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Pro*COBOL® Programmer's Guide
12c Release 1 (12.1)

E18406-07
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Index

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X 

A

abbreviations permitted, 2.2.1
abnormal termination
automatic rollback, E.8
active set, 5.4
changing, 5.4.2, 5.4.3
definition, 5.4
when empty, 5.4.3
ALLOCATE DESCRIPTOR statement, E.5
ALLOCATE statement, E.4
use with ROWID, 4.7
allocating
cursors, E.4
thread context, 12.4.2.3, E.10
allocating cursor variables, 6.10.2
ALTER AUTHORIZATION
changing password, 3.2.4
ANSI dynamic SQL, F.2.3
See also dynamic SQL (ANSI), 10
ANSI format
COBOL statements, 2.2.4
ANSI/ISO SQL
extensions, 14.7.18
application development process, 2.1.1
ARRAYLEN statement, 6.6.1
ASACC precompiler option, 14.7.1
ASSUME_SQLCODE precompiler option, 14.7.2
AT clause
CONNECT statement, 3.2.2.1
DECLARE CURSOR statement, 3.2.2.1
DECLARE STATEMENT statement, 3.2.2.1
EXECUTE IMMEDIATE statement, 3.2.2.1
of COMMIT statement, E.8
of CONNECT statement, E.9
of DECLARE CURSOR directive, E.14
of DECLARE STATEMENT directive, E.16
of EXECUTE IMMEDIATE statement, E.25
of EXECUTE statement, E.22
of INSERT statements, E.30
of SAVEPOINT statement, E.53
of SELECT statement, E.54
of UPDATE statement, E.56
restrictions, 3.2.2.1
AUTO_CONNECT option
instead of CONNECT statement, 3.2.3.1
AUTO_CONNECT precompiler option, 14.7.3
automatic logons, 3.2.2, 3.2.3
Avoiding Unnecessary Reparsing, C.10

B

batch fetch, 7.4.1
example, 7.4.1
number of rows returned, 7.4.3
BFILES
definition, 13.1.2
bind descriptor, 11.2.1
bind descriptors
information in, 9.13.2
bind SQLDA, 11.1.3
bind variables, 9.13.1
binding host variables, 9.5
BNDDFCLP variable (SQLDA), 11.3
BNDDFCRCP variable (SQLDA), 11.3
BNDDFMT variable (SQLDA), 11.3
BNDDH-CUR-VNAMEL variable (SQLDA), 11.3
BNDDH-MAX-VNAMEL variable (SQLDA), 11.3
BNDDH-VNAME variable (SQLDA), 11.3
BNDDI variable (SQLDA), 11.3
BNDDI-CUR-VNAMEL variable (SQLDA), 11.3
BNDDI-MAX-VNAMEL variable (SQLDA), 11.3
BNDDI-VNAME variable (SQLDA), 11.3
BNDDV variable (SQLDA), 11.3
BNDDVLN variable (SQLDA), 11.3
BNDDVTYP variable (SQLDA), 11.3

C

CALL SQL statement, 6.8.2.2
CALL statement, E.6
example, 6.8.2.3
case-insensitivity, 2.2.2
CHAR datatypes
external, 4.1.2.1
character host variables
as output variables, 4.6.3.2
handling, 4.6
server handling, 4.6.3.2
types, 4.6
character sets
multibyte, 4.9
character strings
multibyte, 4.9.2
CHARF datatype specifier, 4.12.3
using in VAR statement, 4.12.3, 4.12.3
CHARF datatypes
external, 4.1.2.2
CHARZ datatype
external, 4.1.2.3
CLOSE command
examples, E.7
CLOSE statement, E.7
example, 5.4.4
in dynamic SQL method 4, 11.6.17
CLOSE_ON_COMMIT
precompiler option, 3.6.2, 5.4.1
CLOSE_ON_COMMIT precompiler option, 14.7.6
closing
cursors, E.7
COBOL versions supported, 2.2.3, A.1.1
COBOL-74, A.1.1
COBOL-85, A.1.1
COBSQL, F.1.4
code page, 4.8
coding area
for paragraph names, 2.2.22
coding conventions, 2.2
column list, 5.3.3
COMMENT clause
of COMMIT statement, E.8
comments
ANSI SQL-style, 2.2.6
C-style, 2.2.6
embedded SQL statements, 2.2.6
in embedded SQL, 2.2.6
comments in dynamic PL/SQL blocks, 9.16.5
commit, 3.4
automatic, 3.5
explicit versus implicit, 3.5
COMMIT statement, 3.6, E.8
effects, 3.6
ending a transaction, E.52
example, 3.6
examples, E.8
RELEASE option, 3.6
using in a PL/SQL block, 3.14.3
where to place, 3.6
committing
transactions, E.8
COMP_CHARSET precompiler option, 14.7.7
compilation, 2.7
composite types, 11.4.3
concurrency, 3.3
concurrent logons, 3.2.1
conditional precompilation, 2.5
defining symbols, 2.5.2
example, 2.5.1
CONFIG precompiler option, 14.7.6, 14.7.8
configuration file
system versus user, 14.7.8
CONNECT statement, E.9
AT clause, 3.2.2.1
enabling a semantic check, D.3.1.1
examples, E.9
logging on to Oracle, 3.1
placement, 3.1
requirements, 3.1
USING clause, 3.2.2.1
when not required, 3.2.3.1
connecting to Oracle, 3.1
automatically, 3.2.3
concurrently, 3.2.1
example of, 3.1
via Oracle Net Services, 3.2.1
connections
default versus non-default, 3.2.1
implicit, 3.2.6
naming, 3.2.2
CONTEXT ALLOCATE statement, 12.4.2.3, E.10, E.10
CONTEXT FREE statement, 12.4.2.5, E.11
CONTEXT USE directive, 12.4.2.4
CONTEXT USE SQL directive, E.12
CONTEXT USE SQL statement, 12.4.2.4
continuation lines
syntax, 2.2.7
CONTINUE action
of WHENEVER directive, 8.3.8.6, 8.3.8.6, E.58
CONVBUFSZ clause in VAR statement, 4.12.2.1
CREATE PROCEDURE statement, 6.8.1
creating
savepoints, E.53
CURRENT OF clause, 5.4.5, 7.3.5
example, 5.4.5
mimicking with ROWID, 3.12, 7.11
restrictions, 5.4.6
current row, 5.4
CURRVAL pseudocolumn, 4.1.2.23
cursor cache, 8.4.4
gathering statistics about, 8.4.5.11
purpose, 8.4, C.9.2.1
cursor variables, 6.10, E.4
advantages, 6.10
allocating, 6.10.2
closing, 6.10.5
declaring, 6.10.1
fetching from, 6.10.4
heap memory usage, 6.10.2
opening
anonymous block, 6.10.3.2
stored procedure, 6.10.3.1
restrictions, 6.10.7
scope, 6.10.1
embedded SQL
DECLARE [CURSOR] directive, 5.4.1
cursors, 5.4
allocating, E.4
association with query, 5.4
closing, E.7
declaring, 5.4.1
effects on performance, C.9.1
explicit versus implicit, 5.4
fetching rows from, E.26, E.27
naming, 5.4.1
opening, E.49, E.50
reopening, 5.4.2, 5.4.3
restricted scope of, 2.6.2
restrictions, 5.4.1
scope, 5.4.1
using for multirow queries, 5.4
using more than one, 5.4.1
when closed automatically, 5.4.4

