear in the DDL. The default is that segment attributes do appear in the DDL.

Example 20-4 shows use of the SET_TRANSFORM_PARAM procedure.

Example 20-4 Placing Conditions on Transforms

  1. Create a function named get_table_md, as follows:

    CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION get_table_md RETURN CLOB IS
     -- Define local variables.
     h    NUMBER;   -- handle returned by 'OPEN'
     th   NUMBER;   -- handle returned by 'ADD_TRANSFORM'
     doc  CLOB;
    BEGIN
    
     -- Specify the object type. 
     h := DBMS_METADATA.OPEN('TABLE');
    
     -- Use filters to specify the particular object desired.
     DBMS_METADATA.SET_FILTER(h,'SCHEMA','HR');
     DBMS_METADATA.SET_FILTER(h,'NAME','TIMECARDS');
    
     -- Request that the metadata be transformed into creation DDL.
     th := dbms_metadata.add_transform(h,'DDL');
    
     -- Specify that segment attributes are not to be returned.
     -- Note that this call uses the TRANSFORM handle, not the OPEN handle.
    DBMS_METADATA.SET_TRANSFORM_PARAM(th,'SEGMENT_ATTRIBUTES',false);
    
     -- Fetch the object.
     doc := DBMS_METADATA.FETCH_CLOB(h);
    
     -- Release resources.
     DBMS_METADATA.CLOSE(h);
    
     RETURN doc;
    END;
    /
    
  2. Perform the following query:

    SQL> SELECT get_table_md FROM dual;
    

    The output looks similar to the following:

      CREATE TABLE "HR"."TIMECARDS"
       (    "EMPLOYEE_ID" NUMBER(6,0),
            "WEEK" NUMBER(2,0),
            "JOB_ID" VARCHAR2(10),
            "HOURS_WORKED" NUMBER(4,2),
             FOREIGN KEY ("EMPLOYEE_ID")
              REFERENCES "HR"."EMPLOYEES" ("EMPLOYEE_ID") ENABLE
       )
    

The examples shown up to this point have used a single transform, the DDL transform. The DBMS_METADATA API also enables you to specify multiple transforms, with the output of the first being the input to the next and so on.

Oracle supplies a transform called MODIFY that modifies an XML document. You can do things like change schema names or tablespace names. To do this, you use remap parameters and the SET_REMAP_PARAM procedure.

Example 20-5 shows a sample use of the SET_REMAP_PARAM procedure. It first adds the MODIFY transform and specifies remap parameters to change the schema name from hr to scott. It then adds the DDL transform. The output of the MODIFY transform is an XML document that becomes the input to the DDL transform. The end result is the creation DDL for the timecards table with all instances of schema hr changed to scott.

Example 20-5 Modifying an XML Document

  1. Create a function named remap_schema:

    CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION remap_schema RETURN CLOB IS
    -- Define local variables.
    h NUMBER; --handle returned by OPEN
    th NUMBER; -- handle returned by ADD_TRANSFORM
    doc CLOB;
    BEGIN
    
    -- Specify the object type.
    h := DBMS_METADATA.OPEN('TABLE');
    
    -- Use filters to specify the particular object desired.
    DBMS_METADATA.SET_FILTER(h,'SCHEMA','HR');
    DBMS_METADATA.SET_FILTER(h,'NAME','TIMECARDS');
    
    -- Request that the schema name be modified.
    th := DBMS_METADATA.ADD_TRANSFORM(h,'MODIFY');
    DBMS_METADATA.SET_REMAP_PARAM(th,'REMAP_SCHEMA','HR','SCOTT');
    
    -- Request that the metadata be transformed into creation DDL.
    th := DBMS_METADATA.ADD_TRANSFORM(h,'DDL');
    
    -- Specify that segment attributes are not to be returned.
    DBMS_METADATA.SET_TRANSFORM_PARAM(th,'SEGMENT_ATTRIBUTES',false);
    
    -- Fetch the object.
    doc := DBMS_METADATA.FETCH_CLOB(h);
    
    -- Release resources.
    DBMS_METADATA.CLOSE(h);
    RETURN doc;
    END;
    / 
    
  2. Perform the following query:

    SELECT remap_schema FROM dual;
    

    The output looks similar to the following:

      CREATE TABLE "SCOTT"."TIMECARDS"
       (    "EMPLOYEE_ID" NUMBER(6,0),
            "WEEK" NUMBER(2,0),
            "JOB_ID" VARCHAR2(10),
            "HOURS_WORKED" NUMBER(4,2),
             FOREIGN KEY ("EMPLOYEE_ID")
              REFERENCES "SCOTT"."EMPLOYEES" ("EMPLOYEE_ID") ENABLE
       )
    

    If you are familiar with XSLT, then you can add your own user-written transforms to process the XML.

Accessing Specific Metadata Attributes

It is often desirable to access specific attributes of an object's metadata, for example, its name or schema. You could get this information by parsing the returned metadata, but the DBMS_METADATA API provides another mechanism; you can specify parse items, specific attributes that will be parsed out of the metadata and returned in a separate data structure. To do this, you use the SET_PARSE_ITEM procedure.

Example 20-6 fetches all tables in a schema. For each table, a parse item is used to get its name. The name is then used to get all indexes on the table. The example illustrates the use of the FETCH_DDL function, which returns metadata in a sys.ku$_ddls object.

This example assumes you are connected to a schema that contains some tables and indexes. It also creates a table named my_metadata.

Example 20-6 Using Parse Items to Access Specific Metadata Attributes

  1. Create a table named my_metadata and a procedure named get_tables_and_indexes, as follows:

    DROP TABLE my_metadata;
    CREATE TABLE my_metadata (
      object_type   VARCHAR2(30),
      name          VARCHAR2(30),
      md            CLOB);
    CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE get_tables_and_indexes IS
    -- Define local variables.
    h1      NUMBER;         -- handle returned by OPEN for tables
    h2      NUMBER;         -- handle returned by OPEN for indexes
    th1     NUMBER;         -- handle returned by ADD_TRANSFORM for tables
    th2     NUMBER;         -- handle returned by ADD_TRANSFORM for indexes
    doc     sys.ku$_ddls;   -- metadata is returned in sys.ku$_ddls,
                            --  a nested table of sys.ku$_ddl objects
    ddl     CLOB;           -- creation DDL for an object
    pi      sys.ku$_parsed_items;   -- parse items are returned in this object
                                    -- which is contained in sys.ku$_ddl
    objname VARCHAR2(30);   -- the parsed object name
    idxddls sys.ku$_ddls;   -- metadata is returned in sys.ku$_ddls,
                            --  a nested table of sys.ku$_ddl objects
    idxname VARCHAR2(30);   -- the parsed index name
    BEGIN
     -- This procedure has an outer loop that fetches tables,
     -- and an inner loop that fetches indexes.
     
