|Oracle® TimesTen In-Memory Database TimesTen to TimesTen Replication Guide
Part Number E13072-14
This chapter describes how to set up and start replication. The typical tasks related to setting up and starting a replicated system are:
|Configure the network||"Configuring the network".|
|Establish databases and set up environment||"Setting up the replication environment".|
|Define a replication scheme||Chapter 10, "Defining Replication Schemes"|
|Apply replication scheme to the databases||See "Applying a replication scheme to a database".|
|Start and stop the replication agent for each database||See "Starting and stopping the replication agents".|
|Set the replication state of subscribers||See "Setting the replication state of subscribers".|
Note:To set up an active standby pair, see:
This chapter includes the following topics:
This section describes some of the issues to be considered when replicating TimesTen data over a network. The general topics are:
The network bandwidth required for TimesTen replication depends on the bulk and frequency of the data being replicated. This discussion explores the types of transactions that characterize the high and low ends of the data range and the network bandwidth required to replicate the data between TimesTen databases.
The high end of the data range can be characterized by updates or inserts of small amounts of data, such as inserting 128 bytes into a row, which can result in approximately 1.5 to 1.6 MB per second of replicated data. The lower end might be characterized by a single
CHAR(10) column update running with return receipt, which can result in approximately 125 KB per second of replicated data.
The following table provides guidelines for calculating the size of replicated records.
|Begin transaction||48 bytes|
+ 18 bytes per column updated
+ size of old column values
+ size of new column values
+ size of the primary key or unique key
+ size of the primary key or unique key
+ size of the primary key or unique key
+ size of inserted row
Transactions are sent between replicated databases in batches. A batch is created whenever there is no more data in the transaction log buffer in the master database, or when the current batch is roughly 256K bytes. See "Copying updates between databases" for more information.
As shown in the table below, the 100 Base-T Ethernet typical in a LAN can sustain speeds of around 10 MB per second, which is more than enough sustained bandwidth for the most demanding replication rates. However, if servers are communicating in a WAN, the configuration of the replication scheme and transaction load must be carefully matched to the available bandwidth of the network.
|Network Area||Network||Sustained Speed|
|LAN||100 Base-T Ethernet||10 MB per second|
|WAN||T3||4.8 MB per second|
|WAN||T2||780 KB per second|
|WAN||T1||197 KB per second|
As shown in the above table, with an available bandwidth of 4.8 MB per second, a T3 line should provide sufficient bandwidth to support 2 subscribers operating at the fastest possible transaction rates (totaling 3.2 MB/s) without loss of performance.
In contrast, a T1 line should provide sufficient bandwidth to accommodate return receipt replication for users inserting less than 1 KB into rows.
TimesTen replication uses the TCP/IP protocol, which is not optimized for a WAN environment. You can improve replication performance over a WAN by installing a third-party "TCP stack" product. If replacing the TCP stack is not a feasible solution, you can reduce the amount of network traffic that the TCP/IP protocol has to deal with by setting the
COMPRESS TRAFFIC attribute in the
CREATE REPLICATION statement. See "Compressing replicated traffic" for details.
See installation information for your platform in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide for information about changing TCP/IP kernel parameters for better performance.
In a replication scheme, you need to identify the name of the host machine on which your database resides. The operating system translates this host name to one or more IP addresses. This section describes how to configure replication so that it uses the correct host names and IP addresses each host machine.
This section includes these topics:
When specifying the host for a database in a replication element, you should always use the name returned by the
hostname command, as replication uses the this same host name to verify that the current host is involved in the replication scheme. Replication schemes may not be created that do not include the current host.
If a host contains multiple network interfaces (with different IP addresses), you should specify which interfaces are to be used by replication using the
ROUTE clause. You must specify a priority for each interface. Replication tries to first connect using the address with the highest priority, and if a connection cannot be established, it tries the remaining addresses in order of priority until a connection is established. If a connection to a host fails while using one IP address, replication attempts to re-connect (or fall back) to another IP address, if more than one address has been specified in the
Note:Addresses for the
ROUTEclause may be specified as either host names or IP addresses. However, if your host has more than one IP address configured for a given host name, you should only configure the
ROUTEclause using the IP addresses, in order to ensure that replication uses only the IP addresses that you intend.