D

data definition language (DDL)
description, 5.1.1
embedded, 14.7.35
data integrity, 3.3
data lock, 3.3
database links
using in DELETE statement, E.18
using in INSERT statement, E.30
using in UPDATE statement, E.56
datatype
internal versus external, 2.1.7
datatype conversion
between internal and external types, 4.11
datatype equivalencing
advantages, 4.12.1
example, 4.12.2.2
guidelines, 4.12.4
datatypes
ANSI DATE, 4.2
coercing NUMBER to VARCHAR2, 11.4.3
conversions, 4.10
dealing with Oracle internal, 11.4.3
descriptor codes, 11.4.3
equivalencing
description, 4.12
example, 4.12.2
internal, 11.4.2
INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND, 4.2
INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH, 4.2
need to coerce, 11.4.3
PL/SQL equivalents, 11.4.3
TIMESTAMP, 4.2
TIMESTAMP WITH LOCAL TIME ZONE, 4.2
TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE, 4.2
when to reset, 11.4.3
DATE datatype
converting, 4.11
default format, 4.11
DATE String Format
explicit control over, 4.11
DATE, ANSI
datatype, 4.2
DATE_FORMAT precompiler option, 14.7.9
DBMS precompiler option, 14.7.10, 14.7.11
DDL, 14.7.35
DDL (Data Definition Language), 5.1.1
deadlock, 3.3
effect on transactions, 3.7.1
how broken, 3.7.1
DEALLOCATE DESCRIPTOR statement, E.13
DECIMAL datatype, 4.1.2.5
declaration
cursor, 5.4.1
host variable, 2.1.6
declarative SQL statement, 2.1.2.1
using in transactions, 3.5
declarative statements
also known as directives, 2.1.2.1
DECLARE CURSOR directive, E.14
example, 5.4.1
examples, E.14
DECLARE CURSOR statement
AT clause, 3.2.2.1
in dynamic SQL method 4, 11.6.7
where to place, 5.4.1
DECLARE DATABASE directive, E.15
Declare Section
allowable statements, 2.3.1
defining usernames and passwords, 3.1
example, 2.3.1.1
purpose, 2.3.1
requirements, 2.3.1
rules for defining, 2.3.1
using more than one, 2.3.2
DECLARE statement
using in dynamic SQL method 3, 9.11.2
DECLARE STATEMENT directive, E.16
examples, E.16
scope of, E.16
DECLARE STATEMENT statement
AT clause, 3.2.2.1
example, 9.14
using in dynamic SQL, 9.14
when required, 9.14
DECLARE TABLE directive, E.17
examples, E.17
DECLARE TABLE directives
using with the SQLCHECK option, D.3.1.2
DECLARE_SECTION precompiler option, 14.7.12
declaring
cursor variables, 6.10.1
host tables, 7.3.1
indicator variables, 4.4.2
ORACA, 8.4.2
SQLCA, 8.3.2
SQLDA, 11.2.3
VARCHAR variables, 4.5.1
default
error handling, 8.3.8
setting of LITDELIM option, 2.2.10, 14.7.26
setting of ORACA option, 8.4.3
default connection, 3.2.1
DEFINE precompiler option, 14.7.13
DELETE statement, E.18
embedded SQL examples, E.18
example, 5.3.6
restrictions with tables, 7.7.1
using host tables, 7.7
WHERE clause, 5.3.6
DEPENDING ON clause, 7.3.1.1
DEPT table, 2.8
DESCRIBE BIND VARIABLES statement
in dynamic SQL method 4, 11.6.8
DESCRIBE DESCRIPTOR statement, E.20
DESCRIBE SELECT LIST statement
in dynamic SQL method 4, 11.6.12
DESCRIBE statement, E.19
example, E.19
use with PREPARE statement, E.19
