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Oracle® Database SQL Language Reference
11g Release 2 (11.2)

E41084-03
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About SQL Operators

Operators manipulate individual data items called operands or arguments. Operators are represented by special characters or by keywords. For example, the multiplication operator is represented by an asterisk (*).

If you have installed Oracle Text, then you can use the SCORE operator, which is part of that product, in Oracle Text queries. You can also create conditions with the built-in Text operators, including CONTAINS, CATSEARCH, and MATCHES. For more information on these Oracle Text elements, refer to Oracle Text Reference.

If you are using Oracle Expression Filter, then you can create conditions with the built-in EVALUATE operator that is part of that product. For more information, refer to Oracle Database Rules Manager and Expression Filter Developer's Guide.

Note:

The combined values of the NLS_COMP and NLS_SORT settings determine the rules by which characters are sorted and compared. If NLS_COMP is set to LINGUISTIC for your database, then all entities in this chapter will be interpreted according to the rules specified by the NLS_SORT parameter. If NLS_COMP is not set to LINGUISTIC, then the functions are interpreted without regard to the NLS_SORT setting. NLS_SORT can be explicitly set. If it is not set explicitly, it is derived from NLS_LANGUAGE. Refer to Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for more information on these settings.

Unary and Binary Operators

The two general classes of operators are:

  • unary: A unary operator operates on only one operand. A unary operator typically appears with its operand in this format:

    operator operand
    
  • binary: A binary operator operates on two operands. A binary operator appears with its operands in this format:

    operand1 operator operand2
    

Other operators with special formats accept more than two operands. If an operator is given a null operand, then the result is always null. The only operator that does not follow this rule is concatenation (||).

Operator Precedence

Precedence is the order in which Oracle Database evaluates different operators in the same expression. When evaluating an expression containing multiple operators, Oracle evaluates operators with higher precedence before evaluating those with lower precedence. Oracle evaluates operators with equal precedence from left to right within an expression.

Table 4-1 lists the levels of precedence among SQL operators from high to low. Operators listed on the same line have the same precedence.

Table 4-1 SQL Operator Precedence

Operator Operation

+, - (as unary operators), PRIOR, CONNECT_BY_ROOT

Identity, negation, location in hierarchy

*, /

Multiplication, division

+, - (as binary operators), ||

Addition, subtraction, concatenation

SQL conditions are evaluated after SQL operators

See "Condition Precedence"


Precedence Example In the following expression, multiplication has a higher precedence than addition, so Oracle first multiplies 2 by 3 and then adds the result to 1.

1+2*3 

You can use parentheses in an expression to override operator precedence. Oracle evaluates expressions inside parentheses before evaluating those outside.

SQL also supports set operators (UNION, UNION ALL, INTERSECT, and MINUS), which combine sets of rows returned by queries, rather than individual data items. All set operators have equal precedence.

See Also:

"Hierarchical Query Operators" and "Hierarchical Queries" for information on the PRIOR operator, which is used only in hierarchical queries