|Oracle® Fusion Applications Concepts Guide
11g Release 1 (126.96.36.199.0)
Part Number E15525-01
This chapter describes Oracle Fusion Applications administration.
This chapter contains the following topics:
An enterprise deployment is an Oracle best practice based on proven Oracle high-availability and security technologies and recommendations for Oracle Fusion Applications. The best practices span all Oracle products across the entire technology stack: Oracle Database, Oracle Applications, Oracle Fusion Middleware, Oracle Fusion Applications, Oracle Collaboration Suite, Oracle Enterprise Manager Fusion Middleware Control, and Oracle Enterprise Manager Fusion Applications Control, Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control, and Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control.
For more information about enterprise deployment for Oracle Fusion Applications, see the Oracle Fusion Applications Enterprise Deployment Guide.
Oracle provides several tools to manage Oracle Fusion Applications, the Oracle Fusion Middleware layer, and Oracle Database within your Oracle Fusion Applications environment. Use these tools to perform all management tasks.
You can manage your environment for Oracle Fusion Applications by using one of the following management tools:
Oracle Enterprise Manager Fusion Applications Control to monitor and administer a product family and Oracle Fusion Middleware components within the Oracle Fusion Applications environment.
For information, see Section 5.2.1, "Oracle Enterprise Manager Fusion Applications Control".
Oracle WebLogic Server Administration Console to manage Oracle WebLogic Server in each domain and to view and manage policies of enterprise applications.
For information, see Section 5.2.2, "Oracle WebLogic Server Administration Console".
Oracle WebLogic Scripting Tool to manage the Oracle Fusion Middleware components.
For information, see Section 5.2.3, "Oracle WebLogic Scripting Tool".
Oracle Process Manager and Notification Server to manage the Oracle Fusion Middleware components.
For information, see Section 5.2.4, "Oracle Process Manager and Notification Server".
Authorization Policy Manager to manage application policies.
Oracle Access Manager Administration Console to manage system configurations, including Oracle Access Manager server instances and data sources, access policies, agent profiles, and other security elements.
Oracle Identity Manager Administrative and User Console to enable users to access the organization's resources (through self-service) and enable administrators to manage the access (by creating users and roles, and defining authorization policies).
For information, see the Oracle Fusion Middleware Administrator's Guide for Oracle Directory Integration Platform.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control to monitor and manage Oracle Database for Oracle Fusion Applications.
For information, see Oracle Database 2 Day DBA.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control to monitor multiple Oracle Fusion Middleware farms and Oracle WebLogic Server domains and to help you manage Oracle Fusion Middleware and Oracle WebLogic Server more effectively and efficiently.
For information, see the "Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control" section in the Oracle Fusion Applications Administrator's Guide.
Logging and Diagnostic Testing Framework to track the standard operations of Oracle Fusion Applications, to verify that your Oracle Fusion Applications are operating correctly, and to help diagnose and resolve problems with Oracle Fusion Applications.
For more information, see Section 5.6, "Logging and Diagnostic Testing Frameworks".
Fusion Applications Control is a Web browser-based, graphic user interface that you can use to monitor a product family and its products. It also enables you to monitor and administer Oracle Fusion Applications and an Oracle Fusion Middleware farm. A farm is a collection of components managed by Fusion Applications Control. It can contain an Oracle WebLogic Server domain, one Administration Server, one or more Managed Servers, clusters, and the Oracle Fusion Middleware components that are installed, configured, and running in the domain.
Fusion Applications Control organizes a wide variety of performance data and administrative functions into distinct, Web-based home pages for the product family, products, Oracle Fusion Applications, farm, domain, servers, and Oracle Fusion Middleware components. The Fusion Applications Control home pages make it easy to locate the most important monitoring data and the most commonly used administrative functions for various targets—all from your Web browser.
Fusion Applications Control provides all the functionality available in Fusion Middleware Control and adds functionality specific to Oracle Fusion Applications.