using in dynamic SQL method 4, 9.13.1
descriptor
naming, E.19
descriptors
bind descriptor, 11.2.1
purpose, 11.2.1
select descriptor, 11.2.1
SQLADR subroutine, 11.1.3
dimension of host tables, 7.3.1.1
directives
also known as declarative statements, 2.1.2.1
directory path
INCLUDE files, 2.3.3.2
DISPLAY datatype, 4.1.2.6
distributed processing, 3.2.1
DML returning clause, 5.3.3, 5.3.3
DO CALL action
of WHENEVER directive, 8.3.9.1, 8.3.9.2, E.58
DO PERFORM action
of WHENEVER directive, 8.3.8.8, E.58
DSNTIAR
DB2 compatible feature, 8.3.7
DSNTIAR routine, 8.3.7
DYNAMIC option
effect on functionality, 10.5
dynamic PL/SQL, 9.16
dynamic SQL
advantages and disadvantages, 9.2
choosing the right method, 9.6.5
guidelines, 9.6.5
overview, 2.1.4, 9.1
restrictions, 14.7.35
using PL/SQL, 6.8.3
using the AT clause, 3.2.2.1
when useful, 9.3
dynamic SQL (ANSI), F.2.3
ALLOCATE DESCRIPTOR statement, 10.6.1
basics, 10.1
bulk operations, 10.4.2
CLOSE CURSOR statement, 10.6.13
compared to Oracle dynamic SQL method 4, 10
DEALLOCATE DESCRIPTOR statement, 10.6.2
DESCRIBE DESCRIPTOR statement, 10.6.6
differences from Oracle dynamic SQL, 10.6.14
EXECUTE statement, 10.6.8
FETCH statement, 10.6.12
GET DESCRIPTOR statement, 10.6.3
OPEN statement, 10.6.11
Oracle extensions, 10.4
overview, 10.2
precompiler options, 10.1.1, 10.5
reference semantics, 10.4.1
restrictions, 10.6.15
sample programs, 10.7
SAMPLE12.PCO, 10.7
SET DESCRIPTOR statement, 10.6.4
use of DECLARE CURSOR, 10.6.10
use of EXECUTE IMMEDIATE statement, 10.6.9
use of PREPARE statement, 10.6.5
when to use, 10
dynamic SQL method 1
commands, 9.6.1
description, 9.7.1
example, 9.7.2
requirements, 9.6.1
using EXECUTE IMMEDIATE, 9.7.1
using PL/SQL, 9.16.1
dynamic SQL method 2
commands, 9.6.2
description, 9.9
requirements, 9.6.2
using PL/SQL, 9.16.2
using the DECLARE STATEMENT statement, 9.14
using the EXECUTE statement, 9.9
using the PREPARE statement, 9.9
dynamic SQL method 3
commands, 9.6.3
compared to method 2, 9.11
requirements, 9.6.3
using PL/SQL, 9.16.3
using the DECLARE statement, 9.11.2
using the DECLARE STATEMENT statement, 9.14
using the FETCH statement, 9.11.4
using the OPEN statement, 9.11.3
using the PREPARE statement, 9.11.1
dynamic SQL method 4
CLOSE statement, 11.6.17
DECLARE CURSOR statement, 11.6.7
DESCRIBE statement, 11.6.8, 11.6.12
external datatypes, 11.4.2
FETCH statement, 11.6.15
internal datatypes, 11.4.2
OPEN statement, 11.6.11
PREPARE statement, 11.6.6
prerequisites, 11.4
purpose of descriptors, 11.2.1
requirements, 9.6.4, 11.1.1
sequence of statements used, 11.6
SQLDA, 11.2
steps for, 11.5
using descriptors, 9.13
using PL/SQL, 9.16.4
using the DECLARE STATEMENT statement, 9.14
using the DESCRIBE statement, 9.13.1
using the FOR clause, 9.15
using the SQLDA, 9.13.1
when needed, 9.13
dynamic SQL statement, 9.1
binding of host variables, 9.5
how processed, 9.5
requirements, 9.4
using host tables, 9.15
versus static SQL statement, 9.1

