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Oracle® Database SQL Language Reference
11g Release 2 (11.2)

E41084-03
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Oracle Support for Optional Features of SQL/Foundation:2008

Oracle's support for optional features of SQL/Foundation:2008 is listed in Table C-2:

Table C-2 Oracle Support for Optional Features of SQL/Foundation:2008

Feature ID, Feature Support

B012, Embedded C

Oracle fully supports this feature.

B013, Embedded COBOL

Oracle fully supports this feature.

B014, Embedded Fortran

Oracle fully supports this feature.

B021, Direct SQL

Oracle fully supports this feature, as SQL*Plus.

B031, Basic dynamic SQL

Oracle supports dynamic SQL in two styles, documented in the embedded language manuals as "Oracle dynamic SQL" and "ANSI dynamic SQL."

ANSI dynamic SQL is an implementation of the standard, with the following restrictions:

  • Oracle supports a subset of the descriptor items.

  • For <input using clause>, Oracle only supports <using input descriptor>.

  • For <output using clause>, Oracle only supports <into descriptor>.

  • Dynamic parameters are indicated by a colon followed by an identifier rather than a question mark.

Oracle dynamic SQL is similar to standard dynamic SQL, with the following modifications:

  • Parameters are indicated by a colon followed by an identifier, instead of a question mark.

  • Oracle's DESCRIBE SELECT LIST FOR statement replaces the standard's DESCRIBE OUTPUT.

  • Oracle provides DECLARE STATEMENT if you want to declare a cursor using a dynamic SQL statement physically prior to the PREPARE statement that prepares the dynamic SQL statement.

B032, Extended dynamic SQL

In ANSI dynamic SQL, Oracle only implements the ability to declare global statements and global cursors from this feature; the rest of the feature is not supported.

In Oracle dynamic SQL, Oracle's DESCRIBE BIND VARIABLES is equivalent to the standard's DESCRIBE INPUT; the rest of this feature is not supported.

B111, Module language Ada

Oracle fully supports this feature.

B122, Routine language C

Oracle supports external routines written in C, though Oracle does not support the standard syntax for creating such routines.

B128, Routine language SQL

Oracle supports routines written in PL/SQL, which is Oracle's equivalent to the standard procedural language SQL/PSM.

F032, CASCADE drop behavior

In Oracle, a DROP command invalidates all of the dropped object's dependent objects. Invalidated objects are effectively unusable until the dropped object is redefined in such a way to allow successful recompilation of the invalidated object.

F033, ALTER TABLE statement: DROP COLUMN clause

Oracle provides a DROP COLUMN clause, but without the RESTRICT or CASCADE options found in the standard.

F034, Extended REVOKE statement

Oracle supports the following parts of this feature:

  • F034-01, REVOKE statement performed by other than the owner of a schema object

  • F034-03, REVOKE statement to revoke a privilege that the grantee has WITH GRANT OPTION

Oracle provides equivalent functionality for the following parts of this feature:

  • CASCADE: In Oracle, a REVOKE invalidates all dependent objects, which become effectively unusable until the metadata is changed through subsequent CREATE and GRANT commands enabling the invalidated object to be successfully recompiled.

F052, Intervals and datetime arithmetic

Oracle only supports the INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH and INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND data types.

F111, Isolations levels other than SERIALIZABLE

In addition to SERIALIZABLE, Oracle supports the READ COMMITTED isolation level.

F121, Basic diagnostics management

Much of the functionality of this feature is provided through the SQLCA in embedded languages.

F191, Referential delete actions

Oracle supports ON DELETE CASCADE and ON DELETE SET NULL.

F200, TRUNCATE TABLE

Oracle fully supports this feature, and extends it by permitting truncation of a table that references itself in a referential integrity constraint.

F231, Privilege tables

Oracle makes this information available in the following metadata views:

  • Instead of TABLE_PRIVILEGES, use ALL_TAB_PRIVS.

