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Oracle® Database SQL Language Reference
11g Release 2 (11.2)

E41084-03
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GRANT

Purpose

Use the GRANT statement to grant:

  • Roles to users and roles. The granted roles can be either user-defined (local or external) or predefined. For a list of predefined roles, refer to Oracle Database Security Guide.

  • System privileges to users and roles. Table 18-1 lists the system privileges (organized by the database object operated upon).

  • Object privileges for a particular object to users, roles, and PUBLIC. Table 18-2 lists object privileges (organized by the database object operated upon).

Note:

Global roles (created with IDENTIFIED GLOBALLY) are granted through enterprise roles and cannot be granted using the GRANT statement.

Notes on Authorizing Database Users You can authorize database users through means other than the database and the GRANT statement.

  • Many Oracle Database privileges are granted through supplied PL/SQL and Java packages. For information on those privileges, refer to the documentation for the appropriate package.

  • Some operating systems have facilities that let you grant roles to Oracle Database users with the initialization parameter OS_ROLES. If you choose to grant roles to users through operating system facilities, then you cannot also grant roles to users with the GRANT statement, although you can use the GRANT statement to grant system privileges to users and system privileges and roles to other roles.

Note on Oracle Automatic Storage Management A user authenticated AS SYSASM can use this statement to grant the system privileges SYSASM, SYSOPER, and SYSDBA to a user in the Oracle ASM password file of the current node.

Note on Editionable Objects 

A GRANT operation to grant object privileges on an editionable object actualizes the object in the current edition. See Oracle Database Advanced Application Developer's Guide for more information about editions and editionable objects.

See Also:

Prerequisites

To grant a system privilege, one of the following conditions must be met:

  • You must have been granted the GRANT ANY PRIVILEGE system privilege. In this case, if you grant the system privilege to a role, then a user to whom the role has been granted does not have the privilege unless the role is enabled in user's session.

  • You must have been granted the system privilege with the ADMIN OPTION. In this case, if you grant the system privilege to a role, then a user to whom the role has been granted has the privilege regardless whether the role is enabled in the user's session.

To grant a role, you must either have been granted the role with the ADMIN OPTION or have been granted the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege, or you must have created the role.

To grant an object privilege, you must own the object, or the owner of the object must have granted you the object privileges with the GRANT OPTION, or you must have been granted the GRANT ANY OBJECT PRIVILEGE system privilege. If you have the GRANT ANY OBJECT PRIVILEGE, then you can grant the object privilege only if the object owner could have granted the same object privilege. In this case, the GRANTOR column of the DBA_TAB_PRIVS view displays the object owner rather than the user who issued the GRANT statement.

Semantics

grant_system_privileges

Use these clauses to grant system privileges.

system_privilege

Specify the system privilege you want to grant. Table 18-1 lists the system privileges, organized by the database object operated upon.

  • If you grant a privilege to a user, then the database adds the privilege to the user's privilege domain. The user can immediately exercise the privilege. Oracle recommends that you only grant the ANY privileges to trusted users.

  • If you grant a privilege to a role, then the database adds the privilege to the privilege domain of the role. Users who have been granted and have enabled the role can immediately exercise the privilege. Other users who have been granted the role can enable the role and exercise the privilege.

  • If you grant a privilege to PUBLIC, then the database adds the privilege to the privilege domains of each user. All users can immediately perform operations authorized by the privilege. Oracle recommends against granting system privileges to PUBLIC.

Oracle Database provides the ALL PRIVILEGES shortcut for granting all the system privileges listed in Table 18-1, except the SELECT ANY DICTIONARY, ALTER DATABASE LINK, and ALTER PUBLIC DATABASE LINK privileges.

role

Specify the role you want to grant. You can grant an Oracle Database predefined role or a user-defined role.

  • If you grant a role to a user, then the database makes the role available to the user. The user can immediately enable the role and exercise the privileges in the privilege domain of the role.

    In the case of a secure application role, you need not grant such a role directly to the user. You can let the associated PL/SQL package do this, assuming the user passes appropriate security policies. For more information, see the CREATE ROLE semantics for USING package and Oracle Database Security Guide

  • If you grant a role to another role, then the database adds the privilege domain of the granted role to the privilege domain of the grantee role. Users who have been granted the grantee role can enable it and exercise the privileges in the granted role's privilege domain.

  • If you grant a role to PUBLIC, then the database makes the role available to all users. All users can immediately enable the role and exercise the privileges in the privilege domain of the role.

See Also:

IDENTIFIED BY Clause

This clause is valid only when granting system privileges, not when granting object privileges. Use the IDENTIFIED BY clause to specify a new password for an existing user or to create a nonexistent user. This clause is not valid if the grantee is a role or PUBLIC. If the user specified in the grantee_clause does not exist, then the database creates the user with the password and with the privileges and roles specified in this clause.

See Also:

CREATE USER for restrictions on usernames and passwords

WITH ADMIN OPTION

Specify WITH ADMIN OPTION to enable the grantee to:

  • Grant the privilege or role to another user or role, unless the role is a GLOBAL role

  • Revoke the privilege or role from another user or role

  • Alter the privilege or role to change the authorization needed to access it

  • Drop the privilege or role

If you grant a system privilege or role to a user without specifying WITH ADMIN OPTION, and then subsequently grant the privilege or role to the user WITH ADMIN OPTION, then the user has the ADMIN OPTION on the privilege or role.

