This chapter provides the BS2000/OSD-specific information that you must use with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD.
This chapter contains the following sections:
Every Oracle Database utility and product under BS2000/OSD uses an Oracle Database environment-definition file, named
ORAENV file is a text file that has the format of a BS2000 command procedure. The command procedure calls itself using the
filename command. Each line contains an Oracle Database environment variable and its assigned value. When reading this file, Oracle Database ignores all lines that have a slash symbol (/) or asterisk symbol (*) in column one.
You must generate this file before you use the Oracle Database programs as it contains several Oracle Database environment variables. These Oracle Database environment variables describe the operating environment for the Oracle Database and utilities. The section "Generating the Environment-Definition File" explains how to create the file.
If you do not generate the
ORAENV file, then the default values are used for all environment variables. In some cases, there are no default values for environment variables, such as for
ORASID. If you start an Oracle Database program or utility without first generating the
ORAENV file, then you will not be able to connect to the Oracle Database.
To generate an
ORAENV file before using Oracle Database for the first time, perform the following steps:
INSTALL.P.USER procedure by entering the following command:
$ORAC1120 is the name of Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) installation user ID.
You are prompted to enter the database system identifier known as the
SID. If you do not know the
SID, then contact the database administrator.
To call the
ORAENV file (
.P.ORAENV) for the database
DEMO, enter the following
CALL-PROCEDURE command on the
To specify the environment variables, call the
ORAENV file containing the environment variables for the database you want to use.
The following content for the
ORAENV file is available with Oracle Database:
/SET-PROC-OPT DATA-ESCAPE=*STD /DECL-PAR (SYSCMD(INI-VAL='DEMO.P.ORAENV')) / REMARK * SYSCMD must be name of this file / WRITE-TEXT ' ' / WRITE-TEXT ' +----------------------------------------+ ' / WRITE-TEXT ' I Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) I ' / WRITE-TEXT ' I environment setup I ' / WRITE-TEXT ' +----------------------------------------+ ' / WRITE-TEXT ' ' / SET-FILE-LINK ORAENV,&SYSCMD / SET-FILE-LINK ORALOAD,$ORAC1120.ORALOAD.LIB / SET-FILE-LINK ORAMESG,$ORAC1120.ORAMESG.LIB /&* MOD-SDF $ORAC1120.SYSSDF.ORACLE.USER /&* *** if SYSOUT protocol is desired set BGJOUT='KEEP' *** /&* SET-VAR BGJOUT='DEL' / EXIT-PROCEDURE ** parameters for users: * ORAUID=/BS2/$ORAC1120 ORASID=DEMO NLS_LANG=German_Germany.D8BS2000 * PRINTPAR= /END-PROCEDURE
If you want, you can change Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) working environment by editing the user variables in the
ORAENV file. The Appendix B, "Oracle Environment Variables" contains a list of the variables you can specify in the
Note:The values that you assign to user variables are specific to your task and the database with which you work. The database administrator can also set other variables that may affect the whole database instance. If you try to set values for the DBA-specific variables in the
ORAENVfile, then they are ignored.
ORALOAD library (
$ORAC1120.ORALOAD.LIB by default) is required for starting Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) programs. Oracle Database uses this library to dynamically load executables when required. The
ORALOAD library must be identified by the link name
ORALOAD before calling Oracle Database programs. If the link name is missing, then a BLS (BS2000 loader) error message appears. The
ORALOAD link name is set when the
ORAENV procedure is called.
Another library, the
ORAMESG library (
$ORAC1120.ORAMESG.LIB by default) is required for Oracle messages. This library is assigned the link name
ORAMESG in the
Before you start Oracle Database programs, you must call the environment-definition file. See Section 1.1.2, "Calling the Environment-Definition File" for more information.
To start the Oracle Database programs and utilities, enter a
START-PROGRAM command with the program name at the BS2000 command prompt (/). Specify the options and operands as the first data-input line when the data prompt (*) is displayed, as shown in the following example:
/START-PROGRAM $ORAC1120.program_name CCM0001 enter options: * [option_switch] [arguments]
program_name is the name of the program or utility to be started
option_switch is one or more of the program-dependent optional switches. If this is used, then the switch is preceded by a dash (-).
arguments are one or more operands of the program (or utility), or the username and password combination, or both.
