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Oracle® Database Concepts
11g Release 2 (11.2)

E40540-02
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Index

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X 

A

access drivers, external table, 2.2.7.2
access paths, data, 3.1.1, 3.1.4.2, 7.3.1, 7.3.3, 7.4.1.4
accounts, user, 6.1
ACID properties, 10.1
active transactions, 10.2.2
ADDM (Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor), 18.3.4.3, 18.3.4.4
administrative accounts, 2.1.4, 6.1.1
administrator privileges, 2.1.4, 13.2.1.1, 13.2.1.1, 16.2.4.2
Advanced Queuing, Oracle Streams, 15.4.2, 15.4.2, 17.5.2.2
alert logs, 13.6.2, 15.4.1.4.2
ALL_ data dictionary views, 6.1.1.2
ALTER SESSION statement, 7.2.4
anonymous PL/SQL blocks, 8.2
ANSI/ISO standard, 7.1.2
APIs (application program interfaces), 16.3
embedded SQL statements, 7.2.6
external tables, 2.2.7.2, Glossary
Java, 8.3.1.1, 17.4.4.3, 19.3.2.1.2, 19.3.2.2.2
JDBC, 7.2.6, 8.3.2.2
network services, 16.2.1
OCI/OCCI, 19.3.2.2.1
ODBC, 7.2.6, 19.3.2.2.2
Oracle Data Pump, 18.2.5.2
Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing, 17.5.2.2.2
SQLJ, 8.3.2.2
application architecture, 1.5.4.1
application developers
duties of, 19.1
tools for, 19.2
topics for, 19.3
application domain indexes, 3.1.5, 3.1.5
application processes, 15.2
application program interface. See API
application servers, 1.5.4.1, 8.3.1.2
archived redo log files, 11.3.3, 11.4.2.3, 18.3.1.3.4
ARCHIVELOG mode, 15.4.2.1
archiver process (ARCn), 15.4.2.1
ascending indexes, 3.1.2.4
ASM (Automatic Storage Management), 11.1.2, 11.1.2.1, 17.3.2
atomicity, statement-level, 10.1.3
AUDIT statement, 7.2.1
auditing, 6.1, 6.1.3, 7.2.1, 8.4.1, 11.1.3, 13.2.1.4.1, 16.1.2.3, 17.1.6.1
Oracle Audit Vault, 17.1.6.2
authentication, database, 7.2.4, 15.2.2, 17.1.2
Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor. See ADDM
automatic maintenance tasks, 18.3.4.2
automatic memory management, 18.3.2.1, 18.3.2.2
Automatic Storage Management. See ASM
automatic undo management, 12.4.3
AutoTask, 18.3.4.2, 18.3.4.2

B

background processes, 15.4
backups, database, 18.3.1.2.1
bitmap indexes, 3.1.3, 3.1.3, 4.1.3.1
bitmap joins, 3.1.3.2
locks, 3.1.3
mapping table, 3.2.3.2
single-table, 3.1.3.1
storage, 3.1.3.3
bitmap tablespace management, 12.1.2.1
blocking transactions, 9.2.1.2
blocks, data. See data blocks
BOOLEAN data type, 2.2.3, 3.1.2.2.3, 7.2.2.1, 8.4.4, Glossary
branch blocks, index, 3.1.2.1
B-tree indexes, 2.2.8.3, 2.3.1, 3.1.2, Glossary
branch level, 3.1.2.1
height, 3.1.2.1
key compression, 3.1.2.5
reverse key, 3.1.2.3
buffer cache, database. See database buffer cache
buffers. See database buffers
business rules, enforcing, 5.1.1

C

cache fusion, 9.1.1.3
cardinality, column, 3.1.3, 7.3.2.2
Cartesian joins, 7.2.2.2
cartridges, 3.1.5
cascading deletions, 5.2.4.3
catalog.sql script, 6.2.1
chaining, rows. See row chaining
character data types, 2.2.3.1
byte semantics, 2.2.3.1
CHAR, 2.2.3.1.1
character semantics, 2.2.3.1
VARCHAR2, 2.2.3.1
character sets, 2.2.3.1
ASCII, 2.2.3.1
EBCDIC, 2.2.3.1
Unicode, 2.2.3.1
check constraints, 5.2, 5.2.5
checkpoint process (CKPT), 15.4.1.5
checkpoints
control files, 11.3.1
database shutdowns, 13.2.2.1
definition, 13.3
inconsistent backups, 18.3.1.2.2
incremental, 13.3.2
position, 13.4.4
thread, 13.3.2
client processes, 15.2
connections and, 15.2.2
sessions and, 15.2.2
shared server processes and, 16.2.4.1.2
client result cache, 14.4.3.3
client/server architecture, 16.1.1
client-side programming, 8.1
cluster indexes, 2.3.1, Glossary
clusters, table, 2.3.2
cluster keys, 2.3
hash, 2.3.2
index, 2.3.2
Codd, E. F., 1.1.2
code points, 2.2.3.1
collections, PL/SQL, 8.2.5.1
columns
cardinality, 3.1.3, 3.1.3, 7.3.2.2
definition, 2.2.1
order of, 2.2.8.1
prohibiting nulls in, 5.2.1
virtual, 2.2.1, 2.2.8.1, 3.1.4.2
COMMENT statement, 7.2.1
committing transactions
COMMIT statement, 7.2.3
defined, 10.1
ending transactions, 10.1.2.2
fast commit, 15.4.1.4.1, 15.4.1.4.1
group commits, 15.4.1.4.1
implementation, 15.4.1.4.1
implicit commits, 7.2.1
two-phase commit, 10.4.1
compiled PL/SQL
pseudocode, 8.4.6
shared pool, 8.2.6
triggers, 8.4.6
complete recovery, 18.3.1.3.4, 18.3.1.3.4
composite indexes, 3.1.1.2, 3.1.1.2, 3.1.1.2
composite partitioning, 4.1.1.2
compound triggers, 8.4.3
compression
basic table, 2.2.9.1
data block, 12.2.3
Hybrid Columnar Compression, 2.2.9.2
index key, 3.1.2.5
online archival, 2.2.9.2.1
table, 2.2.9, 4.1.2
warehouse, 2.2.9.2.1
concatenated indexes, 3.1.1.2, 3.1.1.2
concurrency
definition, 9.1
dirty reads, 9.1.3
fuzzy reads, 9.1.3
phantom reads, 9.1.3
row locks, 9.4.1.1.1
transaction isolation, 9.1.3, 9.2.2, 9.2.3
conditions, SQL, 7.1.1, 7.2.2.1
conflicting writes, 9.2.1.2
connections, client/server
administrator privileges, 13.2.1.1
defined, 15.2.2
embedded SQL, 7.2.6
listener process, 16.2.2
sessions contrasted with, 15.2.2
consistency
conflicting writes, 9.2.1.2
definition, 9.1
multiversioning, 9.1, 9.1.1
consistent read clones, 9.1.1.3.1
constraints, integrity
check, 5.2, 5.2.5
default values, 5.3.3.1
deferrable, 5.2.3, 5.3.2.2, 5.3.2.2, 7.2.3
enabling and disabling, 5.3.1
enforced with indexes, 5.2.3
foreign key, 5.2, 5.2.4
mechanisms of enforcement, 5.3.3
NOT NULL, 2.2.2, 5.2, 5.2.1
primary key, 2.2.2, 5.2, 5.2.3
REF, 5.2
referential, 5.2.4.3
self-referential, 5.2.4.1
state of, 5.3
unique key, 5.2, 5.2.2, 5.2.2
validating, 5.3.1
contention
for data
deadlocks, 9.3.6
lock escalation, 9.3.4
contexts, 2.1.1
control files, 11.3
changes recorded, 11.3.1
checkpoints and, 11.3.1
contents, 11.3.1
multiplexed, 11.3.2
overview, 11.3
used in mounting database, 13.2.1.3
CREATE CLUSTER statement, 2.3.1
CREATE DIMENSION statement, 4.5.2, 4.5.2
CREATE GLOBAL TEMPORARY TABLE statement, 2.2.6.1
CREATE INDEX statement, 2.2.6.1, 3.1.1.1, 3.1.1.2, 3.1.2.4, 3.1.2.4, 3.1.4.1, 3.1.6, 4.1.3.2
storage parameters, 12.4.1.1
CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW statement, 4.3
CREATE SEQUENCE statement, 4.4.1
CREATE SYNONYM statement, 4.6
CREATE TABLE command, 2.2.2
CREATE TABLE statement, 2.2
CREATE TRIGGER statement
compiled and stored, 8.4.6
CREATE UNIQUE INDEX statement, 5.2.3
CREATE USER statement
temporary segments, 12.4.2.1
cursors
embedded SQL, 7.2.6
explicit, 8.2.4
fetching rows, 7.2.6

