This chapter provides the BS2000/OSD-specific information that you must use with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD.
This chapter contains the following sections:
Every Oracle Database utility and product under BS2000/OSD uses an Oracle Database environment-definition file, which is referred to as
ORAENV. You must generate this file before you use the Oracle Database products as it contains a number of Oracle Database environment variables. These Oracle Database environment variables describe the operating environment for the Oracle Database and utilities. The section "Generating the Environment-Definition File" explains how to create the file.
If you do not generate the
ORAENV file, then the default values are used for all environment variables. In some cases, there are no default values for environment variables, such as for
ORASID. If you start an Oracle Database program or utility without first generating the
ORAENV file, then you will not be able to connect to the Oracle Database.
ORAENV file is a text file that has the format of a BS2000 command procedure. The command procedure calls itself using the
filename command. Each line contains an Oracle Database environment variable and its assigned value. When reading this file, Oracle Database ignores all lines that have a slash symbol (/) or asterisk symbol (*) in column one.
You must generate an
ORAENV file prior to using Oracle Database for the first time. Perform the following steps to generate an
INSTALL.P.USER procedure by entering the following command:
$ORAC1120 is the name of Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) installation user ID.
You are prompted for the database system identifier, known as the
SID. If you do not know what the
SID is, then consult the database administrator.
ORAENV file (
.P.ORAENV) by entering the
CALL-PROCEDURE command on the
ORAENV file. For example, to call the example
ORAENV file for the database
DEMO, enter the following command:
The following is the content of the
ORAENV file available with Oracle Database:
/SET-PROC-OPT DATA-ESCAPE=*STD /DECL-PAR (SYSCMD(INI-VAL='DEMO.P.ORAENV')) / REMARK * SYSCMD must be name of this file / WRITE-TEXT ' ' / WRITE-TEXT ' +----------------------------------------+ ' / WRITE-TEXT ' I Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) I ' / WRITE-TEXT ' I environment setup I ' / WRITE-TEXT ' +----------------------------------------+ ' / WRITE-TEXT ' ' / SET-FILE-LINK ORAENV,&SYSCMD / SET-FILE-LINK ORALOAD,$ORAC1120.ORALOAD.LIB / SET-FILE-LINK ORAMESG,$ORAC1120.ORAMESG.LIB /&* MOD-SDF $ORAC1120.SYSSDF.ORACLE.USER /&* *** if SYSOUT protocol is desired set BGJOUT='KEEP' *** /&* SET-VAR BGJOUT='DEL' / EXIT-PROCEDURE ** parameters for users: * ORAUID=/BS2/$ORAC1120 ORASID=DEMO NLS_LANG=German_Germany.D8BS2000 * PRINTPAR= /END-PROCEDURE
If you want, you can change Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) working environment by editing the user variables in this file. The Appendix B, "Oracle Environment Variables" contains a list of the variables you can specify in the
ORAENV file. The values you assign to user variables are specific to your task only. The database administrator can also set other variables that affect the whole database instance. If you try to set values for the DBA-specific variables in the
ORAENV file, then they are ignored.
Note:You can create an individual
ORAENVfile for each database with which you work. To set the environment variables, call the
ORAENVfile containing the environment variables for the database you want to use.
ORALOAD library (
$ORAC1120.ORALOAD.LIB by default) is required for starting Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) programs. Oracle Database uses this library to dynamically load executables when required. The
ORALOAD library must be identified by the link name
ORALOAD prior to calling Oracle Database programs. You get a BLS (BS2000 loader) error message, if the link name is missing. The
ORALOAD link name is set when the
ORAENV procedure is called. Another library, the
ORAMESG library (
$ORAC1120.ORAMESG.LIB by default) is required for Oracle messages. This library is assigned the link name
ORAMESG in the
Before you start Oracle Database products, you must call the environment-definition file, as described in Section 1.1.2, "Calling the Environment-Definition File".
Start the Oracle Database programs and utilities by entering a
START-PROGRAM command with the program name at the BS2000 command prompt (/). Specify the options and operands as the first data-input line when the data prompt (*) is displayed, as shown in the following example:
/START-PROGRAM $ORAC1120.program_name CCM0001 enter options: * [option_switch] [arguments]
program_name is the name of the program or utility to be started
option_switch is one or more of the program-dependent optional switches. If this is used, then the switch is preceded by a dash (-).
arguments are one or more operands of the program (or utility), or the user ID and password combination, or both.