  • Instead of COLUMN_PRIVILEGES, use ALL_COL_PRIVS.

  • Oracle does not support USAGE privileges so there is no equivalent to USAGE_PRIVILEGES.

F281, LIKE enhancements

Oracle fully supports this feature.

F291, UNIQUE predicate

The IS A SET condition may be used to test whether a multiset is a set; that is, each row is unique. Thus, the equivalent of

UNIQUE <table subquery>

is

CAST (<table subquery> AS MULTISET) IS A SET

F302, INTERSECT table operator

Oracle supports INTERSECT but not INTERSECT ALL. Syntactically, Oracle differs from the standard in that UNION, INTERSECT, and MINUS have the same precedence.

F312, MERGE statement

The Oracle MERGE statement is almost the same as the standard, with these exceptions:

  • Oracle does not support the optional AS keyword before a table alias.

  • Oracle does not support the ability to rename columns of the table specified in the USING clause with a parenthesized list of column names following the table alias.

  • Oracle does not support the <override clause>.

F341, Usage tables

Oracle makes this information available in the views ALL_DEPENDENCIES, DBA_DEPENDENCIES, and USER_DEPENDENCIES.

F381, Extended schema manipulation

Oracle fully supports the following element of this feature:

  • Oracle supports the standard syntax to add a table constraint using ALTER TABLE.

Oracle partially supports the following element of this feature:

  • Oracle supports the standard syntax to drop a table constraint, except that Oracle does not support RESTRICT.

Oracle provides equivalent functionality for the following element of this feature:

  • To alter the default value of a column, use the MODIFY option of ALTER TABLE.

Oracle does not support the following parts of this feature:

  • DROP SCHEMA statement

  • ALTER ROUTINE statement

F382, Alter column data type

Oracle supports this functionality, though with non-standard syntax.

F391, Long identifiers

Oracle supports identifiers up to 30 characters in length.

F393, Unicode escapes in literals

The Oracle UNISTR function supports numeric escape sequences for all Unicode characters.

F394, Optional normal form specification

This feature adds the keywords NFC, NFD, NFKC, and NKD to the NORMALIZE function and the IS NORMAL predicate. Without these keywords, NFC is the default (see Feature T061, UCS support). Oracle supports all four normalization forms, with nonstandard syntax, as follows:

  • For NFC, use COMPOSE

  • For NFD, use DECOMPOSE with the CANONICAL option

  • For NFKD, use DECOMPOSE with the COMPATIBILITY option

  • For NFKC, use DECOMPOSE with the CANONICAL option followed by COMPOSE

Oracle does not support the IS NORMAL predicate.

F401, Extended joined table

Oracle supports FULL outer joins, CROSS joins, and NATURAL joins.

F402, Named column joins for LOBs, arrays and multisets

Oracle supports named column joins for columns whose declared type is nested table. Oracle does not support named column joins for LOBs or arrays.

F403, Partitioned join tables

Oracle supports this feature, except with FULL outer joins.

F411, Time zone specification

Oracle fully supports TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE, but does not support TIME WITH TIME ZONE.

F421, National character

Oracle fully supports this feature.

F441, Extended set function support

Oracle supports the following parts of this feature:

  • The ability in the WHERE clause to reference a column that is defined using an aggregate, either in a view or an inline view

  • COUNT without DISTINCT of an expression

  • Aggregates that reference columns that are outer references with respect to the aggregating query

F442, Mixed column references in set functions

Oracle fully supports this feature.

F461, Named character sets

Oracle supports many character sets with Oracle-defined names. Oracle does not support any other aspect of this feature.

F491, Constraint management

Oracle fully supports this feature.

F531, Temporary tables

Oracle supports GLOBAL TEMPORARY tables.

F555, Enhanced seconds precision

Oracle provides enhanced support for this feature, supporting up to 9 places after the decimal point.

F561, Full value expressions

Oracle fully supports this feature.