D

data
consistency of
locks, 9.1.2
manual locking, 9.5
data blocks, 7.4.2.1, 12.1
cached in memory, 14.4.1.3.4
clustered rows, 2.3
coalescing free space in blocks, 12.2.4.2.1
compression, 12.2.3
format, 12.2.2, 12.2.2.2
locks stored in, 9.4.1.1.2
overview, 12.1.1
shown in rowids, 12.2.2.2.3
stored in the buffer cache, 14.4.1
writing to disk, 14.4.1.3.4
data conversion
program interface, 16.3
data dictionary, 2.1.4, 2.2.4
ALL_ prefixed views, 6.1.1.2
cache, 14.4.3
comments in, 7.2.1
content, 6.1.1, 14.4.3.2
DBA_ prefixed views, 6.1.1.1
dictionary managed tablespaces, 12.1.2.2
DUAL table, 6.1.1.4
dynamic performance views, 6.2
locks, 9.4.2
overview, 6.1
owner, 6.1.3
public synonyms, 6.1.3.1
row cache and, 14.4.3.2
stored subprograms, 8.2.1.2
USER_ prefixed views, 6.1.1.3
uses, 6.2
data dictionary cache, 6.1.3.2, 7.4.1.1.3, 14.4.3, 14.4.3.2
data failures, protecting against human errors, 17.2.1.5
data files
contents of, 11.2.4
data file 1, 12.5.1.1
named in control files, 11.3.1
shown in rowids, 12.2.2.2.3
SYSTEM tablespace, 12.5.1.1
temporary, 11.2.2
data integrity, 5.1
enforcing, 5.1, 6.1.3
SQL and, 7.1
data manipulation language. See DML
data object number
extended rowid, 12.2.2.2.3
Data Pump Export
dump file set, 18.2.5.2
Data Recovery Advisor, 18.3.1.3.1
data redaction, 17.1.2, 17.1.4
random, 17.1.4
data segments, 12.4.1
data types
BOOLEAN, 2.2.3, 3.1.2.2.3, 7.2.2.1, 8.4.4, Glossary
built-in, 2.2.3
CHAR, 2.2.3.1.1
character, 2.2.3.1
composite types, 2.2.3
conversions of
by program interface, 16.3
DATE, 2.2.3.3.1
datetime, 2.2.3.3
definition, 2.2.3
format models, 2.2.3.3.1
how they relate to tables, 2.2.1
in PL/SQL, 2.2.3
LONG
storage of, 2.2.8.1
NCHAR, 2.2.3.1.2
NUMBER, 2.2.3.2.1
numeric, 2.2.3.2
NVARCHAR2, 2.2.3.1.2
object, 2.2.5
reference types, 2.2.3
ROWID, 2.2.3.4
TIMESTAMP, 2.2.3.3.2
UROWID, 2.2.3.4
user-defined, 2.2.3, 4.2.3
data warehouses
architecture, 17.4.2
bitmap indexes in, 3.1.3
dimensions, 4.5
materialized views, 4.3
partitioning in, 4.1
summaries, 4.3
database applications
definition, 1.1.1
database authentication, 7.2.4, 15.2.2
database backups, 18.3.1.2.1
database buffer cache, 2.2.9, 14.4.1, 15.4.1.3
cache hits and misses, 14.4.1.3.2
caching of comments, 6.1.3.2
flash cache, 14.4.1
database buffers
after committing transactions, 10.2.5
buffer bodies in flash cache, 14.4.1.3.2
buffer cache, 14.4.1
checkpoint position, 15.4.1.3
committing transactions, 15.4.1.4.1
defined, 14.4.1
writing, 15.4.1.3
Database Configuration Assistant, 6.2.1
database resident connection pooling, 16.2.5
Database Server Grid, 17.3
description, 17.3.1
Database Smart Flash Cache. See flash cache
Database Storage Grid, 17.3
description, 17.3.2
database structures
control files, 11.3
data blocks, 12, 12.2
data files, 11
extents, 12.1
processes, 15
segments, 12.1, 12.4
tablespaces, 11, 12.5
database writer process (DBWn), 15.4.1.3
checkpoints, 15.4.1.3
defined, 15.4.1.3
least recently used algorithm (LRU), 14.4.1.3.4
multiple DBWn processes, 15.4.1.3
write-ahead, 15.4.1.4
databases
administrative accounts, 2.1.4
character sets, 2.2.3.1
closing, 13.2.2.2
terminating the instance, 13.2.2.2.2
definition, 1.1
distributed
changing global database name, 14.4.3.1.3
hierarchical, 1.1.1
history, 1.1.4
incarnations, 18.3.1.3.4
introduction, 1
mounting, 13.2.1.3
name stored in control files, 11.3.1
network, 1.1.1
object-relational, 1.1.3
opening, 13.2.1.4, 13.2.1.4.1
relational, 1.1.2, 1.1.3, 7.1
shutting down, 13.2.2
starting up, 2.1.4, 13.1
forced, 13.2.2.4
structures
control files, 11.3
data blocks, 12, 12.2
data files, 11
extents, 12.1, 12.3
logical, 12
processes, 15
segments, 12.1, 12.4
tablespaces, 11, 12.5
DATE data type, 2.2.3.3, 2.2.3.3.1
datetime data types, 2.2.3.3
DBA_ views, 6.1.1.1
DBMS (database management system), 1.1.1
DBMS_METADATA package, 6.3
DBMS_RADM package, 17.1.4
DBMS_STATS package, 7.3.4
DBWn background process, 15.4.1.3
DDL (data definition language), 6.1
described, 7.2.1
locks, 9.4.2
processing of, 7.4.3
deadlocks, 7.4.1.1
defined, 9.3.6
decision support systems (DSS)
materialized views, 4.3
dedicated server, 7.4.1.1.3
default values
constraints effect on, 5.3.3.1
definer’s rights, 8.2.1.1
degree of parallelism
parallel SQL, 15.4.3.2.2
DELETE statement, 7.2.2
freeing space in data blocks, 12.2.4.2
deletions, cascading, 5.2.4.3
denormalized tables, 4.5.2
dependencies, schema object, 2.1.3
descending indexes, 3.1.2.4
detail tables, 4.3
dictionary cache locks, 9.4.3.3
dictionary managed tablespaces, 12.1.2.2
dimensions, 4.5
attributes, 4.5.2
hierarchies, 4.5.2
join key, 4.5.2
normalized or denormalized tables, 4.5.2
tables, 4.5.1
directory objects, 2.1.1
dirty reads, 9.1.1, 9.1.3, Glossary
disk space
data files used to allocate, 11.2.4, 11.2.4
dispatcher processes
described, 16.2.4.1.1
dispatcher processes (Dnnn)
client processes connect through Oracle Net Services, 16.2.4, 16.2.4.1.1
network protocols and, 16.2.4.1.1
prevent startup and shutdown, 16.2.4.2
response queue and, 16.2.4.1
distributed databases
client/server architectures and, 16.1.1.1
job queue processes, 15.4.2.2
recoverer process (RECO) and, 15.4.1.7
server can also be client in, 16.1.1.1
transactions, 10.4
distributed transactions, 10.2.1, 10.4
in-doubt, 10.4.2
naming, 10.2.1
two-phase commit and, 10.4
DML (data manipulation language)
indexed columns, 3.1.3
invisible indexes, 3.1.1, 3.1.1
locks, 9.4.1
overview, 7.2.2
referential actions, 5.2.4.3
triggers, 8.4.1
downtime
avoiding during planned maintenance, 17.2.2
avoiding during unplanned maintenance, 17.2.1.2
drivers, 16.3.2
DUAL table, 6.1.1.4
dynamic partitioning, 15.4.3.2.2
dynamic performance views (V$ tables), 6.2
dynamic SQL
DBMS_SQL package, 8.2.4
embedded, 8.2.4

