Skip Headers
Oracle® Database SQL Language Reference
11g Release 2 (11.2)

E41084-03
Go to Documentation Home
Home
Go to Book List
Book List
Go to Table of Contents
Contents
Go to Index
Index
Go to Master Index
Master Index
Go to Feedback page
Contact Us

Go to previous page
Previous
Go to next page
Next
PDF · Mobi · ePub

CREATE USER

Purpose

Use the CREATE USER statement to create and configure a database user, which is an account through which you can log in to the database, and to establish the means by which Oracle Database permits access by the user.

You can issue this statement in an Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) cluster to add a user and password combination to the password file that is local to the Oracle ASM instance of the current node. Each node's Oracle ASM instance can use this statement to update its own password file. The password file itself must have been created by the ORAPWD utility.

You can enable a user to connect to the database through a proxy application or application server. For syntax and discussion, refer to ALTER USER.

Prerequisites

You must have the CREATE USER system privilege. When you create a user with the CREATE USER statement, the user's privilege domain is empty. To log on to Oracle Database, a user must have the CREATE SESSION system privilege. Therefore, after creating a user, you should grant the user at least the CREATE SESSION system privilege. Refer to GRANT for more information.

Only a user authenticated AS SYSASM can issue this command to modify the Oracle ASM instance password file.

Semantics

user

Specify the name of the user to be created. This name can contain only characters from your database character set and must follow the rules described in the section "Database Object Naming Rules". Oracle recommends that the user name contain at least one single-byte character regardless of whether the database character set also contains multibyte characters.

Note:

Oracle recommends that user names and passwords be encoded in ASCII or EBCDIC characters only, depending on your platform.

IDENTIFIED Clause

The IDENTIFIED clause lets you indicate how Oracle Database authenticates the user.

BY password

The BY password clause lets you creates a local user and indicates that the user must specify password to log on to the database. Passwords are case sensitive. Any subsequent CONNECT string used to connect this user to the database must specify the password using the same case (upper, lower, or mixed) that is used in this CREATE USER statement or a subsequent ALTER USER statement. Passwords can contain any single-byte, multibyte, or special characters, or any combination of these, from your database character set.

See Also:

Oracle Database Security Guide for more information about case-sensitive passwords, password complexity, and other password guidelines

Passwords must follow the rules described in the section "Database Object Naming Rules", unless you are using the Oracle Database password complexity verification routine. That routine requires a more complex combination of characters than the normal naming rules permit. You implement this routine with the UTLPWDMG.SQL script, which is further described in Oracle Database Security Guide.

Note:

Oracle recommends that user names and passwords be encoded in ASCII or EBCDIC characters only, depending on your platform.

See Also:

Oracle Database Security Guide to for a detailed discussion of password management and protection

EXTERNALLY Clause

Specify EXTERNALLY to create an external user. Such a user must be authenticated by an external service, such as an operating system or a third-party service. In this case, Oracle Database relies on authentication by the operating system or third-party service to ensure that a specific external user has access to a specific database user.

AS 'certificate_DNThis clause is required for and used for SSL-authenticated external users only. The certificate_DN is the distinguished name in the user's PKI certificate in the user's wallet. The maximum length of certificate_DN is 1024 characters.

AS 'kerberos_principal_nameThis clause is required for and used for Kerberos-authenticated external users only. The maximum length of kerberos_principal_name is 1024 characters.

Caution:

Oracle strongly recommends that you do not use IDENTIFIED EXTERNALLY with operating systems that have inherently weak login security.

Restriction on Creating External Users The user SYS cannot be an external user.

GLOBALLY Clause

The GLOBALLY clause lets you create a global user. Such a user must be authorized by the enterprise directory service (Oracle Internet Directory).

The directory_DN string can take one of two forms:

  • The X.509 name at the enterprise directory service that identifies this user. It should be of the form CN=username,other_attributes, where other_attributes is the rest of the user's distinguished name (DN) in the directory. This form creates a private global schema.

  • A null string (' ') indicating that the enterprise directory service will map authenticated global users to this database schema with the appropriate roles. This form is the same as specifying the GLOBALLY keyword alone and creates a shared global schema.

The maximum length of directory_DN is 1024 characters.

You can control the ability of an application server to connect as the specified user and to activate that user's roles using the ALTER USER statement.

DEFAULT TABLESPACE Clause

Specify the default tablespace for objects that are created in the user's schema. If you omit this clause, then the user's objects are stored in the database default tablespace. If no default tablespace has been specified for the database, then the user's objects are stored in the SYSTEM tablespace.

