Most users will only use the schema tool indirectly, through the interface provided by the mapping tool. You may find, however, that the schema tool is a powerful utility in its own right.
The schema tool's function is to take in an XML schema definition, calculate the differences between the XML and the existing database schema, and apply the necessary changes to make the database match the XML. The XML format used by the schema tool abstracts away the differences between SQL dialects used by different database vendors. The tool also automatically adapts its SQL to meet foreign key dependencies. Thus the schema tool is very useful as a general way to manipulate schemas.
You can invoke the schema tool through the schematool shell/bat script included in the Kodo JDO distribution, or through its Java class, kodo.jdbc.schema.SchemaTool. In addition to the universal flags of the configuration framework, the schema tool accepts the following command line arguments:
-ignoreErrors/-i <true/t | false/f> : If false, an exception will be thrown if the tool encounters any database errors. Defaults to false.
-file/-f <stdout | output file>: Use this option to write a SQL script for the planned schema modifications, rather them committing them to the database. When used in conjunction with the export action, the named file will be used to write the exported schema XML. If the file names a resource in the CLASSPATH, data will be written to that resource. Use stdout to write to standard output. Defaults to stdout.
-dropTables/-dt <true/t | false/f>: Set this option to true to drop tables that appear to be unused during retain and refresh actions. Defaults to true.
-kodoTables/-kt <true/t | false/f>: Whether to generate information about special Kodo-generated tables such as sequence tables as part of the database schema. Defaults to false.
-indexes/-ix <true/t | false/f>: Whether to manipulate indexes on existing tables. Defaults to true.
-primaryKeys/-pk <true/t | false/f> : Whether to manipulate primary keys on existing tables. Defaults to true.
-foreignKeys/-fk <true/t | false/f> : Whether to manipulate foreign keys on existing tables. Defaults to true.
-record/-r <true/t | false/f>: Use false to prevent writing the schema changes made by the tool to the current schema factory. Defaults to true.
-schemas/-s <schema list>: A list of schema and table names that Kodo should access during this run of the schematool. This is equivalent to setting the kodo.jdbc.Schemas property for a single run.
The schema tool also requires an -action flag. The available actions are:
add: Bring the schema up-to-date with the given XML document by adding tables, columns, indexes, etc. This action never drops any schema components.
retain: Keep all schema components in the given XML definition, but drop the rest from the database. This action never adds any schema components.
drop: Drop all schema components in the schema XML. Tables will only be dropped if they would have 0 columns after dropping all columns listed in the XML.
refresh: Equivalent to retain, then add.
createDB: Generate SQL to re-create the current database. This action is typically used in conjunction with the -file flag to write a SQL script that can be used to create a fresh schema for a new database.
build: Generate SQL to build a schema matching the one in the given XML file. Unlike add, this option does not take into account the fact that part of the schema defined in the XML file might already exist in the database. Therefore, this action is typically used in conjunction with the -file flag to write a SQL script. This script can later be used to recreate the schema in the XML on a fresh database.
dropDB: Generate SQL to drop the current database. Like createDB, this action can be used with the -file flag to script a database drop rather than perform it.
import: Import the given XML schema definition into the current schema factory. Does nothing if the factory does not store a record of the schema.
export: Export the current schema factory's stored schema definition to XML. May produce an empty file if the factory does not store a record of the schema.
The schema tool can manipulate tables, columns, indexes, primary keys, and foreign keys. It cannot create or drop the database schema objects in which the tables reside, however. If your XML documents refer to named database schemas, those schemas must exist.
We present some examples of schema tool usage below.
Example 8.2. Schema Creation
Add the necessary schema components to the database to match the given XML document, but don't drop any data:
schematool -a add targetSchema.xml
Example 8.3. SQL Scripting
Repeat the same action as the first example, but this time don't change the database. Instead, write any planned changes to a SQL script:
schematool -a add -f script.txt targetSchema.xml
Write a SQL script that will re-create the current database:
schematool -a createDB -f script.txt