E

embedded SQL, 7.1, 7.2.6, 8.3.2.2.2
enqueued transactions, 10.2.3.2
Enterprise Grids
with Oracle Real Application Clusters, 17.3
Enterprise Manager
alert log, 13.6.2
dynamic performance views usage, 6.2
executing a package, 8.2.2.3
lock and latch monitors, 9.4.3
shutdown, 13.2.2.1, 13.2.2.4
SQL statements, 7.1.2
equijoins, 3.1.3.2
exceptions, PL/SQL, 8.2.4
exclusive locks, 9.3.3
row locks (TX), 9.4.1.1
table locks (TM), 9.4.1.2
EXECUTE statement, 8.2.1.3
execution plans, 4.3.3, 7.3.1, 7.3.2.3
EXPLAIN PLAN, 7.2.2
EXPLAIN PLAN statement, 7.2.2, 7.3.2.3
explicit locking, 9.5, 9.5
expressions, SQL, 3.1.1.1, 7.2.2.1
extents
as collections of data blocks, 12.3
defined, 12.1.1
dictionary managed, 12.1.2.2
incremental, 12.3.1
locally managed, 12.1.2.1
overview of, 12.3
external procedures, 8.2.6
external tables, 2.2
extraction, transformation, and loading (ETL)
overview, 17.4.3

F

fact tables, 4.5.1
failures
database buffers and, 13.4.1
statement and process, 15.4.1.1
fast commit, 15.4.1.4.1
fast full index scans, 3.1.2.2.2
fast refresh, 4.3.2
fast-start
rollback on demand, 13.4.4
fields, 2.2.2
file management locks, 9.4.3.3
files
alert log, 15.4.1.4.2
initialization parameter, 13.2.1.2, 13.5
password
administrator privileges, 13.2.1.1
server parameter, 13.2.1.2, 13.5
trace files, 15.4.1.4.2
fixed views, 6.2.1
flash cache
buffer reads, 14.4.1.3.2
definition, 14.4.1
optimized physical reads, 14.4.1.3.2
floating-point numbers, 2.2.3.2.2
foreign key constraints, 5.2
foreign keys, 2.2.2, 5.2.4
changes in parent key values, 5.2.4.3
composite, 5.2.4
indexing, 3.1.1.1
updating parent key tables, 5.2.4.3
updating tables, 9.4.1.3
format models, data type, 2.2.3.3.1, 2.2.3.5
free space
automatic segment space management, 12.2.4
managing, 12.2.4
full index scans, 3.1.2.2.1
full table scans, 3.1, 3.1.2.2.2, 5.2.4.4, 7.3.3
LRU algorithm and, 14.4.1.3.4
parallel exe, 15.4.3.2.2
function-based indexes, 3.1.4
functions, 7.2.2.1
function-based indexes, 3.1.4
hash, 4.1.1.2.3
PL/SQL, 8.2.1
SQL, 2.2.3.4.2
fuzzy reads, 9.1.3

G

global database names
shared pool and, 14.4.3.1.3
global indexes, 4.1.3, 4.1.3.2
GRANT statement, 4.6, 7.2.1
grid computing
Database Server Grid, 17.3
Database Storage Grid, 17.3
group commits, 15.4.1.4.1
GV$ views, 6.2.1

H

handles for SQL statements, 14.3.1.1
hard parsing, 7.4.1.1.3
hash clusters, 2.3.2, 2.3.2
cluster keys, 2.3.2.1
hash collisions, 2.3.2.4
hash key values, 2.3.2.1
queries, 2.3.2.2
single-table, 2.3.2.3
storage, 2.3.2.4
hash functions, 2.3.2, 4.1.1.2.3
hash partitions, 4.1.1.2.3, 4.1.1.2.3
headers, data block, 9.4.1.1.2
headers, data blocks, 12.2.2.1
Health Monitor, 18.3.1.3.1
heap-organized tables, 2.1.2, 3.2
height, index, 3.1.2.1
hierarchies
join key, 4.5.2
levels, 4.5.2
hints, optimizer, 7.3.1, 7.3.5
Hybrid Columnar Compression, 2.2.9.2

