Oracle Identity Management presents a comprehensive suite of products for all aspects of identity management. In the context of Oracle Fusion Middleware, the Oracle Identity Management Infrastructure described in this book primarily includes Oracle Access Manager and Oracle Internet Directory (and/or Oracle Virtual Directory). The directory services provide core LDAP support for both authentication and authorization support in conjunction with Oracle Platform Security Services. Oracle Access Management is the recommended solution for single sign-on across Oracle Fusion Middleware components.
This guide describes a reference enterprise topology for the Oracle Identity Management Infrastructure components of Oracle Fusion Middleware. It also provides detailed instructions and recommendations to create the topology by following the enterprise deployment guidelines.
This chapter includes the following topics:
An enterprise deployment is an Oracle best practices blueprint based on proven Oracle high-availability technologies and recommendations for Oracle Fusion Middleware. The high-availability best practices described in this book make up one of several components of high-availability best practices for all Oracle products across the entire technology stack—Oracle Database, Oracle Fusion Middleware, Oracle Applications, Oracle Collaboration Suite, and Oracle Grid Control.
Enables control over the length of time to recover from an outage and the amount of acceptable data loss from a natural disaster
Evolves with each Oracle version and is completely independent of hardware and operating system
Table 1-1 provides definitions for some of the terms that define the architecture of an Oracle Fusion Middleware environment:
A Middleware home consists of the Oracle WebLogic Server home, and, optionally, one or more Oracle homes.
A Middleware home can reside on a local file system or on a remote shared disk that is accessible through NFS.
A WebLogic Server home contains installed files necessary to host a WebLogic Server. The WebLogic Server home directory is a peer of other Oracle home directories underneath the Middleware home directory.
An Oracle home contains installed files necessary to host a specific product. For example, the Oracle Identity Management Oracle home contains a directory that contains binary and library files for Oracle Identity Management.
An Oracle home resides within the directory structure of the Middleware home. Each Oracle home can be associated with multiple Oracle instances or Oracle WebLogic Server domains.
An Oracle instance contains one or more system components, such as Oracle Web Cache, Oracle HTTP Server, or Oracle Internet Directory. The system components in an Oracle instance must reside on the same machine. An Oracle instance directory contains updatable files, such as configuration files, log files, and temporary files.
An Oracle instance is a peer of an Oracle WebLogic Server domain. Both contain specific configurations outside of their Oracle homes.
The directory structure of an Oracle instance is separate from the directory structure of the Oracle home. It can reside anywhere; it need not be within the Middleware home directory.
A WebLogic Server domain is a logically related group of Java components. A WebLogic Server domain includes a special WebLogic Server instance called the Administration Server, which is the central point from which you configure and manage all resources in the domain. Usually, you configure a domain to include additional WebLogic Server instances called Managed Servers. You deploy Java components, such as Web applications, EJBs, and Web services, and other resources to the Managed Servers and use the Administration Server for configuration and management purposes only.
Managed Servers in a WebLogic Server domain can be grouped together into a cluster.
An Oracle WebLogic Server domain is a peer of an Oracle instance. Both contain specific configurations outside of their Oracle homes.
The directory structure of an WebLogic Server domain is separate from the directory structure of the WebLogic Server home. It can reside anywhere; it need not be within the Middleware home directory.
A system component is a manageable process that is not WebLogic Server. For example: Oracle HTTP Server, WebCache, and Oracle Internet Directory. Includes the JSE component.
A Java component is a peer of a system component, but is managed by the application server container. Generally refers to a collection of applications and resources, with generally a 1:1 relationship with a domain extension template. For example: SOA and WebCenter Spaces.
An Oracle Fusion Middleware farm is a collection of components managed by Fusion Middleware Control. It can contain WebLogic Server domains, one or more Managed Servers and the Oracle Fusion Middleware system components that are installed, configured, and running in the domain.
The Oracle Fusion Middleware configurations discussed in this guide are designed to ensure security of all transactions, maximize hardware resources, and provide a reliable, standards-compliant system for enterprise computing with a variety of applications. The security and high availability benefits of the Oracle Fusion Middleware configurations are realized through isolation in firewall zones and replication of software components.
The Enterprise Deployment architectures are secure because every functional group of software components is isolated in its own DMZ, and all traffic is restricted by protocol and port. The following characteristics ensure security at all needed levels, as well as a high level of standards compliance:
All external communication received on port 80 is redirected to port 443.
Communication from external clients does not go beyond the Load Balancing Router level.
No direct communication from the Load Balancing Router to the data tier DMZ is allowed.
