The following sections describe how to configure the security providers supplied by WebLogic Server.
|Note:||WebLogic Server includes so many Authentication providers and Identity Assertion providers that they are better handled in a separate section. See Configuring Authentication Providers.|
By default, most WebLogic security providers are generally configured to run after you install WebLogic Server. However, the following circumstances require you to supply configuration information:
You can use either the WebLogic-supplied security providers or a custom security provider in a security realm. To configure a custom security provider, seein the Administration Console Online Help.
You can configure more than one security provider of a given type in a security realm. For example, you might use two or more different Role Mapping providers or Authorization providers. If you have more than one security provider of the same type in a security realm, the order in which these providers are called can affect the overall outcome of the security processes. By default, security providers are called in the order that they were added to the realm. You can use the Administration Console to change the order of the providers. Seein the Administration Console Online Help.
Authorization is the process whereby the interactions between users and resources are limited to ensure integrity, confidentiality, and availability. In other words, authorization is responsible for controlling access to resources based on user identity or other information. You should only need to configure an Authorization provider when you create a new security realm.
By default, security realms in newly created domains include the XACML Authorization provider. The XACML Authorization provider uses XACML, the eXtensible Access Control Markup Language. For information about using the XACML Authorization provider, seein Securing WebLogic Resources Using Roles and Policies. WebLogic Server also includes the WebLogic Authorization provider, which uses a proprietary policy language. This provider is named DefaultAuthorizer, but is no longer the default authorization provider.
Seein the Administration Console Online Help.
|Note:||The WebLogic Authorization provider improves performance by caching the roles, predicates, and resource data that it looks up. For information on configuring these caches, seein Securing WebLogic Resources Using Roles and Policies. The XACML Authorization uses its own cache, but this cache is not configurable.|
When multiple Authorization providers are configured in a security realm, each may return a different answer to the “is access allowed” question for a given resource. This answer may be
ABSTAIN. Determining what to do if multiple Authorization providers do not agree on the answer is the primary function of the Adjudication provider. Adjudication providers resolve authorization conflicts by weighting each Authorization provider’s answer and returning a final decision.
Each security realm requires an Adjudication provider, and can have no more than one active Adjudication provider. By default, a WebLogic security realm is configured with the WebLogic Adjudication provider. You can use either the WebLogic Adjudication provider or a custom Adjudication provider in a security realm.
|Note:||In the Administration Console, the WebLogic Adjudication provider is referred to as the Default Adjudicator.|
By default, most configuration options for the WebLogic Adjudication provider are defined. However, you can set the Require Unanimous Permit option to determine how the WebLogic Adjudication provider handles a combination of
ABSTAIN votes from the configured Authorization providers.
Role Mapping providers compute the set of roles granted to a subject for a given resource. Role Mapping providers supply Authorization providers with this role information so that the Authorization provider can answer the “is access allowed?” question for WebLogic resources. By default, a WebLogic security realm is configured with the XACML Role Mapping provider. The XACML Role Mapping provider uses XACML, the eXtensible Access Control Markup Language. For information about using the XACML Role Mapping provider, seein Securing WebLogic Resources Using Roles and Policies.
WebLogic Server also includes the WebLogic Role Mapping provider, which uses a proprietary policy language. This provider is named DefaultRoleMapper, but is no longer the default role mapping provider in newly-created security realms. You can also use a custom Role Mapping provider in your security realm.
By default, most configuration options for the XACML Role Mapping provider are already defined. However, you can set Role Mapping Deployment Enabled, which specifies whether or not this Role Mapping provider imports information from deployment descriptors for Web applications and EJBs into the security realm. This setting is enabled by default.
In order to support Role Mapping Deployment Enabled, a Role Mapping provider must implement the
DeployableRoleProvider SSPI. Roles are stored by the XACML Role Mapping provider in the embedded LDAP server.
For information about using, developing, and configuring Role Mapping providers, see:
|Note:||The WebLogic Role Mapping provider improves performance by caching the roles, predicates, and resource data that it looks up. For information on configuring these caches, seein Securing WebLogic Resources Using Roles and Policies. The XACML Role Mapping provider uses its own cache, but this cache is not configurable.|
Auditing is the process whereby information about operating requests and the outcome of those requests are collected, stored, and distributed for the purposes of non-repudiation. In other words, Auditing providers produce an electronic trail of computer activity.