To start SQL*Plus, enter the following command:
/START-PROGRAM $ORAC1120.SQLPLUS * /NOLOG SQL> CONNECT SYS / AS SYSDBA Enter password: password
As soon as the program is loaded, the
CCM0001 prompt is displayed to let you enter the command line options. As shown in the preceding examples, you can enter the
arguments for the program. The prompt of the program is then displayed, which in the case of SQL*Plus, is
SQL>. You can now enter one of the commands of the program. Refer to the generic documentation for the product for a description of the valid commands.
Alternatively you can start the Oracle Database utilities with the following BS2000 SDF command:
For example, if you want to start SQL*Plus, then enter the command:
You can also start the utilities with the following commands:
/START-ORACLE-CMMIGR or /CMMIGR /START-ORACLE-EXPORT or /OEXP /START-ORACLE-EXPDP or /EXPDP /START-ORACLE-IMPORT or /OIMP /START-ORACLE-IMPDP or /IMPDP /START-ORACLE-LISTENER-CONTROL or /LSNRCTL /START-ORACLE-MKWALLET or /MKWALLET /START-ORACLE-SQLLOADER or /SQLLDR /START-ORACLE-SQLPLUS or /SQLPLUS /START-ORACLE-TNSPING or /TNSPING /START-ORACLE-RMAN or /RMAN
Parameters can be specified after the start command (in quotation marks, if the parameters contains equal to (=) or blanks). Before you start the utility, activate the
MOD-SDF command in the
ORAENV file and call the
/sqlplus /lsnrctl stop /oimp 'system/manager file=iea buffer=210000 ignore=y grants=y rows=y full=y commit=y'
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 on Fujitsu BS2000/OSD, you can run utilities like SQL*Plus not only in the normal BS2000 environment, but also in the POSIX environment.
During the installation of the Oracle Database software the utilities are installed within the POSIX file system in the directory
/bin. Before starting Oracle utilities in the POSIX shell, you must set the environment variable
ORACLE_HOME and extend the environment variable
PATH by the pathname of the Oracle directory
/bin. For example:
$ ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/orac1120/product/dbhome $ export ORACLE_HOME $ PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$PATH $ export PATH
Alternatively you can execute the profile
/.profile.oracle that is created during the installation of the Oracle Database software under POSIX. This profile sets and expands the most important variables like
PATH. Execute the profile as follows:
$ . /u01/app/orac1120/product/dbhome/.profile.oracle
Set the variable
ORACLE_SID to start an Oracle utility for a specific Oracle instance. Additional instance-specific parameters that are defined in the related BS2000
ORAENV file, may be set in the POSIX environment or by accessing the BS2000
Utilities running in the POSIX shell provide the opportunity to read instance-specific variables from the
ORAENV file in the BS2000 file system. To provide access to the BS2000
ORAENV file, you must create a file named
oraenvsid in the
/dbs directory. This file contains the full qualified BS2000 filename of the BS2000
ORAENV file. It acts like a link to the
ORAENV file in the BS2000 file system.
For example, if you want to access the
$ORADATA.ORCL.P.ORAENV, then you must create a
oraenvORCL file in the
/dbs directory as follows:
$ ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/orac1120/product/dbhome $ export ORACLE_HOME $ echo '$ORADATA.ORCL.P.ORAENV' > $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/oraenvORCL $ chmod 664 $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/oraenvORCL
Utilities running in the POSIX shell handle the variables of the BS2000
ORAENV file as subordinated variables.Environment variables in the POSIX shell take precedence over settings in the BS2000
SID in the filename
sid is case sensitive and must match the
SID specified in
You must grant access for all users to the BS2000
ORAENV file, if the POSIX user that runs the Oracle utility in the POSIX shell is different from the BS2000 user ID where the
ORAENV file is located.
If an Oracle utility uses the BEQ protocol to connect to a database, then Oracle Net Services will get the job parameters for the start of a dedicated server in the BS2000 environment from the
BGJPAR variable. If this variable is not specified, then Oracle Net Services will use default values.
BGJPARvariable is not set after running the
While using the BEQ protocol, it is recommended that particular BS2000 job parameters are defined for BS2000 jobs started by Oracle Net Services. The
BGJPAR variable provides the option to define these parameters. You can define this variable either in the related BS2000
ORAENV file or by explicitly setting it in the POSIX environment to the appropriate value.