     -- Specify the object type: TABLE.
     h1 := DBMS_METADATA.OPEN('TABLE');
     
     -- Request that the table name be returned as a parse item.
     DBMS_METADATA.SET_PARSE_ITEM(h1,'NAME');
     
     -- Request that the metadata be transformed into creation DDL.
     th1 := DBMS_METADATA.ADD_TRANSFORM(h1,'DDL');
     
     -- Specify that segment attributes are not to be returned.
     DBMS_METADATA.SET_TRANSFORM_PARAM(th1,'SEGMENT_ATTRIBUTES',false);
     
     -- Set up the outer loop: fetch the TABLE objects.
     LOOP
       doc := dbms_metadata.fetch_ddl(h1);
     
    -- When there are no more objects to be retrieved, FETCH_DDL returns NULL.
       EXIT WHEN doc IS NULL;
     
    -- Loop through the rows of the ku$_ddls nested table.
       FOR i IN doc.FIRST..doc.LAST LOOP
         ddl := doc(i).ddlText;
         pi := doc(i).parsedItems;
         -- Loop through the returned parse items.
         IF pi IS NOT NULL AND pi.COUNT > 0 THEN
           FOR j IN pi.FIRST..pi.LAST LOOP
             IF pi(j).item='NAME' THEN
               objname := pi(j).value;
             END IF;
           END LOOP;
         END IF;
         -- Insert information about this object into our table.
         INSERT INTO my_metadata(object_type, name, md)
           VALUES ('TABLE',objname,ddl);
         COMMIT;
       END LOOP;
     
       -- Now fetch indexes using the parsed table name as
       --  a BASE_OBJECT_NAME filter.
     
       -- Specify the object type.
       h2 := DBMS_METADATA.OPEN('INDEX');
     
       -- The base object is the table retrieved in the outer loop.
       DBMS_METADATA.SET_FILTER(h2,'BASE_OBJECT_NAME',objname);
     
       -- Exclude system-generated indexes.
       DBMS_METADATA.SET_FILTER(h2,'SYSTEM_GENERATED',false);
     
       -- Request that the index name be returned as a parse item.
       DBMS_METADATA.SET_PARSE_ITEM(h2,'NAME');
     
       -- Request that the metadata be transformed into creation DDL.
       th2 := DBMS_METADATA.ADD_TRANSFORM(h2,'DDL');
     
       -- Specify that segment attributes are not to be returned.
       DBMS_METADATA.SET_TRANSFORM_PARAM(th2,'SEGMENT_ATTRIBUTES',false);
      
     
       LOOP
        idxddls := dbms_metadata.fetch_ddl(h2);
     
        -- When there are no more objects to  be retrieved, FETCH_DDL returns NULL.
        EXIT WHEN idxddls IS NULL;
     
          FOR i in idxddls.FIRST..idxddls.LAST LOOP
            ddl := idxddls(i).ddlText;
            pi  := idxddls(i).parsedItems;
            -- Loop through the returned parse items.
            IF pi IS NOT NULL AND pi.COUNT > 0 THEN
              FOR j IN pi.FIRST..pi.LAST LOOP
                IF pi(j).item='NAME' THEN
                  idxname := pi(j).value;
                END IF;
              END LOOP;
             END IF;
       
             -- Store the metadata in our table.
              INSERT INTO my_metadata(object_type, name, md)
                VALUES ('INDEX',idxname,ddl);
             COMMIT;
           END LOOP;  -- for loop
      END LOOP;
      DBMS_METADATA.CLOSE(h2);
     END LOOP;
     DBMS_METADATA.CLOSE(h1);
    END;
    /
    
  2. Execute the procedure:

    EXECUTE get_tables_and_indexes;
    
  3. Perform the following query to see what was retrieved:

    SET LONG 9000000
    SET PAGES 0
    SELECT * FROM my_metadata;
    

Using the DBMS_METADATA API to Re-Create a Retrieved Object

When you fetch metadata for an object, you may want to use it to re-create the object in a different database or schema.

You may not be ready to make remapping decisions when you fetch the metadata. You may want to defer these decisions until later. To accomplish this, you fetch the metadata as XML and store it in a file or table. Later you can use the submit interface to re-create the object.

The submit interface is similar in form to the retrieval interface. It has an OPENW procedure in which you specify the object type of the object to be created. You can specify transforms, transform parameters, and parse items. You can call the CONVERT function to convert the XML to DDL, or you can call the PUT function to both convert XML to DDL and submit the DDL to create the object.

See Also:

Table 20-3 for descriptions of DBMS_METADATA procedures and functions used in the submit interface

Example 20-7 fetches the XML for a table in one schema, and then uses the submit interface to re-create the table in another schema.

Example 20-7 Using the Submit Interface to Re-Create a Retrieved Object

  1. Connect as a privileged user:

    CONNECT system
    Enter password: password
    
  2. Create an invoker's rights package to hold the procedure because access to objects in another schema requires the SELECT_CATALOG_ROLE role. In a definer's rights PL/SQL object (such as a procedure or function), roles are disabled.

    CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE example_pkg AUTHID current_user IS
      PROCEDURE move_table(
            table_name  in VARCHAR2,
            from_schema in VARCHAR2,
            to_schema   in VARCHAR2 );
    END example_pkg;
    /
    CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY example_pkg IS
    PROCEDURE move_table(
            table_name  in VARCHAR2,
            from_schema in VARCHAR2,
            to_schema   in VARCHAR2 ) IS
    
    -- Define local variables.
    h1      NUMBER;         -- handle returned by OPEN
    h2      NUMBER;         -- handle returned by OPENW
    th1     NUMBER;         -- handle returned by ADD_TRANSFORM for MODIFY
    th2     NUMBER;         -- handle returned by ADD_TRANSFORM for DDL
    xml     CLOB;           -- XML document
    errs    sys.ku$_SubmitResults := sys.ku$_SubmitResults();
    err     sys.ku$_SubmitResult;
    result  BOOLEAN;
    BEGIN
    
    -- Specify the object type.
    h1 := DBMS_METADATA.OPEN('TABLE');
    
    -- Use filters to specify the name and schema of the table.
    DBMS_METADATA.SET_FILTER(h1,'NAME',table_name);
    DBMS_METADATA.SET_FILTER(h1,'SCHEMA',from_schema);
    
    -- Fetch the XML.
    xml := DBMS_METADATA.FETCH_CLOB(h1);
    IF xml IS NULL THEN
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Table ' || from_schema || '.' || table_name
    || ' not found');
        RETURN;
      END IF;
    
    -- Release resources.
    DBMS_METADATA.CLOSE(h1);
    
    -- Use the submit interface to re-create the object in another schema.
    
    -- Specify the object type using OPENW (instead of OPEN).
    h2 := DBMS_METADATA.OPENW('TABLE');
    
    -- First, add the MODIFY transform.
    th1 := DBMS_METADATA.ADD_TRANSFORM(h2,'MODIFY');
    
    -- Specify the desired modification: remap the schema name.
    DBMS_METADATA.SET_REMAP_PARAM(th1,'REMAP_SCHEMA',from_schema,to_schema);
    
    -- Now add the DDL transform so that the modified XML can be
    --  transformed into creation DDL.
    th2 := DBMS_METADATA.ADD_TRANSFORM(h2,'DDL');
    
    -- Call PUT to re-create the object.
    result := DBMS_METADATA.PUT(h2,xml,0,errs);
    
    DBMS_METADATA.CLOSE(h2);
      IF NOT result THEN
        -- Process the error information.
        FOR i IN errs.FIRST..errs.LAST LOOP
          err := errs(i);
          FOR j IN err.errorLines.FIRST..err.errorLines.LAST LOOP
            dbms_output.put_line(err.errorLines(j).errorText);
          END LOOP;
        END LOOP;
      END IF;
    END;
    END example_pkg;
    /
    
  3. Now create a table named my_example in the schema SCOTT:

    CONNECT scott
    Enter password:
    -- The password is tiger.
    