E

embedded DDL, 14.7.35
embedded PL/SQL
advantages, 6.2.1
cursor FOR loop, 6.2.3
example, 6.4.1, 6.4.2
host variables, 6.1.1
indicator variables, 6.1.3
multibyte Globalization Support features, 4.9.1
need for SQLCHECK option, 6.3
need for USERID option, 6.3
overview, 2.1.5
package, 6.2.5
PL/SQL table, 6.2.6
requirements, 6.1
subprogram, 6.2.4
support for SQL, 2.1.5
user-defined record, 6.2.7
using %TYPE, 6.2.2
using the VARCHAR pseudotype, 6.4.3
using to improve performance, C.4
VARCHAR variables, 6.1.2
where allowed, 6.1, 6.3
embedded SQL
ALLOCATE DESCRIPTOR statement, E.5
ALLOCATE statement, 4.7, 6.10.2, E.4
CALL statement, 6.8.2.2, E.6
CLOSE statement, 5.4.4, 6.10.5, E.7
COMMIT statement, E.8
CONNECT statement, E.9
CONTEXT ALLOCATE statement, 12.4.2.3, E.10
CONTEXT FREE statement, 12.4.2.5, E.11
CONTEXT USE directive, E.12
DEALLOCATE DESCRIPTOR statement, E.13
DECLARE CURSOR directive, E.14
DECLARE DATABASE directive, E.15
DECLARE STATEMENT directive, E.16
DECLARE TABLE directive, E.17
DELETE statement, 5.3.6, E.18
DESCRIBE DESCRIPTOR statement, E.20
DESCRIBE statement, E.19
ENABLE THREADS statement, 12.4.2.2
EXECUTE IMMEDIATE statement, E.25
EXECUTE statement, E.23
EXECUTE...END-EXEC statement, E.22
FETCH DESCRIPTOR statement, E.27
FETCH statement, 5.4.3, 6.10.4, E.26, E.27
FREE statement, 6.10.6, E.28
GET DESCRIPTOR statement, E.29
INSERT statement, 5.3.2, 7.5, E.30
key concepts, 2.1
OPEN DESCRIPTOR statement, E.50
OPEN statement, 5.4.2, E.49, E.49, E.50
PREPARE statement, E.51
ROLLBACK statement, E.52
SAVEPOINT statement, 3.8, E.53
SELECT statement, 5.3.1, 7.4, E.54
SET DESCRIPTOR statement, E.55
SET TRANSACTION statement, 3.10
UPDATE statement, 5.3.5, E.56
VAR directive, E.57
versus interactive SQL, 2.1.3
when to use, 1.4
WHENEVER directive, E.58
embedded SQL statements
associating paragraph names with, 2.2.22
comments, 2.2.6
continuation, 2.2.7
figurative constants, 2.2.13
mixing with host-language statements, 2.1.3
referencing host tables, 7.3.2
referencing host variables, 4.3.2
referencing indicator variables, 4.4.3
requirements, 2.2.12
summary, E.1
syntax, 2.1.3, 2.2.12
terminator, 2.2.25
embedding
PL/SQL blocks in Oracle7 precompiler programs, E.22
EMP table, 2.8
ENABLE THREADS SQL statement, E.21
ENABLE THREADS statement, 12.4.2.2
enabling
threads, 12.4.2.2
encoding scheme, 4.8
END_OF_FETCH precompiler option, 14.7.15, 14.7.15
equivalencing
host variable equivalencing, E.57
equivalencing datatypes, 4.12
error detection
error reporting, E.58
error handling
alternatives, 8.2
benefits, 8.1
default, 8.3.8
overview, 2.1.9
using status variables
SQLCA, 8.2.1, 8.3
using the ROLLBACK statement, 3.7
using the SQLGLS routine, 8.3.10
error message text
SQLGLM subroutine, 8.3.6
error messages
maximum length, 8.3.6
error reporting
error message text, 8.3.3.5
key components of, 8.3.3
parse error offset, 8.3.3.4
rows-processed count, 8.3.3.3
status codes, 8.3.3.1
warning flags, 8.3.3.2
WHENEVER directive, E.58
ERRORS precompiler option, 14.7.16
exception, PL/SQL, 6.5.1
EXEC ORACLE DEFINE statement, 2.5
EXEC ORACLE ELSE statement, 2.5
EXEC ORACLE ENDIF statement, 2.5
EXEC ORACLE IFDEF statement, 2.5
EXEC ORACLE IFNDEF statement, 2.5
EXEC ORACLE statement
scope of, 14.4.2.2
syntax for, 14.4.2
uses for, 14.4.2.1
using to enter options inline, 14.4.2
EXEC SQL clause, 2.1.3, 2.2.12
EXECUTE IMMEDIATE statement, E.25
AT clause, 3.2.2.1
examples, E.25
using in dynamic SQL Method 1, 9.7.1
EXECUTE optional keyword of ARRAYLEN statement, 6.6.1.1
EXECUTE statement, E.23, E.23
examples, E.22, E.23
using in dynamic SQL Method 2, 9.9
EXECUTE...END-EXEC statement, E.22
execution plan, C.5
EXPLAIN PLAN statement
using to improve performance, C.5.1.1
explicit logon
single, 3.2.2.1
explicit logons, 3.2.2
external datatypes
CHAR, 4.1.2.1
CHARF, 4.1.2.2
CHARZ, 4.1.2.3
DECIMAL, 4.1.2.5
definition, 2.1.7
DISPLAY, 4.1.2.6
dynamic SQL method 4, 11.4.2
FLOAT, 4.1.2.7
INTEGER, 4.1.2.8
LONG, 4.1.2.9
LONG RAW, 4.1.2.10
LONG VARCHAR, 4.1.2.11
LONG VARRAW, 4.1.2.12
parameters, 4.12.2
RAW, 4.1.2.15
STRING, 4.1.2.17
table of, 4.1.2
UNSIGNED, 4.1.2.18
VARCHAR, 4.1.2.19
VARCHAR2, 4.1.2.20
VARNUM, 4.1.2.21
VARRAW, 4.1.2.22