See "Configuring network operations" for more information.
If a replication configuration is specified using host names rather than IP addresses, replication must be able to translate host names of peers into IP addresses. For this to happen efficiently on Windows, make sure each Windows machine is set up to query either a valid WINS server or a valid DNS server that has correct information about the hosts on the network. In the absence of such servers, static HOST-to-IP entries can be entered in either:
When possible, you should use the
ROUTE clause of a replication scheme to identify database hosts and the network interfaces to use for replication. However, if you have a legacy replication configuration that does not use the
ROUTE clause, this section explains how to configure operating system and DNS files for a replication host with multiple network interfaces.
If a host contains multiple network interfaces (with different IP addresses) and replication is not configured with a
ROUTE clause, TimesTen replication tries to connect to the IP addresses in the same order as returned by the
gethostbyname call. It will try to connect using the first address; if a connection cannot be established, it tries the remaining addresses in order until a connection is established. TimesTen replication uses this same sequence each time it establishes a new connection to a host. If a connection to a host fails on one IP address, TimesTen replication attempts to re-connect (or fall back) to another IP address for the host in the same manner described above.
There are two basic ways you can configure a host to use multiple IP addresses on UNIX platforms: DNS or the
Note:If you have multiple network interface cards (NICs), be sure that "multi on" is specified in the
gethostbynamewill not return multiple addresses.
For example, if your machine has two NICs, use the following syntax for your
127.0.0.1 localhost IP_address_for_NIC_1 official_hostname optional_alias IP_address_for_NIC_2 official_hostname optional_alias
The host name
official_hostname is the name returned by the
When editing the
/etc/hosts file, keep in mind that:
You must log in as
root to change the
There should only be one line per IP address.
There can be multiple alias names on each line.
When there are multiple IP addresses for the same host name, they must be on consecutive lines.
The host name can be up to 30 characters long.
For example, the following entry in the
/etc/hosts file on a UNIX platform describes a server named
Machine1 with two IP addresses:
127.0.0.1 localhost 10.10.98.102 Machine1 192.168.1.102 Machine1
To specify the same configuration for DNS, your entry in the domain zone file would look like:
Machine1 IN A 10.10.98.102 IN A 192.168.1.102
In either case, you only need to specify
Machine1 as the host name in your replication scheme and replication will use the first available IP address when establishing a connection.
In an environment in which multiple IP addresses are used, you can also assign multiple host names to a single IP address in order to restrict a replication connection to a specific IP address. For example, you might have an entry in your
/etc/hosts file that looks like:
127.0.0.1 localhost 10.10.98.102 Machine1 192.168.1.102 Machine1 RepMachine1
or a DNS zone file that looks like:
Machine1 IN A 10.10.98.102 IN A 192.168.1.102 RepMachine1 IN A 192.168.1.102
If you want to restrict replication connections to IP address 192.168.1.102 for this host, you can specify
RepMachine1 as the host name in your replication scheme. Another option is to simply specify the IP address as the host name in the
CREATE REPLICATION statement used to configure your replication scheme.
If a replication configuration is specified using host names rather than IP addresses, replication must be able to translate host names of peers into IP addresses. For this to happen efficiently on Windows, make sure each Windows machine is set up to query either a valid WINS server or a valid DNS server that has correct information about the hosts on the network. In the absence of such servers, static host-to-IP entries can be entered in either:
Without any of these options, a Windows machine resorts to broadcasting, which is extremely slow, to detect peer nodes.
You may also encounter extremely slow host name resolution if the Windows machine cannot communicate with the defined WINS servers or DNS servers, or if the host name resolution set up is incorrect on those servers. Use the
ping command to test whether a host can be efficiently located. The
ping command responds immediately if host name resolution is set up properly.
Note:You must be consistent in identifying a database host in a replication scheme. Do not identify a host using its IP address for one database and then use its host name for the same or another database.