I

implicit queries, 7.2.2.3
incarnations, database, 18.3.1.3.4
incremental refresh, 4.3.2
index unique scans, 3.1.2.2.4
indexes
application domain, 3.1.5
ascending, 3.1.2.4
bitmap, 3.1.3, 4.1.3.1
bitmap join, 3.1.3.2
branch blocks, 3.1.2.1
B-tree, 2.2.8.3, 3.1.2
cardinality, 3.1.3
composite, 3.1.1.2, 3.1.1.2
compressed, 3.1.2.5
concatenated, 3.1.1.2
descending, 3.1.2.4
domain, 3.1.5
enforcing integrity constraints, 5.2.3
extensible, 3.1.5
function-based, 3.1.4
global, 4.1.3, 4.1.3.2
invisible, 3.1.1
keys, 3.1.1.1, 3.1.2.5, 5.2.3
leaf blocks, 3.1.2.1
nonprefixed, local, 4.1.3.1.1
nonunique, 3.1.1.3
overview, 3.1
partitions, 4.1.3
prefixed, local, 4.1.3.1.1
reverse key, 3.1.2.3
scans, 3.1.2.2, 3.1.2.2.3, 3.1.2.2.5, 7.3.3
secondary, 3.2.3
segments, 3.1.3.3
selectivity, 3.1.2.2.3
storage, 3.1.6
types, 3.1.1.4
unique, 3.1.1.3
indexes, local, 4.1.3
index-organized tables, 3.2, 3.2.3
benefits, 3.2
partitioned, 4.1.4
row overflow, 3.2.2
secondary indexes, 3.2.3
information systems, 1.1
initialization parameter file, 13.2.1.2, 13.5
startup, 13.2.1.2
initialization parameters
basic, 13.5.1
OPEN_CURSORS, 14.3.1.1
SERVICE_NAMES, 16.2.2.2
INIT.ORA. See initialization parameter file.
inner joins, 7.2.2.2
INSERT statement, 7.2.2
instance PGA
definition, 14.1.1
instance recovery
SMON process, 15.4.1.2
instances, 7.2.5
associating with databases, 13.2.1.3
described, 13.1
failures, 9.4.1.1
memory structures of, 14.1
multiple-process, 15.1.1
process structure, 15.1
recovery of
SMON process, 15.4.1.2
service names, 16.2.2
shutting down, 13.2.2, 13.2.2.4
terminating, 13.2.2.2.2
INSTEAD OF triggers, 8.4.2
integrity constraints, 5.1
advantages, 5.1
check, 5.2.5
definition, 2.2.4
inline, 5.2
out-of-line, 5.2
views, 4.2.1.1
interested transaction lists (ITLs), 9.1.1.3.2
internal locks, 9.4.3.3
invisible indexes, 3.1.1
invoker’s rights, 8.2.1.1
isolation levels
read-only, 9.2.3
serialization, 9.2.2
setting, 9.5
isolation levels, transaction, 9.1.3
read committed, 9.2.1

J

Java
call specifications, 8.3.2.1
overview, 8.3
SQLJ translator, 8.3.2.2.2
stored procedures, 1.3.2, 8.3.2.1
virtual machine, 8.3.1
JDBC
accessing SQL, 8.3.2.2
driver types, 8.3.2.2.1
drivers, 8.3.2.2.1
embedded SQL, 7.2.6
job queue processes, 15.4.2.2
jobs, 15.1
join views, 4.2.2
joins, 6.1.1
nested loop, 7.4.1.4
views, 4.2.2
joins, table, 3.1.3.2, 7.2.2.2
Cartesian, 7.2.2.2
clustered tables, 2.3
conditions, 3.1.3.2
inner joins, 7.2.2.2
join conditions, 7.2.2.2
outer joins, 7.2.2.2
views, 4.2

K

key-preserved tables, 4.2.2
keys
compression, 3.1.2.5
concatenation of index, 3.1.2.5
foreign, 5.2.4, 5.2.4
indexes, 3.1.1.1, 3.1.2.5, 5.2.3
natural, 5.2.3
parent, 5.2.4
partition, 4.1.1.1
prefixed index, 3.1.2.1, 3.1.2.5
referenced, 5.2.4
reverse, 3.1.2.3
surrogate, 5.2.3
unique, 5.2.2
values, 5.2

L

large pool, 14.4.4
latches
definition, 9.4.3.1
enqueue, 9.4.3.1
parsing and, 7.4.1.1.3
sleeping, 9.4.3.1
spinning, 9.4.3.1
leaf blocks, index, 3.1.2.1
least recently used (LRU) algorithm
database buffers and, 14.4.1.1, 14.4.1.1
full table scans and, 14.4.1.3.4
latches, 14.4.1.3.4
shared SQL pool, 14.4.3.1.3, 14.4.3.1.3
LGWR background process, 15.4.1.4
library cache, 7.4.1.1.3, 14.4.3, 14.4.3.1
list partitions, 4.1.1.2.2
listener process, 16.2.2
service names, 16.2.2
listeners, 16.2.2
service names, 16.2.2
local indexes, 4.1.3
locally managed tablespaces, 12.1.2.1
LOCK TABLE statement, 7.2.2
locks, 9.1.2
after committing transactions, 10.2.5
automatic, 9.3.2, 9.4
bitmap indexes, 3.1.3
conversion, 9.3.3, 9.3.3, 9.3.4
deadlocks, 7.4.1.1, 9.3.6
dictionary, 9.4.2
dictionary cache, 9.4.3.3
DML, 9.4.1
duration, 9.3.2, 9.3.5
escalation, 9.3.3, 9.3.4
exclusive, 9.3.3
exclusive DDL, 9.4.2.1
exclusive table, 9.4.1.2
file management locks, 9.4.3.3
latches, 9.4.3.1
log management locks, 9.4.3.3
manual, 9.5
overview of, 9.1.2
parse, 9.4.2.3
restrictiveness, 9.3.3
rollback segments, 9.4.3.3
row (TX), 9.4.1.1
row exclusive table, 9.4.1.2
row share, 9.4.1.2
share DDL, 9.4.2.2
share locks, 9.3.3
share row exclusive, 9.4.1.2
share table, 9.4.1.2
system, 9.4.3
table, 3.1, 7.2.2
table (TM), 9.4.1.2
tablespace, 9.4.3.3
types of, 9.4
unindexed foreign keys and, 9.4.1.3
user-defined, 9.6
log management locks, 9.4.3.3
log switch
archiver process, 15.4.2.1
log switches
log sequence numbers, 11.4.2.1
log writer process (LGWR), 15.4.1.4
group commits, 15.4.1.4.1
online redo logs available for use, 11.4.2.1
redo log buffers and, 14.4.2
write-ahead, 15.4.1.4
writing to online redo log files, 11.4.2.1
logical database structures
definition, 1.5.2.2
tablespaces, 12.5
logical rowids, 3.2.3
LONG data type
storage of, 2.2.8.1
lost updates, 9.2.1.2
LRU, 14.4.1.1, 14.4.1.1, 14.4.1.3.4, 14.4.1.3.4
shared SQL pool, 14.4.3.1.3, 14.4.3.1.3

M

maintenance tasks, automatic, 18.3.4.2
maintenance window, 18.3.4.2
manual locking, 9.5
mapping tables, 3.2.3.2
master tables, 4.3, 4.3
materialized views, 4.3
log, 4.3.2
partitioned, 4.3.1
refresh
job queue processes, 15.4.2.2
refreshing, 4.3.2
media recovery
complete, 18.3.1.3.4, 18.3.1.3.4
overview, 18.3.1.3.4, 18.3.1.3.4, 18.3.1.3.4, 18.3.1.3.4, 18.3.1.3.4
memory
allocation for SQL statements, 14.4.3.1.1
content of, 14.1
processes use of, 15.1
software code areas, 14.5
stored procedures, 8.2.1.1
memory management
about, 18.3.2
automatic, 18.3.2.1
automatic shared, 18.3.2.2
MERGE statement, 7.2.2
metrics, 6.2, 18.3.4.1
monitoring user actions, 17.1.6.1
multiblock writes, 15.4.1.3
multiple-process systems (multiuser systems), 15.1.1
multiplexing
control files, 11.3.2
redo log file groups, 11.4.2.2
redo log files, 11.4.2.2, 11.4.2.2
multiuser environments, 15.1.1
multiversion read consistency, 6.2.2, 7.4.2.1, 9.1, 9.1.1, 9.1.1, 9.1.3
consistent read clones, 9.1.1.3.1
dirty reads, 9.1.1, Glossary
read committed isolation level, 9.2.1.1
statement-level, 1.4.3, 9.1.1.1
transaction-level, 9.1.1.2
undo segments, 9.1.1.3
mutexes, 9.4.3.2