F

FETCH SQL statement, E.27, E.27
FETCH statement, 5.4.3, 5.4.3, E.26
cursor variable, 6.10.4
example, 5.4.3
examples, E.26
in dynamic SQL method 4, 11.6.15
INTO clause, 5.4.3
used after OPEN statement, E.49, E.50
using in dynamic SQL method 3, 9.11.4
fetch, batch, 7.4.1
fetching
rows from cursors, E.26, E.27
figurative constants
embedded SQL statements, 2.2.13
file extension
for INCLUDE files, 2.3.3.1
file length limit, 2.2.14
FIPS flagger
warns of array usage, 7.3.6
FIPS precompiler option, 14.7.18
flags, 8.3.3.2
FLOAT datatype, 4.1.2.7
FOR clause, 7.9
example, 7.9
of embedded SQL EXECUTE statement, E.23, E.24
of embedded SQL INSERT statement, E.30
restrictions, 7.9.1
using with host tables, 7.9
FOR UPDATE OF clause, 3.11.1
FORCE clause
of COMMIT statement, E.8
of ROLLBACK statement, E.52
format mask, 4.11
FORMAT precompiler option, 14.7.19
purpose, 2.2.4
formats of COBOL statements
ANSI, 2.2.4
TERMINAL, 2.2.4
forward reference, 5.4.1
FREE statement, E.28, E.28
freeing
thread context, 12.4.2.5, E.11
full scan, C.7

G

GET DESCRIPTOR statement, E.29
Globalization Support, 4.8, 4.8, 14.7.35
multibyte character strings, 4.9
Globalization Support parameter
NLS_LANG, 4.8
GOTO action
of WHENEVER directive, 8.3.8.9, E.58
group items
allowed as host variables, 4.3.2.1
implicit VARCHAR, 4.5.2
guidelines
datatype equivalencing, 4.12.4
dynamic SQL, 9.6.5
separate precompilation, 2.6.1
transaction, 3.14.1

H

header files, 1.7.1
heap, 8.4.4
heap memory
allocating cursor variables, 6.10.2
heap tables, 4.7
hint, optimizer, C.5.1
hints
in DELETE statements, E.18
in SELECT statements, E.54
in UPDATE statements, E.56
HOLD_CURSOR option
of ORACLE Precompilers, E.7
using to improve performance, C.9.2.4
what it affects, C.9
HOLD_CURSOR precompiler option, 14.7.20
host language, 2.1.2
HOST precompiler option, 14.7.21
host programs, 2.1.2
host table elements
maximum, 7.3.1.1
host table example, 7.4.7
host tables, 7.1
advantages, 7.2
declaring, 7.3.1
dimensioning, 7.3.1.1
multi-dimensional, 7.3.1.1
operations on, 2.1.8
referencing, 7.3.2
restrictions, 7.3.1.1, 7.3.1.1, 7.4.4, 7.5.1, 7.7.1
restrictions on, 7.3.5
support for, 4.3.1.1
using in dynamic SQL statements, 9.15
using in the DELETE statement, 7.7
using in the INSERT statement, 7.5
using in the SELECT statement, 7.4
using in the UPDATE statement, 7.6
using in the WHERE clause, 7.10
using the FOR clause, 7.9
using to improve performance, C.3
variable-length, 7.3.1.1
host variables, 5.1
assigning a value, 2.1.6
declaring, 2.2.1, 2.3.1
declaring and naming, A.1.2
definition, 2.2.16
host variable equivalencing, E.57
in EXECUTE statement, E.23
in OPEN statement, E.49
initializing, 4.3.1.2
length up to 30 characters, 2.1.6
naming, 2.1.6, 4.3.2, 4.3.2.2
overview, 2.1.6
referencing, 2.1.6, 4.3.2
requirements, 2.1.6
restrictions, 2.2.17, 4.3.2.2
using in PL/SQL, 6.4
where allowed, 2.1.6
with PL/SQL, 6.1.1
hyphenation
of host variable names, 2.2.17

I

IDE, F.1.1
identifiers, ORACLE
how to form, E.3.6
implicit logons, 3.2.6
implicit VARCHAR, 4.5.2
IN OUT parameter mode, 6.2.4.1
IN parameter mode, 6.2.4.1
INAME option
when a file extension is required, 14.1
INAME precompiler option, 14.7.23
INCLUDE precompiler option, 14.7.24
INCLUDE statement
case-sensitive operating systems, 2.3.3.2
declaring the ORACA, 8.4.2
declaring the SQLCA, 8.3.2
declaring the SQLDA, 11.2.3
effect of, 2.3.3
INCLUDE statements, A.1.3
index
using to improve performance, C.7
index-organized tables, 4.7
indicator table, 7.1
indicator tables
example, 7.3.3
purpose, 7.3.3
indicator variable
using to handle NULLs, 5.2.3, 5.2.4
indicator variables, 5.2
assigning values to, 4.4.1.2
association with host variables, 4.4, 4.4.1
declaring, 2.2.1, 4.4.2
function, 4.4
function of, 4.4.1
interpreting value, 5.2.2
NULLs, 6.1.3.1
referencing, 4.4.3
required size, 4.4.2
truncated values, 6.1.3.2
used with multibyte character strings, 4.9.5
using in PL/SQL, 6.5
using to detect NULLs, 4.4.2
using to detect truncated values, 4.4.2
using to test for NULLs, 5.2.6
with PL/SQL, 6.1.3
in-doubt transaction, 3.13
input host variable
restrictions, 5.1.1
where allowed, 5.1.1
INSERT statement, E.30
column list, 5.3.3
example, 5.3.2
INTO clause, 5.3.3
using host tables, 7.5
VALUES clause, 5.3.3
inserting
rows into tables and views, E.30
INTEGER datatype, 4.1.2.8
internal datatype
definition, 2.1.7
internal datatypes
dynamic SQL method 4, 11.4.2
INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND datatype, 4.2
INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH datatype, 4.2
INTO clause, 5.1.1, 6.10.4
FETCH statement, 5.4.3
INSERT statement, 5.3.3
of FETCH statement, E.26, E.27
of SELECT statement, E.54
SELECT statement, 5.3.1
IRECLEN precompiler option, 14.7.25
IS NULL operator
for testing NULL values, 2.2.21