By default, the TimesTen main daemon, all subdaemons and all agents use any available address to listen on a socket for requests. You can modify the
ttendaemon.options file to specify an address for communication among the agents and daemons by including a
-listenaddr option. See "Managing TimesTen daemon options" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Operations Guide for details.
Suppose that your machine has two NICs whose addresses are 10.10.10.100 and 10.10.11.200. The loopback address is 127.0.0.1. Then keep in mind the following as it applies to the replication agent:
If you do not set the
-listenaddr option in the
ttendaemon.options file, then any process can talk to the daemons and agents.
If you set
-listenaddr to 10.10.10.100, then any process on the local host or the 10.10.10 net can talk to daemons and agents on 10.10.10.100. No processes on the 10.10.11 net can talk to the daemons and agents on 10.10.10.100.
If you set
-listenaddr to 127.0.0.1, then only processes on the local host can talk to the daemons and agents. No processes on other hosts can talk the daemons and agents.
Ordinarily, TimesTen replication is able to identify the hosts involved in a replication configuration using normal operating system host name resolution methods. However, in some rare instances, if the host has an unusual host name configuration, TimesTen is unable to determine that the local host matches the host name as specified in the replication scheme. When this occurs, you receive error 8191, "This store is not involved in a replication scheme," when attempting to start replication using
ttHostNameSet built-in procedure may be used in this instance to explicitly indicate to TimesTen that the current database is in fact the database specified in the replication scheme. See "ttHostNameSet" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Reference for more information.
The topics related to setting up your replication environment include:
You can replicate one or more tables on any existing database. If the database you want to replicate does not yet exist, you must first create one, as described in "Managing TimesTen Databases" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Operations Guide.
After you have identified or created the master database, create a DSN definition for the subscriber database on the receiving machine. Set the connection attributes for the master and subscriber databases as described in "Connection attributes for replicated databases".
After you have defined the DSN for your subscriber, you can populate the subscriber database with the tables to be replicated from the master in one of two ways:
Connect to the database and use SQL statements to create new tables in the subscriber database that match those to be replicated from the master.
-duplicate utility to copy the entire contents of the master database to the subscriber. See "Copying a master database to a subscriber".
If you wish to configure parallel replication for replication schemes that are not active standby pairs, see "Increasing replication throughput for other replication schemes" for information about setting the
ReplicationApplyOrdering data store attributes.
See "Setting connection attributes for logging" for recommendations for managing the replication log files.
It is possible to replicate between databases with different settings for the
TypeMode data store attribute. However, you must make sure that the underlying data type for each replicated column is the same on each node. See "TypeMode" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Reference for more information.
Tables to be replicated in any type of replication scheme must have the following characteristics:
The name, owner, and column definitions of the tables participating in the replication scheme must be identical on both the master and subscriber databases unless you specify a
TABLE DEFINITION CHECKING value of
RELAXED in the
CREATE REPLICATION statement. If you specify
RELAXED, then the tables must have the same key definition, number of columns and column data types. See "Setting STORE attributes".
Tables to be replicated must have one of the following:
A primary key
A unique index over non-nullable columns
Replication uses the primary key or unique index to uniquely identify each row in the replicated table. Replication always selects the first usable index that turns up in a sequential check of the table's index array. If there is no primary key, replication selects the first unique index without
NULL columns it encounters. The selected index on the replicated table in the master database must also exist on its counterpart table in the subscriber.
Note:The keys on replicated tables are transported in each update record to the subscribers. Smaller keys transport most efficiently.
TT_VARCHAR columns in replicated tables is limited to a size of 4 megabytes. For a
VARCHAR2 column, the maximum length when using character length semantics depends on the number of bytes each character occupies when using a particular database character set. For example, if the character set requires four bytes for each character, the maximum possible length is 64,000 characters. For an
NVARCHAR2 column, which requires two bytes for each character, the maximum length when using character length semantics is 128,000 characters.
If these requirements and restrictions present difficulties, you may want to consider using the Transaction Log API (XLA) as a replication mechanism. See "Using XLA as a replication mechanism" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database C Developer's Guide.
A short method for populating a subscriber database that will fully replicate its master database is to copy the contents of the master. Copying a database in this manner is also essential when recovering a failed database, as described in Chapter 12, "Managing Database Failover and Recovery".