N

natural keys, 5.2.3
NCHAR data type, 2.2.3.1.2
network listener process
connection requests, 16.2.4.1.1
networks
client/server architecture use of, 16.1.1
communication protocols, 16.3.2, 16.3.3
dispatcher processes and, 16.2.4.1.1, 16.2.4.1.1
drivers, 16.3.2
listener processes of, 16.2.2
Oracle Net Services, 16.2
NLS_DATE_FORMAT parameter, 2.2.3.3.1
NOAUDIT statement, 7.2.1
nonunique indexes, 3.1.1.3
normalized tables, 4.5.2
NOT NULL constraints, 5.2, 5.2.1
nulls, 2.2.2
foreign keys, 5.2.4.2
how stored, 2.2.2, 2.2.8.4
indexed, 3.1.1.3
prohibiting, 5.2.1
NUMBER data type, 2.2.3.2.1
numeric data types, 2.2.3.2
floating-point numbers, 2.2.3.2.2
NVARCHAR2 data type, 2.2.3.1.2

O

object tables, 2.2.5
object types, 2.2.5, 4.2.3
object views, 4.2.3
OLAP
index-organized tables, 3.2
introduction, 17.4.4.2
online analytical processing
See OLAP
online redo logs
checkpoints, 11.3.1
OPEN_CURSORS parameter
managing private SQL areas, 14.3.1.1
operating systems
communications software, 16.3.3
privileges for administrator, 13.2.1.1
operators, SQL, 7.2.2.1
optimization, SQL, 7.4.1.2
optimized physical reads, 14.4.1.3.2
optimizer, 7.1.1, 7.3, 7.3
components, 7.3.2
estimator, 7.3.2.2
execution, 7.4.1.4
execution plans, 4.3.3, 7.3.1, 7.4.1.3
function-based indexes, 3.1.4.2
hints, 7.3.1, 7.3.5
invisible indexes, 3.1.1, 3.1.1
partitions in query plans, 4.1
plan generator, 7.3.2.3
query plans, 7.4.1.3
query rewrite, 4.3.3
query transformer, 4.3.3, 7.3.2.1
row sources, 7.4.1.3, 7.4.1.3
statistics, 2.2.8.1, 7.3.4
statistics gathering, 18.3.4.2
Oracle
configurations of
multiple-process Oracle, 15.1.1
instances, 13.1
processes of, 15.3
Oracle Audit Vault, 17.1.6.2
Oracle blocks, 12.1.1
Oracle Call Interface See OCI
Oracle code, 16.3
Oracle Enterprise Manager. See Enterprise Manager
Oracle Flashback Technology, 18.3.1.3.2
Oracle interMedia
See Oracle Multimedia
Oracle Internet Directory, 16.2.2.2
Oracle JVM
main components, 8.3.1.2
overview, 8.3.1.1
Oracle Multimedia, 19.3.4.4
Oracle Net Services, 16.2
client/server systems use of, 16.2
overview, 16.2
shared server requirement, 16.2.4.1.1
Oracle Net Services Connection Manager, 8.3
Oracle program interface (OPI), 16.3.1, 16.3.1
Oracle RAC. See Oracle Real Application Clusters
Oracle Real Application Clusters, 6.2.1
Enterprise Grids, 17.3
reverse key indexes, 3.1.2.3
Oracle Streams, 17.5.2
Oracle Text, 19.3.4.3
Oracle XA
session memory in the large pool, 14.4.4
ORDBMS (object-relational database management system), 1.1.3
outer joins, 7.2.2.2

P

packages, 8.2.2
advantages of, 8.2.2.1
executing, 8.2.6
for locking, 9.6
private, 8.2.2.1
public, 8.2.2.1
shared SQL areas and, 14.4.3.1.2
pages, 12.1.1
parallel execution, 15.4.3.2
coordinator, 15.4.3.2.2
server, 15.4.3.2.2
servers, 15.4.3.2.2
tuning, 15.4.3.2
parallel SQL, 15.4.3.2
coordinator process, 15.4.3.2.2
server processes, 15.4.3.2.2
parameter
server, 13.5
parameters
initialization, 13.5
locking behavior, 9.4
storage, 12.3.3
parse locks, 9.4.2.3
parsing
embedded SQL, 7.2.6
storage of information, 6.1.3.2
parsing, SQL, 7.4.1.1
hard parse, 7.4.1.1.3, 9.4.3.1
soft parse, 7.4.1.1.3
partitions, 4.1
composite, 4.1.1.2
dynamic partitioning, 15.4.3.2.2
elimination from queries, 4.1.3.1.1
hash, 4.1.1.2.3
index, 4.1.3
index-organized tables, 4.1.4
keys, 4.1.1.1
materialized views, 4.3.1
range, 4.1.1.2
recovery of, 4.1.3.1
segments, 12.4.1
single-level, 4.1.1.2
strategies, 4.1.1.2
table, 4.1.2
tables, 4.1.4
passwords
administrator privileges, 13.2.1.1
connecting with, 15.2.2
PCTFREE storage parameter
how it works, 12.2.4.1
performance
dynamic performance views (V$), 6.2
group commits, 15.4.1.4.1
packages, 8.2.2.1
PGA, instance
definition, 14.1.1
phantom reads, 9.1.3
physical database structures
control files, 11.3
physical guesses, 3.2.3.1
plan
SQL execution, 7.2.2
planned downtime
avoiding downtime during, 17.2.2
PL/SQL
anonymous blocks, 8.2, 8.2.3
collections, 8.2.5.1
data types, 2.2.3
dynamic SQL, 8.2.4
exceptions, 8.2.4
execution, 8.2.6
language constructs, 8.2.4
overview, 8.2
packages, 6.3, 8.2.2
PL/SQL engine, 8.2.6
program units, 8.2, 14.4.3.1.2
compiled, 8.2.6
shared SQL areas and, 14.4.3.1.2
records, 8.2.5.1
stored procedures, 1.3.2, 6.1.1.2, 8.2, 8.2.1
PMON background process, 15.4.1.1
pragmas, PL/SQL, 10.3
precompilers, 8.1
embedded SQL, 7.2.6, 7.2.6
predicates, SQL, 3.1.2.2.1
SQL
predicates, 7.1.1
primary key constraints, 5.2
primary keys, 2.2.2, 3.1
constraints, 5.2.3, 5.2.3, 5.2.3
hash clusters, 2.3.2.3
index-organized tables, 2.2
private SQL areas, 14.4.3.1.1
described, 14.4.3.1.1
how managed, 14.3.1.1
parsing and, 7.4.1.1
private synonyms, 4.6
privileges, 6.1, 7.2.4
administrator, 13.2.1.1, 13.2.1.1
granting, 7.2.1
PL/SQL procedures and, 8.2.1.1
revoking, 7.2.1
procedures
advantages, 8.2.1.1
execution, 8.2.1.3, 8.2.1.3, 8.2.6
external, 8.2.6
memory allocation, 8.2.1.1
security, 8.2.1.1
shared SQL areas and, 14.4.3.1.2
stored procedures, 1.3.2, 6.1.1.2, 8.2, 8.2.6
process monitor process (PMON)
described, 15.4.1.1
processes, 15.1
archiver (ARCn), 15.4.2.1
background, 15.4
checkpoints and, 15.4.1.3
client, 15.2
dedicated server, 7.4.1.1.3, 16.2.4.1.2
distributed transaction resolution, 15.4.1.7
job queue, 15.4.2.2
listener, 16.2.2
shared servers and, 16.2.4.1.1
log writer (LGWR), 15.4.1.4
multiple-process Oracle, 15.1.1
Oracle, 15.3
parallel execution coordinator, 15.4.3.2.2
parallel execution servers, 15.4.3.2.2
process monitor (PMON), 15.4.1.1
recoverer (RECO), 15.4.1.7
server, 15.3
shared, 16.2.4.1.1, 16.2.4.1.2
shared server, 16.2.4
client requests and, 16.2.4.1
structure, 15.1
system monitor (SMON), 15.4.1.2
user
recovery from failure of, 15.4.1.1
sharing server processes, 16.2.4.1.1
processing
parallel SQL, 15.4.3.2
program global area (PGA), 14.1.1
shared server, 16.2.4.1.2
shared servers, 16.2.4.1.2
program interface, 16.3
Oracle side (OPI), 16.3.1
structure of, 16.3.1
user side (UPI), 16.3.1
program units, 8.2
shared pool and, 14.4.3.1.2
programming, server-side, 8.1
pseudocode
triggers, 8.4.6
pseudocolumns, 2.2.3.4.2, 3.2.1
public synonyms, 4.6

