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AUDIT_TRAIL

Property Description
Parameter type String
Syntax AUDIT_TRAIL = { none | os | db [, extended] | xml [, extended] }
Default value none
Modifiable No
Basic No

AUDIT_TRAIL enables or disables database auditing.

Values:

  • none

    Disables standard auditing. This value is the default if the AUDIT_TRAIL parameter was not set in the initialization parameter file or if you created the database using a method other than Database Configuration Assistant. If you created the database using Database Configuration Assistant, then the default is db.

  • os

    Directs all audit records to an operating system file. Oracle recommends that you use the os setting, particularly if you are using an ultra-secure database configuration.

  • db

    Directs audit records to the database audit trail (the SYS.AUD$ table), except for records that are always written to the operating system audit trail. Use this setting for a general database for manageability.

    If the database was started in read-only mode with AUDIT_TRAIL set to db, then Oracle Database internally sets AUDIT_TRAIL to os. Check the alert log for details.

  • db, extended

    Performs all actions of AUDIT_TRAIL=db, and also populates the SQL bind and SQL text CLOB-type columns of the SYS.AUD$ table, when available. These two columns are populated only when this parameter is specified.

    If the database was started in read-only mode with AUDIT_TRAIL set to db, extended, then Oracle Database internally sets AUDIT_TRAIL to os. Check the alert log for details.

  • xml

    Writes to the operating system audit record file in XML format. Records all elements of the AuditRecord node except Sql_Text and Sql_Bind to the operating system XML audit file.

  • xml, extended

    Performs all actions of AUDIT_TRAIL=xml, and includes SQL text and SQL bind information in the audit trail.

You can use the SQL AUDIT statement to set auditing options regardless of the setting of this parameter.

Examples

The following statement sets the db, extended value for the AUDIT_TRAIL parameter. The new value takes effect after the database is restarted.

SQL> alter system set AUDIT_TRAIL=db, extended scope=spfile;

System altered.

SQL>

The following statement sets the xml, extended value for the AUDIT_TRAIL parameter. The new value takes effect after the database is restarted.

SQL> alter system set AUDIT_TRAIL=xml, extended scope=spfile;

System altered.

SQL>

The following statement sets the db value for the AUDIT_TRAIL parameter. The new value takes effect after the database is restarted.

SQL> alter system set AUDIT_TRAIL=db scope=spfile;

System altered.

SQL>

See Also:

Oracle Database Security Guide describes the types of auditing that can be performed and provides more information about using the different auditing options, including configuration examples.