To revoke the ADMIN OPTION on a system privilege or role from a user, you must revoke the privilege or role from the user altogether and then grant the privilege or role to the user without the ADMIN OPTION.

grantee_clause

TO grantee_clause identifies users or roles to which the system privilege, role, or object privilege is granted.

Restriction on Grantees A user, role, or PUBLIC cannot appear more than once in the TO grantee_clause.

PUBLIC 

Specify PUBLIC to grant the privileges to all users. Oracle recommends against granting system privileges to PUBLIC.

Restrictions on Granting System Privileges and Roles Privileges and roles are subject to the following restrictions:

  • A privilege or role cannot appear more than once in the list of privileges and roles to be granted.

  • You cannot grant a role to itself.

  • You cannot grant a role IDENTIFIED GLOBALLY to anything.

  • You cannot grant a role IDENTIFIED EXTERNALLY to a global user or global role.

  • You cannot grant roles circularly. For example, if you grant the role banker to the role teller, then you cannot subsequently grant teller to banker.

  • You cannot grant an IDENTIFIED BY role, IDENTIFIED USING role, or IDENTIFIED EXTERNALLY role to another role.

grant_object_privileges

Use these clauses to grant object privileges.

object_privilege

Specify the object privilege you want to grant. Table 18-2 lists the object privileges, organized by the type of object on which they can be granted. When you grant an object privilege on a editionable object, either to a user or to a role, the object is actualized in the edition in which the grant is made. Refer to CREATE EDITION for information on editionable object types and editions.

Note:

To grant SELECT on a view to another user, either you must own all of the objects underlying the view or you must have been granted the SELECT object privilege WITH GRANT OPTION on all of those underlying objects. This is true even if the grantee already has SELECT privileges on those underlying objects.

Restriction on Object Privileges A privilege cannot appear more than once in the list of privileges to be granted.

ALL [PRIVILEGES]

Specify ALL to grant all the privileges for the object that you have been granted with the GRANT OPTION. The user who owns the schema containing an object automatically has all privileges on the object with the GRANT OPTION. The keyword PRIVILEGES is provided for semantic clarity and is optional.

column

Specify the table or view column on which privileges are to be granted. You can specify columns only when granting the INSERT, REFERENCES, or UPDATE privilege. If you do not list columns, then the grantee has the specified privilege on all columns in the table or view.

For information on existing column object grants, query the USER_, ALL_, or DBA_COL_PRIVS data dictionary view.

on_object_clause

The on_object_clause identifies the object on which the privileges are granted. Directory schema objects, editions, data mining models, and Java source and resource schema objects are identified separately because they reside in separate namespaces.

If you can make this grant only because you have the GRANT ANY OBJECT PRIVILEGE system privilege—that is, you are not the owner of object, nor do you have object_privilege on object WITH GRANT OPTION—then the effect of this grant is that you are acting on behalf of the object owner. The *_TAB_PRIVS data dictionary views will reflect that this grant was made by the owner of object.

See Also:

WITH GRANT OPTION

Specify WITH GRANT OPTION to enable the grantee to grant the object privileges to other users and roles.

If you grant an object privilege to a user without specifying WITH GRANT OPTION, and then subsequently grant the privilege to the user WITH GRANT OPTION, then the user has the GRANT OPTION on the privilege.

To revoke the GRANT OPTION on an object privilege from a user, you must revoke the privilege from the user altogether and then grant the privilege to the user without the GRANT OPTION.

Restriction on Granting WITH GRANT OPTION You can specify WITH GRANT OPTION only when granting to a user or to PUBLIC, not when granting to a role.

WITH HIERARCHY OPTION

Specify WITH HIERARCHY OPTION to grant the specified object privilege on all subobjects of object, such as subviews created under a view, including subobjects created subsequent to this statement.

This clause is meaningful only in combination with the SELECT object privilege.

object Specify the schema object on which the privileges are to be granted. If you do not qualify object with schema, then the database assumes the object is in your own schema. The object can be one of the following types:

  • Table, view, or materialized view

  • Sequence

  • Procedure, function, or package

  • User-defined type

  • Synonym for any of the preceding items

  • Directory, library, operator, or indextype

  • Java source, class, or resource

You cannot grant privileges directly to a single partition of a partitioned table.

DIRECTORY directory_name Specify a directory schema object on which privileges are to be granted. You cannot qualify directory_name with a schema name.

JAVA SOURCE | RESOURCE The JAVA clause lets you specify a Java source or resource schema object on which privileges are to be granted.

See Also:

CREATE JAVA

Listings of System and Object Privileges

Note:

When you grant a privilege on ANY object, such as CREATE ANY CLUSTER, the result is determined by the value of the O7_DICTIONARY_ACCESSIBILITY initialization parameter. By default, this parameter is set to FALSE, so that ANY privileges give the grantee access to that type of object in all schemas except the SYS schema. If you set O7_DICTIONARY_ACCESSIBILITY to TRUE, then the ANY privileges also give the grantee access, in the SYS schema, to all objects except Oracle Scheduler objects. For security reasons, Oracle recommends that you use this setting only with great caution.

Table 18-1 System Privileges (Organized by the Database Object Operated Upon)

System Privilege Name Operations Authorized

Advisor Framework Privileges: All of the advisor framework privileges are part of the DBA role.

ADVISOR

Access the advisor framework through PL/SQL packages such as DBMS_ADVISOR and DBMS_SQLTUNE.