Q

queries
blocks, 7.2.2.3
definition, 7.2.2.1
implicit, 7.2.2.3, 9.2.1.1
in DML, 7.2.2
parallel processing, 15.4.3.2
query blocks, 7.3.2.3
query transformer, 7.3.2.1
SQL language and, 7.1
stored, 4.2
subqueries, 4.2, 7.2.2, 7.2.2.3
query blocks, 7.3.2.3
query plans, 7.4.1.3
partitioning and, 4.1
query rewrite, 4.3.3, 4.5
query transformer, 4.3.3

R

range partitions, 4.1.1.2
RDBMS (relational database management system), 1.1.3
read committed isolation, 9.2.1
read consistency. See multiversion read consistency
read uncommitted, 9.1.3
read-only isolation level, 9.2.3
Real Application Clusters
cache fusion, 9.1.1.3
system monitor process and, 15.4.1.2
threads of online redo log, 11.4.2
records, PL/SQL, 8.2.5.1
recoverer process (RECO), 15.4.1.7
in-doubt transactions, 10.4.2
recovery
complete, 18.3.1.3.4
database buffers and, 13.4.1
distributed processing in, 15.4.1.7
instance recovery
SMON process, 15.4.1.2
media, 18.3.1.3.4, 18.3.1.3.4, 18.3.1.3.4, 18.3.1.3.4
media recovery
dispatcher processes, 16.2.4.2
process recovery, 15.4.1.1
required after terminating instance, 13.2.2.2.2, 13.2.2.2.2
rolling back transactions, 13.4.4
tablespace
point-in-time, 18.3.1.3.4
Recovery Manager (RMAN), 6.2
recursive SQL, 7.4.3
redaction, data, 17.1.2, 17.1.4
policies, 17.1.4
redo log files
See also online redo logs
available for use, 11.4.2.1
circular use of, 11.4.2.1
contents of, 11.4.3
distributed transaction information in, 11.4.2
group members, 11.4.2.2
groups, defined, 11.4.2.2
instance recovery use of, 11.4
LGWR and the, 11.4.2.1
members, 11.4.2.2
multiplexed, 11.4.2.2, 11.4.2.2
online, defined, 11.4
redo entries, 11.4.3
threads, 11.4.2
redo logs
archiver process (ARCn), 15.4.2.1
buffer management, 15.4.1.4
committed data, 13.4.1
committing a transaction, 15.4.1.4.1
log switch
archiver process, 15.4.2.1
log writer process, 14.4.2, 15.4.1.4
rolling forward, 13.4.1
writing buffers, 15.4.1.4
redo logs buffer, 14.4.2
redo records, 11.4.3
REF constraints, 5.2
referential integrity
examples of, 5.3.3
self-referential constraints, 5.3.3
refresh
incremental, 4.3.2
job queue processes, 15.4.2.2
materialized views, 4.3.2
relational database management system. See RDBMS
replication, Oracle Streams, 4.3, 17.5.2.1
bi-directional, 17.5.2.1.2
hub-and-spoke, 17.5.2.1.2
master database, 4.3
n-way, 17.5.2.1.2
one-way, 17.5.2.1.2
reserved words, 7.2
response queues, 16.2.4.1
result cache, 14.4.3.3, 14.4.3.3.1
result sets, SQL, 2.2, 2.2.3.4.2, 2.2.6, 4.2.2, 7.4.1.3, 7.4.2
RESULT_CACHE clause, 14.4.3.3.1
results sets, SQL, 7.2.2.1
reverse key indexes, 3.1.2.3
REVOKE statement, 7.2.1
rights, definer’s and invoker’s, 8.2.1.1
roles, 2.1.1, 6.1.1.2, 7.2.4
rollback, 10.2.3.1, 10.2.4
described, 10.2.3.1, 10.2.4
ending a transaction, 10.2.3.1, 10.2.4
implicit in DDL, 7.2.1
statement-level, 10.1.3
to a savepoint, 10.2.3.1
rollback segments
locks on, 9.4.3.3
parallel recovery, 13.4.4
use of in recovery, 13.4.4
ROLLBACK statement, 10.2
rollback, statement-level, 9.3.6
rollback, transaction, 7.2.3
rolling back, 10.1, 10.2.3.1, 10.2.4
row cache, 14.4.3.2
row chaining, 12.2.4.3
row data (section of data block), 12.2.2.2
row directories, 12.2.2.1
row locks, 9.4.1.1
concurrency, 9.4.1.1.1
storage, 9.4.1.1.2
row pieces, 2.2.8.2
row source generation, 7.4.1.3
ROWID data type, 2.2.3.4
rowids, 2.2.8.3
foreign, 2.2.3.4
index, 3.1.1.3
logical, 2.2.3.4, 3.2.3
physical, 2.2.3.4
row migration, 12.2.4.3
scans, 7.3.3
universal, 2.2.3.4
rows
addresses, 2.2.8.3
chaining across blocks, 2.2.8.2, 12.2.4.3
clustered, 2.2.8.2
definition, 2.2.1
format of in data blocks, 12.2.2.1
locking, 9.4.1.1
locks on, 9.4.1.1
migrating to new block, 12.2.4.3
row set, 7.4.1.3
row source, 7.4.1.3
shown in rowids, 12.2.2.2.3
storage, 2.2.8.2
triggers, 8.4.2