You can use Fusion Applications Control to perform the following tasks:
Start and stop Oracle WebLogic Server instances
Deploy and monitor SOA Composite applications
Modify Oracle BPEL Process Manager MBean properties
Debug applications such as Oracle BPEL Process Manager applications
Deploy Oracle ADF applications
Configure and manage auditing
Configure Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) for Java components and system components
View most log files
Configure most settings that determine information to be logged
Change ports for some system components
Manage Oracle HTTP Server
Start and stop components and applications
For more information, see the "Getting Started with Administering Oracle Fusion Applications" chapter in the Oracle Fusion Applications Administrator's Guide.
The Oracle WebLogic Server Administration Console is a Web browser-based, graphical user interface that you can use to manage an Oracle WebLogic Server domain. It is accessible from any supported Web browser with network access to the Administration Server.
You can use the Oracle WebLogic Server Administration Console to perform the following tasks in the Oracle Fusion Applications environment:
Create, clone, and cluster Managed Servers
Configure, start, and stop Oracle WebLogic Server
Create data sources and connection pools
Create JMS queues
Configure advanced queuing
Deploy Java EE applications
Configure SSL for Oracle WebLogic Server
View and manage log files, for example:
Change ports for Oracle WebLogic Server and Java components
For more information, see the "Getting Started Using Oracle WebLogic Server Administration Console" section in the Oracle Fusion Middleware Administrator's Guide.
The Oracle WebLogic Scripting Tool is a command-line scripting environment that you can use to create, manage, and monitor Oracle WebLogic Server domains. It is based on the Java scripting interpreter, Jython. In addition to supporting standard Jython features such as local variables, conditional variables, and flow control statements, Oracle WebLogic Scripting Tool provides a set of scripting functions (commands) that are specific to Oracle WebLogic Server. You can extend the Oracle WebLogic Server scripting language to suit your needs by following the Jython language syntax.
You can use any of the following modes to invoke Oracle WebLogic Scripting Tool commands:
Interactive mode, in which you enter a command and view the response at a command-line prompt
Script mode, which invokes a sequence of Oracle WebLogic Scripting Tool commands without requiring your input
Embedded mode, in which you instantiate the Oracle WebLogic Scripting Tool interpreter in your Java code and use it to run Oracle WebLogic Scripting Tool commands and scripts
Oracle WebLogic Scripting Tool uses the Oracle WebLogic Server Security Framework to prevent unauthorized users from modifying a domain or from viewing encrypted data.
For more information, see Oracle Fusion Middleware Oracle WebLogic Scripting Tool.
Oracle Process Manager and Notification Server manages and monitors Oracle HTTP Server and Oracle Business Intelligence for Oracle Fusion Applications.
For more information, see the "Getting Started Using Oracle Process Manager and Notification Server" section in the Oracle Fusion Middleware Administrator's Guide.
Scalability indicates the ability of a system to easily handle growing amounts of work or be readily enlarged. For example, a scalable system can handle increasing numbers of requests without adversely affecting response time and throughput.
In Oracle Fusion Applications, you can scale up or scale out the topology. When you scale up the topology, you add new Managed Servers to existing systems that are already running one or more Managed Servers. When you scale out the topology, you add new Managed Servers to new systems.
Scaling out enables organizations to improve application performance, scalability, and availability on an incremental, as-needed basis by adding multiple replicated servers. You can also use a scale-out operation to move from a non-high availability deployment to a high availability deployment.
For more information, see the "Configuring High Availability and Scaling Out Oracle Fusion Applications" chapter in the Oracle Fusion Applications Administrator's Guide.
High availability refers to the ability of users to access a system without loss of service. Deploying a highly available system maximizes the time when it is available.
Providing high availability for Oracle Fusion Applications involves configuring an Oracle WebLogic Server cluster for high availability of the middle tiers and configuring Oracle Real Applications Clusters (Oracle RAC) for high availability of Oracle Database. It also involves scaling out Oracle Fusion Applications and Oracle RAC database instances.
For more information about Oracle RAC for Oracle Fusion Applications, see the "Oracle RAC Database Configuration for Oracle Fusion Application Repositories" section in the Oracle Fusion Applications Administrator's Guide.
An Oracle WebLogic Server cluster consists of multiple Oracle WebLogic Server instances running simultaneously and working together to provide increased scalability and reliability. A cluster appears to clients to be a single Oracle WebLogic Server instance. The server instances that constitute a cluster can run on the same system, or be located on different systems. You can increase a cluster's capacity by adding additional server instances to the cluster on an existing system, or you can add systems to the cluster to host the incremental server instances. Each server instance in a cluster must run the same version of Oracle WebLogic Server.