F571, Truth value tests

Oracle's LNNVL function is equivalent to the standard's IS NOT TRUE predicate.

F591, Derived tables

Oracle supports <derived table>, with the exception of:

  • Oracle does not support the optional AS keyword before a table alias.

  • Oracle does not support <derived column list>.

F641, Row and table constructors

In Oracle, a row constructor may be used in an equality or inequality comparison with another row constructor or with a subquery. Oracle does not support anything else in this feature.

F690, Collation support

Oracle's NLSSORT function may be used to change the collation of character expressions.

F693, SQL-sessions and client module collations

To set a session collation, use ALTER SESSION SET NLS_COMP = 'LINGUISTIC' and also set NLS_SORT to your desired collation. Oracle does not support client module collations.

F695, Translation support

The Oracle CONVERT function can convert between the database character set and the national character set. For other character sets, store the data in the RAW data type and use the PL/SQL package function UTL_RAW.CONVERT. Oracle does not provide the ability to add or drop character set conversions.

F721, Deferrable constraints

Oracle fully supports this feature.

F731, INSERT column privileges

Oracle fully supports this feature.

F761, Session management

Oracle provides the following equivalents for elements of this feature:

  • The equivalent to the standard's SET SESSION CHARACTERISTICS AS TRANSACTION SERIALIZABLE is ALTER SESSION SET ISOLATION_LEVEL = SERIALIZABLE.

  • The equivalent to the standard's SET SCHEMA is ALTER SESSION SET CURRENT_SCHEMA.

  • The equivalent to the standard's SET COLLATION is ALTER SESSION SET NLS_SORT.

F771, Connection management

Oracle's CONNECT statement provides the same functionality as the standard's CONNECT statement, though with different syntax. Instead of using the standard's SET CONNECTION, Oracle provides the AT clause to indicate which connection a SQL statement should be performed on. Oracle embedded languages let you disconnect from a connection by using the RELEASE option of either COMMIT or ROLLBACK.

F781, Self-referencing operations

Oracle fully supports this feature.

F801, Full set function

Oracle fully supports this feature.

F831, Full cursor update

Oracle supports the combination of FOR UPDATE and ORDER BY clauses in a query.

F841, LIKE_REGEX predicate

Oracle's equivalent is REGEXP_LIKE. Oracle's pattern syntax lacks some of the features of the standard's. Oracle's match parameter has the same capabilities as the standard's, though with a few spelling differences.

F842, OCCURRENCES_REGEX function

Oracle's equivalent is REGEXP_COUNT. Oracle's pattern syntax lacks some of the features of the standard's. Oracle's match parameter has the same capabilities as the standard's, though with a few spelling differences.

F843, POSITION_REGEX function

Oracle's equivalent is REGEXP_INSTR. Oracle's pattern syntax lacks some of the features of the standard's. Oracle's match parameter has the same capabilities as the standard's, though with a few spelling differences.

F844, SUBSTRING_REGEX function

Oracle's equivalent is REGEXP_SUBSTR. Oracle's pattern syntax lacks some of the features of the standard's. Oracle's match parameter has the same capabilities as the standard's, though with a few spelling differences.

F845, TRANSLATE_REGEX function

Oracle's equivalent is REGEXP_REPLACE. Oracle's pattern syntax lacks some of the features of the standard's. Oracle's match parameter has the same capabilities as the standard's, though with a few spelling differences.

S023, Basic structured types

Oracle's object types are equivalent to structured types in the standard.

S024, Enhanced structured types

Oracle's syntax is non-standard, but provides equivalents for the following:

  • NOT INSTANTIABLE

  • STATIC methods

  • RELATIVE, MAP, and STATE orderings. The keyword in Oracle for RELATIVE orderings is ORDER. There is no keyword for STATE orderings (this is the default, if no other ordering is defined). Unlike the standard, Oracle does not support EQUALS ONLY on non-STATE orderings. (See also Feature S251, User-defined orderings.)

