5 Configuring Oracle Net Services

This chapter describes how to configure Oracle Net Services. It contains the following sections:

See Also:

Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for more information about Oracle Net Services

5.1 Locating Oracle Net Services Configuration Files

Oracle Net Services configuration files are typically, but not always, located in the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory. Depending on the type of file, Oracle Net uses a different search order to locate the file.

The search order for the sqlnet.ora and ldap.ora files is as follows:

  1. The directory specified by the TNS_ADMIN environment variable, if this environment variable is set

  2. The $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory

The search order for the cman.ora, listener.ora, and tnsnames.ora files is as follows:

  1. The directory specified by the TNS_ADMIN environment variable, if this environment variable is set

  2. One of the following directories:

    • On Solaris:

      /var/opt/oracle
      
    • On other platforms:

      /etc
      
  3. The $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory

For some system-level configuration files, users may have a corresponding user-level configuration file stored in their home directory. The settings in the user-level file override the settings in the system-level file. The following table lists the system-level configuration files and the corresponding user-level configuration files:

System-Level Configuration File User-Level Configuration File
sqlnet.ora $HOME/.sqlnet.ora
tnsnames.ora $HOME/.tnsnames.ora

Sample Configuration Files

The $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/samples directory contains samples of the cman.ora, listener.ora, sqlnet.ora, and tnsnames.ora configuration files.

Note:

The cman.ora file is installed only if you select Connection Manager as part of a custom installation.

5.2 Adapters Utility

Use the adapters utility to display the transport protocols, naming methods, and Oracle Advanced Security options that Oracle Database supports on the system. To use the adapters utility, run the following commands:

$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/bin
$ adapters ./oracle

On an Oracle Database Client system, the adapters utility displays output similar to the following:

Oracle Net transport protocols linked with ./oracle are

         IPC
         BEQ
         TCP/IP
         SSL
         RAW

Oracle Net naming methods linked with ./oracle are:

         Local Naming (tnsnames.ora)
         Oracle Directory Naming
         Oracle Host Naming
         NIS Naming

Oracle Advanced Security options linked with ./oracle are:

         RC4 40-bit encryption
         RC4 128-bit encryption
         RC4 256-bit encryption
         DES40 40-bit encryption
         DES 56-bit encryption
         3DES 112-bit encryption
         3DES 168-bit encryption
         AES 128-bit encryption
         AES 192-bit encryption
         SHA crypto-checksumming (for FIPS)
         SHA-1 crypto-checksumming
         Kerberos v5 authentication
         RADIUS authentication
         ENTRUST authentication

See Also:

Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for more information about the adapters utility

5.3 Oracle Protocol Support

Oracle protocol support is a component of Oracle Net. It includes the following:

The IPC, TCP/IP, and TCP/IP with Secure Sockets Layer protocol supports each have an address specification that is used in Oracle Net Services configuration files and in the DISPATCHER initialization parameter. The following sections describe the address specifications for each of the protocol supports.

See Also:

Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for more information about Oracle protocol support

5.3.1 IPC Protocol Support

The IPC protocol support can be used only when the client program and Oracle Database are installed on the same system. This protocol support requires a listener. It is installed and linked to all client tools and the oracle executable.

The IPC protocol support requires an address specification in the following format:

(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL=IPC)(KEY=key))

The following table describes the parameters used in this address specification:

Parameter Description
PROTOCOL The protocol to be used. The value is IPC. It is not case-sensitive.
KEY Any name that is different from any other name used for an IPC KEY on the same system.

The following is a sample IPC protocol address:

(ADDRESS= (PROTOCOL=IPC)(KEY=EXTPROC))

5.3.2 TCP/IP Protocol Support

TCP/IP is the standard communication protocol used for client/server communication over a network. The TCP/IP protocol support enables communication between client programs and Oracle Database, whether they are installed on the same or different systems. If the TCP/IP protocol is installed on the system, then the TCP/IP protocol support is installed and linked to all client tools and to the oracle executable.

The TCP/IP protocol support requires an address specification in the following format:

(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=hostname)(PORT=port))

The following table describes the parameters used in this address specification:

Parameter Description
PROTOCOL The protocol support to be used. The value is TCP. It is not case-sensitive.
HOST The host name or the host IP address.
PORT The TCP/IP port. Specify the port as either a number or the alias name mapped to the port in the /etc/services file. Oracle recommends a value of 1521.

The following is a sample TCP/IP protocol address:

(ADDRESS= (PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=MADRID)(PORT=1521))

5.3.3 TCP/IP with Secure Sockets Layer Protocol Support

The TCP/IP with Secure Sockets Layer protocol support enables an Oracle application on a client to communicate with remote Oracle Database instances through TCP/IP and Secure Sockets Layer. To use TCP/IP with Secure Sockets Layer, you must install Oracle Advanced Security.

The TCP/IP with Secure Sockets Layer protocol support requires an address specification in the following format:

(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL=TCPS)(HOST=hostname)(PORT=port))

The following table describes the parameters used in this address specification:

Parameter Description
PROTOCOL The protocol to be used. The value is TCPS. It is not case-sensitive.
HOST The host name or the host IP address.
PORT The TCP/IP with Secure Sockets Layer port. Specify the port as either a number or the alias name mapped to the port in the /etc/services file. Oracle recommends a value of 2484.

The following is a sample TCP/IP with Secure Sockets Layer protocol address:

(ADDRESS= (PROTOCOL=TCPS)(HOST=MADRID)(PORT=2484))

5.4 Setting Up the Listener for TCP/IP or TCP/IP with Secure Sockets Layer

Oracle recommends that you reserve a port for the listener in the /etc/services file of each Oracle Net Services node on the network. The default port is 1521. The entry lists the listener name and the port number. For example:

oraclelistener    1521/tcp

In this example, oraclelistener is the name of the listener as defined in the listener.ora file. Reserve multiple ports if you intend to start multiple listeners.

If you intend to use Secure Sockets Layer, then you should define a port for TCP/IP with Secure Sockets Layer in the /etc/services file. Oracle recommends a value of 2484. For example:

oraclelistenerssl     2484/tcps

In this example, oraclelistenerssl is the name of the listener as defined in the listener.ora file. Reserve multiple ports if you intend to start multiple listeners.

5.5 Oracle Advanced Security

When you install Oracle Advanced Security, three .bak files are created: naeet.o.bak, naect.o.bak, and naedhs.o.bak. These files are located in the $ORACLE_HOME/lib directory.