You can use either the
-duplicate utility or the
ttRepDuplicateEx C function to duplicate a database. See "Duplicating a database".
Before copying the contents of a master database to populate a subscriber database, you must:
Create a DSN for the new subscriber database.
Create or alter a replication scheme to include the new subscriber database and its host. See "Defining a replication scheme".
Apply the replication scheme to the master database. See "Applying a replication scheme to a database".
Start the replication agent for the master database. See "Starting and stopping the replication agents".
For example, on host
server1, there is a DSN named
masterDSN that describes the
masterds database. On host
server2, there is a DSN named
newdatabaseDSN that describes the
newdatabase database. The
ttuser user on
masterDSN has the
Using a text editor, create a new SQL file, named
newrepscheme.sql, that defines the replication scheme and calls the
ttRepStart procedure to start replication:
CREATE REPLICATION repscheme ELEMENT e TABLE tab MASTER masterds ON "server1" SUBSCRIBER newdatabase ON "server2"; call ttRepStart;
From the command line, configure
masterds with the replication scheme and start the replication agent:
> ttIsql -f newrepscheme.sql masterds
From the command line, copy the contents of the
masterds database into the
> ttRepAdmin -dsn newdatabase -duplicate -from masterds -host "server1" -uid ttuser
You will be prompted for the password of
newdatabase database should now have the same contents as the
-hostcan be identified with either the name of the remote host or its TCP/IP address. If you identify hosts using TCP/IP addresses, you must identify the address of the local host (
server2in this example) by using the
-localhostoption. For details, see "ttRepAdmin" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Reference.
You can also do a duplication operation similar to that shown above from a C program by using the
ttRepStart procedure and
ttRepDuplicateEx C function. See "Starting and stopping the replication agents" and "Recovering a failed database" for more information.
This section includes these topics:
A common misconception among TimesTen users is that there is a relationship between the size of the log buffer and lost transactions. The size of the log buffer has no impact on persistence.
If your DSN is configured with
DurableCommits=0, then transactions are written durably to disk only under the following circumstances:
When the log buffer fills up.
ttDurableCommit procedure is called or when a transaction on a connection with
DurableCommits=1 is committed or rolled back.
When the replication agent sends a batch of transactions to a subscriber and the master has been configured for replication with the
TRANSMIT DURABLE attribute (the default). (See "Default replication".)
When the replication agent periodically executes a durable commit, whether the primary database is configured with
TRANSMIT DURABLE or not.
When your DSN is configured with
LogFlushMethod=2, writes are written to disk before control is returned to the application.
The size of the log buffer has no influence on the ability of TimesTen to write data to disk under any of the circumstances listed above.
In databases that do not use replication, Transaction Log API (XLA), cache groups, or incremental backup, unneeded records in the log buffer and unneeded transaction log files are purged each time a checkpoint is initiated, either by the automatic background checkpointing thread or by an application's call to the
ttCkptBlocking procedures. With a replicated database, transactions remain in the log buffer and transaction log files until the master replication agent confirms they have been fully processed by the subscriber, as described in "Replication agents". Only then can the master consider purging them from the log buffer and transaction log files.
A master database transaction log can grow much larger than it would on an unreplicated database if there are changes to its subscriber state. See "Setting the replication state of subscribers" for information on the subscriber states. When the subscriber is in the Start state, the master can purge logged data after it receives confirmation it has been received by the subscriber. However, if a subscriber becomes unavailable or set to the Pause state, the log on the master database cannot be flushed and the space used for logging can be exhausted. When the log space is exhausted, subsequent updates on the master database are aborted.
LogBufMB specifies the maximum size of the in-memory log buffer in megabytes. This buffer is flushed to a transaction log file on the disk when it becomes full. The minimum size for
LogBufMB is 8 times the value of
You need to establish enough disk space for the replication log files. There are two settings that control the amount of disk space used by the log:
LogFileSize setting in the DSN specifies the maximum size of a transaction log file. If logging requirements exceed this value, additional transaction log files with the same maximum size are created. If you set the
LogFileSize to a smaller value than
LogBufMB, TimesTen automatically increases the
LogFileSize to match
LogBufMB. For best performance, set
LogFileSize to their maximum values.