Configuring an Auditing provider is optional. The default security realm (
myrealm) does not have an Auditing provider configured. WebLogic Server includes a provider named the WebLogic Auditing provider (referred to as
DefaultAuditor in the Administration Console). You can also develop custom Auditing providers, as described in
Auditing Providers in Developing Security Providers for WebLogic Server.
The WebLogic Auditing provider can log the events described in Table 4-1. In addition, if you enable configuration auditing (as described in Configuration Auditing), the WebLogic Auditing provider can log the events described in Table 4-5.
By default, most configuration options for the WebLogic Auditing provider are already defined and, once it is added to the active security realm, the WebLogic Auditing provider will begin to record audit events. However, you need to define the following settings, which you can do in the Administration Console on the Configuration Provider Specific page for the provider. You can also use WebLogic Scripting tool or the Java Management Extensions (JMX) APIs to configure the Auditing provider:
DefaultAuditRecorder.logfile. At the specified time, the audit file is closed and a new one is created. A backup file named
DefaultAuditRecorder.200405130110.log) is created in the same directory.
All auditing information recorded by the WebLogic Auditing provider is saved in
logs\DefaultAuditRecorder.log by default. Although an Auditing provider is configured per security realm, each server writes auditing data to its own log file in the server directory. You can specify a new directory location for the
DefaultAuditRecorder.log file on the command line with the following Java startup option:
The new file location will be
For more information, see Security in the WebLogic Server Command Reference.
|WARNING:||Using an Auditing provider affects the performance of WebLogic Server even if only a few events are logged.|
For more information, seein the Administration Console Online Help.
An Audit Event includes a
ContextHandler that can hold a variety of information or objects. Set the WebLogic Auditing provider’s Active ContextHandler Entries attribute to specify which
ContextElement entries in the
ContextHandler are recorded by the Auditing provider. By default, none of the
ContextElements are audited. Objects in the
ContextHandler are in most cases logged using the
toString method. Table 4-3 lists the available
Port of the remote end of the TCP/IP connection of the network channel accepting or processing the request
SSL framework has validated the certificate chain, meaning that the certificates in the chain have signed each other properly; the chain terminates in a certificate that is one of the server's trusted CAs; the chain honors the basic constraints rules; and the certificates in the chain have not expired.
SSL client certificate chain obtained from the SSL connection over which a sender-vouches SAML assertion was received.
You can configure the Administration Server to emit log messages and generate audit events when a user changes the configuration of any resource within a domain or invokes management operations on any resource within a domain. For example, if a user disables SSL on a Managed Server in a domain, the Administration Server emits log messages. If you have enabled the WebLogic Auditing provider, it writes the audit events to an additional security log. These messages and audit events provide an audit trail of changes within a domain’s configuration (configuration auditing).
The Administration Server writes configuration auditing messages to its local log file. They are not written to the domain-wide message log by default.
Note that configuration audit information is contained in Authorization Events. As a result, another approach to configuration auditing is to consume Authorization Events. Note, however, that the information in an Authorization Event tells you whether access was allowed to perform a configuration change; it does not tell you whether the configuration change actually succeeded (for instance, it might have failed because it was invalid).
Enable configuration auditing by one of these methods:
ConfigurationAuditTypeattribute of the
DomainMBean. See WebLogic Scripting Tool.
Configuration auditing messages are of the following severities:
Configuration auditing messages are identified by message IDs that fall within the range of
The messages use MBean object names to identify resources. Object names for WebLogic Server MBeans reflect the location of the MBean within the hierarchical data model. To reflect the location, object names contain name/value pairs from the parent MBean. For example, the object name for a server's
mydomain:Name=myserverlog,Type=Log,Server=myserver. See in Developing Custom Management Utilities with JMX.
Table 4-5 summarizes the messages.
|Note:||Each time an authorized user adds, modifies, or deletes a resource, the Management subsystem also generates an
|Note:||While the message informs you that the domain’s configuration has changed, it does not provide the detailed information that configuration auditing messages provide. Nor does the Management subsystem generate this message when you invoke operations on resources.|
Table 4-6 lists additional message attributes for configuration auditing messages. All configuration auditing messages specify the same values for these attributes.
An audit event is an object that Auditing providers can read and process in specific ways. An Auditing provider is a pluggable component that the security realm uses to collect, store, and distribute information about operating requests and the outcome of those requests for the purposes of non-repudiation.
If you enable a domain to emit Audit Events, the domain emits the events described in Table 4-7. All Auditing providers that are configured for the domain can handle these events.