J

Java methods
calling from Pro*COBOL, 6.8

L

language support, 1.2.1
LEVEL pseudocolumns, 4.1.2.23
library file, 1.7.2
line continuation, 2.2.7
linking, 2.7
LITDELIM option
purpose, 14.7.26
LITDELIM precompiler option, 2.2.10, 14.7.26
LNAME precompiler option, 14.7.27
LOB and precompiler datatypes, 13.4.15
LOB APPEND statement, E.31
LOB ASSIGN statement, E.32
LOB CLOSE statement, E.33
LOB COPY statement, E.34
LOB CREATE statement, E.35
LOB DESCRIBE statement, E.36
LOB DISABLE BUFFERING statement, E.37
LOB ENABLE BUFFERING statement, E.38
LOB ERASE statement, E.39
LOB FILE CLOSE statement, E.40
LOB FILE SET statement, E.41
LOB FLUSH BUFFER statement, E.42
LOB FREE TEMPORARY, E.43
LOB LOAD statement, E.44
LOB OPEN statement, E.45
LOB READ statement, E.46
LOB statements
LOB APPEND, 13.4.1
LOB ASSIGN, 13.4.2
LOB CLOSE, 13.4.3
LOB CLOSE ALL, 13.4.9
LOB COPY, 13.4.4
LOB CREATE TEMPORARY, 13.4.5
LOB DISABLE BUFFERING, 13.4.6
LOB ENABLE BUFFERING, 13.4.7
LOB ERASE, 13.4.8
LOB FILE SET, 13.4.10
LOB FLUSH BUFFER, 13.4.11
LOB FREE TEMPORARY, 13.4.12
LOB LOAD FROM FILE, 13.4.13
LOB OPEN, 13.4.14
LOB READ, 13.4.15
LOB TRIM, 13.4.16
LOB WRITE, 13.4.17
LOB TRIM statement, E.47
LOB WRITE statement, E.48
LOBs
advantage of buffering, 13.1.7
CHUNKSIZE attribute, 13.4.18
compared with LONG and LONG RAW, 13.1.4
definition, 13.1
DIRECTORY attribute, 13.4.18
external, 13.1.2, 13.2.2.2
FILEEXISTS attribute, 13.4.18
FILENAME attribute, 13.4.18
internal, 13.1.1, 13.2.2.1
ISOPEN attribute, 13.4.18
ISTEMPORARY attribute, 13.4.18
LENGTH attribute, 13.4.18
LOB demo program, 13.5
locators, 13.1.5
rules for all statements, 13.3.1
rules for buffering subsystem, 13.3.2
rules for statements, 13.3.3
temporary, 13.1.6, 13.2.2.3
using polling method to read and write, 13.4.19
lock
released by ROLLBACK statement, E.52
LOCK TABLE statement, 3.12.1
example, 3.12.1
using the NOWAIT parameter, 3.12.1
locking, 3.3, 3.11
explicit versus implicit, 3.11
modes, 3.3
overriding default, 3.11
privileges needed, 3.14.2
using the FOR UPDATE OF clause, 3.11
using the LOCK TABLE statement, 3.12.1
logons
automatic, 3.2.3
concurrent, 3.2.1
explicit, 3.2.2
requirements, 3.1
LONG datatype
external, 4.1.2.9
LONG RAW datatype
converting, 4.12.5
LONG RAW datatypes
external, 4.1.2.10
LONG VARCHAR datatype, 4.1.2.11
LONG VARRAW datatype, 4.1.2.12
LRECLEN precompiler option, 14.7.28
LTYPE precompiler option, 14.7.29

M

MAXLITERAL, A.1.4
MAXLITERAL precompiler option, 14.7.31
MAXOPENCURSORS option, C.9
using for separate precompilation, 2.6.1.2
MAXOPENCURSORS precompiler option, 14.7.32
MERANT Micro Focus COBOL
COBSQL, F.1.4
IDE, F.1.1
NetExpress, F.1.1
message text, 8.3.3.5
MODE
equivalent values, 14.7.33
MODE option
effects of, 4.6.2
MODE precompiler option, 14.7.33
mode, parameter, 6.2.4.1
multibyte character sets, 4.9
multi-byte Globalization Support features
datatypes, 2.2.20
with PL/SQL, 4.9.1
multithreaded applications
sample program, 12.5
user-interface features
embedded SQL statements and directives, 12.4.2