The log failure threshold setting specifies the maximum number of transaction log files allowed to accumulate before the master assumes a subscriber has failed. The threshold value is the number of transaction log files between the most recently written to transaction log file and the earliest transaction log file being held for the subscriber. For example, if the last record successfully received by all subscribers was in Log File 1 and the last log record written to disk is at the beginning of Log File 4, then replication is at least 2 transaction log files behind (the contents of Log Files 2 and 3). If the threshold value is 2, then the master sets the subscriber to the
Failed state after detecting the threshold value had been exceeded. This may take up to 10 seconds. See "Setting the log failure threshold" for more information.
Because transactions are logged to disk, you can use bookmarks to detect the log record identifiers of the update records that have been replicated to subscribers and those that have been written to disk. To view the location of the bookmarks for the subscribers associated with
masterDSN, use the C utility or
ttBookmark built-in procedure, as described in "Show replicated log records".
If a subscriber goes down and then comes back up before the threshold is reached, then replication automatically "catches up" as the committed transactions in the transaction log files following the bookmark are automatically transmitted. However, if the threshold is exceeded, the master sets the subscriber to the
Failed state. A failed subscriber must use
-duplicate to copy the master database and start over, as described in Chapter 12, "Managing Database Failover and Recovery".
See Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Reference for more information about TimesTen connection attributes, built-in procedures and utilities.
ReceiverThreads first connection attribute to increase the number of threads that apply changes from the active database to the standby database from 1 to 2. If you set
ReceiverThreads to 2 on the standby, you should also set it to 2 on the active to maintain increased throughput if there is a failover.
You can also set
ReceiverThreads to 2 on one or more read-only subscribers in an active standby pair to increase replication throughput from the standby database.
Databases must be hosted on systems that are 2-way or larger to take advantage of setting this attribute to 2.
If your application has predictable transactional dependencies and does not require the commit order on the target database be the same as the order on the source database, then you can increase replication throughput by configuring parallel replication.
User-specified parallel replication configures multiple threads for sending updates from the source database to the target database and for applying the updates on the target database. The application assigns transactions to tracks. The application specifies which track a transaction belongs to when the transaction starts on the source database. The transactions in each track are applied in the order in which they are received on the target database, but commit order is not maintained for transactions across the different tracks.
Use caution in assigning tracks to transactions that affect tables with foreign key relationships. If transactions on related tables are assigned to different tracks, one of the transactions can be lost because the transactions may be applied out of commit order.
In general, transactions that modify the same table should be assigned to the same replication track. However, if all transactions are inserts to a particular table, they can be assigned to different tracks to increase replication throughput.
Enable parallel replication by setting connection attributes at database creation time as follows:
ReplicationParallelism to a number from 2 to 64. This number indicates the number of transmitter threads on the source database and the number of receiver threads on the target database. The default is 1, which indicates a single thread.
ReplicationApplyOrdering to 1.
ReplicationTrack general connection attribute to a nonzero number that is less than or equal to the maximum number of tracks specified by the
ReplicationParallelism data store attribute.
ALTER SESSION SQL statement to set the replication track number for the current connection.
TT_REPLICATION_TRACK ODBC connection option for the
SQLSetConnectOption ODBC function.
setReplicationTrack() method of the
TimesTenConnection JDBC class.
For more information about these methods of setting the
ReplicationTrack general connection attribute, see:
"ReplicationTrack" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Reference
"ALTER SESSION" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database SQL Reference
"Setting up user-specified parallel replication" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database C Developer's Guide
"Setting up user-specified parallel replication" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Java Developer's Guide
ttConfiguration built-in procedure to return the replication track number for the current connection. Use the
ttLogHolds built-in procedure to verify that multiple tracks are being used.
Active standby pairs cannot be configured for user-specified parallel replication.
Do not configure user-specified parallel replication for tables that have an aging policy defined.
Databases configured for user-specified parallel replication cannot contain cache groups.
A database cannot be defined as a propagator when user-specified parallel replication is configured.