    DROP TABLE my_example;
    CREATE TABLE my_example (a NUMBER, b VARCHAR2(30));
    
    CONNECT system
    Enter password: password
    
    SET LONG 9000000
    SET PAGESIZE 0
    SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 100000
    
  4. Copy the my_example table to the SYSTEM schema:

    DROP TABLE my_example;
    EXECUTE example_pkg.move_table('MY_EXAMPLE','SCOTT','SYSTEM');
    
  5. Perform the following query to verify that it worked:

    SELECT DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('TABLE','MY_EXAMPLE') FROM dual;
    

Using the DBMS_METADATA API to Retrieve Collections of Different Object Types

There may be times when you need to retrieve collections of objects in which the objects are of different types, but comprise a logical unit. For example, you might need to retrieve all the objects in a database or a schema, or a table and all its dependent indexes, constraints, grants, audits, and so on. To make such a retrieval possible, the DBMS_METADATA API provides several heterogeneous object types. A heterogeneous object type is an ordered set of object types.

Oracle supplies the following heterogeneous object types:

  • TABLE_EXPORT - a table and its dependent objects

  • SCHEMA_EXPORT - a schema and its contents

  • DATABASE_EXPORT - the objects in the database

These object types were developed for use by the Data Pump Export utility, but you can use them in your own applications.

You can use only the programmatic retrieval interface (OPEN, FETCH, CLOSE) with these types, not the browsing interface or the submit interface.

You can specify filters for heterogeneous object types, just as you do for the homogeneous types. For example, you can specify the SCHEMA and NAME filters for TABLE_EXPORT, or the SCHEMA filter for SCHEMA_EXPORT.

Example 20-8 shows how to retrieve the object types in the scott schema. Connect as user scott. The password is tiger.

Example 20-8 Retrieving Heterogeneous Object Types

  1. Create a table to store the retrieved objects:

    DROP TABLE my_metadata;
    CREATE TABLE my_metadata (md CLOB);
    CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE get_schema_md IS
    
    -- Define local variables.
    h       NUMBER;         -- handle returned by OPEN
    th      NUMBER;         -- handle returned by ADD_TRANSFORM
    doc     CLOB;           -- metadata is returned in a CLOB
    BEGIN
    
    -- Specify the object type.
     h := DBMS_METADATA.OPEN('SCHEMA_EXPORT');
    
     -- Use filters to specify the schema.
     DBMS_METADATA.SET_FILTER(h,'SCHEMA','SCOTT');
    
     -- Request that the metadata be transformed into creation DDL.
     th := DBMS_METADATA.ADD_TRANSFORM(h,'DDL');
    
     -- Fetch the objects.
     LOOP
       doc := DBMS_METADATA.FETCH_CLOB(h);
    
       -- When there are no more objects to be retrieved, FETCH_CLOB returns NULL.
       EXIT WHEN doc IS NULL;
    
       -- Store the metadata in the table.
       INSERT INTO my_metadata(md) VALUES (doc);
       COMMIT;
     END LOOP;
     
     -- Release resources.
     DBMS_METADATA.CLOSE(h);
    END;
    /
    
  2. Execute the procedure:

    EXECUTE get_schema_md;
    
  3. Perform the following query to see what was retrieved:

    SET LONG 9000000
    SET PAGESIZE 0
    SELECT * FROM my_metadata;
    

In this example, objects are returned ordered by object type; for example, all tables are returned, then all grants on tables, then all indexes on tables, and so on. The order is, generally speaking, a valid creation order. Thus, if you take the objects in the order in which they were returned and use the submit interface to re-create them in the same order in another schema or database, then there will usually be no errors. (The exceptions usually involve circular references; for example, if package A contains a call to package B, and package B contains a call to package A, then one of the packages will need to be recompiled a second time.)

Filtering the Return of Heterogeneous Object Types

If you want finer control of the objects returned, then you can use the SET_FILTER procedure and specify that the filter apply only to a specific member type. You do this by specifying the path name of the member type as the fourth parameter to SET_FILTER. In addition, you can use the EXCLUDE_PATH_EXPR filter to exclude all objects of an object type. For a list of valid path names, see the TABLE_EXPORT_OBJECTS catalog view.

Example 20-9 shows how you can use SET_FILTER to specify finer control on the objects returned. Connect as user scott. The password is tiger.

Example 20-9 Filtering the Return of Heterogeneous Object Types

  1. Create a table, my_metadata, to store the retrieved objects. And create a procedure, get_schema_md2.

    DROP TABLE my_metadata;
    CREATE TABLE my_metadata (md CLOB);
    CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE get_schema_md2 IS
    
    -- Define local variables.
    h       NUMBER;         -- handle returned by 'OPEN'
    th      NUMBER;         -- handle returned by 'ADD_TRANSFORM'
    doc     CLOB;           -- metadata is returned in a CLOB
    BEGIN
    
     -- Specify the object type.
     h := DBMS_METADATA.OPEN('SCHEMA_EXPORT');
    
     -- Use filters to specify the schema.
     DBMS_METADATA.SET_FILTER(h,'SCHEMA','SCOTT');
    
     -- Use the fourth parameter to SET_FILTER to specify a filter
     -- that applies to a specific member object type.
     DBMS_METADATA.SET_FILTER(h,'NAME_EXPR','!=''MY_METADATA''','TABLE');
    
     -- Use the EXCLUDE_PATH_EXPR filter to exclude procedures.
     DBMS_METADATA.SET_FILTER(h,'EXCLUDE_PATH_EXPR','=''PROCEDURE''');
    
     -- Request that the metadata be transformed into creation DDL.
     th := DBMS_METADATA.ADD_TRANSFORM(h,'DDL');
    
     -- Use the fourth parameter to SET_TRANSFORM_PARAM to specify a parameter
     --  that applies to a specific member object type.
    DBMS_METADATA.SET_TRANSFORM_PARAM(th,'SEGMENT_ATTRIBUTES',false,'TABLE');
    
     -- Fetch the objects.
     LOOP
       doc := dbms_metadata.fetch_clob(h);
    
       -- When there are no more objects to be retrieved, FETCH_CLOB returns NULL.
       EXIT WHEN doc IS NULL;
    
       -- Store the metadata in the table.
       INSERT INTO my_metadata(md) VALUES (doc);
       COMMIT;
     END LOOP;
     
     -- Release resources.
     DBMS_METADATA.CLOSE(h);
    END;
    /
    
  2. Execute the procedure:

    EXECUTE get_schema_md2;
    
  3. Perform the following query to see what was retrieved:

    SET LONG 9000000
    SET PAGESIZE 0
    SELECT * FROM my_metadata;
    

Using the DBMS_METADATA_DIFF API to Compare Object Metadata

This section provides an example that uses the retrieval, comparison, and submit interfaces of DBMS_METADATA and DBMS_METADATA_DIFF to fetch metadata for two tables, compare the metadata, and generate ALTER statements which make one table like the other. For simplicity, function variants are used throughout the example.

Example 20-10 Comparing Object Metadata

  1. Create two tables, TAB1 and TAB2:

    SQL> CREATE TABLE TAB1
      2     (    "EMPNO" NUMBER(4,0),
      3          "ENAME" VARCHAR2(10),
      4          "JOB" VARCHAR2(9),
      5          "DEPTNO" NUMBER(2,0)
      6     ) ;
     
    Table created.
     
    SQL> CREATE TABLE TAB2
      2     (    "EMPNO" NUMBER(4,0) PRIMARY KEY ENABLE,
      3          "ENAME" VARCHAR2(20),
      4          "MGR" NUMBER(4,0),
      5          "DEPTNO" NUMBER(2,0)
      6     ) ;
     
    Table created.
     
    

    Note the differences between TAB1 and TAB2:

    • The table names are different

    • TAB2 has a primary key constraint; TAB1 does not

    • The length of the ENAME column is different in each table

    • TAB1 has a JOB column; TAB2 does not

    • TAB2 has a MGR column; TAB1 does not

  2. Create a function to return the table metadata in SXML format. The following are some key points to keep in mind about SXML when you are using the DBMS_METADATA_DIFF API:

    • SXML is an XML representation of object metadata.