Components are separated between DMZs on the web tier, application tier, and the directory tier.
Direct communication between two firewalls at any one time is prohibited.
If a communication begins in one firewall zone, it must end in the next firewall zone.
Oracle Internet Directory is isolated in the directory tier DMZ.
Identity Management components are in the application tier DMZ.
All communication between components across DMZs is restricted by port and protocol, according to firewall rules.
This guide provides configuration instructions for an Oracle Identity Management Infrastructure enterprise deployment using the directory services product and Oracle Access Manager, as shown in Figure 1-1.
The computers in the myIDMCompany topology are grouped into the directory tier, application tier, and web tier. These tiers are described in the following sections.
The directory tier is in the Intranet Zone. The directory tier is the deployment tier where all the LDAP services reside. This tier includes products such as Oracle Internet Directory and Oracle Virtual Directory. The directory tier is managed by directory administrators providing enterprise LDAP service support.
The directory tier is closely tied with the data tier, therefore access to the data tier is important:
Oracle Internet Directory relies on RDBMS as its backend.
Oracle Virtual Directory provides virtualization support for other LDAP services or databases or both.
In some cases, the directory tier and data tier may be managed by the same group of administrators. In many enterprises, however, database administrators own the data tier while directory administrators own the directory tier.
Typically protected by firewalls, applications above the directory tier access LDAP services through a designated LDAP host port. The standard LDAP port is 389 for the non-SSL port and 636 for the SSL port. LDAP services are often used for white pages lookup by clients such as email clients in the intranet.
The application tier is the tier where J2EE applications are deployed. Products such as Oracle Directory Integration Platform, Oracle Identity Federation, Oracle Directory Services Manager and Oracle Enterprise Manager Fusion Middleware Control are the key J2EE components that can be deployed in this tier. Applications in this tier benefit from the High Availability support of Oracle WebLogic Server.
The Identity Management applications in the application tier interact with the directory tier:
In some cases, they leverage the directory tier for enterprise identity information.
In some cases, they leverage the directory tier (and sometimes the database in the data tier) for application metadata.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Fusion Middleware Control and Oracle Directory Services Manager are administration tools that provide administrative functionalities to the components in the application tier as well as the directory tier.
WebLogic Server has built-in web server support. If enabled, the HTTP listener will exist in the application tier as well. However, for the enterprise deployment shown in Figure 1-1, customers will have a separate web tier relying on web servers such as Apache or Oracle HTTP Server.
In the application tier:
IDMHOST1 and IDMHOST2 have the WebLogic Server with the Administration Console, Oracle Enterprise Manager Fusion Middleware Control, Oracle Directory Integration Platform, and Oracle Directory Services Manager installed.
IDMHOST1 and IDMHOST2 run both the WebLogic Server Administration Servers and Managed Servers. Note that the administration server is configured to be active-passive, that is, although it is installed on both nodes, only one instance is active at any time. If the active instance goes down, then the passive instance starts up and becomes the active instance.
On the firewall protecting the application tier, the HTTP ports, OIP port, and OAP port are open. The OIP (Oracle Identity Protocol) port is for the WebPass module running in Oracle HTTP Server in the web tier to communicate with Oracle Access Manager to perform operations such as querying user groups. The OAP (Oracle Access Protocol) port is for the WebGate module running in Oracle HTTP Server in the web tier to communicate with Oracle Access Manager to perform operations such as user authentication.
OAMHOST1 and OAMHOST2 have Oracle Access Manager (with the Identity Server and Access Server components) installed. Oracle Access Manager is the single sign-on component for Oracle Fusion Middleware. It communicates with Oracle Internet Directory in the directory tier to verify user information.
OAMADMINHOST is on an isolated subnet (for Oracle Access Manager administration), and it has Oracle HTTP Server, WebGate, WebPass, and Policy Manager installed.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Fusion Middleware Control is integrated with Oracle Access Manager using the Oracle Platform Security Service (OPSS) agent.
The Administration Server and Oracle Enterprise Manager are always bound to the listen address of the Administration Server.
The WLS_ODS1 Managed Server on IDMHOST1 and WLS_ODS2 Managed Server on IDMHOST2 are in a cluster and the Oracle Directory Services Manager and Oracle Directory Integration Platform applications are targeted to the cluster.
Oracle Directory Services Manager and Oracle Directory Integration Platform are bound to the listen addresses of the WLS_ODS1 and WLS_ODS2 Managed Servers. By default, the listen address for these Managed Servers is set to IDMHOST1 and IDMHOST2 respectively.