  • SELF AS RESULT in the signature of constructor methods

S025, Final structured types

Oracle's final object types are equivalent to final structured types in the standard.

S026, Self-referencing structured types

In Oracle, an object type OT may have a reference that references OT.

S041, Basic reference types

Oracle's reference types are equivalent to reference types in the standard. To dereference a reference, dot notation is used, instead of -> as in the standard.

S043, Enhanced reference types

Oracle supports the following elements of this feature:

  • DEREF operator to return the object referenced by a reference

  • SCOPE clause as a constraint on columns of tables or materialized views

  • Adding and dropping the scope of a column

  • References that are either system-generated or derived from the primary key (but not from any other list of columns, nor from a list of attributes of the type)

S051, Create table of type

Oracle's object tables are equivalent to tables of structured type in the standard.

S081, Subtables

Oracle supports hierarchies of object views, but not of object base tables. To emulate a hierarchy of base tables, create a hierarchy of views on those base tables.

S091, Array types

Oracle VARRAY types are equivalent to array types in the standard. However, Oracle does not support storage of arrays of LOBs. To access a single element of an array using a subscript, you must use PL/SQL. Oracle supports the following aspects of this feature with nonstandard syntax:

  • To construct an instance of varray type, including an empty array, use the varray type constructor.

  • To unnest a varray in the FROM clause, use the TABLE operator.

S092, Arrays of user-defined types

Oracle supports VARRAYs of object types.

S094, Arrays of reference types

Oracle supports VARRAYs of references.

S095, Array constructors by query

Oracle supports this using CAST (MULTISET (SELECT ...) AS varray_type). The ability to order the elements of the array using ORDER BY is not supported.

S097, Array element assignment

In PL/SQL, you can assign to array elements, using syntax that is similar to the standard (SQL/PSM).

S111, ONLY in query expressions

Oracle supports the ONLY clause for view hierarchies; Oracle does not support hierarchies of base tables.

S151, Type predicate

Oracle fully supports this feature.

S161, Subtype treatment

Supported, with a minor syntactic difference: The standard requires parentheses around the referenced type's name; Oracle does not support parentheses in this position.

S162, Subtype treatment for references

The standard requires parentheses around the referenced type's name; Oracle does not support parentheses in this position.

S201, SQL-invoked routines on arrays

PL/SQL provides the ability to pass arrays as parameters and return arrays as the result of functions. Procedures and functions written in C may pass arrays and return arrays as the result of functions using the Oracle Type Translator (OTT).

S202, SQL-invoked routines on multisets

A PL/SQL routine may have nested tables as parameters, and may return a nested table. Routines written in C may pass arrays and return arrays as the result of functions using the Oracle Type Translator.

S232, Array locators

Oracle Type Translator supports descriptors for arrays, which achieve the same purpose as locators.

S233, Multiset locators

Oracle supports locators for nested tables.

S241, Transform functions

The Oracle Type Translator provides the same capability as transforms.

S251, User-defined orderings

Oracle's object type ordering capabilities correspond to the standard's capabilities as follows:

  • Oracle's MAP ordering corresponds to the standard's ORDER FULL BY MAP ordering.

  • Oracle's ORDER ordering corresponds to the standard's ORDER FULL BY RELATIVE ordering.

  • If an Oracle object type has neither MAP nor ORDER declared, then this corresponds to EQUALS ONLY BY STATE in the standard.

  • Oracle does not have unordered object types; you can alter the ordering but you cannot drop it.

S271, Basic multiset support

Multisets in the standard are supported as nested table types in Oracle. The Oracle nested table data type based on a scalar type ST is equivalent, in standard terminology, to a multiset of rows having a single field of type ST and named column_value. The Oracle nested table type based on an object type is equivalent to a multiset of structured type in the standard.