    • The SXML returned is not the same as the XML returned by DBMS_METADATA.GET_XML, which is complex and opaque and contains binary values, instance-specific values, and so on.

    • SXML looks like a direct translation of SQL creation DDL into XML. The tag names and structure correspond to names in the Oracle Database SQL Language Reference.

    • SXML is designed to support editing and comparison.

    To keep this example simple, a transform parameter is used to suppress physical properties:

    SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION get_table_sxml(name IN VARCHAR2) RETURN CLOB IS
      2   open_handle NUMBER;
      3   transform_handle NUMBER;
      4   doc CLOB;
      5  BEGIN
      6   open_handle := DBMS_METADATA.OPEN('TABLE');
      7   DBMS_METADATA.SET_FILTER(open_handle,'NAME',name);
      8   --
      9   -- Use the 'SXML' transform to convert XML to SXML
     10   --
     11   transform_handle := DBMS_METADATA.ADD_TRANSFORM(open_handle,'SXML');
     12   --
     13   -- Use this transform parameter to suppress physical properties
     14   --
     15   DBMS_METADATA.SET_TRANSFORM_PARAM(transform_handle,'PHYSICAL_PROPERTIES',
     16                                     FALSE);
     17   doc := DBMS_METADATA.FETCH_CLOB(open_handle);
     18   DBMS_METADATA.CLOSE(open_handle);
     19   RETURN doc;
     20  END;
     21  /
     
    Function created.
     
    
  3. Use the get_table_sxml function to fetch the table SXML for the two tables:

    SQL> SELECT get_table_sxml('TAB1') FROM dual;
     
      <TABLE xmlns="http://xmlns.oracle.com/ku" version="1.0">
       <SCHEMA>SCOTT</SCHEMA>
       <NAME>TAB1</NAME>
       <RELATIONAL_TABLE>
          <COL_LIST>
             <COL_LIST_ITEM>
                <NAME>EMPNO</NAME>
                <DATATYPE>NUMBER</DATATYPE>
                <PRECISION>4</PRECISION>
                <SCALE>0</SCALE>
             </COL_LIST_ITEM>
             <COL_LIST_ITEM>
                <NAME>ENAME</NAME>
                <DATATYPE>VARCHAR2</DATATYPE>
                <LENGTH>10</LENGTH>
             </COL_LIST_ITEM>
             <COL_LIST_ITEM>
                <NAME>JOB</NAME>
                <DATATYPE>VARCHAR2</DATATYPE>
                <LENGTH>9</LENGTH>
             </COL_LIST_ITEM>
             <COL_LIST_ITEM>
                <NAME>DEPTNO</NAME>
                <DATATYPE>NUMBER</DATATYPE>
                <PRECISION>2</PRECISION>
                <SCALE>0</SCALE>
             </COL_LIST_ITEM>
          </COL_LIST>
       </RELATIONAL_TABLE>
    </TABLE> 
      
    1 row selected.
     
    SQL> SELECT get_table_sxml('TAB2') FROM dual;
     
      <TABLE xmlns="http://xmlns.oracle.com/ku" version="1.0">
       <SCHEMA>SCOTT</SCHEMA>
       <NAME>TAB2</NAME>
       <RELATIONAL_TABLE>
          <COL_LIST>
             <COL_LIST_ITEM>
                <NAME>EMPNO</NAME>
                <DATATYPE>NUMBER</DATATYPE>
                <PRECISION>4</PRECISION>
                <SCALE>0</SCALE>
             </COL_LIST_ITEM>
             <COL_LIST_ITEM>
                <NAME>ENAME</NAME>
                <DATATYPE>VARCHAR2</DATATYPE>
                <LENGTH>20</LENGTH>
             </COL_LIST_ITEM>
             <COL_LIST_ITEM>
                <NAME>MGR</NAME>
                <DATATYPE>NUMBER</DATATYPE>
                <PRECISION>4</PRECISION>
                <SCALE>0</SCALE>
             </COL_LIST_ITEM>
             <COL_LIST_ITEM>
                <NAME>DEPTNO</NAME>
                <DATATYPE>NUMBER</DATATYPE>
                <PRECISION>2</PRECISION>
                <SCALE>0</SCALE>
             </COL_LIST_ITEM>
          </COL_LIST>
          <PRIMARY_KEY_CONSTRAINT_LIST>
             <PRIMARY_KEY_CONSTRAINT_LIST_ITEM>
                <COL_LIST>
                   <COL_LIST_ITEM>
                      <NAME>EMPNO</NAME>
                   </COL_LIST_ITEM>
                </COL_LIST>
             </PRIMARY_KEY_CONSTRAINT_LIST_ITEM>
          </PRIMARY_KEY_CONSTRAINT_LIST>
       </RELATIONAL_TABLE>
    </TABLE> 
     
    1 row selected.
     
    
  4. Compare the results using the DBMS_METADATA browsing APIs:

    SQL> SELECT dbms_metadata.get_sxml('TABLE','TAB1') FROM dual;
    SQL> SELECT dbms_metadata.get_sxml('TABLE','TAB2') FROM dual;
    
  5. Create a function using the DBMS_METADATA_DIFF API to compare the metadata for the two tables. In this function, the get_table_sxml function that was just defined in step 2 is used.

    SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION compare_table_sxml(name1 IN VARCHAR2,
      2                                          name2 IN VARCHAR2) RETURN CLOB IS
      3   doc1 CLOB;
      4   doc2 CLOB;
      5   diffdoc CLOB;
      6   openc_handle NUMBER;
      7  BEGIN
      8   --
      9   -- Fetch the SXML for the two tables
     10   --
     11   doc1 := get_table_sxml(name1);
     12   doc2 := get_table_sxml(name2);
     13   --
     14   -- Specify the object type in the OPENC call
     15   --
     16   openc_handle := DBMS_METADATA_DIFF.OPENC('TABLE');
     17   --
     18   -- Add each document
     19   --
     20   DBMS_METADATA_DIFF.ADD_DOCUMENT(openc_handle,doc1);
     21   DBMS_METADATA_DIFF.ADD_DOCUMENT(openc_handle,doc2);
     22   --
     23   -- Fetch the SXML difference document
     24   --
     25   diffdoc := DBMS_METADATA_DIFF.FETCH_CLOB(openc_handle);
     26   DBMS_METADATA_DIFF.CLOSE(openc_handle);
     27   RETURN diffdoc;
     28  END;
     29  /
     
    Function created.
    
  6. Use the function to fetch the SXML difference document for the two tables:

    SQL> SELECT compare_table_sxml('TAB1','TAB2') FROM dual;
    
    <TABLE xmlns="http://xmlns.oracle.com/ku" version="1.0">
      <SCHEMA>SCOTT</SCHEMA>
      <NAME value1="TAB1">TAB2</NAME>
      <RELATIONAL_TABLE>
        <COL_LIST>
          <COL_LIST_ITEM>
            <NAME>EMPNO</NAME>
            <DATATYPE>NUMBER</DATATYPE>
            <PRECISION>4</PRECISION>
            <SCALE>0</SCALE>
          </COL_LIST_ITEM>
          <COL_LIST_ITEM>
            <NAME>ENAME</NAME>
            <DATATYPE>VARCHAR2</DATATYPE>
            <LENGTH value1="10">20</LENGTH>
          </COL_LIST_ITEM>
          <COL_LIST_ITEM src="1">
            <NAME>JOB</NAME>
            <DATATYPE>VARCHAR2</DATATYPE>
            <LENGTH>9</LENGTH>
          </COL_LIST_ITEM>
          <COL_LIST_ITEM>
            <NAME>DEPTNO</NAME>
            <DATATYPE>NUMBER</DATATYPE>
            <PRECISION>2</PRECISION>
            <SCALE>0</SCALE>
          </COL_LIST_ITEM>
          <COL_LIST_ITEM src="2">
            <NAME>MGR</NAME>
            <DATATYPE>NUMBER</DATATYPE>
            <PRECISION>4</PRECISION>
            <SCALE>0</SCALE>
          </COL_LIST_ITEM>
        </COL_LIST>
        <PRIMARY_KEY_CONSTRAINT_LIST src="2">
          <PRIMARY_KEY_CONSTRAINT_LIST_ITEM>
            <COL_LIST>
              <COL_LIST_ITEM>
                <NAME>EMPNO</NAME>
              </COL_LIST_ITEM>
            </COL_LIST>
          </PRIMARY_KEY_CONSTRAINT_LIST_ITEM>
        </PRIMARY_KEY_CONSTRAINT_LIST>
      </RELATIONAL_TABLE>
    </TABLE>
     
    1 row selected.
     