Oracle Fusion Applications is always deployed in a cluster to provide for future performance and scalability requirements. Even in a single instance deployment, the Oracle Fusion Applications instance is part of a cluster with one member.
For information about high availability, see the "Oracle Fusion Middleware High Availability Framework" chapter in the Oracle Fusion Middleware High Availability Guide.
For an overview of high availability from a problem/solution perspective, see the "High Availability" section in Oracle Fusion Middleware Concepts.
Load balancing is the even distribution of jobs and associated communications across the computing and networking resources in your environment. For load balancing to occur:
There must be multiple copies of an object that can do a particular job.
Information about the location and operational status of all objects must be available.
Oracle Fusion Applications deployments are front ended by a load balancer that can be configured to distribute incoming requests using various algorithms.
Oracle Fusion Applications also has built-in load balancing capabilities for interaction between components, for example, Web server to application server (using the
mod_weblogic module in Oracle HTTP Server) or application server to database server (using Oracle WebLogic Server's multi pool data source). In production, you should use a hardware load balancer.
Log files, incidents, and diagnostic tests all gather and store information about what happens when Oracle Fusion Applications operates. You can use this information to verify and monitor standard operations and to troubleshoot problems.
Log files contain information about both standard and problematic events. Log files can help you diagnose and address some problems yourself. For example, log messages that state that a service cannot be reached might indicate a hardware failure. If you discover a more complex issue, Oracle support personnel may use log files to trace the execution code paths of relevant requests, as part of diagnosing the problem. Log files are particularly helpful if your Oracle implementation contains custom code that needs debugging, especially when using a debugger is not feasible, such as on a production system. The tool for working with logs is Oracle Enterprise Manager Fusion Applications Control.
Incidents are collections of information about problematic system events. Oracle Fusion Applications leverages the Diagnostic Testing Framework for Oracle Fusion Middleware to collect diagnostic information into incidents. An incident contains information about the state of the system at the time the problem occurs. If certain particularly problematic error conditions occur, information is automatically gathered into incidents, in addition to the information that you can gather from viewing Oracle Fusion Applications log files. The information associated with an incident may also include detailed operational information collected by the QuickTrace (in-memory logging) feature for Oracle Fusion Applications.
QuickTrace enables you to continuously write a specified level of log detail to a continuously recycled area of memory, rather than writing it to a log file. If an incident occurs, the information logged in memory is dumped to a file associated with the incident. This is an automatic way of gathering operational information constantly, without a prohibitive performance hit, by saving it only when a problem is detected.
Diagnostic tests are executable files that are designed to exercise particular aspects of Oracle Fusion Applications, to determine whether they are operating correctly, and to help identify and resolve any problems. The Diagnostic Testing Framework for Oracle Fusion Applications enables you to execute diagnostic tests and collect the results into detailed diagnostic reports. Oracle provides diagnostics tests that are installed with Oracle Fusion Applications releases and patches. The Diagnostic Testing Framework provides two interfaces:
The Diagnostic Dashboard application provides a graphical user interface that lets you register, execute, and monitor diagnostic tests for Oracle Fusion Applications. It also works with diagnostic test registration tags and purges diagnostic test results.
diagctl command-line interface lets you execute external diagnostic tests, view reports of the results, and register any special-purpose diagnostic tests that Oracle Support Services may provide to you.
For more information, see the "Managing Oracle Fusion Applications Log Files and Diagnostic Tests" and "Troubleshooting Oracle Fusion Applications Using Incidents, Logs, QuickTrace, and Diagnostic Tests" chapters in the Oracle Fusion Applications Administrator's Guide.
For more information, see the "Diagnosing Problems" chapter in the Oracle Fusion Middleware Administrator's Guide.
Cloning is the process of copying an existing entity to a different location while preserving its state.
Some situations in which cloning Oracle Fusion Applications is useful are:
Creating a Middleware home or an Oracle home that is a copy of a production, test, or development environment.
