|Oracle® Database SQL Language Reference
11g Release 2 (11.2)
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MERGE statement to select rows from one or more sources for update or insertion into a table or view. You can specify conditions to determine whether to update or insert into the target table or view.
This statement is a convenient way to combine multiple operations. It lets you avoid multiple
DELETE DML statements.
MERGE is a deterministic statement. You cannot update the same row of the target table multiple times in the same
Note:In previous releases of Oracle Database, when you created an Oracle Virtual Private Database policy on an application that included the
INTOstatement would be prevented with an
ORA-28132: Merge into syntax does not support security policieserror, due to the presence of the Virtual Private Database policy. Beginning with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (184.108.40.206), you can create policies on applications that include
INTOoperations. To do so, in the
statement_typesparameter, include the
DELETEstatements, or just omit the
statement_typesparameter altogether. Refer to Oracle Database Security Guide for more information on enforcing policies on specific SQL statement types.
You must have the
UPDATE object privileges on the target table and the
SELECT object privilege on the source table. To specify the
DELETE clause of the
merge_update_clause, you must also have the
DELETE object privilege on the target table.
Note:You must specify at least one of the clauses
INTO clause to specify the target table or view you are updating or inserting into. In order to merge data into a view, the view must be updatable. Refer to "Notes on Updatable Views" for more information.
USING clause to specify the source of the data to be updated or inserted. The source can be a table, view, or the result of a subquery.
ON clause to specify the condition upon which the
MERGE operation either updates or inserts. For each row in the target table for which the search condition is true, Oracle Database updates the row with corresponding data from the source table. If the condition is not true for any rows, then the database inserts into the target table based on the corresponding source table row.
In previous releases of Oracle Database, when you created an Oracle Virtual Private Database policy on an application that included the
INTO statement, the
INTO statement would be prevented with an
ORA-28132: Merge into syntax does not support security policies error, due to the presence of the Virtual Private Database policy. Beginning with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (220.127.116.11), you can create policies on applications that include
INTO operations. To do so, in the
statement_types parameter, include the
DELETE statements, or just omit the
statement_types parameter altogether. Refer to Oracle Database Security Guide for more information on enforcing policies on specific SQL statement types.
merge_update_clause specifies the new column values of the target table. Oracle performs this update if the condition of the
ON clause is true. If the update clause is executed, then all update triggers defined on the target table are activated.
where_clause if you want the database to execute the update operation only if the specified condition is true. The condition can refer to either the data source or the target table. If the condition is not true, then the database skips the update operation when merging the row into the table.
where_clause to clean up data in a table while populating or updating it. The only rows affected by this clause are those rows in the destination table that are updated by the merge operation. The
WHERE condition evaluates the updated value, not the original value that was evaluated by the
WHERE condition. If a row of the destination table meets the
DELETE condition but is not included in the join defined by the
ON clause, then it is not deleted. Any delete triggers defined on the target table will be activated for each row deletion.
You can specify this clause by itself or with the
merge_insert_clause. If you specify both, then they can be in either order.
You cannot update a column that is referenced in the
You cannot specify
DEFAULT when updating a view.
merge_insert_clause specifies values to insert into the column of the target table if the condition of the
ON clause is false. If the insert clause is executed, then all insert triggers defined on the target table are activated. If you omit the column list after the
INSERT keyword, then the number of columns in the target table must match the number of values in the
To insert all of the source rows into the table, you can use a constant filter predicate in the
ON clause condition. An example of a constant filter predicate is
0=1). Oracle Database recognizes such a predicate and makes an unconditional insert of all source rows into the table. This approach is different from omitting the
merge_update_clause. In that case, the database still must perform a join. With constant filter predicate, no join is performed.
where_clause if you want Oracle Database to execute the insert operation only if the specified condition is true. The condition can refer only to the data source table. Oracle Database skips the insert operation for all rows for which the condition is not true.
You can specify this clause by itself or with the
merge_update_clause. If you specify both, then they can be in either order.
The error_logging_clause has the same behavior in a
MERGE statement as in an
INSERT statement. Refer to the
INSERT statement error_logging_clause for more information.
Merging into a Table: Example The following example uses the
bonuses table in the sample schema
oe with a default bonus of 100. It then inserts into the
bonuses table all employees who made sales, based on the
sales_rep_id column of the
oe.orders table. Finally, the human resources manager decides that employees with a salary of $8000 or less should receive a bonus. Those who have not made sales get a bonus of 1% of their salary. Those who already made sales get an increase in their bonus equal to 1% of their salary. The
MERGE statement implements these changes in one step:
CREATE TABLE bonuses (employee_id NUMBER, bonus NUMBER DEFAULT 100); INSERT INTO bonuses(employee_id) (SELECT e.employee_id FROM employees e, orders o WHERE e.employee_id = o.sales_rep_id GROUP BY e.employee_id); SELECT * FROM bonuses ORDER BY employee_id; EMPLOYEE_ID BONUS ----------- ---------- 153 100 154 100 155 100 156 100 158 100 159 100 160 100 161 100 163 100 MERGE INTO bonuses D USING (SELECT employee_id, salary, department_id FROM employees WHERE department_id = 80) S ON (D.employee_id = S.employee_id) WHEN MATCHED THEN UPDATE SET D.bonus = D.bonus + S.salary*.01 DELETE WHERE (S.salary > 8000) WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN INSERT (D.employee_id, D.bonus) VALUES (S.employee_id, S.salary*.01) WHERE (S.salary <= 8000); SELECT * FROM bonuses ORDER BY employee_id; EMPLOYEE_ID BONUS ----------- ---------- 153 180 154 175 155 170 159 180 160 175 161 170 164 72 165 68 166 64 167 62 171 74 172 73 173 61 179 62