User-specified parallel replication is not supported for synchronous replication, including databases with the
RETURN RECEIPT and
RETURN TWOSAFE attributes.
ReplicationApplyOrdering are data store attributes and cannot be changed after database creation.
ALTER TABLE SQL statement with the
DROP clauses is not supported for databases configured for user-specified parallel replication.
Cross-release replication and migration from a database that does not have user-specified parallel replication enabled to a database that does have parallel replication enabled is not supported from release 220.127.116.11.0 and later. It is supported from releases earlier than 18.104.22.168.0.
A replication scheme can include up to 128 subscribers. A replication scheme with propagator databases can have up to 128 propagators, and each propagator can have up to 128 subscribers. An active standby pair replication scheme can include up to 127 read-only subscribers. If you are planning a replication scheme that includes a large number of subscribers, then ensure the following:
The log buffer size should result in the value of
LOG_FS_READS in the
SYS.MONITOR table being 0 or close to 0. This ensures that the replication agent does not have to read any log records from disk. If the value of
LOG_FS_READS is increasing, then increase the log buffer size.
CPU resources are adequate. The replication agent on the master database spawns a thread for every subscriber database. Each thread reads and processes the log independently and needs adequate CPU resources to make progress.
Replication functions across releases only if the database of the more recent version of TimesTen was upgraded using
ttMigrate from a database of the older version of TimesTen. A database created in the more recent version of TimesTen is not guaranteed to replicate correctly with the older version.
For example, replication between a database created in TimesTen release 5.1 and a database created in TimesTen release 6.0 is not supported. However, if one database was created in TimesTen release 5.1, and the peer database was created in TimesTen release 5.1 and then upgraded to TimesTen release 6.0, replication between them is supported.
See "Database Upgrades" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide.
Define your replication scheme as described in Chapter 10, "Defining Replication Schemes". Save the
CREATE REPLICATION statement in a SQL file.
After you have described your replication scheme in a SQL file, you can execute the SQL on the database using the
-f option to the
ttIsql utility. The syntax is:
If your replication scheme is described in a file called
repscheme.sql, you can execute the file on a DSN, called
masterDSN, by entering:
> ttIsql -f repscheme.sql -connstr "dsn=masterDSN"
Under most circumstances, you should apply the same scheme to all of your replicated databases. You must invoke a separate
ttIsql command on each host to apply the replication scheme.
If your scheme includes the databases
masterDSN on host
subscriber1DSN on host
subscriber2DSN on host
S3, do the following:
> ttIsql -f repscheme.sql masterDSN
> ttIsql -f repscheme.sql subscriber1DSN
> ttIsql -f repscheme.sql subscriber2DSN
You can also execute the SQL file containing your replication scheme from the
ttIsql command line. For example:
Command> run repscheme.sql;
After you have defined a replication scheme, you can start the replication agents for each database involved in the replication scheme. You must have the
ADMIN privilege to start or stop a replication agent.
You can start and stop replication agents from either the command line or from your program, as described in the sections:
Note:If a database does not participate in a replication scheme, attempts to start a replication agent for that database fail.
To start and stop a replication agent from the command line, use the
ttAdmin utility with the
Note:Replication DDL that is not permitted when the replication agent is running may be possible during the brief period of time between issuing
-repStartcommand and the actual start of the replication agent. For example, it may be possible to drop a replication scheme during this time.
To start the replication agents for the DSNs named
ttAdmin -repStart masterDSN ttAdmin -repStart subscriberDSN
To stop the replication agents, enter:
To start and stop the replication agent for the DSN named
> ttIsql masterDSN Command> call ttRepStart; Command> call ttRepStop;
You can also use the
ttAdmin utility to set the replication restart policy. By default the policy is
manual, which enables you to start and stop the replication agents as described above. Alternatively, you can set the replication restart policy for a database to
|Restart Policy||Start replication agent when the TimesTen daemon starts||Restart replication agent on errors or invalidation|
Note:The replication agents are managed by the TimesTen daemon, which must be started before starting any replication agents.