Cloning enables you to create a new Middleware home or an Oracle home with all patches applied to it in a single step. This eliminates the need to install, configure and apply any patches to separate Oracle homes individually. You can clone the Middleware home and all of the Oracle homes within the Middleware home. You can clone a Middleware home that contains no Oracle homes.
A Middleware home is a container for the Oracle WebLogic Server home and, optionally, one Oracle Common home and one or more Oracle homes. A Middleware home can reside on a local file system or on a remote shared disk that is accessible through Network File System (NFS).
The Oracle home contains installed files necessary to host a specific component or software suite. An Oracle home resides within the directory structure of the Middleware home. Each Oracle home can be associated with multiple Oracle instances or Oracle WebLogic Server domains. There can be multiple Oracle homes within each Middleware home.
Preparing a gold image of a patched home and deploying it to many hosts.
The cloned entity behaves the same as the source entity. For example, a cloned Oracle home can be uninstalled or patched using the installer. It can also be used as the source for another cloning operation.
For more information, see the Oracle Fusion Middleware Administrator's Guide.
An Oracle Fusion Applications environment can consist of different Oracle Fusion Applications product families. It is built on Oracle Fusion Middleware, which contains Oracle WebLogic Server domains with Java components, such as Oracle SOA Suite, and system components such as Oracle HTTP Server and Oracle Web Cache, and a separate Oracle WebLogic Server domain with Identity Management components, such as Oracle Internet Directory and Oracle Virtual Directory.
The installations of an Oracle Fusion Applications environment are interdependent in that they contain configuration information, applications, and data that are kept synchronized. For example, when you perform a configuration change, you might update configuration files in the installation. When you deploy an application, you might deploy it to all Managed Servers in a domain or cluster.
It is therefore important to consider your entire Oracle Fusion Applications environment when performing backup and recovery. You should back up your entire Oracle Fusion Applications environment as soon as you have installed and configured it, then periodically thereafter perform incremental backup operations. If a loss occurs, you can restore your environment to a consistent state using the backups.
For more information, see the "Backing Up and Recovering Oracle Fusion Applications" chapter in the Oracle Fusion Applications Administrator's Guide.
Replicating an Oracle Fusion Applications environment requires moving Oracle Fusion Applications components from one environment to another. The task of moving Oracle Fusion Applications components from one environment to another is simplified by movement tools (scripts for moving binary and configuration information). These tools minimize the amount of work that would otherwise be required to reapply all the customization and configuration changes made in one environment to another.
In a full-movement scenario, the target environment does not exist. First, the source environment is created, configured, customized, and tested. Then, the target environment is created by moving all the components along with their configurations from the source environment.
With the completion of the full-movement tasks, the following artifacts are moved from the source environment to the target environment:
Seed data (created with Oracle Fusion Middleware Repository Creation Utility (RCU) in the target environment)
WebLogic Server domain configuration, stored in the file system
System component configuration, stored in the file system
Configuration and metadata stored in Oracle Metadata Services (MDS), such as Oracle Application Development Framework (Oracle ADF) connections, service-oriented architecture (SOA) composites, and so on
Configuration and metadata stored in component-specific schemas outside of MDS
Non-user layer customizations, such as Site and Enterprise Layer, in MDS
Security artifacts created by the Oracle Fusion Applications Provisioning framework, such as application IDs, policies, and so on
Functional setup data
For more information, see the "Moving Components for Oracle Fusion Applications Across Environments" chapter in the Oracle Fusion Applications Administrator's Guide.
The lifecycle of Oracle Fusion Applications begins with its installation and continues with ongoing patching and maintenance activities. The Oracle Fusion Applications patching framework provides the tools needed to support updates to Oracle Fusion Applications software between major releases.
This framework provides the following tools:
Oracle Fusion Applications Patch Manager, for applying standard and one-off patches
HomeChecker, for verifying the correctness of any Oracle Fusion Applications Oracle home directory
AD Administration, for performing maintenance tasks to keep the Oracle Fusion Applications system running smoothly after its installation
AD Controller, for determining the status of AD Administration or Oracle Fusion Applications AutoPatch workers and for controlling their actions
For more information, see the Oracle Fusion Applications Patching Guide.