Refer to Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for information on these packages.

ADMINISTER SQL TUNING SET

Create, drop, select (read), load (write), and delete a SQL tuning set owned by the grantee through the DBMS_SQLTUNE package.

ADMINISTER ANY SQL TUNING SET

Create, drop, select (read), load (write), and delete a SQL tuning set owned by any user through the DBMS_SQLTUNE package.

CREATE ANY SQL PROFILE

Accept a SQL Profile recommended by the SQL Tuning Advisor, which is accessed through Enterprise Manager or by the DBMS_SQLTUNE package.

Note: This privilege has been deprecated in favor of ADMINISTER SQL MANAGEMENT OBJECT.

ALTER ANY SQL PROFILE

Alter the attributes of an existing SQL Profile.

Note: This privilege has been deprecated in favor of ADMINISTER SQL MANAGEMENT OBJECT.

DROP ANY SQL PROFILE

Drop an existing SQL Profile.

Note: This privilege has been deprecated in favor of ADMINISTER SQL MANAGEMENT OBJECT.

ADMINISTER SQL MANAGEMENT OBJECT

Create, alter, and drop a SQL Profile owned by any user through the DBMS_SQLTUNE package.

CLUSTERS:

CREATE CLUSTER

Create clusters in the grantee's schema.

CREATE ANY CLUSTER

Create a cluster in any schema. Behaves similarly to CREATE ANY TABLE.

ALTER ANY CLUSTER

Alter clusters in any schema.

DROP ANY CLUSTER

Drop clusters in any schema.

CONTEXTS:

CREATE ANY CONTEXT

Create any context namespace.

DROP ANY CONTEXT

Drop any context namespace.

DATA REDACTION:

EXEMPT REDACTION POLICY

Bypass any existing Oracle Data Redaction policies and view actual data from tables or views on which Data Redaction policies are defined.

Note: This privilege is available starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.4).

DATABASE:

ALTER DATABASE

Alter the database.

ALTER SYSTEM

Issue ALTER SYSTEM statements.

AUDIT SYSTEM

Issue AUDIT statements.

DATABASE LINKS:

CREATE DATABASE LINK

Create private database links in the grantee's schema.

CREATE PUBLIC DATABASE LINK

Create public database links.

ALTER DATABASE LINK

Modify a fixed-user database link when the password of the connection or authentication user changes.

ALTER PUBLIC DATABASE LINK

Modify a public fixed-user database link when the password of the connection or authentication user changes.

DROP PUBLIC DATABASE LINK

Drop public database links.

DEBUGGING:

DEBUG CONNECT SESSION

Connect the current session to a debugger.

DEBUG ANY PROCEDURE

Debug all PL/SQL and Java code in any database object. Display information on all SQL statements executed by the application.

Note: Granting this privilege is equivalent to granting the DEBUG object privilege on all applicable objects in the database.

DICTIONARIES:

ANALYZE ANY DICTIONARY

Analyze any data dictionary object.

DIMENSIONS:

CREATE DIMENSION

Create dimensions in the grantee's schema.

CREATE ANY DIMENSION

Create dimensions in any schema.

ALTER ANY DIMENSION

Alter dimensions in any schema.

DROP ANY DIMENSION

Drop dimensions in any schema.

DIRECTORIES:

CREATE ANY DIRECTORY

Create directory database objects.

DROP ANY DIRECTORY

Drop directory database objects.

EDITIONS:

CREATE ANY EDITION

Create editions.

DROP ANY EDITION

Drop editions.

FLASHBACK DATA ARCHIVES:

FLASHBACK ARCHIVE ADMINISTER

Create, alter, or drop any flashback data archive.

INDEXES:

CREATE ANY INDEX

Create in any schema a domain index or an index on any table in any schema.

ALTER ANY INDEX

Alter indexes in any schema.

DROP ANY INDEX

Drop indexes in any schema.

INDEXTYPES:

CREATE INDEXTYPE

Create an indextype in the grantee's schema.

CREATE ANY INDEXTYPE

Create an indextype in any schema and create a comment on an indextype in any schema.

ALTER ANY INDEXTYPE

Modify indextypes in any schema.

DROP ANY INDEXTYPE

Drop an indextype in any schema.

EXECUTE ANY INDEXTYPE

Reference an indextype in any schema.

JOB SCHEDULER OBJECTS:

The following privileges are needed to execute procedures in the DBMS_SCHEDULER package. This privileges do not apply to lightweight jobs, which are not database objects. Refer to Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about lightweight jobs.

CREATE JOB

Create jobs, schedules, or programs in the grantee's schema.

CREATE ANY JOB

Create, alter, or drop jobs, chains, schedules, programs, or credentials in any schema except SYS.

Caution: This extremely powerful privilege allows the grantee to execute code as any other user. It should be granted with caution.

CREATE EXTERNAL JOB

Create in the grantee's schema an executable scheduler job that runs on the operating system.

EXECUTE ANY PROGRAM

Use any program in a job in the grantee's schema.

EXECUTE ANY CLASS

Specify any job class in a job in the grantee's schema.

MANAGE SCHEDULER

Create, alter, or drop any job class, window, or window group.

LIBRARIES:

Caution: CREATE LIBARARY, CREATE ANY LIBRARY, ALTER ANY LIBRARY, and EXECUTE ANY LIBRARY are extremely powerful privileges that should be granted only to trusted users. Refer to Oracle Database Security Guide before granting these privileges.