N

namespaces
reserved by Oracle, B.2
naming
host variables, 2.2.16
of database objects, E.3.6
select-list items, 11.2.1
naming conventions
cursor, 5.4.1
default database, 3.2.1
host variable, 2.1.6
NATIVE
value of DBMS option, 14.7.10
NESTED precompiler option, 14.7.34
nested programs
support for, 2.4.1
NetExpress, F.1.1
NEXTVAL pseudocolumns, 4.1.2.23
nibbles, 4.12.5
NLS_LOCAL
precompiler option, 14.7.35
NOT FOUND condition
of WHENEVER directive, 8.3.8.4, E.58
NOWAIT parameter, 3.12.1
using in LOCK TABLE statement, 3.12.1
NULLs
definition, 2.1.6
detecting, 4.4.2
handling
in dynamic SQL method 4, 11.4.4
indicator variables, 6.1.3.1
hardcoding, 5.2.3
inserting, 5.2.3
meaning in SQL (NVL function), 2.2.21
restrictions, 5.2.6
retrieving, 5.2.4
SQLNUL subroutine, 11.4.4
testing for, 5.2.6
NULLs in SQL
how to detect, 2.2.21
NUMBER datatype
using the SQLPRC subroutine with, 11.4.3
NVL function
for retrieving NULL values, 2.2.21

O

ONAME precompiler option, 14.7.36
OPEN DESCRIPTOR statement, E.50
OPEN SQL statement, E.50
OPEN statement, E.49
example, 5.4.2
examples, E.49
in dynamic SQL method 4, 11.6.11
using in dynamic SQL method 3, 9.11.3
opening
cursors, E.49, E.50
opening a cursor variable, 6.10.3
operators
relational, 2.2.25
optimizer hint, C.5.1
optional division headers, 2.2.11
options
precompiler concepts, 14.3
ORACA, 1.7.1, 8.2.2
declaring, 8.4.1, 8.4.2
enabling, 8.4.3, 8.4.3
example, 8.4.6
fields, 8.4.5
gathering cursor cache statistics, 8.4.5.11
ORACABC field, 8.4.5.2
ORACAID field, 8.4.5.1
ORACCHF flag, 8.4.5.3
ORACOC field, 8.4.5.14
ORADBGF flag, 8.4.5.4
ORAHCHF flag, 8.4.5.5
ORAHOC field, 8.4.5.12
ORAMOC field, 8.4.5.13
ORANEX field, 8.4.5.17
ORANOR field, 8.4.5.15
ORANPR field, 8.4.5.16
ORASFNMC field, 8.4.5.9
ORASFNML field, 8.4.5.9
ORASLNR field, 8.4.5.10
ORASTXTC field, 8.4.5.8
ORASTXTF flag, 8.4.5.6
ORASTXTL field, 8.4.5.8
precompiler option, 8.4.3
purpose, 8.2.2, 8.4
structure of, 8.4.5
ORACA precompiler option, 14.7.22, 14.7.30, 14.7.37, 14.7.39, 14.7.40, 14.7.42, 14.7.52
ORACABC field, 8.4.5.2
ORACAID field, 8.4.5.1
ORACCHF flag, 8.4.5.3
Oracle Communications Area
ORACA, 8.4
Oracle dynamic SQL
when to use, 10
Oracle names
how to form, E.3.6
Oracle namespaces, B.2
Oracle Net
using ROWID datatype, 4.1.2.16
using to connect to Oracle, 3.2.1
Oracle Net Services
concurrent logons, 3.2.1
Oracle Open Gateway
using ROWID datatype, 4.1.2.16
ORACOC
in ORACA, 8.4.5.14
ORACOC field, 8.4.5.14
ORADBGF flag, 8.4.5.4
ORAHCHF flag, 8.4.5.5
ORAHOC field, 8.4.5.12
ORAMOC field, 8.4.5.13
ORANEX
in ORACA, 8.4.5.17
ORANEX field, 8.4.5.17
ORANOR field, 8.4.5.15
ORANPR field, 8.4.5.16
ORASFNM, in ORACA, 8.4.5.9
ORASFNMC field, 8.4.5.9
ORASFNML field, 8.4.5.9
ORASLNR
in ORACA, 8.4.5.10
ORASLNR field, 8.4.5.10
orasql11.lib library file, 1.7.2
ORASTXTC field, 8.4.5.8
ORASTXTF flag, 8.4.5.6
ORASTXTL field, 8.4.5.8
ORECLEN precompiler option, 14.7.38
OUT parameter mode, 6.2.4.1
output host variable, 5.1.1, 5.1.1
output versus input, 5.1