To start SQL*Plus, enter the following command:
/START-PROGRAM $ORAC1120.SQLPLUS * /NOLOG SQL> CONNECT SYS / AS SYSDBA Enter password: password
As soon as the program is loaded, the
CCM0001 prompt is displayed to let you enter the command line options. As shown in the preceding examples, you can enter the
arguments for the program. The prompt of the program is then displayed. If the program is SQL*Plus, then the prompt is
SQL>. You can now enter one of the commands of the program. See the generic documentation for the product for a description of the valid commands.
Alternatively you can start the Oracle Database utilities with the following BS2000 SDF command:
For example, to start SQL*Plus, then enter the following command:
To start the utilities in UNIX-Style, enter the following commands:
/START-ORACLE-CMMIGR or /CMMIGR /START-ORACLE-EXPORT or /OEXP /START-ORACLE-EXPDP or /EXPDP /START-ORACLE-IMPORT or /OIMP /START-ORACLE-IMPDP or /IMPDP /START-ORACLE-LISTENER-CONTROL or /LSNRCTL /START-ORACLE-MKWALLET or /MKWALLET /START-ORACLE-SQLLOADER or /SQLLDR /START-ORACLE-SQLPLUS or /SQLPLUS /START-ORACLE-TNSPING or /TNSPING /START-ORACLE-RMAN or /RMAN
Parameters can be specified after the start command (in quotation marks, if the parameters contains equal to (=) or blanks). Before you start the utility, activate the
MOD-SDF command in the
ORAENV file, and call the
ORAENV file, as follows:
/sqlplus /lsnrctl stop /oimp 'system/manager file=iea buffer=210000 ignore=y grants=y rows=y full=y commit=y'
With Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) on Fujitsu BS2000/OSD, you can run utilities like SQL*Plus not only in the normal BS2000 environment, but also in the POSIX environment.
During the installation of the Oracle Database software, the utilities are installed within the POSIX file system in the directory
To start Oracle utilities in the POSIX shell, you must set the environment variable
ORACLE_HOME, and extend the environment variable
PATH by the path name of the Oracle directory
/bin, as follows:
$ ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/orac1120/product/dbhome $ export ORACLE_HOME $ PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$PATH $ export PATH
Alternatively, you can execute the profile
/.profile.oracle, created during the installation of the Oracle Database software under POSIX. This profile sets and expands the most important variables like
To execute the profile, enter the following command:
$ . /u01/app/orac1120/product/dbhome/.profile.oracle
Set the variable
ORACLE_SID to start an Oracle utility for a specific Oracle instance. Additional instance-specific parameters that are defined in the related BS2000
ORAENV file, may be set in the POSIX environment or by accessing the BS2000
Utilities running in the POSIX shell provide the opportunity to read instance-specific variables from the
ORAENV file in the BS2000 file system. To provide access to the BS2000
ORAENV file, you must create a file named
oraenvsid in the
/dbs directory. This file contains the qualified BS2000 file name of the BS2000
ORAENV file. It acts like a link to the
ORAENV file in the BS2000 file system.
For example, to access the
$ORADATA.ORCL.P.ORAENV, then you must create an
oraenvORCL file in the
/dbs directory, as follows:
$ ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/orac1120/product/dbhome $ export ORACLE_HOME $ echo '$ORADATA.ORCL.P.ORAENV' > $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/oraenvORCL $ chmod 664 $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/oraenvORCL
Utilities running in the POSIX shell handle the variables of the BS2000
ORAENV file as subordinated variables. Environment variables in the POSIX shell take precedence over settings in the BS2000
SID in the file name
sid is case sensitive and must match the
SID specified in
You must grant access to the user using the BS2000
ORAENV file, if the POSIX user that runs the Oracle utility in the POSIX shell is different from the BS2000 user ID where the
ORAENV file is located.
If an Oracle utility uses the BEQ protocol to connect to a database, then Oracle Net Services gets the job parameters to start a dedicated server in the BS2000 environment from the
BGJPAR variable. If this variable is not specified, then Oracle Net Services will use default values.
BGJPARvariable is not set after the
/.profile.oracleprofile is run.
