|Oracle® Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
11g Release 2 (11.2) for Linux
Part Number E10812-02
This chapter describes how to complete the postinstallation tasks after you have installed the Oracle grid infrastructure software.
This chapter contains the following topics:
You must perform the following tasks after completing your installation:
Note:In prior releases, backing up the voting disks using a
ddcommand was a required postinstallation task. With Oracle Clusterware release 11.2 and later, backing up and restoring a voting disk using the
ddcommand may result in the loss of the voting disk, so this procedure is not supported.
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If you do not have Flash installed, then download the latest version of the Flash Player from the Adobe Web site:
To download required patch updates:
Use a Web browser to view the My Oracle Support Web site:
Log in to My Oracle Support Web site.
Note:If you are not a My Oracle Support registered user, then click Register for My Oracle Support and register.
On the main My Oracle Support page, click Patches & Updates.
On the Patches & Update page, click Advanced Search.
On the Advanced Search page, click the search icon next to the Product or Product Family field.
In the Search and Select: Product Family field, select Database and Tools in the Search list field, enter RDBMS Server in the text field, and click Go.
RDBMS Server appears in the Product or Product Family field. The current release appears in the Release field.
Select your platform from the list in the Platform field, and at the bottom of the selection list, click Go.
Any available patch updates appear under the Results heading.
Click the patch number to download the patch.
On the Patch Set page, click View README and read the page that appears. The README page contains information about the patch set and how to apply the patches to your installation.
Return to the Patch Set page, click Download, and save the file on your system.
Use the unzip utility provided with Oracle Database 11g release 2 (11.2) to uncompress the Oracle patch updates that you downloaded from My Oracle Support. The unzip utility is located in the
Refer to Appendix F for information about how to stop database processes in preparation for installing patches.
Oracle recommends that you complete the following tasks as needed after installing Oracle grid infrastructure:
Oracle recommends that you back up the
root.sh script after you complete an installation. If you install other products in the same Oracle home directory, then the installer updates the contents of the existing
root.sh script during the installation. If you require information contained in the original
root.sh script, then you can recover it from the
root.sh file copy.
To address troubleshooting issues, Oracle recommends that you install either Instantaneous Problem Detection OS Tool (IPD/OS), or OS Watcher and RACDDT, depending on your Linux kernel version.
On Linux systems with Linux kernels greater than or equal to 2.6.9, install the Oracle Instantaneous problem Detection Operating System Tool (IPD/OS).
The IPD/OS tool is designed to detect and analyze operating system and cluster resource-related degradation and failures. The tool can provide better explanations for many issues that occur in clusters where Oracle Clusterware, Oracle ASM and Oracle RAC are running, such as node evictions. It tracks the operating system resource consumption at each node, process, and device level continuously. It collects and analyzes clusterwide data. In real time mode, when thresholds are reached, an alert is shown to the operator. For root cause analysis, historical data can be replayed to understand what was happening at the time of failure.
You can download the tool at the following URL:
On Linux systems with Linux kernels earlier than 2.6.9, install OS Watcher to help resolve operating system issues with your cluster. If you intend to install an Oracle RAC database, then also install RACDDT. You must have access to My Oracle Support to download OS Watcher and RACDDT.
OS Watcher (OSW) is a collection of UNIX/Linux shell scripts that collect and archive operating system and network metrics to aid Oracle Support in diagnosing various issues related to system and performance. OSW operates as a set of background processes on the server and gathers operating system data on a regular basis. The scripts use common utilities such as
RACDDT is a data collection tool designed and configured specifically for gathering diagnostic data related to Oracle RAC technology. RACDDT is a set of scripts and configuration files that is run on one or more nodes of an Oracle RAC cluster. The main script is written in Perl, while a number of proxy scripts are written using Korn shell. RACDDT will run on all supported UNIX and Linux platforms, but is not supported on any Windows platforms.
OSW is also included in the RACDDT script file, but is not installed by RACDDT. OSW must be installed on each node where data is to be collected.
To download binaries for OS Watcher and RACDDT, go to the following URL:
Download OSW by searching for OS Watcher, and downloading the binaries from the User Guide bulletin. Installation instructions for OSW are provided in the user guide. Download RACDDT by searching for RACDDT, and downloading the binaries from the RACDDT User Guide bulletin.
Refer to the following guidelines only if the default semaphore parameter values are too low to accommodate all Oracle processes:
Note:Oracle recommends that you refer to the operating system documentation for more information about setting semaphore parameters.
Calculate the minimum total semaphore requirements using the following formula:
2 * sum (process parameters of all database instances on the system) + overhead for background processes + system and other application requirements
semmns (total semaphores systemwide) to this total.
semmsl (semaphores for each set) to 256.
semmni (total semaphores sets) to
semmns divided by
semmsl, rounded up to the nearest multiple of 1024.
During installation, by default you can create one disk group. If you plan to add an Oracle Database for a standalone server or an Oracle RAC database, then you should create the Fast Recovery Area for database files.
The Fast Recovery Area is a unified storage location for all Oracle Database files related to recovery. Database administrators can define the DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST parameter to the path for the Fast Recovery Area to enable on-disk backups, and rapid recovery of data. Enabling rapid backups for recent data can reduce requests to system administrators to retrieve backup tapes for recovery operations.
When you enable Flash Recovery in the
init.ora file, all RMAN backups, archive logs, control file automatic backups, and database copies are written to the Fast Recovery Area. RMAN automatically manages files in the Fast Recovery Area by deleting obsolete backups and archive files no longer required for recovery.
Oracle recommends that you create a Fast Recovery Area disk group. Oracle Clusterware files and Oracle Database files can be placed on the same disk group, and you can also place flash recovery files in the same disk group. However, Oracle recommends that you create a separate Flash Recovery disk group to reduce storage device contention.