    

    The SXML difference document shows the union of the two SXML documents, with the XML attributes value1 and src identifying the differences. When an element exists in only one document it is marked with src. Thus, <COL_LIST_ITEM src="1"> means that this element is in the first document (TAB1) but not in the second. When an element is present in both documents but with different values, the element's value is the value in the second document and the value1 gives its value in the first. For example, <LENGTH value1="10">20</LENGTH> means that the length is 10 in TAB1 (the first document) and 20 in TAB2.

  7. Compare the result using the DBMS_METADATA_DIFF browsing APIs:

    SQL> SELECT dbms_metadata_diff.compare_sxml('TABLE','TAB1','TAB2') FROM dual;
    
  8. Create a function using the DBMS_METADATA.CONVERT API to generate an ALTERXML document. This is an XML document containing ALTER statements to make one object like another. You can also use parse items to get information about the individual ALTER statements. (This example uses the functions defined thus far.)

    SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION get_table_alterxml(name1 IN VARCHAR2,
      2                                           name2 IN VARCHAR2) RETURN CLOB IS
      3   diffdoc CLOB;
      4   openw_handle NUMBER;
      5   transform_handle NUMBER;
      6   alterxml CLOB;
      7  BEGIN
      8   --
      9   -- Use the function just defined to get the difference document
     10   --
     11   diffdoc := compare_table_sxml(name1,name2);
     12   --
     13   -- Specify the object type in the OPENW call
     14   --
     15   openw_handle := DBMS_METADATA.OPENW('TABLE');
     16   --
     17   -- Use the ALTERXML transform to generate the ALTER_XML document
     18   --
     19   transform_handle := DBMS_METADATA.ADD_TRANSFORM(openw_handle,'ALTERXML');
     20   --
     21   -- Request parse items
     22   --
     23   DBMS_METADATA.SET_PARSE_ITEM(openw_handle,'CLAUSE_TYPE');
     24   DBMS_METADATA.SET_PARSE_ITEM(openw_handle,'NAME');
     25   DBMS_METADATA.SET_PARSE_ITEM(openw_handle,'COLUMN_ATTRIBUTE');
     26   --
     27   -- Create a temporary LOB
     28   --
     29   DBMS_LOB.CREATETEMPORARY(alterxml, TRUE );
     30   --
     31   -- Call CONVERT to do the transform
     32   --
     33   DBMS_METADATA.CONVERT(openw_handle,diffdoc,alterxml);
     34   --
     35   -- Close context and return the result
     36   --
     37   DBMS_METADATA.CLOSE(openw_handle);
     38   RETURN alterxml;
     39  END;
     40  /
     
    Function created.
    
  9. Use the function to fetch the ALTER_XML document:

    SQL> SELECT get_table_alterxml('TAB1','TAB2') FROM dual;
     
    <ALTER_XML xmlns="http://xmlns.oracle.com/ku" version="1.0">
       <OBJECT_TYPE>TABLE</OBJECT_TYPE>
       <OBJECT1>
          <SCHEMA>SCOTT</SCHEMA>
          <NAME>TAB1</NAME>
       </OBJECT1>
       <OBJECT2>
          <SCHEMA>SCOTT</SCHEMA>
          <NAME>TAB2</NAME>
       </OBJECT2>
       <ALTER_LIST>
          <ALTER_LIST_ITEM>
             <PARSE_LIST>
                <PARSE_LIST_ITEM>
                   <ITEM>NAME</ITEM>
                   <VALUE>MGR</VALUE>
                </PARSE_LIST_ITEM>
                <PARSE_LIST_ITEM>
                   <ITEM>CLAUSE_TYPE</ITEM>
                   <VALUE>ADD_COLUMN</VALUE>
                </PARSE_LIST_ITEM>
             </PARSE_LIST>
             <SQL_LIST>
                <SQL_LIST_ITEM>
                   <TEXT>ALTER TABLE "SCOTT"."TAB1" ADD ("MGR" NUMBER(4,0))</TEXT>
                </SQL_LIST_ITEM>
             </SQL_LIST>
          </ALTER_LIST_ITEM>
          <ALTER_LIST_ITEM>
             <PARSE_LIST>
                <PARSE_LIST_ITEM>
                   <ITEM>NAME</ITEM>
                   <VALUE>JOB</VALUE>
                </PARSE_LIST_ITEM>
                <PARSE_LIST_ITEM>
                   <ITEM>CLAUSE_TYPE</ITEM>
                   <VALUE>DROP_COLUMN</VALUE>
                </PARSE_LIST_ITEM>
             </PARSE_LIST>
             <SQL_LIST>
                <SQL_LIST_ITEM>
                   <TEXT>ALTER TABLE "SCOTT"."TAB1" DROP ("JOB")</TEXT>
                </SQL_LIST_ITEM>
             </SQL_LIST>
          </ALTER_LIST_ITEM>
          <ALTER_LIST_ITEM>
             <PARSE_LIST>
                <PARSE_LIST_ITEM>
                   <ITEM>NAME</ITEM>
                   <VALUE>ENAME</VALUE>
                </PARSE_LIST_ITEM>
                <PARSE_LIST_ITEM>
                   <ITEM>CLAUSE_TYPE</ITEM>
                   <VALUE>MODIFY_COLUMN</VALUE>
                </PARSE_LIST_ITEM>
                <PARSE_LIST_ITEM>
                   <ITEM>COLUMN_ATTRIBUTE</ITEM>
                   <VALUE> SIZE_INCREASE</VALUE>
                </PARSE_LIST_ITEM>
             </PARSE_LIST>
             <SQL_LIST>
                <SQL_LIST_ITEM>
                   <TEXT>ALTER TABLE "SCOTT"."TAB1" MODIFY 
                        ("ENAME" VARCHAR2(20))
                   </TEXT>
                </SQL_LIST_ITEM>
             </SQL_LIST>
          </ALTER_LIST_ITEM>
          <ALTER_LIST_ITEM>
             <PARSE_LIST>
                <PARSE_LIST_ITEM>
                   <ITEM>CLAUSE_TYPE</ITEM>
                   <VALUE>ADD_CONSTRAINT</VALUE>
                </PARSE_LIST_ITEM>
             </PARSE_LIST>
             <SQL_LIST>
                <SQL_LIST_ITEM>
                   <TEXT>ALTER TABLE "SCOTT"."TAB1" ADD  PRIMARY KEY
                         ("EMPNO") ENABLE
                   </TEXT>
                </SQL_LIST_ITEM>
             </SQL_LIST>
          </ALTER_LIST_ITEM>
          <ALTER_LIST_ITEM>
             <PARSE_LIST>
                <PARSE_LIST_ITEM>
                   <ITEM>NAME</ITEM>
                   <VALUE>TAB1</VALUE>
                </PARSE_LIST_ITEM>
                <PARSE_LIST_ITEM>
                   <ITEM>CLAUSE_TYPE</ITEM>
                   <VALUE>RENAME_TABLE</VALUE>
                </PARSE_LIST_ITEM>
             </PARSE_LIST>
             <SQL_LIST>
                <SQL_LIST_ITEM>
                   <TEXT>ALTER TABLE "SCOTT"."TAB1" RENAME TO "TAB2"</TEXT>
                </SQL_LIST_ITEM>
             </SQL_LIST>
          </ALTER_LIST_ITEM>
       </ALTER_LIST>
    </ALTER_XML>
     
     
    1 row selected.
     