Oracle supports the following elements of this feature on nested tables using the same syntax as the standard has for multisets:

  • The CARDINALITY function

  • The SET function

  • The MEMBER predicate

  • The IS A SET predicate

  • The COLLECT aggregate

All other aspects of this feature are supported with non-standard syntax, as follows:

  • To create an empty multiset, denoted MULTISET[] in the standard, use an empty constructor of the nested table type.

  • To obtain the sole element of a multiset with one element, denoted ELEMENT (<multiset value expression>) in the standard, use a scalar subquery to select the single element from the nested table.

  • To construct a multiset by enumeration, use the constructor of the nested table type.

  • To construct a multiset by query, use CAST with a multiset argument, casting to the nested table type.

  • To unnest a multiset, use the TABLE operator in the FROM clause.

S272, Multisets of user-defined types

Oracle's nested table type permits a multiset of structured types. Oracle does not have distinct types, so a multiset of distinct types is not supported

S274, Multisets of reference types

A nested table type can have one or more columns of reference type.

S275, Advanced multiset support

Oracle supports the following elements of this feature on nested tables using the same syntax as the standard has for multisets:

  • The MULTISET UNION, MULTISET INTERSECTION, and MULTISET EXCEPT operators

  • The SUBMULTISET predicate

  • = and <> predicates

Oracle does not support the FUSION or INTERSECTION aggregates.

S281, Nested collection types

Oracle permits nesting of its collection types (varray and nested table).

T041, Basic LOB data type support

Oracle supports the following aspects of this feature:

  • The keywords BLOB, CLOB, and NCLOB

  • Concatenation, UPPER, LOWER, and TRIM on CLOBs

Oracle provides equivalent support for the following aspects of this feature:

  • Use INSTR instead of POSITION.

  • Use LENGTH instead of CHAR_LENGTH.

  • Use SUBSTR instead of SUBSTRING.

Oracle does not support the following aspects of this feature:

  • The keywords BINARY LARGE OBJECT, CHARACTER LARGE OBJECT, and NATIONAL CHARACTER LARGE OBJECT as synonyms for BLOB, CLOB, and NCLOB, respectively

  • <binary string literal>

  • The ability to specify an upper bound on the length of a LOB or CLOB

  • Concatenation of BLOBs

T042, Extended LOB support

Oracle fully supports the following element of this feature:

  • TRIM function on a CLOB argument

Oracle provides equivalent functionality for the following elements of this feature:

  • BLOB and CLOB substring, supported using SUBSTR

  • SIMILAR predicate, supported using REGEXPR_LIKE to perform pattern matching with a Perl-like syntax

The following elements of this feature are not supported:

  • Comparison predicates with BLOB or CLOB operands

  • CAST with a BLOB or CLOB operand

  • OVERLAY (This may be emulated using SUBSTR and string concatenation.)

  • LIKE predicate with BLOB or CLOB operands

T051, Row types

Oracle object types can be used in place of the standard's row types.

T061, UCS support

Oracle provides equivalent functionality for the following elements of this feature:

  • Oracle supports the keyword CHAR instead of CHARACTERS, and BYTE instead of OCTETS, in a character data type declaration.

  • The Oracle COMPOSE function is equivalent to the standard's NORMALIZE function.

Oracle does not support the IS NORMALIZED predicate.

T071, BIGINT data type

On many implementations, BIGINT refers to a binary integer type with 64 bits, which supports almost 19 decimal digits. The Oracle NUMBER type supports 39 decimal digits.

T111, Updatable joins, unions and columns

Oracle's updatable join views are a subset of the standard's updatable join capabilities.

T121, WITH (excluding RECURSIVE) in query expression

Oracle fully supports this feature.

T122, WITH (excluding RECURSIVE) in subquery

Oracle fully supports this feature.

T131, Recursive query

Oracle supports the use of a WITH clause element that references itself, but without the RECURSIVE keyword. Alternatively, Oracle's START WITH and CONNECT BY clauses can be used to perform many recursive queries.