CREATE LIBRARY

Create external procedure or function libraries in the grantee's schema.

CREATE ANY LIBRARY

Create external procedure or function libraries in any schema.

ALTER ANY LIBRARY

Alter external procedure or function libraries in any schema.

DROP ANY LIBRARY

Drop external procedure or function libraries in any schema.

EXECUTE ANY LIBRARY

Use external procedure or function libraries in any schema.

MATERIALIZED VIEWS:

CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW

Create a materialized view in the grantee's schema.

CREATE ANY MATERIALIZED VIEW

Create materialized views in any schema.

ALTER ANY MATERIALIZED VIEW

Alter materialized views in any schema.

DROP ANY MATERIALIZED VIEW

Drop materialized views in any schema.

QUERY REWRITE

This privilege has been deprecated. No privileges are needed for a user to enable rewrite for a materialized view that references tables or views in the user's own schema.

GLOBAL QUERY REWRITE

Enable rewrite using a materialized view when that materialized view references tables or views in any schema.

ON COMMIT REFRESH

Create a refresh-on-commit materialized view on any table in the database.

Alter a refresh-on-demand materialized on any table in the database to refresh-on-commit.

FLASHBACK ANY TABLE

Issue a SQL Flashback Query on any table, view, or materialized view in any schema. This privilege is not needed to execute the DBMS_FLASHBACK procedures.

MINING MODELS:

CREATE MINING MODEL

Create mining models in the grantee's schema using the DBMS_DATA_MINING.CREATE_MODEL procedure.

CREATE ANY MINING MODEL

Create mining models in any schema using the DBMS_DATA_MINING.CREATE_MODEL procedure.

ALTER ANY MINING MODEL

Change the mining model name or the associated cost matrix of any model in any schema by using the applicable DBMS_DATA_MINING procedures.

DROP ANY MINING MODEL

Drop any mining model in any schema by using the DBMS_DATA_MINING.DROP_MODEL procedure.

SELECT ANY MINING MODEL

Score or view any model in any schema. Scoring is done either with the PREDICTION family of SQL functions or with the DBMS_DATA_MINING.APPLY procedure. Viewing the model is done with the DBMS_DATA_MINING.GET_MODEL_DETAILS_* procedures.

COMMENT ANY MINING MODEL

Create a comment on any model in any schema using the SQL COMMENT statement.

OLAP CUBES:

The following privileges are valid when you are using Oracle Database with the OLAP option.

CREATE CUBE

Create an OLAP cube in the grantee's schema.

CREATE ANY CUBE

Create an OLAP cube in any schema.

ALTER ANY CUBE

Alter an OLAP cube in any schema.

DROP ANY CUBE

Drop any OLAP cube in any schema.

SELECT ANY CUBE

Query or view any OLAP cube in any schema.

UPDATE ANY CUBE

Update any cube in any schema.

OLAP CUBE MEASURE FOLDERS:

The following privileges are valid when you are using Oracle Database with the OLAP option.

CREATE MEASURE FOLDER

Create an OLAP measure folder in the grantee's schema.

CREATE ANY MEASURE FOLDER

Create an OLAP measure folder in any schema.

DELETE ANY MEASURE FOLDER

Delete from any OLAP measure folder in any schema.

DROP ANY MEASURE FOLDER

Drop any measure folder in any schema.

INSERT ANY MEASURE FOLDER

Insert a measure into any measure folder in any schema.

OLAP CUBE DIMENSIONS:

The following privileges are valid when you are using Oracle Database with the OLAP option.

CREATE CUBE DIMENSION

Create an OLAP cube dimension in the grantee's schema.

CREATE ANY CUBE DIMENSION

Create an OLAP cube dimension in any schema.

ALTER ANY CUBE DIMENSION

Alter an OLAP cube dimension in any schema.

DELETE ANY CUBE DIMENSION

Delete from an OLAP cube dimension in any schema.

DROP ANY CUBE DIMENSION

Drop an OLAP cube dimension in any schema.

INSERT ANY CUBE DIMENSION

Insert into an OLAP cube dimension in any schema.

SELECT ANY CUBE DIMENSION

View or query an OLAP cube dimension in any schema.

UPDATE ANY CUBE DIMENSION

Update an OLAP cube dimension in any schema.

OLAP CUBE BUILD PROCESSES:

CREATE CUBE BUILD PROCESS

Create an OLAP cube build process in the grantee's schema.

CREATE ANY CUBE BUILD PROCESS

Create an OLAP cube build process in any schema.

DROP ANY CUBE BUILD PROCESS

Drop an OLAP cube build process in any schema.

UPDATE ANY CUBE BUILD PROCESS

Update an OLAP cube build process in any schema.

OPERATORS:

CREATE OPERATOR

Create an operator and its bindings in the grantee's schema.

CREATE ANY OPERATOR

Create an operator and its bindings in any schema and create a comment on an operator in any schema.

ALTER ANY OPERATOR

Modify an operator in any schema.

DROP ANY OPERATOR

Drop an operator in any schema.

EXECUTE ANY OPERATOR

Reference an operator in any schema.

OUTLINES:

CREATE ANY OUTLINE

Create public outlines that can be used in any schema that uses outlines.

ALTER ANY OUTLINE

Modify outlines.

DROP ANY OUTLINE

Drop outlines.

PLAN MANAGEMENT:

ADMINISTER SQL MANAGEMENT OBJECT

Perform controlled manipulation of plan history and SQL plan baselines maintained for various SQL statements.