    
  10. Compare the result using the DBMS_METADATA_DIFF browsing API:

    SQL> SELECT dbms_metadata_diff.compare_alter_xml('TABLE','TAB1','TAB2') FROM dual;
    
  11. The ALTER_XML document contains an ALTER_LIST of each of the alters. Each ALTER_LIST_ITEM has a PARSE_LIST containing the parse items as name-value pairs and a SQL_LIST containing the SQL for the particular alter. You can parse this document and decide which of the SQL statements to execute, using the information in the PARSE_LIST. (Note, for example, that in this case one of the alters is a DROP_COLUMN, and you might choose not to execute that.)

  12. Create one last function that uses the DBMS_METADATA.CONVERT API and the ALTER DDL transform to convert the ALTER_XML document into SQL DDL:

    SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION get_table_alterddl(name1 IN VARCHAR2,
      2                                           name2 IN VARCHAR2) RETURN CLOB IS
      3   alterxml CLOB;
      4   openw_handle NUMBER;
      5   transform_handle NUMBER;
      6   alterddl CLOB;
      7  BEGIN
      8   --
      9   -- Use the function just defined to get the ALTER_XML document
     10   --
     11   alterxml := get_table_alterxml(name1,name2);
     12   --
     13   -- Specify the object type in the OPENW call
     14   --
     15   openw_handle := DBMS_METADATA.OPENW('TABLE');
     16   --
     17   -- Use ALTERDDL transform to convert the ALTER_XML document to SQL DDL
     18   -- 
     19   transform_handle := DBMS_METADATA.ADD_TRANSFORM(openw_handle,'ALTERDDL');
     20   --
     21   -- Use the SQLTERMINATOR transform parameter to append a terminator
     22   -- to each SQL statement
     23   --
     24   DBMS_METADATA.SET_TRANSFORM_PARAM(transform_handle,'SQLTERMINATOR',true);
     25   --
     26   -- Create a temporary lob
     27   --
     28   DBMS_LOB.CREATETEMPORARY(alterddl, TRUE );
     29   --
     30   -- Call CONVERT to do the transform
     31   --
     32   DBMS_METADATA.CONVERT(openw_handle,alterxml,alterddl);
     33   --
     34   -- Close context and return the result
     35   --
     36   DBMS_METADATA.CLOSE(openw_handle);
     37   RETURN alterddl;
     38  END;
     39  /
     
    Function created.
     
    
  13. Use the function to fetch the SQL ALTER statements:

    SQL> SELECT get_table_alterddl('TAB1','TAB2') FROM dual;
    ALTER TABLE "SCOTT"."TAB1" ADD ("MGR" NUMBER(4,0))
    /
      ALTER TABLE "SCOTT"."TAB1" DROP ("JOB")
    /
      ALTER TABLE "SCOTT"."TAB1" MODIFY ("ENAME" VARCHAR2(20))
    /
      ALTER TABLE "SCOTT"."TAB1" ADD  PRIMARY KEY ("EMPNO") ENABLE
    /
      ALTER TABLE "SCOTT"."TAB1" RENAME TO "TAB2"
    /
      
    1 row selected.
     
    
  14. Compare the results using the DBMS_METADATA_DIFF browsing API:

    SQL> SELECT dbms_metadata_diff.compare_alter('TABLE','TAB1','TAB2') FROM dual;
    ALTER TABLE "SCOTT"."TAB1" ADD ("MGR" NUMBER(4,0))
      ALTER TABLE "SCOTT"."TAB1" DROP ("JOB")
      ALTER TABLE "SCOTT"."TAB1" MODIFY ("ENAME" VARCHAR2(20))
      ALTER TABLE "SCOTT"."TAB1" ADD  PRIMARY KEY ("EMPNO") USING INDEX 
      PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 STORAGE ( INITIAL 16384 NEXT 16384 MINEXTENTS 1
      MAXEXTENTS 505 PCTINCREASE 50 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1 BUFFER_POOL
      DEFAULT)  ENABLE ALTER TABLE "SCOTT"."TAB1" RENAME TO "TAB2"
     
    1 row selected.
    

Performance Tips for the Programmatic Interface of the DBMS_METADATA API

This section describes how to enhance performance when using the programmatic interface of the DBMS_METADATA API.

  1. Fetch all of one type of object before fetching the next. For example, if you are retrieving the definitions of all objects in your schema, first fetch all tables, then all indexes, then all triggers, and so on. This will be much faster than nesting OPEN contexts; that is, fetch one table then all of its indexes, grants, and triggers, then the next table and all of its indexes, grants, and triggers, and so on. "Example Usage of the DBMS_METADATA API" reflects this second, less efficient means, but its purpose is to demonstrate most of the programmatic calls, which are best shown by this method.

  2. Use the SET_COUNT procedure to retrieve more than one object at a time. This minimizes server round trips and eliminates many redundant function calls.

  3. When writing a PL/SQL package that calls the DBMS_METADATA API, declare LOB variables and objects that contain LOBs (such as SYS.KU$_DDLS) at package scope rather than within individual functions. This eliminates the creation and deletion of LOB duration structures upon function entrance and exit, which are very expensive operations.

Example Usage of the DBMS_METADATA API

This section provides an example of how the DBMS_METADATA API could be used. A script is provided that automatically runs the demo for you by performing the following actions:

  • Establishes a schema (MDDEMO) and some payroll users.

  • Creates three payroll-like tables within the schema and any associated indexes, triggers, and grants.

  • Creates a package, PAYROLL_DEMO, that uses the DBMS_METADATA API. The PAYROLL_DEMO package contains a procedure, GET_PAYROLL_TABLES, that retrieves the DDL for the two tables in the MDDEMO schema that start with PAYROLL. For each table, it retrieves the DDL for the table's associated dependent objects; indexes, grants, and triggers. All the DDL is written to a table named MDDEMO.DDL.

To execute the example, do the following:

  1. Start SQL*Plus as user system. You will be prompted for a password.

    sqlplus system
    
  2. Install the demo, which is located in the file mddemo.sql in rdbms/demo:

    SQL> @mddemo
    

    For an explanation of what happens during this step, see "What Does the DBMS_METADATA Example Do?".

  3. Connect as user mddemo. You will be prompted for a password, which is also mddemo.

    SQL> CONNECT mddemo
    Enter password:
    
  4. Set the following parameters so that query output will be complete and readable:

    SQL> SET PAGESIZE 0
    SQL> SET LONG 1000000
    
  5. Execute the GET_PAYROLL_TABLES procedure, as follows:

    SQL> CALL payroll_demo.get_payroll_tables();
    
  6. Execute the following SQL query:

    SQL> SELECT ddl FROM DDL ORDER BY SEQNO;
    

    The output generated is the result of the execution of the GET_PAYROLL_TABLES procedure. It shows all the DDL that was performed in Step 2 when the demo was installed. See "Output Generated from the GET_PAYROLL_TABLES Procedure" for a listing of the actual output.