The Identity Servers and Access Servers are active-active deployments; the Access Server may communicate with the Identity Server at run time.
The WebLogic Administration Server and Oracle Enterprise Manager deployment is active-passive (where other components are active-active).
The WebLogic Administration Server is a singleton component deployed in an active-passive configuration. If IDMHOST1 fails or the Administration Server on IDMHOST1 does not start, the Administration Server on IDMHOST2 can be started. All Managed Servers and components on IDMHOST1 and IDMHOST2 must be configured with the Administration Server virtual IP.
WebPass communication from the public DMZ to Identity and Access Servers is not allowed.
The Policy Manager (an Oracle HTTP Server module secured with both WebGate and WebPass) is deployed in an isolated administrative subnet, which communicates directly with Oracle Internet Directory.
Most of the Identity Management components can function without the web tier, but for most enterprise deployments, the web tier is desirable. To support enterprise level single sign-on using products such as Oracle Single Sign-On and Oracle Access Manager, the web tier is required.
While components such as Oracle Enterprise Manager Fusion Middleware Control and Oracle Directory Services Manager can function without a web tier, they can be configured to use a web tier, if desired.
In the web tier:
WEBHOST1 and WEBHOST2 have Oracle HTTP Server, WebGate (an Oracle Access Manager component), and the mod_wl_ohs plug-in module installed. The mod_wl_ohs plug-in module allows requests to be proxied from Oracle HTTP Server to a WebLogic Server running in the application tier.
WebGate (an Oracle Access Manager component) in Oracle HTTP Server uses Oracle Access Protocol (OAP) to communicate with Oracle Access Manager running on OAMHOST1 and OAMHOST2, in the Identity Management DMZ. WebGate and Oracle Access Manager are used to perform operations such as user authentication.
On the firewall protecting the web tier, only the HTTP ports are open: 443 for HTTPS and 80 for HTTP.
Oracle HTTP Servers on WEBHOST1 and WEBHOST2 are configured with mod_wl_ohs, and proxy requests for the Oracle Enterprise Manager, Oracle Directory Integration Platform, and Oracle Directory Services Manager J2EE applications deployed in WebLogic Server on IDMHOST1 and IDMHOST2.
WebPass is installed on OAMADMINHOST along with the Policy Manager. The Policy Manager and the WebPass are used to configure the Access Servers and the Identity Servers on OAMHOST1 and OAMHOST2.
WebGate is installed on OAMADMINHOST to protect the Policy Manager, and configured on WEBHOST1 and WEBHOST2 to protect inbound access.
Oracle Access Manager Identity Assertion Provider for WebLogic Server 11gR1 is installed on IDMHOST1 and IDMHOST2.
Table 1-2 identifies the source for installation of each software component:
Oracle Database 10g or 11g
Oracle Database CD (10.2.0.4 or higher)
Oracle Database CD (220.127.116.11)
Oracle WebLogic Server
WebLogic Server 10.3.1 CD
Oracle Identity and Access Management Components
This includes 11g Oracle Internet Directory, Oracle Virtual Directory, Oracle Directory Integration Platform, Oracle Directory Services Manager, Oracle Identity Federation, as well as Oracle Access Manager 10.1.4.3 components.
Oracle Identity Management CD (18.104.22.168.0)
Repository Creation Utility
Oracle Fusion Middleware Repository Creation Utility CD (22.214.171.124.0)
Oracle HTTP Server
Oracle Fusion Middleware Web Tier and Utilities CD (126.96.36.199.0)
For information about the order in which to perform the installations, see Section 1.5, "How to Use This Guide."
The chapters in the guide are arranged chronologically. Complete the procedures in the sections as shown in the table according to the desired configuration.