PROCEDURES:

CREATE PROCEDURE

Create stored procedures, functions, and packages in the grantee's schema.

CREATE ANY PROCEDURE

Create stored procedures, functions, and packages in any schema.

ALTER ANY PROCEDURE

Alter stored procedures, functions, or packages in any schema.

DROP ANY PROCEDURE

Drop stored procedures, functions, or packages in any schema.

EXECUTE ANY PROCEDURE

Execute procedures or functions, either standalone or packaged.

Reference public package variables in any schema.

PROFILES:

CREATE PROFILE

Create profiles.

ALTER PROFILE

Alter profiles.

DROP PROFILE

Drop profiles.

ROLES:

CREATE ROLE

Create roles.

ALTER ANY ROLE

Alter any role in the database.

DROP ANY ROLE

Drop roles.

GRANT ANY ROLE

Grant any role in the database.

ROLLBACK SEGMENTS:

CREATE ROLLBACK SEGMENT

Create rollback segments.

ALTER ROLLBACK SEGMENT

Alter rollback segments.

DROP ROLLBACK SEGMENT

Drop rollback segments.

SEQUENCES:

CREATE SEQUENCE

Create sequences in the grantee's schema.

CREATE ANY SEQUENCE

Create sequences in any schema.

ALTER ANY SEQUENCE

Alter any sequence in the database.

DROP ANY SEQUENCE

Drop sequences in any schema.

SELECT ANY SEQUENCE

Reference sequences in any schema.

SESSIONS:

CREATE SESSION

Connect to the database.

ALTER RESOURCE COST

Set costs for session resources.

ALTER SESSION

Enable and disable the SQL trace facility.

RESTRICTED SESSION

Logon after the instance is started using the SQL*Plus STARTUP RESTRICT statement.

SNAPSHOTS:

See MATERIALIZED VIEWS

SYNONYMS:

Caution: CREATE PUBLIC SYNONYM and DROP PUBLIC SYNONYM are extremely powerful privileges that should be granted only to trusted users. Refer to Oracle Database Security Guide before granting these privileges.

CREATE SYNONYM

Create synonyms in the grantee's schema.

CREATE ANY SYNONYM

Create private synonyms in any schema.

CREATE PUBLIC SYNONYM

Create public synonyms.

DROP ANY SYNONYM

Drop private synonyms in any schema.

DROP PUBLIC SYNONYM

Drop public synonyms.

TABLES:

Note: For external tables, the only valid privileges are CREATE ANY TABLE, ALTER ANY TABLE, DROP ANY TABLE, and SELECT ANY TABLE.

CREATE TABLE

Create a table in the grantee's schema.

CREATE ANY TABLE

Create a table in any schema. The owner of the schema containing the table must have space quota on the tablespace to contain the table.

ALTER ANY TABLE

Alter any table or view in any schema.

BACKUP ANY TABLE

Use the Export utility to incrementally export objects from the schema of other users.

DELETE ANY TABLE

Delete rows from tables, table partitions, or views in any schema.

DROP ANY TABLE

Drop or truncate tables or table partitions in any schema.

INSERT ANY TABLE

Insert rows into tables and views in any schema.

LOCK ANY TABLE

Lock tables and views in any schema.

SELECT ANY TABLE

Query tables, views, or materialized views in any schema.

FLASHBACK ANY TABLE

Issue a SQL Flashback Query on any table, view, or materialized view in any schema. This privilege is not needed to execute the DBMS_FLASHBACK procedures.

UPDATE ANY TABLE

Update rows in tables and views in any schema.

TABLESPACES:

CREATE TABLESPACE

Create tablespaces.

ALTER TABLESPACE

Alter tablespaces.

DROP TABLESPACE

Drop tablespaces.

MANAGE TABLESPACE

Take tablespaces offline and online and begin and end tablespace backups.

UNLIMITED TABLESPACE

Use an unlimited amount of any tablespace. This privilege overrides any specific quotas assigned. If you revoke this privilege from a user, then the user's schema objects remain but further tablespace allocation is denied unless authorized by specific tablespace quotas. You cannot grant this system privilege to roles.

TRIGGERS:

CREATE TRIGGER

Create a database trigger in the grantee's schema.

CREATE ANY TRIGGER

Create database triggers in any schema.

ALTER ANY TRIGGER

Enable, disable, or compile database triggers in any schema.

DROP ANY TRIGGER

Drop database triggers in any schema.

ADMINISTER DATABASE TRIGGER

Create a trigger on DATABASE. You must also have the CREATE TRIGGER or CREATE ANY TRIGGER system privilege.

TYPES:

CREATE TYPE

Create object types and object type bodies in the grantee's schema.

CREATE ANY TYPE

Create object types and object type bodies in any schema.

ALTER ANY TYPE

Alter object types in any schema.

DROP ANY TYPE

Drop object types and object type bodies in any schema.

EXECUTE ANY TYPE

Use and reference object types and collection types in any schema, and invoke methods of an object type in any schema if you make the grant to a specific user. If you grant EXECUTE ANY TYPE to a role, then users holding the enabled role will not be able to invoke methods of an object type in any schema.

UNDER ANY TYPE

Create subtypes under any nonfinal object types.

USERS:

CREATE USER

Create users. This privilege also allows the creator to:

  • Assign quotas on any tablespace.

  • Set default and temporary tablespaces.