All of the events are of severity level
SUCCESS and describe the security principal who initiated the action, whether permission was granted, and the object (MBean or MBean attribute) of the requested action.
If you enable the default WebLogic Server Auditing provider, it writes all Audit Events as log messages in its own log file.
Other Auditing providers that you create or purchase can filter these events and write them to output repositories such as an LDAP server, database, or a simple file. In addition, other types of security providers can request audit services from an Auditing provider. Seein Developing Security Providers for WebLogic Server.
Credential mapping is the process whereby the authentication and authorization mechanisms of a remote system (for example, a legacy system or application) obtain an appropriate set of credentials to authenticate remote users to a target WebLogic resource. The WebLogic Credential Mapping provider maps WebLogic Server subjects to the username/password pairs to be used when accessing such resources.
By default, most configuration options for the WebLogic Credential Mapping provider are defined. However, you have the option of setting Credential Mapping Deployment Enabled, which specifies whether or not this Credential Mapping provider imports credential maps from a resource adapter’s deployment descriptor (
weblogic-ra.xml file) into the security realm. This setting is enabled by default.
In order to support Credential Mapping Deployment Enabled, a Credential Mapping provider must implement the
DeployableCredentialProvider SSPI. The credential mapping information is stored in the embedded LDAP server.
For more information:
The PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) Credential Mapping provider included in WebLogic Server maps (a) a WebLogic Server subject (the initiator) and target resource (and an optional credential action) to (b) a key pair or public certificate that can be used by applications when accessing the targeted resource. The PKI Credential Mapping provider uses the subject and resource name to retrieve the corresponding credential from the keystore.
To use the PKI Credential Mapping provider, you need to:
myrealm). See PKI Credential Mapper Attributes and in the Administration Console Online Help.
To configure the PKI Credential Mapping provider, set values for these attributes. Seein the Administration Console Online Help.
In addition, two optional attributes determine how the PKI Credential Mapping provider locates credential mappings in cases where the exact resource or subject may not be available:
Optionally, you can label a credential mapping with a credential action. You can do this in the Administration Console when you create the credential mapping. The credential action is an arbitrary string that distinguishes credential mappings used in different circumstances. For example, one credential mapping could decrypt a message from a remote resource and another credential mapping could sign messages to be sent to the same resource. The subject initiator and the target resource are not sufficient to distinguish these two credential mappings. You can use the credential action to label one of these credential mappings something like
decrypt and the other one
sign. Then, the application calling the PKI Credential Mapping provider can provide the desired credential action value in the
ContextHandler that is passed to the provider.
For information about adding credential actions to PKI credential mappings, seein the Administration Console Online Help.
This release of WebLogic Server includes two SAML Credential Mapping providers. SAML Credential Mapping Provider Version 2 provides greatly enhanced configuration options and is recommended for new deployments. SAML Credential Mapping Provider Version 1 is deprecated in WebLogic Server 9.1. A security realm can have not more than one SAML Credential Mapping provider, and if the security realm has both a SAML Credential Mapping provider and a SAML Identity Assertion provider, both must be of the same version. Do not use a Version 1 SAML provider in the same security realm as a Version 2 SAML provider. For information about configuring the SAML Credential Mapping Provider Version 1, seein the WebLogic Server 9.0 documentation.
For general information about WebLogic Server’s support for SAML, seeand in Understanding WebLogic Security. For information about how to use the SAML Credential Mapping provider in a SAML single sign-on configuration, see Configuring Single Sign-On with Web Browsers and HTTP Clients.
A SAML Assertion’s validity is typically time-limited. The default time-to-live for assertions generated by the SAML Credential Mapping provider is specified by the
DefaultTimeToLive attribute. You can override the default time-to-live for assertions generated for different SAML Relying Parties.
Normally, an assertion is valid from the
NotBefore time, which defaults to (roughly) the time the assertion was generated, until the
NotOnOrAfter time, which is calculated as (
TimeToLive). To allow the Credential Mapper to compensate for clock differences between the source and destination sites, you can configure the SAML Credential Mapping provider’s
DefaultTimeToLiveDelta attribute. This time-to-live offset value is a positive or negative integer indicating how many seconds before or after “now” the assertion's
NotBefore value should be set to. If you set a value for
DefaultTimeToLiveDelta, then the assertion lifetime is still calculated as (
TimeToLive), but the
NotBefore value is set to (
TimeToLiveDelta). For example, given the following settings:
DefaultTimeToLive = 120
DefaultTimeToLiveDelta = -30
an assertion when generated would have a lifetime of two minutes (120 seconds), starting 30 seconds before it is generated.