For example, if a bequeathed server task should be assigned to a special
JOB-CLASS, then set the
BGJPAR variable in the POSIX environment as follows:
$ ORACLE_SID=orcl $ export ORACLE_SID $ BGJPAR='START=SOON,CPU-LIMIT=NO,JOB-CLASS=JCBORA,LOGGING=*NO' $ export BGJPAR
You can start the utilities in the same way as on other UNIX systems, such as for SQL*Plus, using the following commands:
$ sqlplus /nolog $ SQL> connect / as sysdba
You can connect to an Oracle instance in the following ways:
Using Oracle Net Services with the Bequeath adapter (Refer to the "Oracle Net Services" chapter in Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD)
Using Oracle Net Services over TCP/IP or IPC
Check with the database administrator to see whether you can connect to the Oracle database using the listed methods, as the possibilities available are dependent on how the system has been configured. Usually, you specify the way you connect to an Oracle instance as part of the logon string appended to the userid/password, and separated from it by an at sign (@), as illustrated in the following sections.
If you do not specify a connection string, then the environment variable
DEFAULT_CONNECTION, if set, is used to establish the Oracle database connection. Refer to Appendix B, "Oracle Environment Variables" for more information about the
ORAENV file and the
DEFAULT_CONNECTION environment variable.
Access to a local or remote instance is done through Oracle Net Services. Use the Oracle Net Services logon string to identify the following for accessing a local or remote database:
Protocol to be used
Database you want to access
Type of server (whether dedicated or shared) you want to use
The Oracle Net Services logon string has the following structure:
/START-PROGRAM $ORAC1120.SQLPLUS * userid/password@service_name
service_name specifies a service name entered in the
TNSNAMES.ORA file that identifies the TNS connect descriptor for the desired database. If you are not sure of what you should enter here, then contact the database administrator.
The following example shows a logon string to connect to a database defined in the
TNSNAMES.ORA file as
For information about connecting to an Oracle Database using the Bequeath adapter, refer to the "Oracle Net Services" chapter in Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD.
In most cases, Oracle Database for BS2000/OSD programs use the functions of the C-BS2000 run-time system to access their input and output files. Oracle Database programs can read and write
Textual data is usually stored in
ISAM files; each record is taken to be one text line. Examples are the SQL script files used by SQL*Plus and spool output files.
SQL*Loader input data is provided as
ISAM files. These files may also contain non-printable data, such as packed decimal or binary integer values. For
ISAM files, the key at the beginning of the record is generally ignored.
The convention used in generic Oracle Database documentation represents file names as two parts separated by a period, as in
LOGIN.SQL. This syntax is correct for BS2000. However, as there is no "current directory" concept in BS2000, you have to add a prefix to the generic example names to get a full BS2000 file name.
Under BS2000/OSD, the Oracle Database utilities add default extensions to file names only when the last component of the specified file name is longer than three characters, or when only one component is specified, as shown in the following table.
|Original File Name||Extended File Name|
This is similar to the file naming conventions used with Oracle Database on a UNIX system.
Instead of specifying a file name, in special cases, you can also refer to the link name of a previously issued
BS2000 /SET-FILE-LINK command by using the syntax
linkname in places where a file name is requested. In this way, you can override default file attributes, preallocate file space, and so on. There are a few exceptions where the
linkname notation cannot be used.
Note:When using the
linknamenotation, default file name extensions do not work. As a result, file name defaults derived from such notation are not valid, and you have to provide explicit names in such cases. For example, when working with SQL*Loader, if you specify
linknamefor the SQL*Loader control file, then you must provide explicit names for the
Some programs may report a syntax error when the
linkname notation is used on the command (options) line. In such cases, omit the parameter on the command line, and specify it instead when you are prompted for the missing parameter.
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) for BS2000/OSD uses fixed link names for specific files.
The most important of these are as follows:
|ORAENV||The link name of the Oracle Database environment-definition file.|
|ORALOAD||The link name is mandatory and is used to specify the load library from which the Oracle Database modules are loaded during processing.|
|ORAMESG||The link name is mandatory and is used to specify the message library from which Oracle message modules are loaded during execution.|
Typically, you set these link names by running the