S

sample schemas, 2.1.5
SAVEPOINT statement, 7.2.3
savepoints, 7.2.3, 10.2.3
definition, 10.2.3
implicit, 10.1.3
rolling back to, 10.2.3.1
SAVEPOINT statement, 10.2
scans
cluster, 7.3.3
fast full index, 3.1.2.2.2
full index, 3.1.2.2.1
full table, 3.1, 5.2.4.4, 7.3.3, 14.4.1.3.4
index, 3.1.2.2, 7.3.3
index skip, 3.1.2.2.5
range, 2.3.2.2
rowid, 7.3.3
unique index, 3.1.2.2.4
schema objects
definitions, 6.1, 7.2.1
dependencies, 2.1.3, 4.2.1
dimensions, 4.5
indexes, 3.1.1
introduction, 2.1
materialized views, 4.3
relationship to data files, 11.2.1
sequences, 4.4
storage, 2.1.2
schemas, 2.1
schemas, sample, 2.1.5
SCN
See system change numbers
secondary indexes, 3.2.3
benefits, 3.2.3
physical guesses, 3.2.3.1
SecureFiles, 19.3.4.2.3
security
administrator privileges, 13.2.1.1
auditing, 17.1.6.1
definer’s rights, 8.2.1.1
program interface enforcement of, 16.3
views, 4.2
segment advisor, 18.3.4.2
segments, 12.4
data, 12.4.1
defined, 12.1.1
index, 3.1.3.3, 3.1.6
overview of, 12.4
table storage, 2.2.8
temporary, 2.2.6.2, 12.4.2
allocating, 12.4.2
select lists, SQL, 7.2.2.1
SELECT statement, 7.2.2
selectivity, 3.1.2.2.3, 3.1.4.2
self-referential integrity constraints, 5.2.4.1
sequences
concurrent access, 4.4.2
definition, 4.4
surrogate keys, 5.2.3
serializability, transactional, 9.1
serialization isolation level, 9.2.2
server parameter file
startup, 13.2.1.2
server processes, 15.3, 15.3
listener process, 16.2.2
servers
client/server architecture, 16.1.1
shared
architecture, 15.1.2, 16.2.4
processes of, 16.2.4, 16.2.4.1.2
server-side programming, 8.1
overview, 8.1
service names, 16.2.2
service oriented architecture, 1.5.4.1, 16.1.2.4
SERVICE_NAMES parameter, 16.2.2.2
session control statements, 7.2.4
sessions, 7.2.4
connections contrasted with, 15.2.2
defined, 15.2.2
memory allocation in the large pool, 14.4.4
sequence generation in, 4.4.2
SET CONSTRAINT statement, 7.2.3
SET TRANSACTION statement, 7.2.3, 10.1.2.1
SGA (system global area)
allocating, 13.2.1.2
contents of, 14.4
data dictionary cache, 6.1.3.2, 14.4.3.2
database buffer cache, 14.4.1
large pool, 14.4.4
redo log buffer, 10.2.2, 14.4.2
rollback segments and, 10.2.2
shared and writable, 14.4
shared pool, 8.2.1.1, 14.4.3
variable parameters, 13.5.1.1
share DDL locks, 9.4.2.2
share locks, 9.3.3
shared pool, 8.2.6, 14.4.3, 14.4.3.1.3
allocation of, 14.4.3.1.3
check, 7.4.1.1.3
dependency management and, 14.4.3.1.3
described, 14.4.3
flushing, 14.4.3.1.3
latches, 9.4.3.1
parse locks, 9.4.2.3
row cache and, 14.4.3.2
shared server
described, 15.1.2
dispatcher processes, 16.2.4.1.1
Oracle Net Services or SQL*Net V2 requirement, 16.2.4.1.1
processes, 16.2.4.1.2, 16.2.4.1.2
processes needed for, 16.2.4
restricted operations in, 16.2.4.2
session memory in the large pool, 14.4.4
shared server processes (Snnn), 16.2.4.1.2
described, 16.2.4.1.2
shared SQL areas, 4.2.1.2, 7.4.1.1.3, 14.4.3, 14.4.3.1.1, 14.4.3.1.3
dependency management and, 14.4.3.1.3
described, 14.4.3.1.1
parse locks, 9.4.2.3
procedures, packages, triggers and, 14.4.3.1.2
shutdown, 13.2.2, 13.2.2.4
abnormal, 13.2.2.4
prohibited by dispatcher processes, 16.2.4.2
steps, 13.2.2
SHUTDOWN ABORT statement, 13.2.2.4
Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). See SOAP
simple triggers, 8.4.3
single-level partitioning, 4.1.1.2
SMON background process, 15.4.1.2
SOA, 1.5.4.1, 16.1.2.4
SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol), 1.5.4.1
soft parsing, 7.4.1.1.3
software code areas, 14.5
space management
extents, 12.3
PCTFREE, 12.2.4.1
row chaining, 12.2.4.3
segments, 12.4
SQL, 7.1, 7.2
conditions, 7.1.1, 7.2.2.1
data definition language (DDL), 7.2.1
data manipulation language (DML), 7.2.2
dictionary cache locks, 9.4.3.3
dynamic SQL, 8.2.4
embedded, 7.1, 7.2.6, 7.2.6
executable, 10.1.2.1
execution, 7.4.1.4, 10.1.3
expressions, 3.1.1.1, 7.2.2.1
functions, 2.2.3.4.2, 7.1.2
IDs, 7.4.1.1.3
implicit queries, 7.2.2.3
interactive, 7.1
memory allocation for, 14.4.3.1.1
operators, 7.1.1, 7.2.2.1
optimization, 7.4.1.2
Oracle, 7.1.2
overview, 7.1
parallel execution, 15.4.3.2
parsing, 7.4.1.1
PL/SQL and, 8.2
predicates, 3.1.2.2.1
recursive, 7.4.3
reserved words, 7.2
result sets, 2.2, 2.2.3.4.2, 2.2.6, 4.2.2, 7.2.2.1, 7.4.1.3, 7.4.2
select lists, 7.2.2.1
session control statements, 7.2.4
stages of processing, 7.4.1
standards, 7.1.2
statements, 7.2
subqueries, 4.2, 7.2.2.3
system control statements, 7.2.5
transaction control statements, 7.2.3
transactions, 10.1
transactions and, 10.2.5
types of statements, 7.2
SQL areas
private, 14.4.3.1.1
shared, 14.4.3.1.1
SQL Plan Management (SPM), 7.3.2.3
SQL tuning advisor, 18.3.4.2
SQL*Plus
alert log, 13.6.2
executing a package, 8.2.2.3
lock and latch monitors, 9.4.3
SQL statements, 7.1.2
SQLJ standard, 8.3.2.2.2
standards
ANSI/ISO, 7.1.2
isolation levels, 9.1.3
startup, 13.1
prohibited by dispatcher processes, 16.2.4.2
statement-level atomicity, 10.1.3
statement-level read consistency, 9.1.1.1
statement-level rollback, 9.3.6, 10.1.3
statements, SQL, 7.2
statistics, 2.2.8.1, 6.2, 7.3.1, 7.4.1.2, 14.4.3.1.3
ASH, 18.3.4.4
AWR, 18.3.4.2
definition, 7.3.4
gathering for optimizer, 18.3.4.2
Java-related, 14.4.5
join order, 7.2.2.2
undo retention, 12.5.1.3.2
storage
logical structures, 12.5
nulls, 2.2.2
triggers, 8.4.6, 8.4.6
STORAGE clause
using, 12.3.3
storage parameters
setting, 12.3.3
stored procedures. See procedures
Structured Query Language (SQL), 7.1
structures
locking, 9.4.2
logical, 12
data blocks, 12, 12.2
extents, 12.1, 12.3
segments, 12.1, 12.4
tablespaces, 11, 12.5
physical
control files, 11.3
data files, 11
processes, 15
subprograms, PL/SQL. See procedures
subqueries, 4.2, 7.2.2, 7.2.2.3
summaries, 4.3
surrogate keys, 5.2.3
synonyms
constraints indirectly affect, 5.3.3.2
data dictionary views, 6.1.3.1
definition, 4.6
private, 4.6
public, 4.6, 6.1.1.3
securability, 4.6
SYS user name, 2.1.4
data dictionary tables, 6.1.3
V$ views, 6.2.1
SYSDBA privilege, 13.2.1.1
SYSOPER privilege, 13.2.1.1
system change numbers
definition, 9.1.1.3.1
when assigned, 11.4.3
system change numbers (SCN), 10.1.4
committed transactions, 10.2.5
defined, 10.2.5
system control statements, 7.2.5
system global area. See SGA
system locks, 9.4.3
internal, 9.4.3.3
latches, 9.4.3.1
mutexes, 9.4.3.2
system monitor process (SMON), 15.4.1.2
defined, 15.4.1.2
Real Application Clusters and, 15.4.1.2
rolling back transactions, 13.4.4
SYSTEM tablespace, 6.1.2
data dictionary stored in, 12.5.1.1
online requirement of, 12.5.3.2
SYSTEM user name, 2.1.4