When the restart policy is
always, the replication agent is automatically started when the database is loaded into memory. See "Specifying a RAM policy" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Operations Guide to determine when a database is loaded into memory.
ttAdmin to set the replication restart policy to
To reset the policy back to manual, enter:
ttAdmin -repPolicy manual DSN
Following an error or database invalidation, both
always policies cause the replication agent to be automatically restarted. When the agent restarts automatically, it is often the first connection to the database. This happens after a fatal error that, for example, requires all applications to disconnect. The first connection to a database usually has to load the most recent checkpoint file and often needs to do recovery. For a very large database, this process may take several minutes. During this period, all activity on the database is blocked so that new connections cannot take place and any old connections cannot finish disconnecting. This may also result in two copies of the database existing at the same time because the old one stays around until all applications have disconnected. For very large databases for which the first-connect time may be significant, you may want to wait for the old database to become inactive first before starting up the new one. You can do this by setting the restart policy to
norestart to specify that the replication agent is not to be automatically restarted. For more information on setting policies that would prevent the database from being reloaded, see "Specifying a RAM policy" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Operations Guide to determine when a database is loaded into memory.
To start and stop the replication agent for the database that is identified by the
hdbc connection handle:
rc = SQLAllocStmt( hdbc, &hstmt ); rc = SQLExecDirect( hstmt, (SQLCHAR *) "CALL ttRepStart()", SQL_NTS ); rc = SQLExecDirect( hstmt, (SQLCHAR *) "CALL ttRepStop()", SQL_NTS );
The state of a subscriber replication agent is described by its master database. When recovering a failed subscriber database, you must reset the replication state of the subscriber database with respect to the master database it communicates with in a replication scheme. You can reset the state of a subscriber database from either the command line or your program:
See "Monitoring Replication" for information about querying the state of a database.
A master database can set a subscriber database to either the
Stop states. The database state appears as an integer value in the
STATE column in the
TTREP.REPPEERS table, as shown in the following table.
||Replication updates are collected and transmitted to the subscriber database as soon as possible. If replication for the subscriber database is not operational, the updates are saved in the transaction log files until they can be sent.|
||Replication updates are retained in the log with no attempt to transmit them. Transmission begins when the state is changed to
||Replication updates are discarded without being sent to the subscriber database. Placing a subscriber database in the
||Replication to a subscriber is considered failed because the threshold limit (log data) has been exceeded. This state is set by the system is a transitional state before the system sets the state to
When a master database sets one of its subscribers to the
Start state, updates for the subscriber are retained in the master's log. When a subscriber is in the
Stop state, updates intended for it are discarded.
When a subscriber is in the
Pause state, updates for it are retained in the master's log, but are not transmitted to the subscriber database. When a master transitions a subscriber from
Start, the backlog of updates stored in the master's log is transmitted to the subscriber. (There is an exception to this, which is described in Chapter 12, "Managing Database Failover and Recovery".) If a master database is unable to establish a connection to a stated subscriber, the master periodically attempts to establish a connection until successful.
ttRepAdmin from the command line to direct the
masterds master database to set the state of the
subscriberds subscriber database to
ttRepAdmin -dsn masterds -receiver -name subscriberds -state stop
Note:If you have multiple subscribers with the same name on different hosts, use the
-hostoption of the
ttRepAdminutility to identify the host for the subscriber.
Assuming the replication scheme is named
scheme, the following
ttRepSubscriberStateSet procedure directs the master database to set the state of the subscriber database (
subscriberds ON system1) to
rc = SQLAllocStmt( hdbc, &hstmt ); rc = SQLExecDirect( hstmt, (SQLCHAR *) "CALL ttRepSubscriberStateSet('repscheme', 'repl', 'subscriberds', 'system1', 2)", SQL_NTS );
ttRepSubscriberStateSet procedure directs the master database to set the state of all of its subscriber databases to
rc = SQLAllocStmt( hdbc, &hstmt ); rc = SQLExecDirect( hstmt, (SQLCHAR *) "CALL ttRepSubscriberStateSet( , , , , 1 )", SQL_NTS );
ttRepSubscriberStateSet can be used to set all of the subscribers of a master to a particular state.The
ttRepAdmin utility does not have any equivalent functionality.