  • Assign a profile as part of a CREATE USER statement.

ALTER USER

Alter any user. This privilege authorizes the grantee to:

  • Change another user's password or authentication method.

  • Assign quotas on any tablespace.

  • Set default and temporary tablespaces.

  • Assign a profile and default roles.

DROP USER

Drop users

VIEWS:

CREATE VIEW

Create views in the grantee's schema.

CREATE ANY VIEW

Create views in any schema.

DROP ANY VIEW

Drop views in any schema.

UNDER ANY VIEW

Create subviews under any object views.

FLASHBACK ANY TABLE

Issue a SQL Flashback Query on any table, view, or materialized view in any schema. This privilege is not needed to execute the DBMS_FLASHBACK procedures.

MERGE ANY VIEW

If a user has been granted the MERGE ANY VIEW privilege, then for any query issued by that user, the optimizer can use view merging to improve query performance without performing the checks that would otherwise be performed to ensure that view merging does not violate any security intentions of the view creator. See also Oracle Database Reference for information on the OPTIMIZER_SECURE_VIEW_MERGING parameter and Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide for information on view merging.

MISCELLANEOUS:

ANALYZE ANY

Analyze any table, cluster, or index in any schema.

AUDIT ANY

Audit any object in any schema using AUDIT schema_objects statements.

BECOME USER

Allows users of the Data Pump Import utility (impdp) and the original Import utility (imp) to assume the identity of another user in order to perform operations that cannot be directly performed by a third party (for example, loading objects such as object privilege grants).

Allows Streams administrators to create or alter capture users and apply users in a Streams environment. By default this privilege is part of the DBA role. Database Vault removes this privileges from the DBA role. Therefore, this privilege is needed by Streams only in an environment where Database Vault is installed.

CHANGE NOTIFICATION

Create a registration on queries and receive database change notifications in response to DML or DDL changes to the objects associated with the registered queries. Refer to Oracle Database Advanced Application Developer's Guide for more information on database change notification.

COMMENT ANY TABLE

Comment on any table, view, or column in any schema.

EXEMPT ACCESS POLICY

Bypass fine-grained access control.

Caution: This is a very powerful system privilege, as it lets the grantee bypass application-driven security policies. Database administrators should use caution when granting this privilege.

FORCE ANY TRANSACTION

Force the commit or rollback of any in-doubt distributed transaction in the local database.

Induce the failure of a distributed transaction.

FORCE TRANSACTION

Force the commit or rollback of the grantee's in-doubt distributed transactions in the local database.

GRANT ANY OBJECT PRIVILEGE

Grant any object privilege that the object owner is permitted to grant.

Revoke any object privilege that was granted by the object owner or by some other user with the GRANT ANY OBJECT PRIVILEGE privilege.

GRANT ANY PRIVILEGE

Grant any system privilege.

RESUMABLE

Enable resumable space allocation.

SELECT ANY DICTIONARY

Query any data dictionary object in the SYS schema. This privilege lets you selectively override the default FALSE setting of the O7_DICTIONARY_ACCESSIBILITY initialization parameter.

SELECT ANY TRANSACTION

Query the contents of the FLASHBACK_TRANSACTION_QUERY view.

Caution: This is a very powerful system privilege, as it lets the grantee view all data in the database, including past data. This privilege should be granted only to users who need to use the Oracle Flashback Transaction Query feature.

SYSDBA

Perform STARTUP and SHUTDOWN operations.

ALTER DATABASE: open, mount, back up, or change character set.

CREATE DATABASE.

ARCHIVELOG and RECOVERY.

CREATE SPFILE.

Includes the RESTRICTED SESSION privilege.

SYSOPER

Perform STARTUP and SHUTDOWN operations.

ALTER DATABASE: open, mount, or back up.

ARCHIVELOG and RECOVERY.

CREATE SPFILE.

Includes the RESTRICTED SESSION privilege.

 
 
 
 
 
 

Table 18-2 Object Privileges (Organized by the Database Object Operated Upon)

Object Privilege Name Operations Authorized

DIRECTORY PRIVILEGES

The following directory privileges provide secured access to the files stored in the operating system directory to which the directory object serves as a pointer. The directory object contains the full path name of the operating system directory where the files reside. Because the files are actually stored outside the database, Oracle Database server processes also need to have appropriate file permissions on the file system server. Granting object privileges on the directory database object to individual database users, rather than on the operating system, allows the database to enforce security during file operations.

READ

Read files in the directory.

WRITE

Write files in the directory. This privilege is useful only in connection with external tables. It allows the grantee to determine whether the external table agent can write a log file or a bad file to the directory.

Restriction: This privilege does not allow the grantee to write to a BFILE.

EXECUTE

Execute a preprocessor program that resides in the directory. A preprocessor program converts data to a supported format when loading data records from an external table with the ORACLE_LOADER access driver. Refer to Oracle Database Utilities for more information. This privilege does not implicitly allow READ access on the external table data.

EDITION PRIVILEGE

The following edition privilege authorizes the use of an edition.

USE

Use an edition.

INDEXTYPE PRIVILEGE

The following indextype privilege authorizes operations on indextypes.

EXECUTE

Reference an indextype.

FLASHBACK DATA ARCHIVE PRIVILEGE

The following flashback data archive privilege authorizes operations on flashback data archives.

FLASHBACK ARCHIVE

Enable or disable historical tracking for a table.