T

table clusters
cluster keys, 2.3
definition, 2.3
hash clusters, 2.3.2
indexed, 2.3.1, Glossary
scans, 7.3.3
tables
base, 4.2.1, 6.1.2
characteristics, 2.2.2
clustered, 2.3
compression, 2.2.9, 4.1.2
definition, 2.1.1
detail, 4.3
dimension, 4.5.1
directories, 12.2.2.1, 12.2.2.1
DUAL, 6.1.1.4
dynamic partitioning, 15.4.3.2.2
external, 2.2.7
fact, 4.5.1
full table scans, 3.1
heap-organized, 2.1.2, 3.2
index-organized, 3.2, 3.2.3, 4.1.4
integrity constraints, 5.1
joins, 3.1.3.2
key-preserved, 4.2.2
master, 4.3, 4.3
normalized or denormalized, 4.5.2
object, 2.2.5
overview, 2
partitions, 4.1.2
permanent, 2.2
storage, 2.2.8
temporary, 2.2.6, 12.4.2.2
transaction, 10.1.2.1
truncating, 7.2.1
views of, 4.2
virtual, 6.2.2
tables, base, 4.2
tables, external, 2.2
tables, temporary, 2.2
tablespace point-in-time recovery, 18.3.1.3.4
tablespaces, 12.5
described, 12.5
dictionary managed, 12.1.2.2
locally managed, 12.1.2.1
locks on, 9.4.3.3
offline, 12.5.3.2
online, 12.5.3.2
overview of, 12.5
recovery, 18.3.1.3.4
schema objects, 2.1.2
space allocation, 12.1.2
SYSTEM, 6.1.2
used for temporary segments, 12.4.2.1
tasks, 15.1
temp files, 11.2.2
temporary segments, 2.2.6.2, 12.4.2.2
allocating, 12.4.2.1
allocation for queries, 12.4.2.1
temporary tables, 2.2, 2.2.6
threads
online redo log, 11.4.2
time zones, 2.2.3.3.2
in date/time columns, 2.2.3.3.2
TIMESTAMP data type, 2.2.3.3, 2.2.3.3.2
TO_CHAR function, 2.2.3.5
TO_DATE function, 2.2.3.3.1, 2.2.3.5
trace files
LGWR trace file, 15.4.1.4.2
transaction control statements, 7.2.3
transaction tables, 10.1.2.1
reset at recovery, 15.4.1.1
transaction-level read consistency, 9.1.1.2
transactions, 10
ACID properties, 10.1
active, 10.2.2
assigning system change numbers, 10.2.5
autonomous, 10.3
within a PL/SQL block, 10.3
beginning, 10.1.2.1
blocking, 9.2.1.2
committing, 10.2.5, 15.4.1.4.1
group commits, 15.4.1.4.1
conflicting writes, 9.2.1.2
deadlocks, 9.3.6
deadlocks and, 10.1.3
definition, 10.1
distributed, 10.2.1, 10.4
resolving automatically, 15.4.1.7
DML statements, 7.2.2
ending, 10.1.2.2
enqueued, 10.2.3.2
in-doubt
resolving automatically, 10.4.2
interested transaction lists (ITLs), 9.1.1.3.2
isolation levels, 9.1.3, 9.2.2, 9.2.3
isolation of, 9.1.3
naming, 10.2.1
read consistency, 9.1.1.2
rolling back, 10.2.3.1, 10.2.4
partially, 10.2.3.1
savepoints in, 10.2.3
serializability, 9.1
setting properties, 7.2.3
terminating the application and, 10.1.2.2
transaction control statements, 7.2.3
transaction history, 9.1.1.3.2
transaction ID, 10.1, 10.1.2.1
triggers, 8.1
cascading, 8.4.1
components of, 8.4.4
compound, 8.4.3
effect of rollbacks, 10.1.3
firing (executing), 8.4.5
privileges required, 8.4.5
INSTEAD OF, 8.4.2
overview, 8.4
restrictions, 8.4.4
row, 8.4.2
shared SQL areas and, 14.4.3.1.2
simple, 8.4.3
statement, 8.4.2
storage of, 8.4.6
timing, 8.4.3
UNKNOWN does not fire, 8.4.4
uses of, 8.4.1
TRUNCATE statement, 7.2.1
two-phase commit
transaction management, 10.4

U

undo management, automatic, 12.4.3
undo segments, 10.1.2.1
read consistency, 9.1.1.3
undo tablespaces, 12.5.1.3
undo retention period, 9.2.3
Unicode, 2.2.3.1
unique indexes, 3.1.1.3
unique key constraints, 5.2, 5.2.2
composite keys, 5.2.2
NOT NULL constraints and, 5.2.2
unplanned downtime
avoiding downtime during, 17.2.1.2
update no action constraint, 5.2.4.3
UPDATE statement, 7.2.2
updates
lost, 9.2.1.2
updatability of views, 4.2.2, 8.4.2
updatable join views, 4.2.2
updating tables
with parent keys, 9.4.1.3
UROWID data type, 2.2.3.4
user program interface (UPI), 16.3.1
USER_ views, 6.1.1.3
users, database, 2.1.1
authentication, 17.1.2
names, 6.1
sessions and connections, 15.2.2
privileges, 2.1
temporary tablespaces, 12.4.2.1
UTL_HTTP package, 8.2.2

V

V$ views, 6.2.1
VARCHAR2 data type, 2.2.3.1
variables
embedded SQL, 7.2.6
views, 4.2
base tables, 4.2
constraints indirectly affect, 5.3.3.2
data access, 4.2.1.2
data dictionary
updatable columns, 4.2.2
fixed views, 6.2.1
indexes, 4.2.1.2
INSTEAD OF triggers, 8.4.2
integrity constraints, 4.2.1.1
materialized, 4.3
object, 4.2.3
schema object dependencies, 4.2.1
storage, 4.2.1
updatability, 4.2.2
uses, 4.2
V$, 6.2
virtual columns, 2.2.1, 2.2.8.1, 3.1.4.2

W

warehouse
materialized views, 4.3
Web services, 1.5.4.1, 16.1.2.4
write-ahead, 15.4.1.4

X

XA
session memory in the large pool, 14.4.4
XMLType data type, 19.3.4.1