When you configure WebLogic Server to act as a source of SAML security assertions, you need to register the parties that may request SAML assertions to be generated. For each SAML Relying Party, you can specify the SAML profile used, details about the Relying Party, and the attributes expected in assertions for the Relying Party. For information, see:
The SAML 2.0 Credential Mapping provider included with WebLogic Server generates SAML 2.0 assertions that can be used to assert identity in the following use cases:
The SAML 2.0 Credential Mapping provider generates the assertion types listed and described in Table 4-8.
The subject of the assertion is the bearer of the assertion, subject to optional constraints on confirmation using attributes that may be included in the
The Identity Provider (different from the subject) vouches for the verification of the subject. The receiver must have a trust relationship with the Identity Provider.
The subject represented in the assertion uses an X.509 certificate that may not be trusted by the receiver to protect the integrity of the request messages.
For general information about WebLogic Server’s support for SAML 2.0, seeand in Understanding WebLogic Security. For information about how to use the SAML 2.0 Credential Mapping provider in a SAML 2.0 single sign-on configuration, see Configuring Single Sign-On with Web Browsers and HTTP Clients. For information about specifying the confirmation method for assertions generated for web service Service provider partners, see Using Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) Tokens For Identity in Securing WebLogic Web Services.
Configuration of the SAML 2.0 Credential Mapping provider is controlled by setting attributes on the
SAML2CredentialMapperMBean. You can access the
SAML2CredentialMapperMBean using the WebLogic Scripting Tool (WLST), or through the Administration Console by using the Security Realms RealmName Providers Credential Mapping page and creating or selecting SAML2CredentialMapper. The
SAML2CredentialMapperMBean is described at the following location:
To configure the SAML 2.0 Credential Mapping provider, set the following attributes:
Used by the Name Mapper class as the security or administrative domain that qualifies the name of the subject. This provides a means to federate names from disparate user stores while avoiding the possibility of subject name collision.
When you configure WebLogic Server to act as an Identity Provider, you need to create and configure the Service Provider partners for whom SAML 2.0 assertions are generated. When an Identity Provider site needs to generate an assertion, the SAML 2.0 Credential Mapping provider determines the Service Provider partner for whom the assertion must be generated, and generates it according to the configuration of that Service Provider partner.
The way in which you configure a Service Provider partner, and the specific information you configure for that partner, depends upon whether the partner is used for web single sign-on or web services. Configuring a web single sign-on Service Provider partner consists of importing that partner’s metadata file and establishing additional basic information about that partner, such as the following:
For details about configuring a Service Provider partner for web single sign-on, see:
Configuring a web service Service Provider partner does not use a metadata file, but does consist of establishing the following information about that partner:
In WebLogic Server, the Audience URI attribute is overloaded to also include the partner lookup string, which is required by the web service run time to discover the partner. See Partner Lookup Strings Required for Web Service Partners.
For more information about configuring web service Service Provider partners, seein the Administration Console Online Help.
For web service Service Provider partners, you also configure Audience URIs. In WebLogic Server, the Audience URI attribute is overloaded to perform two distinct functions:
The partner lookup string specifies an endpoint URL, which is used for partner lookup and can optionally also serve as an Audience URI restriction that is included in the generated assertion. The ability to specify a partner lookup string that is also an Audience URI eliminates the need to specify a given target URL twice: once for lookup, and again for audience restriction.
|Note:||You must configure a partner lookup string for a Service Provider partner so that partner can be discovered at run time by the web service run time.|
The partner lookup string has the following syntax:
In this syntax,
: is a prefix that designates the partner lookup string, where
char represents one of three special characters: a hyphen, plus sign, or asterisk (
*). This prefix determines how partner lookup is performed, as described in Table 4-9.