What Does the DBMS_METADATA Example Do?

When the mddemo script is run, the following steps take place. You can adapt these steps to your own situation.

  1. Drops users as follows, if they exist. This will ensure that you are starting out with fresh data. If the users do not exist, then a message to that effect is displayed, no harm is done, and the demo continues to execute.

    CONNECT system
    Enter password: password
    SQL> DROP USER mddemo CASCADE;
    SQL> DROP USER mddemo_clerk CASCADE;
    SQL> DROP USER mddemo_mgr CASCADE;
    
  2. Creates user mddemo, identified by mddemo:

    SQL> CREATE USER mddemo IDENTIFIED BY mddemo;
    SQL> GRANT resource, connect, create session,
      1     create table,
      2     create procedure, 
      3     create sequence,
      4     create trigger,
      5     create view,
      6     create synonym,
      7     alter session,
      8  TO mddemo;
    
  3. Creates user mddemo_clerk, identified by clerk:

    CREATE USER mddemo_clerk IDENTIFIED BY clerk;
    
  4. Creates user mddemo_mgr, identified by mgr:

    CREATE USER mddemo_mgr IDENTIFIED BY mgr;
    
  5. Connect to SQL*Plus as mddemo (the password is also mddemo):

    CONNECT mddemo
    Enter password:
    
  6. Creates some payroll-type tables:

    SQL> CREATE TABLE payroll_emps
      2  ( lastname VARCHAR2(60) NOT NULL,
      3  firstname VARCHAR2(20) NOT NULL,
      4  mi VARCHAR2(2),
      5  suffix VARCHAR2(10),
      6  dob DATE NOT NULL,
      7  badge_no NUMBER(6) PRIMARY KEY,
      8  exempt VARCHAR(1) NOT NULL,
      9  salary NUMBER (9,2),
      10 hourly_rate NUMBER (7,2) )
      11 /
    
    SQL> CREATE TABLE payroll_timecards 
      2  (badge_no NUMBER(6) REFERENCES payroll_emps (badge_no),
      3  week NUMBER(2),
      4  job_id NUMBER(5),
      5  hours_worked NUMBER(4,2) )
      6 /
    
  7. Creates a dummy table, audit_trail. This table is used to show that tables that do not start with payroll are not retrieved by the GET_PAYROLL_TABLES procedure.

    SQL> CREATE TABLE audit_trail 
      2  (action_time DATE,
      3  lastname VARCHAR2(60),
      4  action LONG )
      5  /
    
  8. Creates some grants on the tables just created:

    SQL> GRANT UPDATE (salary,hourly_rate) ON payroll_emps TO mddemo_clerk;
    SQL> GRANT ALL ON payroll_emps TO mddemo_mgr WITH GRANT OPTION;
    
    SQL> GRANT INSERT,UPDATE ON payroll_timecards TO mddemo_clerk;
    SQL> GRANT ALL ON payroll_timecards TO mddemo_mgr WITH GRANT OPTION;
    
  9. Creates some indexes on the tables just created:

    SQL> CREATE INDEX i_payroll_emps_name ON payroll_emps(lastname);
    SQL> CREATE INDEX i_payroll_emps_dob ON payroll_emps(dob);
    SQL> CREATE INDEX i_payroll_timecards_badge ON payroll_timecards(badge_no);
    
  10. Creates some triggers on the tables just created:

    SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE check_sal( salary in number) AS BEGIN
      2  RETURN;
      3  END;
      4  /
    

    Note that the security is kept fairly loose to keep the example simple.

    SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER salary_trigger BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OF salary
    ON payroll_emps
    FOR EACH ROW WHEN (new.salary > 150000)
    CALL check_sal(:new.salary)
    /
    
    SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER hourly_trigger BEFORE UPDATE OF hourly_rate ON payroll_emps
    FOR EACH ROW
    BEGIN :new.hourly_rate:=:old.hourly_rate;END;
    /
    
  11. Sets up a table to hold the generated DDL:

    CREATE TABLE ddl (ddl CLOB, seqno NUMBER);
    
  12. Creates the PAYROLL_DEMO package, which provides examples of how DBMS_METADATA procedures can be used.

    SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE payroll_demo AS PROCEDURE get_payroll_tables;
    END;
    /
    

    Note:

    To see the entire script for this example, including the contents of the PAYROLL_DEMO package, see the file mddemo.sql located in your $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/demo directory.

Output Generated from the GET_PAYROLL_TABLES Procedure

After you execute the mddemo.payroll_demo.get_payroll_tables procedure, you can execute the following query:

SQL> SELECT ddl FROM ddl ORDER BY seqno;

The results are as follows, which reflect all the DDL executed by the script as described in the previous section.

CREATE TABLE "MDDEMO"."PAYROLL_EMPS"
   (    "LASTNAME" VARCHAR2(60) NOT NULL ENABLE,
        "FIRSTNAME" VARCHAR2(20) NOT NULL ENABLE,
        "MI" VARCHAR2(2),
        "SUFFIX" VARCHAR2(10),
        "DOB" DATE NOT NULL ENABLE,
        "BADGE_NO" NUMBER(6,0),
        "EXEMPT" VARCHAR2(1) NOT NULL ENABLE,
        "SALARY" NUMBER(9,2),
        "HOURLY_RATE" NUMBER(7,2),
 PRIMARY KEY ("BADGE_NO") ENABLE
   ) ;

  GRANT UPDATE ("SALARY") ON "MDDEMO"."PAYROLL_EMPS" TO "MDDEMO_CLERK";
  GRANT UPDATE ("HOURLY_RATE") ON "MDDEMO"."PAYROLL_EMPS" TO "MDDEMO_CLERK";
  GRANT ALTER ON "MDDEMO"."PAYROLL_EMPS" TO "MDDEMO_MGR" WITH GRANT OPTION;
  GRANT DELETE ON "MDDEMO"."PAYROLL_EMPS" TO "MDDEMO_MGR" WITH GRANT OPTION;
  GRANT INDEX ON "MDDEMO"."PAYROLL_EMPS" TO "MDDEMO_MGR" WITH GRANT OPTION;
  GRANT INSERT ON "MDDEMO"."PAYROLL_EMPS" TO "MDDEMO_MGR" WITH GRANT OPTION;
  GRANT SELECT ON "MDDEMO"."PAYROLL_EMPS" TO "MDDEMO_MGR" WITH GRANT OPTION;
  GRANT UPDATE ON "MDDEMO"."PAYROLL_EMPS" TO "MDDEMO_MGR" WITH GRANT OPTION;
  GRANT REFERENCES ON "MDDEMO"."PAYROLL_EMPS" TO "MDDEMO_MGR" WITH GRANT OPTION;
  GRANT ON COMMIT REFRESH ON "MDDEMO"."PAYROLL_EMPS" TO "MDDEMO_MGR" WITH GRANT OPTION;
  GRANT QUERY REWRITE ON "MDDEMO"."PAYROLL_EMPS" TO "MDDEMO_MGR" WITH GRANT OPTION;

  CREATE INDEX "MDDEMO"."I_PAYROLL_EMPS_DOB" ON "MDDEMO"."PAYROLL_EMPS" ("DOB")
  PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 MAXTRANS 255
  STORAGE(INITIAL 10240 NEXT 10240 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 121 PCTINCREASE 50
  FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1 BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT) TABLESPACE "SYSTEM" ;