Restriction on Default Tablespaces You cannot specify a locally managed temporary tablespace, including an undo tablespace, or a dictionary-managed temporary tablespace, as a user's default tablespace.

See Also:

TEMPORARY TABLESPACE Clause

Specify the tablespace or tablespace group for the user's temporary segments. If you omit this clause, then the user's temporary segments are stored in the database default temporary tablespace or, if none has been specified, in the SYSTEM tablespace.

  • Specify tablespace to indicate the user's temporary tablespace.

  • Specify tablespace_group_name to indicate that the user can save temporary segments in any tablespace in the tablespace group specified by tablespace_group_name.

Restrictions on Temporary Tablespace This clause is subject to the following restrictions:

  • The tablespace must be a temporary tablespace and must have a standard block size.

  • The tablespace cannot be an undo tablespace or a tablespace with automatic segment-space management.

See Also:

QUOTA Clause

Use the QUOTA clause to specify the maximum amount of space the user can allocate in the tablespace.

A CREATE USER statement can have multiple QUOTA clauses for multiple tablespaces.

UNLIMITED lets the user allocate space in the tablespace without bound.

Restriction on the QUOTA Clause You cannot specify this clause for a temporary tablespace.

See Also:

size_clause for information on that clause and Oracle Database Security Guide for more information on assigning tablespace quotas

PROFILE Clause

Specify the profile you want to assign to the user. The profile limits the amount of database resources the user can use. If you omit this clause, then Oracle Database assigns the DEFAULT profile to the user.

Note:

Oracle recommends that you use the Database Resource Manager rather SQL profiles to establish database resource limits. The Database Resource Manager offers a more flexible means of managing and tracking resource use. For more information on the Database Resource Manager, refer to Oracle Database Administrator's Guide.

See Also:

GRANT and CREATE PROFILE

PASSWORD EXPIRE Clause

Specify PASSWORD EXPIRE if you want the user's password to expire. This setting forces the user or the DBA to change the password before the user can log in to the database.

ACCOUNT Clause

Specify ACCOUNT LOCK to lock the user's account and disable access. Specify ACCOUNT UNLOCK to unlock the user's account and enable access to the account.

ENABLE EDITIONS

This clause is not reversible. Specify ENABLE EDITIONS to allow the user to create multiple versions of editionable objects in this schema using editions. Editionable objects in schemas that are not editions-enabled cannot be editioned.

Restriction on Enabling Editions You cannot enable editions for any schemas supplied by Oracle except for the sample schemas in the seed database.

Examples

All of the following examples use the example tablespace, which exists in the seed database and is accessible to the sample schemas.

Creating a Database User: Example If you create a new user with PASSWORD EXPIRE, then the user's password must be changed before the user attempts to log in to the database. You can create the user sidney by issuing the following statement:

CREATE USER sidney 
    IDENTIFIED BY out_standing1 
    DEFAULT TABLESPACE example 
    QUOTA 10M ON example 
    TEMPORARY TABLESPACE temp
    QUOTA 5M ON system 
    PROFILE app_user 
    PASSWORD EXPIRE;

The user sidney has the following characteristics:

  • The password out_standing1

  • Default tablespace example, with a quota of 10 megabytes

  • Temporary tablespace temp

  • Access to the tablespace SYSTEM, with a quota of 5 megabytes

  • Limits on database resources defined by the profile app_user (which was created in "Creating a Profile: Example")

  • An expired password, which must be changed before sidney can log in to the database

Creating External Database Users: Examples The following example creates an external user, who must be identified by an external source before accessing the database:

CREATE USER app_user1
   IDENTIFIED EXTERNALLY
   DEFAULT TABLESPACE example
   QUOTA 5M ON example
   PROFILE app_user;

The user app_user1 has the following additional characteristics:

  • Default tablespace example

  • Default temporary tablespace example

  • 5M of space on the tablespace example and unlimited quota on the temporary tablespace of the database

  • Limits on database resources defined by the app_user profile

To create another user accessible only by an operating system account, prefix the user name with the value of the initialization parameter OS_AUTHENT_PREFIX. For example, if this value is "ops$", then you can create the externally identified user external_user with the following statement:

CREATE USER ops$external_user
   IDENTIFIED EXTERNALLY
   DEFAULT TABLESPACE example
   QUOTA 5M ON example
   PROFILE app_user;     

Creating a Global Database User: Example The following example creates a global user. When you create a global user, you can specify the X.509 name that identifies this user at the enterprise directory server:

CREATE USER global_user
   IDENTIFIED GLOBALLY AS 'CN=analyst, OU=division1, O=oracle, C=US'
   DEFAULT TABLESPACE example
   QUOTA 5M ON example;