T132, Recursive query in subquery

Oracle supports the use of a WITH clause element that references itself, but without the RECURSIVE keyword. Alternatively, Oracle's START WITH and CONNECT BY clauses can be used to perform many recursive queries.

T141, SIMILAR predicate

Oracle provides REGEXP_LIKE for pattern matching with a Perl-like syntax.

T172, AS subquery clause in table definition

Oracle's AS subquery feature of CREATE TABLE has substantially the same functionality as the standard, though there are some syntactic differences.

T175, Generated columns

Oracle supports this feature, with the following restrictions:

  • Generated columns are not supported in temporary tables.

  • The data type of a generated column may not be LOB or XML.

T176, Sequence generator support

Oracle's sequences have the same capabilities as the standard's, though with different syntax.

T201, Comparable data types for referential constraints

Oracle fully supports this feature.

T211, Basic trigger capability

Oracle's triggers differ from the standard as follows:

  • Oracle does not provide the optional syntax FOR EACH STATEMENT for the default case, the statement trigger.

  • Oracle does not support OLD TABLE and NEW TABLE; the transition tables specified in the standard (the multiset of before and after images of affected rows) are not available.

  • The trigger body is written in PL/SQL, which is functionally equivalent to the standard's procedural language PSM, but not the same.

  • In the trigger body, the new and old transition variables are referenced beginning with a colon.

  • Oracle's row triggers are executed as the row is processed, instead of buffering them and executing all of them after processing all rows. The standard's semantics are deterministic, but Oracle's in-flight row triggers are more performant.

  • Oracle's before-row and before-statement triggers can perform DML statements, which is forbidden in the standard. However, Oracle's after-row statements cannot perform DML, while it is permitted in the standard.

  • When multiple triggers apply, the standard says they are executed in order of definition. In Oracle the execution order is nondeterministic.

  • Oracle uses the system privileges CREATE TRIGGER and CREATE ANY TRIGGER to regulate creation of triggers, instead of the standard's TRIGGER privilege, which is a table privilege.

T212, Enhanced trigger capability

This feature permits statements triggers, which Oracle supports, as described for feature T211, Basic trigger capability.

T213, INSTEAD OF triggers

Oracle supports INSTEAD OF triggers on views, with syntax and semantics agreeing with the standard except as noted for feature 211, Basic trigger capability.

T241, START TRANSACTION statement

Oracle's SET TRANSACTION statement starts a transaction making it equivalent to the standard's START TRANSACTION rather than the standard's SET TRANSACTION. Oracle's READ ONLY transactions are at SERIALIZABLE isolation level.

T271, Savepoints

Oracle supports this feature, except:

  • Oracle does not support RELEASE SAVEPOINT.

  • Oracle does not support savepoint levels.

T285, Enhanced derived column names

This feature pertains only to derived columns in a SELECT list with no column alias and consisting of a SQL parameter reference. In that case, the column name defaults to the parameter name, the same as in the standard.

T322, Overloading of SQL-invoked functions and procedures

Oracle supports overloading of functions and procedures. However, the rules for handling certain data type combinations are not the same as the standard. For example, the standard permits the coexistence of two functions of the same name differing only in the numeric types of the arguments, whereas Oracle does not permit this.

T323, Explicit security for external routines

The Oracle syntax AUTHID { CURRENT USER | DEFINER } when used when creating an external function, procedure, or package is equivalent to the standard's EXTERNAL SECURITY { DEFINER | INVOKER }.

T324, Explicit security for SQL routines

Oracle's syntax AUTHID { CURRENT USER | DEFINER } when used when creating a PL/SQL function, procedure, or package is equivalent to the standard's SQL SECURITY { DEFINER | INVOKER }.

T325, Qualified SQL parameter reference

PL/SQL supports the use of a routine name to qualify a parameter name.