Specifies that partner lookup is conducted for an exact match of the URL,
Specifies that partner lookup is conducted for an initial-string pattern match of the URL,
If more than one Service Provider partner is discovered that is a match for the initial string, the partner with the longest initial string match is selected.
|Notes:||Configuring one or more partner lookup strings for a Service Provider partner is required in order for that partner to be discovered at run time. If this partner cannot be discovered, no assertions for this partner can be generated.|
|Note:||If you configure an endpoint URL without using the target lookup prefix, it will be handled as a conventional Audience URI that must be contained in assertions generated for this Service Provider partner. (This also enables backwards-compatibility with existing Audience URIs that may be configured for this partner.)|
To support the need for a default Service Provider partner entry, one or more of the default partner’s Audience URI entries may contain a wildcard match that works for all targets. The actual wildcard URI may depend on the specific format used by the web service run time. For example:
The SAML 2.0 Credential Mapping provider manages a set of trusted certificates for each partner configured for web single sign-on. Whenever a signed authentication or artifact request is received during a message exchange with a partner, the trusted certificate is used to verify the partner’s signature. Partner certificates are used for the following purposes:
From the Administration Console, you can view a web single sign-on Service Provider partner’s signing certificate and transport layer client certificate in the partner management pages of the configured SAML 2.0 Credential Mapping provider.
Operations on web service partners are available in the
com.bea.security.saml2.providers.registry.Partner Java interface.
WebLogic Server may receive digital certificates as part of Web Services requests, two-way SSL, or other secure interactions. To validate these certificates, WebLogic Server includes a Certificate Lookup and Validation (CLV) framework, whose function is to look up and validate X.509 certificate chains. The key elements of the CLV framework are the CertPathBuilder and the CertPathValidators. The CLV framework requires one and only active CertPathBuilder which, given a reference to a certificate chain, finds the chain and validates it, and zero or more CertPathValidators which, given a certificate chain, validates it.
When WebLogic Server receives a certificate, the CLV framework uses the security provider configured as the CertPathBuilder to look up and validate the certificate chain. If the certificate chain is found and valid, the framework then calls each configured CertPathValidator, in the order the administrator configured them, to perform extra validation on the chain. The chain is only valid if the builder and all the validators successfully validate it.
A chain is valid only if all of the following are true:
WebLogic Server includes two CLV security providers: the WebLogic CertPath provider (which acts as both a CertPathBuilder and a CertPathValidator), described in CertPath Provider, and the Certificate Registry, described in Certificate Registry. Use just the WebLogic CertPath provider if you want to use trusted CA-based validation of the full certificate chain. Use just the Certificate Registry if you want only to validate that certificates are registered. Use both, designating the Certificate Registry as the current builder, if you want to use both types of validation.
For more information about certificate lookup and validation, seeConfiguring Identity and Trust.
The default security realm in WebLogic Server is configured with the WebLogic CertPath provider. The CertPath provider serves two functions: CertPathBuilder and CertPathValidator. The CertPath provider receives an end certificate or a certificate chain. It uses the server’s list of trusted CAs to complete the certificate chain, if necessary. After building the chain, the CertPath provider validates the chain, checking the signatures in the chain, ensuring that the chain has not expired, checking the chain’s basic constraints, and verifying that the chain terminates in a certificate issued by one of the server’s trusted CAs.
The WebLogic CertPath provider requires no configuration, other than its Current Builder attribute, which indicates whether the CertPath provider should be used as the active certificate chain builder.
The Certificate Registry is a security provider that allows you to explicitly register the list of trusted certificates that are allowed to access WebLogic Server. If you configure a Certificate Registry as part of your security realm, then only certificates that are registered in the Certificate Registry will be considered valid. The Certificate Registry provides an inexpensive mechanism for performing revocation checking. By removing a certificate from the Certificate Registry, you can invalidate a certificate immediately. The registry is stored in the embedded LDAP server.
The Certificate Registry is both a CertPath Builder and a CertPath Validator. In either case, the Certificate Registry ensures that the chain's end certificate is stored in the registry, but does no other validation. If you use the Certificate Registry as your security realm’s CertPath Builder and you also want to use the WebLogic CertPath provider or another security provider to perform full chain validation, make sure that you register the intermediate and root CAs in each server’s trust keystore, and the end certificates in the Certificate Registry.
The default security realm in WebLogic Server does not include a Certificate Registry. Once you configure a Certificate Registry, you can use the WebLogic Administration Console to add, remove, and view certificates in the registry. You can export a certificate from a keystore to a file, using the Java
keytool utility. You can import a certificate that is a PEM or DER file in the file system into the Certificate Registry using the console. You can also use the Console to view the contents of a certificate, including its subject DN, issuer DN, serial number, valid dates, fingerprints, etc.
Seein the Administration Console Online Help.
|Note:||The WebLogic Keystore provider is deprecated. It is only supported for backward compatibility. Use Java KeyStores (JKS) instead. All of the functionality that was supported by the WebLogic Keystore provider is available through use of Java KeyStores.|
For information about configuring the WebLogic Keystore provider, seein the Administration Console Online Help.