|Read the introduction to the enterprise deployment||Section 1.1, "What is an Enterprise Deployment?"|
|Learn the new terminology associated with the enterprise deployment||Section 1.2, "Terminology"|
|Review the benefits of Oracle recommendations||Section 1.3, "Benefits of Oracle Recommendations"|
|See an overview of the enterprise deployment||Section 1.4, "The Enterprise Deployment Reference Topology"|
|View the hardware requirements||Section 2.1, "Hardware Resource Planning"|
|View the network prerequisites||Section 2.2, "Network Prerequisites"|
|Review the WebLogic domain considerations||Section 2.4, "Shared Storage and Recommended Directory Structure"|
|Install Oracle WebLogic Server on IDMHOST1||Section 3.1, "Installing Oracle WebLogic Server"|
|Configure the Oracle WebLogic Server domain on IDMHOST1||Section 3.2, "Configuring the WebLogic Server Domain on IDMHOST1"|
|Creating boot.properties for the Administration Server||Section 3.3, "Creating boot.properties for the Administration Server"|
|Enabling Administration Server High Availability||Section 3.4, "Enabling Administration Server High Availability"|
|Back up the WebLogic Server domain configuration||Section 3.5, "Backing Up the WebLogic Server Domain Configuration"|
|View the directory tier considerations||Section 4.1, "Directory Tier Considerations"|
|View the database prerequisites||Section 4.2, "Database Prerequisites"|
|Install and configure the Oracle database repository on INFRADBHOST1 and INFRADBHOST2||Section 4.3, "Installing and Configuring the Database Repository"|
|Run the Repository Creation Utility to create the Oracle Identity Management schemas in the database||Section 4.4, "Executing the Repository Creation Utility."|
|Install the Oracle Internet Directory instances on OIDHOST1 and OIDHOST2||Section 4.5, "Installing the Oracle Internet Directory Instances"|
|Install the Oracle Virtual Directory instances on OVDHOST1 and OVDHOST2||Section 4.6, "Installing the Oracle Virtual Directory Instances"|
|Validate the directory tier components||Section 4.7, "Validating the Directory Tier Components"|
|Back up the directory tier||Section 4.8, "Backing Up the Directory Tier Configuration"|
|Install and configure Oracle Directory Integration Platform and Oracle Directory Services Manager on IDMHOST1||Section 5.1, "Extending the Oracle WebLogic Domain with DIP and ODSM"|
|Expand the Oracle Directory Integration Platform and Oracle Directory Services Manager cluster||Section 5.2, "Expanding the DIP and ODSM Cluster"|
|Validate the application tier configuration||Section 5.4, "Validating the Application Tier Configuration"|
|Back up the application tier configuration||Section 5.5, "Backing Up the Application Tier Configuration"|
|View the web tier prerequisites||Section 6.1, "Prerequisites"|
|Install Oracle HTTP Server on WEBHOST1 and WEBHOST2||Section 6.2, "Installing Oracle HTTP Server on WEBHOST1 and WEBHOST2"|
|Validate the Oracle HTTP Server installations||Section 6.3, "Validating the Installations of Oracle HTTP Server"|
|Configure Oracle HTTP Server with the load balancer||Section 6.4, "Configuring Oracle HTTP Server with the Load Balancer"|
|Configure Oracle HTTP Server with the virtual hosts||Section 6.5, "Configuring Oracle HTTP Server for Virtual Hosts"|
|Configure mod_wl_ohs for Oracle WebLogic Server clusters||Section 6.6, "Configuring mod_wl_ohs for Oracle WebLogic Server Clusters"|
|Set the front end URL for the Oracle WebLogic Server Administration Console||Section 6.7, "Setting the Frontend URL for the Administration Console"|
|Validate the web tier configuration||Section 6.8, "Validating the Web Tier Configuration"|
|Back up the web tier configuration||Section 6.9, "Backing up the Web Tier Configuration"|
|Read the introduction to installing Oracle Access Manager||Section 7.1, "Introduction to Installing Oracle Access Manager"|
|Read the Oracle Access Manager prerequisites||Section 7.2, "Prerequisites"|
|Install and configure the Oracle Access Manager Identity System on OAMHOST1, OAMHOST2, and OAMADMINHOST||Section 7.3, "Identity System Installation and Configuration"|
|Install and configure the Oracle Access Manager Access System on OAMADMINHOST, OAMHOST1, OAMHOST2, WEBHOST1, and WEBHOST2||Section 7.4, "Access System Installation and Configuration"|
|Back up the Oracle Access Manager configuration||Section 7.5, "Backing Up the Oracle Access Manager Configuration"|
|View the prerequisites for configuring Single Sign-On for administration consoles||Section 8.1, "Prerequisites for Configuring Single Sign-On"|
|Run the OAM configuration tool||Section 8.2, "Update the Form Authentication for Delegated Administration"|
|Validate the policy domain and AccessGate configurations||Section 8.3, "Validating the Policy Domain and AccessGate Configurations"|
|Set up the WebLogic authenticators||Section 8.4, "Setting Up the WebLogic Authenticators"|
|Move the WebLogic administrator to LDAP||Section 8.5, "Creating WebLogic Administrative Users in an LDAP Directory"|
|Migrate the policy and credential store||Section 8.6, "Policy and Credential Store Migration"|
|Validate the Oracle Access Manager Single Sign-On setup||Section 8.7, "Validate the Oracle Access Manager Single Sign-On Setup"|