T326, Table functions

Oracle provides equivalents for the following elements of this feature:

  • <multiset value constructor by query> is supported using CAST (MULTISET (<query expression>) AS <nested table type>)

  • <table function derived table> is supported using the TABLE operator in the FROM clause with a varray or nested table as the argument

  • <collection value expression> is equivalent to an Oracle expression resulting in a varray or nested table

  • <returns table type> is equivalent to a PL/SQL function that returns a nested table

T331, Basic roles

Oracle supports this feature, except for REVOKE ADMIN OPTION FOR <role name>.

T351, Bracketed comments

Oracle fully supports this feature.

T431, Extended grouping capabilities

Oracle fully supports this feature.

T432, Nested and concatenated GROUPING SETS

Oracle supports concatenated GROUPING SETS, but not nested GROUPING SETS.

T433, Multiargument function GROUPING

The Oracle GROUP_ID function can be used to conveniently distinguish groups in a grouped query, serving the same purpose as the standard multiargument GROUPING function.

T441, ABS and MOD functions

Oracle supports the ABS function. Oracle's MOD function is similar to the standard, though the behavior is different if the two arguments are of opposite sign.

T471, Result sets return value

PL/SQL ref cursors provide all the functionality of the standard's result set cursors.

T491, LATERAL derived tables

The Oracle TABLE operator in the FROM clause is equivalent to the LATERAL operator in the standard, but only for collection expressions.

T501, Enhanced EXISTS predicate

Oracle fully supports this feature.

T571, Array-returning external SQL-invoked function

Oracle table functions returning a varray can be defined in external programming languages. When declaring such functions in SQL, use the CREATE FUNCTION command with the PIPELINED USING clause.

T572, Multiset-returning external SQL-invoked function

Oracle table functions returning a nested table can be defined in external programming languages. When declaring such functions in SQL, use the CREATE FUNCTION command with the PIPELINED USING clause. In the body of the function, use the OCITable interface. The function must be invoked within the TABLE operator in the FROM clause.

T581, Regular expressions substring functions

Oracle provides the REGEXP_SUBSTR function to perform substring operations using regular expression matching.

T591, UNIQUE constraints of possibly null columns

Oracle permits a UNIQUE constraint on one or more nullable columns. If the UNIQUE constraint is on a single column, then the semantics are the same as the standard (the constraint permits any number of rows that are null in the designated column). If the UNIQUE constraint is on two or more columns, then the semantics are nonstandard. Oracle permits any number of rows that are null in all the designated columns. Unlike the standard, if a row is non-null in at least one of the designated columns, then another row having the same values in the non-null columns of the constraint is a constraint violation and not permitted.

T611, Elementary OLAP operations

Oracle fully supports this feature.

T612, Advanced OLAP operations

Oracle supports the following elements of this feature: PERCENT_RANK, CUME_DIST, WIDTH_BUCKET, hypothetical set functions, PERCENTILE_CONT, and PERCENTILE_DISC.

Oracle does not support the following elements of this feature:

  • window names

  • ROW_NUMBER without an ORDER BY clause

T613, Sampling

Oracle uses the keyword SAMPLE instead of the standard's keyword, TABLESAMPLE. Oracle uses the keyword BLOCK instead of the standard's keyword, SYSTEM. Oracle uses the absence of the keyword BLOCK to indicate a Bernoulli sampling of rows, indicated in the standard by the keyword BERNOULLI.

T621, Enhanced numeric functions

Oracle fully supports this feature, except for the alternate spelling CEILING of the CEIL function.

T641, Multiple column assignment

The standard syntax to assign to multiple columns is supported if the assignment source is a subquery.

T652, SQL-dynamic statements in SQL routines.

PL/SQL supports dynamic SQL.

T654, SQL-dynamic statements in external routines

Oracle supports dynamic SQL in embedded C, which may be used to create an external routine.

T655, Cyclically dependent routines

PL/SQL supports recursion.