The Fast Recovery Area is enabled by setting DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST. The size of the Fast Recovery Area is set with DB _RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE. As a general rule, the larger the Fast Recovery Area, the more useful it becomes. For ease of use, Oracle recommends that you create a Fast Recovery Area disk group on storage devices that can contain at least three days of recovery information. Ideally, the Fast Recovery Area should be large enough to hold a copy of all of your data files and control files, the online redo logs, and the archived redo log files needed to recover your database using the data file backups kept under your retention policy.
Multiple databases can use the same Fast Recovery Area. For example, assume you have created one Fast Recovery Area disk group on disks with 150 GB of storage, shared by three different databases. You can set the size of the Fast Recovery Area for each database depending on the importance of each database. For example, if database1 is your least important database, database 2 is of greater importance and database 3 is of greatest importance, then you can set different DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE settings for each database to meet your retention target for each database: 30 GB for database 1, 50 GB for database 2, and 70 GB for database 3.
To create a flash recovery file disk group:
$ cd /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/bin $ ./asmca
ASMCA opens at the Disk Groups tab. Click Create to create a new disk group
The Create Disk Groups window opens.
In the Disk Group Name field, enter a descriptive name for the Fast Recovery Area group. For example: FRA.
In the Redundancy section, select the level of redundancy you want to use.
In the Select Member Disks field, select eligible disks to be added to the Fast Recovery Area, and click OK.
The Diskgroup Creation window opens to inform you when disk group creation is complete. Click OK.
Review the following sections for information about using older Oracle Database releases with 11g release 2 (11.2) grid infrastructure installations:
You can use Oracle Database release 9.2, release 10.x and release 11.1 with Oracle Clusterware release 11.2.
If you upgrade an existing version of Oracle Clusterware, then required configuration of existing databases is completed automatically. However, if you complete a new installation of Oracle grid infrastructure for a cluster, and then want to install a version of Oracle Database prior to 11.2, then you must complete additional manual configuration tasks.
Note:Before you start an Oracle RAC or Oracle Database installation on an Oracle Clusterware release 11.2 installation, if you upgraded from releases 18.104.22.168, 22.214.171.124, and 10.2.0.4, then you must install the one-off patch required for that release. See Section 5.1.1, "Download and Install Patch Updates".
When Oracle Database version 10.x or 11x is installed on a new Oracle grid infrastructure for a cluster configuration, it is configured for dynamic cluster configuration, in which some or all IP addresses are provisionally assigned, and other cluster identification information is dynamic. This configuration is incompatible with older database releases, which require fixed addresses and configuration.
You can change the nodes where you want to run the older database to create a persistent configuration. Creating a persistent configuration for a node is called pinning a node.
To pin a node in preparation for installing an older Oracle Database version, use
/bin/crsctl with the following command syntax, where
nodes is a space-delimited list of one or more nodes in the cluster whose configuration you want to pin:
crsctl pin css -n nodes
For example, to pin nodes
node4, log in as
root and enter the following command:
$ crsctl pin css -n node3 node4
To determine if a node is in a pinned or unpinned state, use
/bin/olsnodes with the following command syntax:
To list all pinned nodes:
olsnodes -t -n
# /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/bin/olsnodes -t -n node1 1 Pinned node2 2 Pinned node3 3 Pinned node4 4 Pinned
To list the state of a particular node:
olsnodes -t -n node3
# /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/bin/olsnodes -t -n node3 node3 3 Pinned
See Also:Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for more information about pinning and unpinning nodes
When Oracle Database 9i release 2 (9.2) is installed on an 11g release 2 (11.2) Oracle grid infrastructure for a cluster configuration, the Global Services daemon (GSD) is disabled by default. Use the following commands to enable the GSD before you install a release 9.2 Oracle Database:
srvctl enable nodeapps -g srvctl start nodeapps
To administer 11g release 2 local and scan listeners using the
lsnrctl command, set your
$ORACLE_HOME environment variable to the path for the grid infrastructure home (Grid home). Do not attempt to use the
lsnrctl commands from Oracle home locations for previous releases, as they cannot be used with the new release.
For example, if you want to apply a one-off patch, or if you want to modify an Oracle Exadata configuration to run IPC traffic over RDS on the interconnect instead of using the default UDP, then you must unlock the Grid home.
Caution:Before relinking executables, you must shut down all executables that run in the Oracle home directory that you are relinking. In addition, shut down applications linked with Oracle shared libraries.
Unlock the home using the following procedure:
Change directory to the path Grid_home/crs/install, where Grid_home is the path to the Grid home, and unlock the Grid home using the command
rootcrs.pl -unlock -crshome
Grid_home, where Grid_home is the path to your Grid infrastructure home. For example, with the grid home
/u01/app/11.2.0/grid, enter the following command:
# cd /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/crs/install # perl rootcrs.pl -unlock -crshome /u01/app/11.2.0/grid
Change user to the grid infrastructure software owner, and relink binaries using the command syntax make -f Grid_home/lib/ins_rdbms.mk target, where Grid_home is the Grid home, and target is the binaries that you want to relink. For example, where the grid user is
grid, $ORACLE_HOME is set to the Grid home, and where you are updating the interconnect protocol from UDP to IPC, enter the following command:
# su grid $ make -f $ORACLE_HOME/lib/ins_rdbms.mk ipc_rds ioracle
Note:To relink binaries, you can also change to the grid installation owner and run the command
Relock the Grid home and restart the cluster using the following command:
# perl rootcrs.pl -patch
Repeat steps 1 through 3 on each cluster member node.