While using the BEQ protocol, it is recommended that particular BS2000 job parameters are defined for BS2000 jobs, started by Oracle Net Services. The
BGJPAR variable provides the option to define these parameters. You can define this variable either in the related BS2000
ORAENV file or by explicitly setting it in the POSIX environment to the appropriate value.
For example, if a bequeathed server task should be assigned to a special
JOB-CLASS, then set the
BGJPAR variable in the POSIX environment, as follows:
$ ORACLE_SID=orcl $ export ORACLE_SID $ BGJPAR='START=SOON,CPU-LIMIT=NO,JOB-CLASS=JCBORA,LOGGING=*NO' $ export BGJPAR
You can start the utilities in the same way as on other UNIX systems, such as for SQL*Plus, using the following commands:
$ sqlplus /nolog $ SQL> connect / as sysdba
To connect to an Oracle instance, perform one of the following methods:
Using Oracle Net Services with the Bequeath adapter. See the "Oracle Net Services" chapter in Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD.
Using Oracle Net Services over TCP/IP or IPC.
Check with the database administrator if you can connect to the Oracle database using the listed methods, as the possibilities available are dependent on how the system has been configured. Usually, you specify the way you connect to an Oracle instance as part of the logon string appended to the userid/password, and separated from it by an at sign (@), as described in the following sections:
If you do not specify a connection string, then the environment variable
DEFAULT_CONNECTION, if set, is used to establish the Oracle database connection. See Appendix B, "Oracle Environment Variables" for more information about the
ORAENV file and the
DEFAULT_CONNECTION environment variable.
Access to a local or remote instance is done through Oracle Net Services. Use the Oracle Net Services logon string to identify the following for accessing a local or remote database:
Protocol to be used.
Database you want to access.
Type of server (whether dedicated or shared) you want to use.
The Oracle Net Services logon string has the following structure:
/START-PROGRAM $ORAC1120.SQLPLUS * userid/password@service_name
service_name specifies a service name entered in the
TNSNAMES.ORA file that identifies the TNS connect descriptor for the desired database. If you are not sure of what you should enter, then contact the database administrator.
The following example shows a logon string to connect to a database defined in the
TNSNAMES.ORA file as
For information about connecting to an Oracle Database using the Bequeath adapter, see the "Oracle Net Services" chapter in Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD.
In most cases, Oracle Database for BS2000/OSD programs use the functions of the C-BS2000 run-time system to access their input and output files. Oracle Database programs can read and write
Textual data is usually stored in
ISAM files. Each record is taken to be one text line. For example, the SQL script files used by SQL*Plus and spool output files.
SQL*Loader input data is provided as
ISAM files. These files may also contain non-printable data, such as packed decimal or binary integer values. For
ISAM files, the key at the beginning of the record is generally ignored.
Under BS2000/OSD, the Oracle Database utilities add default extensions to file names only when the last component of the specified file name is longer than three characters, or when only one component is specified, as shown in the following table:
|Original File Name||Extended File Name|
This is similar to the file naming conventions used with Oracle Database on a UNIX system.
Instead of specifying a file name, in special cases, you can also specify the link name of a previously issued
BS2000 /SET-FILE-LINK command by using the syntax
linkname in places where a file name is requested. In this way, you can override default file attributes, preallocate file space, and so on. There are a few exceptions where the
linkname notation cannot be used.
Note:When using the
linknamenotation, default file name extensions do not work. As a result, file name defaults derived from such notation are not valid, and you must provide explicit names in such cases.
For example, when working with SQL*Loader, if you specify
linkname for the SQL*Loader control file, then you must provide explicit names for the
DISCARD file names.
Some programs may report a syntax error when the
linkname notation is used on the command (options) line. In such cases, omit the parameter on the command line and specify it instead, when you are prompted for the missing parameter.
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) for BS2000/OSD uses fixed link names for specific files.
The most important of these are as follows:
|ORAENV||The link name of the Oracle Database environment-definition file.|
|ORALOAD||The link name is mandatory and is used to specify the load library from which the Oracle Database modules are loaded during processing.|
|ORAMESG||The link name is mandatory and is used to specify the message library from which Oracle message modules are loaded during execution.|
Typically, you can set these link names by running the