LIBRARY PRIVILEGE

The following library privilege authorizes operations on a library.

EXECUTE

Use and reference the specified object and invoke its methods.

Caution: This extremely powerful privilege should be granted only to trusted users. Refer to Oracle Database Security Guide before granting this privilege.

MATERIALIZED VIEW PRIVILEGES

The following materialized view privileges authorize operations on a materialized view. The DELETE, INSERT, and UPDATE privileges can be granted only to updatable materialized views.

ON COMMIT REFRESH

Create a refresh-on-commit materialized view on the specified table.

QUERY REWRITE

Create a materialized view for query rewrite using the specified table.

SELECT

Query the materialized view with the SELECT statement.

MINING MODEL PRIVILEGES

The following mining model privileges authorize operations on a mining model. These privileges are not required for models within the users own schema.

ALTER

Change the mining model name or the associated cost matrix using the applicable DBMS_DATA_MINING procedures.

SELECT

Score or view the mining model. Scoring is done with the PREDICTION family of SQL functions or with the DBMS_DATA_MINING.APPLY procedure. Viewing the model is done with the DBMS_DATA_MINING.GET_MODEL_DETAILS_* procedures.

OBJECT TYPE PRIVILEGES

The following object type privileges authorize operations on a database object type.

DEBUG

Access, through a debugger, all public and nonpublic variables, methods, and types defined on the object type.

Place a breakpoint or stop at a line or instruction boundary within the type body.

EXECUTE

Use and reference the specified object and invoke its methods.

Access, through a debugger, public variables, types, and methods defined on the object type.

UNDER

Create a subtype under this type. You can grant this object privilege only if you have the UNDER ANY TYPE privilege WITH GRANT OPTION on the immediate supertype of this type.

OLAP PRIVILEGES

The following object privileges are valid if you are using Oracle Database with the OLAP option.

INSERT

Insert members into the OLAP cube dimension or measures into the measures folder.

ALTER

Change the definition of the OLAP cube dimension or cube.

DELETE

Delete members from the OLAP cube dimension or measures from the measures folder.

SELECT

View or query the OLAP cube or cube dimension.

UPDATE

Update measure values of the OLAP cube or attribute values of the cube dimension.

OPERATOR PRIVILEGE

The following operator privilege authorizes operations on user-defined operators.

EXECUTE

Reference an operator.

PROCEDURE, FUNCTION, PACKAGE PRIVILEGES

The following procedure, function, and package privileges authorize operations on procedures, functions, and packages. These privileges also apply to Java sources, classes, and resources, which Oracle Database treats as though they were procedures for purposes of granting object privileges.

DEBUG

Access, through a debugger, all public and nonpublic variables, methods, and types defined on the object.

Place a breakpoint or stop at a line or instruction boundary within the procedure, function, or package. This privilege grants access to the declarations in the method or package specification and body.

EXECUTE

Execute the procedure or function directly, or access any program object declared in the specification of a package, or compile the object implicitly during a call to a currently invalid or uncompiled function or procedure. This privilege does not allow the grantee to explicitly compile using ALTER PROCEDURE or ALTER FUNCTION. For explicit compilation you need the appropriate ALTER system privilege.

Access, through a debugger, public variables, types, and methods defined on the procedure, function, or package. This privilege grants access to the declarations in the method or package specification only.

Job scheduler objects are created using the DBMS_SCHEDULER package. After these objects are created, you can grant the EXECUTE object privilege on job scheduler classes and programs. You can also grant ALTER privilege on job scheduler jobs, programs, and schedules.

Note: Users do not need this privilege to execute a procedure, function, or package indirectly.

SCHEDULER PRIVILEGES

Job scheduler objects are created using the DBMS_SCHEDULER package. After these objects are created, you can grant the following privileges.

EXECUTE

Operations on job classes, programs, chains, and credentials.

ALTER

Modifications to jobs, programs, chains, credentials, and schedules.

SEQUENCE PRIVILEGES

The following sequence privileges authorize operations on a sequence.

ALTER

Change the sequence definition with the ALTER SEQUENCE statement.

SELECT

Examine and increment values of the sequence with the CURRVAL and NEXTVAL pseudocolumns.

SYNONYM PRIVILEGES

Synonym privileges are the same as the privileges for the target object. Granting a privilege on a synonym is equivalent to granting the privilege on the base object. Similarly, granting a privilege on a base object is equivalent to granting the privilege on all synonyms for the object. If you grant to a user a privilege on a synonym, then the user can use either the synonym name or the base object name in the SQL statement that exercises the privilege.

TABLE PRIVILEGES

The following table privileges authorize operations on a table. Any one of following object privileges allows the grantee to lock the table in any lock mode with the LOCK TABLE statement.

Note: For external tables, the only valid object privileges are ALTER and SELECT.

ALTER

Change the table definition with the ALTER TABLE statement.

DEBUG

Access, through a debugger:

  • PL/SQL code in the body of any triggers defined on the table

  • Information on SQL statements that reference the table directly

DELETE

Remove rows from the table with the DELETE statement.

Note: You must grant the SELECT privilege on the table along with the DELETE privilege if the table is on a remote database.

INDEX

Create an index on the table with the CREATE INDEX statement.

INSERT

Add new rows to the table with the INSERT statement.

Note: You must grant the SELECT privilege on the table along with the INSERT privilege if the table is on a remote database.

REFERENCES

Create a constraint that refers to the table. You cannot grant this privilege to a role.