  CREATE INDEX "MDDEMO"."I_PAYROLL_EMPS_NAME" ON "MDDEMO"."PAYROLL_EMPS" ("LASTNAME")
  PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 MAXTRANS 255
  STORAGE(INITIAL 10240 NEXT 10240 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 121 PCTINCREASE 50
  FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1 BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT) TABLESPACE "SYSTEM" ;

  CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER hourly_trigger before update of hourly_rate on payroll_emps
for each row
begin :new.hourly_rate:=:old.hourly_rate;end;
/
ALTER TRIGGER "MDDEMO"."HOURLY_TRIGGER" ENABLE;

  CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER salary_trigger before insert or update of salary on payroll_emps
for each row  
WHEN (new.salary > 150000)  CALL check_sal(:new.salary)
/
ALTER TRIGGER "MDDEMO"."SALARY_TRIGGER" ENABLE;


CREATE TABLE "MDDEMO"."PAYROLL_TIMECARDS"
   (    "BADGE_NO" NUMBER(6,0),
        "WEEK" NUMBER(2,0),
        "JOB_ID" NUMBER(5,0),
        "HOURS_WORKED" NUMBER(4,2),
 FOREIGN KEY ("BADGE_NO")
  REFERENCES "MDDEMO"."PAYROLL_EMPS" ("BADGE_NO") ENABLE
   ) ;

  GRANT INSERT ON "MDDEMO"."PAYROLL_TIMECARDS" TO "MDDEMO_CLERK";
  GRANT UPDATE ON "MDDEMO"."PAYROLL_TIMECARDS" TO "MDDEMO_CLERK";
  GRANT ALTER ON "MDDEMO"."PAYROLL_TIMECARDS" TO "MDDEMO_MGR" WITH GRANT OPTION;
  GRANT DELETE ON "MDDEMO"."PAYROLL_TIMECARDS" TO "MDDEMO_MGR" WITH GRANT OPTION;
  GRANT INDEX ON "MDDEMO"."PAYROLL_TIMECARDS" TO "MDDEMO_MGR" WITH GRANT OPTION;
  GRANT INSERT ON "MDDEMO"."PAYROLL_TIMECARDS" TO "MDDEMO_MGR" WITH GRANT OPTION;
  GRANT SELECT ON "MDDEMO"."PAYROLL_TIMECARDS" TO "MDDEMO_MGR" WITH GRANT OPTION;
  GRANT UPDATE ON "MDDEMO"."PAYROLL_TIMECARDS" TO "MDDEMO_MGR" WITH GRANT OPTION;
  GRANT REFERENCES ON "MDDEMO"."PAYROLL_TIMECARDS" TO "MDDEMO_MGR" WITH GRANT OPTION;
  GRANT ON COMMIT REFRESH ON "MDDEMO"."PAYROLL_TIMECARDS" TO "MDDEMO_MGR" WITH GRANT OPTION;
  GRANT QUERY REWRITE ON "MDDEMO"."PAYROLL_TIMECARDS" TO "MDDEMO_MGR" WITH GRANT OPTION;

  CREATE INDEX "MDDEMO"."I_PAYROLL_TIMECARDS_BADGE" ON "MDDEMO"."PAYROLL_TIMECARDS" ("BADGE_NO")
  PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 MAXTRANS 255
  STORAGE(INITIAL 10240 NEXT 10240 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 121 PCTINCREASE 50
  FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1 BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT) TABLESPACE "SYSTEM" ;

Summary of DBMS_METADATA Procedures

This section provides brief descriptions of the procedures provided by the DBMS_METADATA API. For detailed descriptions of these procedures, see Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference.

Table 20-1 provides a brief description of the procedures provided by the DBMS_METADATA programmatic interface for retrieving multiple objects.

Table 20-1 DBMS_METADATA Procedures Used for Retrieving Multiple Objects

PL/SQL Procedure Name Description
DBMS_METADATA.OPEN()

Specifies the type of object to be retrieved, the version of its metadata, and the object model.

DBMS_METADATA.SET_FILTER()

Specifies restrictions on the objects to be retrieved, for example, the object name or schema.

DBMS_METADATA.SET_COUNT()

Specifies the maximum number of objects to be retrieved in a single FETCH_xxx call.

DBMS_METADATA.GET_QUERY()

Returns the text of the queries that are used by FETCH_xxx. You can use this as a debugging aid.

DBMS_METADATA.SET_PARSE_ITEM()

Enables output parsing by specifying an object attribute to be parsed and returned.

DBMS_METADATA.ADD_TRANSFORM()

Specifies a transform that FETCH_xxx applies to the XML representation of the retrieved objects.

DBMS_METADATA.SET_TRANSFORM_PARAM()

Specifies parameters to the XSLT stylesheet identified by transform_handle.

DBMS_METADATA.SET_REMAP_PARAM()

Specifies parameters to the XSLT stylesheet identified by transform_handle.

DBMS_METADATA.FETCH_xxx()

Returns metadata for objects meeting the criteria established by OPEN, SET_FILTER, SET_COUNT, ADD_TRANSFORM, and so on.

DBMS_METADATA.CLOSE()

Invalidates the handle returned by OPEN and cleans up the associated state.


Table 20-2 lists the procedures provided by the DBMS_METADATA browsing interface and provides a brief description of each one. These functions return metadata for one or more dependent or granted objects. These procedures do not support heterogeneous object types.

Table 20-2 DBMS_METADATA Procedures Used for the Browsing Interface

PL/SQL Procedure Name Description
DBMS_METADATA.GET_xxx()

Provides a way to return metadata for a single object. Each GET_xxx call consists of an OPEN procedure, one or two SET_FILTER calls, optionally an ADD_TRANSFORM procedure, a FETCH_xxx call, and a CLOSE procedure.

The object_type parameter has the same semantics as in the OPEN procedure. schema and name are used for filtering.

If a transform is specified, then session-level transform flags are inherited.

DBMS_METADATA.GET_DEPENDENT_xxx()

Returns the metadata for one or more dependent objects, specified as XML or DDL.

DBMS_METADATA.GET_GRANTED_xxx()

Returns the metadata for one or more granted objects, specified as XML or DDL.


Table 20-3 provides a brief description of the DBMS_METADATA procedures and functions used for XML submission.

Table 20-3 DBMS_METADATA Procedures and Functions for Submitting XML Data

PL/SQL Name Description
DBMS_METADATA.OPENW()

Opens a write context.

DBMS_METADATA.ADD_TRANSFORM()

Specifies a transform for the XML documents

DBMS_METADATA.SET_TRANSFORM_PARAM() and 
DBMS_METADATA.SET_REMAP_PARAM()

SET_TRANSFORM_PARAM specifies a parameter to a transform.

SET_REMAP_PARAM specifies a remapping for a transform.

DBMS_METADATA.SET_PARSE_ITEM()

Specifies an object attribute to be parsed.

DBMS_METADATA.CONVERT()

Converts an XML document to DDL.

DBMS_METADATA.PUT()

Submits an XML document to the database.

DBMS_METADATA.CLOSE()

Closes the context opened with OPENW.


Summary of DBMS_METADATA_DIFF Procedures

This section provides brief descriptions of the procedures and functions provided by the DBMS_METADATA_DIFF API. For detailed descriptions of these procedures, see Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference.

Table 20-4 DBMS_METADATA_DIFF Procedures and Functions

PL/SQL Procedure Name Description

OPENC function

Specifies the type of objects to be compared.

ADD_DOCUMENT procedure

Specifies an SXML document to be compared.

FETCH_CLOB functions and procedures

Returns a CLOB showing the differences between the two documents specified by ADD_DOCUMENT.

CLOSE procedure

Invalidates the handle returned by OPENC and cleans up associated state.