SELECT

Query the table with the SELECT statement.

UPDATE

Change data in the table with the UPDATE statement.

Note: You must grant the SELECT privilege on the table along with the UPDATE privilege if the table is on a remote database.

VIEW PRIVILEGES

The following view privileges authorize operations on a view. Any one of the following object privileges allows the grantee to lock the view in any lock mode with the LOCK TABLE statement.

To grant a privilege on a view, you must have that privilege with the GRANT OPTION on all of the base tables of the view.

DEBUG

Access, through a debugger:

  • PL/SQL code in the body of any triggers defined on the view

  • Information on SQL statements that reference the view directly

DELETE

Remove rows from the view with the DELETE statement.

INSERT

Add new rows to the view with the INSERT statement.

MERGE VIEW

This object privilege has the same behavior as the system privilege MERGE ANY VIEW, except that the privilege is limited to the views specified in the ON clause. For any query issued by the grantee on the specified views, the optimizer can use view merging to improve query performance without performing the checks that would otherwise be performed to ensure that view merging does not violate any security intentions of the view creator.

REFERENCES

Define foreign key constraints on the view.

SELECT

Query the view with the SELECT statement.

See Also: object_privilege for additional information on granting this object privilege on a view

UNDER

Create a subview under this view. You can grant this object privilege only if you have the UNDER ANY VIEW privilege WITH GRANT OPTION on the immediate superview of this view.

UPDATE

Change data in the view with the UPDATE statement.


Examples

Granting a System Privilege to a User: Example To grant the CREATE SESSION system privilege to the sample user hr, allowing hr to log on to Oracle Database, issue the following statement:

GRANT CREATE SESSION 
   TO hr; 

Granting System Privileges to a Role: Example The following statement grants appropriate system privileges to a data warehouse manager role, which was created in the "Creating a Role: Example":

GRANT
     CREATE ANY MATERIALIZED VIEW
   , ALTER ANY MATERIALIZED VIEW
   , DROP ANY MATERIALIZED VIEW
   , QUERY REWRITE
   , GLOBAL QUERY REWRITE
   TO dw_manager
   WITH ADMIN OPTION;

The dw_manager privilege domain now contains the system privileges related to materialized views.

Granting a Role with the Admin Option: Example To grant the dw_manager role with the ADMIN OPTION to the sample user sh, issue the following statement:

GRANT dw_manager 
   TO sh 
   WITH ADMIN OPTION; 

User sh can now perform the following operations with the dw_manager role:

  • Enable the role and exercise any privileges in the privilege domain of the role, including the CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW system privilege

  • Grant and revoke the role to and from other users

  • Drop the role

Granting Object Privileges to a Role: Example The following example grants the SELECT object privileges to a data warehouse user role, which was created in the "Creating a Role: Example":

GRANT SELECT ON sh.sales TO warehouse_user;

Granting a Role to a Role: Example The following statement grants the warehouse_user role to the dw_manager role. Both roles were created in the "Creating a Role: Example":

GRANT warehouse_user TO dw_manager; 

The dw_manager role now contains all of the privileges in the domain of the warehouse_user role.

Granting an Object Privilege on a Directory: Example To grant READ on directory bfile_dir to user hr, with the GRANT OPTION, issue the following statement:

GRANT READ ON DIRECTORY bfile_dir TO hr
   WITH GRANT OPTION;

Granting Object Privileges on a Table to a User: Example To grant all privileges on the table oe.bonuses, which was created in "Merging into a Table: Example", to the user hr with the GRANT OPTION, issue the following statement:

GRANT ALL ON bonuses TO hr 
   WITH GRANT OPTION; 

The user hr can subsequently perform the following operations:

  • Exercise any privilege on the bonuses table

  • Grant any privilege on the bonuses table to another user or role

Granting Object Privileges on a View: Example To grant SELECT and UPDATE privileges on the view emp_view, which was created in "Creating a View: Example", to all users, issue the following statement:

GRANT SELECT, UPDATE 
   ON emp_view TO PUBLIC; 

All users can subsequently query and update the view of employee details.

Granting Object Privileges to a Sequence in Another Schema: Example To grant SELECT privilege on the customers_seq sequence in the schema oe to the user hr, issue the following statement:

GRANT SELECT 
   ON oe.customers_seq TO hr; 

The user hr can subsequently generate the next value of the sequence with the following statement:

SELECT oe.customers_seq.NEXTVAL 
   FROM DUAL; 

Granting Multiple Object Privileges on Individual Columns: Example To grant to user oe the REFERENCES privilege on the employee_id column and the UPDATE privilege on the employee_id, salary, and commission_pct columns of the employees table in the schema hr, issue the following statement:

GRANT REFERENCES (employee_id), 
      UPDATE (employee_id, salary, commission_pct) 
   ON hr.employees
   TO oe; 

The user oe can subsequently update values of the employee_id, salary, and commission_pct columns. User oe can also define referential integrity constraints that refer to the employee_id column. However, because the GRANT statement lists only these columns, oe cannot perform operations on any of the other columns of the employees table.

For example, oe can create a table with a constraint:

CREATE TABLE dependent 
   (dependno   NUMBER, 
    dependname VARCHAR2(10), 
    employee   NUMBER 
   CONSTRAINT in_emp REFERENCES hr.employees(employee_id) );

The constraint in_emp ensures that all dependents in the dependent table correspond to an employee in the employees table in the schema hr.