P

PAGELEN precompiler option, 14.7.41
paragraph names
associating with SQL statements, 2.2.22
coding area for, 2.2.22
parameter mode, 6.2.4.1
parse error offset, 8.3.3.4
parsing dynamic statements
PREPARE statement, E.51
passwords
changing at runtime with ALTER AUTHORIZATION, 3.2.4
defining, 3.1
hardcoding, 3.1
performance
causes of poor, C.1
improving, C.2
PIC G for Globalization Support characters, A.1.5
PIC N for Globalization Support characters, A.1.5
PICX precompiler option, 4.6.1, 14.7.43
placeholders
duplicate, 9.16.2
plan, execution, C.5
PLAN_BASELINE
precompiler option, 14.7.44
PLAN_ENABLED
precompiler option, 14.7.48
PLAN_FIXED
precompiler option, 14.7.47
PLAN_PREFIX
precompiler option, 14.7.45
PLAN_RUN
precompiler option, 14.7.46
PL/SQL
advantages, 1.5
cursor FOR loop, 6.2.3
datatype equivalents, 11.4.3
embedded, 6.1
exception, 6.5.1
integration with server, 6.2.2
opening a cursor variable
anonymous block, 6.10.3.2
stored procedure, 6.10.3.1
package, 6.2.5
relationship with SQL, 1.5
subprogram, 6.2.4
user-defined record, 6.2.7
PL/SQL block execution
effect on SQLCA components, 8.3.5
PL/SQL blocks
embedded in Oracle7 precompiler programs, E.22
PL/SQL subprogram
calling from Pro*COBOL, 6.8
PL/SQL table, 6.2.6
precompilation
conditional, 2.5
generated code, 14.2
separate, 2.6
precompilation unit, 14.5
precompiler command
required arguments, 14.1
precompiler options
abbreviating name, 14.3
ANSI Dynamic SQL, 10.5
ASACC, 14.7.1
ASSUME_SQLCODE, 14.7.2
AUTO_CONNECT, 3.2.3.1, 14.7.3
CLOSE_ON_COMMIT, 5.4.1, 5.5.2, 14.7.6
COMP_CHARSET, 14.7.7, 14.7.7
CONFIG, 14.7.8
current values, 14.3.3
DATE_FORMAT, 14.7.9, 14.7.9
DBMS, 14.7.10, 14.7.11
DECLARE_SECTION, 2.3.2, 14.7.12
DEFINE, 14.7.13
displaying, 14.3
displaying syntax, default, purpose, 14.6
DYNAMIC, 10.5, 14.7.14
END_OF_FETCH, 14.7.15, 14.7.15
entering, 14.4
entering inline, 14.4.2
entering on the command line, 14.1
ERRORS, 14.7.16
FIPS, 14.7.18
FORMAT, 14.7.19
HOLD_CURSOR, 14.7.20, C.9
HOST, 14.7.21
INAME, 14.7.23
INCLUDE, 14.7.24
IRECLEN, 14.7.25
list, 14.6
LITDELIM, 2.2.10, 14.7.26
LNAME, 14.7.27
LRECLEN, 14.7.28
LTYPE, 14.7.29
macro and micro, 14.3.2
MAXLITERAL, 14.7.31
MAXOPENCURSORS, 2.6.1.2, 14.7.32, C.9
MODE, 4.6.2, 8.2.3, 10.5, 14.7.33
name of the system configuration file, 14.4.3
NESTED, 14.7.34
NLS_LOCAL, 14.7.35
ONAME, 14.7.36
ORACA, 8.4.3, 14.7.22, 14.7.30, 14.7.37, 14.7.39, 14.7.40, 14.7.42, 14.7.52
ORECLEN, 14.7.38
PAGELEN, 14.7.41
PICX, 4.6.1, 14.7.43
PLAN_BASELINE, 14.7.44
PLAN_ENABLED, 14.7.48
PLAN_FIXED, 14.7.47
PLAN_PREFIX, 14.7.45
PLAN_RUN, 14.7.46
precedence, 14.3.1
PREFETCH, 5.4.9, 14.7.49, 14.7.50
RELEASE_CURSOR, 14.7.51, C.9
respecifying, 14.5
scope of, 14.5, 14.5
SELECT_ERROR, 14.7.53
specifying, 14.1
SQLCHECK, 14.7.54
syntax for, 14.1, 14.1
table of how macro options set micro options, 14.3.2
THREADS, 12.4.1
TYPE_CODE, 10.5, 14.7.55, 14.7.56
UNSAFE_NULL, 14.7.57
USERID, 14.7.58
VARCHAR, 14.7.59
XREF, 14.7.60
precompilers
advantages, 1.3
Globalization Support, 4.8
language support, 1.2.1
running, 14
using PL/SQL, 6.3
PREFETCH precompiler option, 5.4.9, 5.5.3, 14.7.49, 14.7.50
PREPARE statement, E.51
effect on data definition statements, 9.6.2
examples, E.51
in dynamic SQL method 4, 11.6.6
using in dynamic SQL, 9.9, 9.11.1
private SQL area
association with cursors, 5.4
opening, 5.4
purpose, C.9.2.1
Pro*COBOL
how it works, 1.2
program termination, 3.9
programming guidelines, 2.2
programming language support, 1.2.1
pseudocolumns, 4.1.2.23
CURRVAL, 4.1.2.23
LEVEL, 4.1.2.23
NEXTVAL, 4.1.2.23
ROWNUM, 4.1.2.23

Q

queries
association with cursor, 5.4
single-row versus multirow, 5.3.1
query, 5.3

R

RAW datatype
converting, 4.12.5
external, 4.1.2.15
RAWTOHEX function, 4.12.5
read consistency, 3.3
READ ONLY parameter
using in SET TRANSACTION, 3.10
read-only transaction, 3.10
ending, 3.10
example, 3.10
record, user-defined, 6.2.7
REDEFINES clause
purpose, 2.2.23
restrictions, 2.2.23
reference
host variable, 2.1.6
reference cursor, 6.10
referencing
host tables, 7.3.2
host variables, 4.3.2
indicator variables, 4.4.3
VARCHAR variables, 4.5.3
relational operators
COBOL versus SQL, 2.2.25
RELEASE option, 3.6, 3.9
COMMIT statement, 3.6
omitting, 3.9
restrictions, 3.8
ROLLBACK statement, 3.7
RELEASE_CURSOR option, C.9
of ORACLE Precompilers, E.7
RELEASE_CURSOR precompiler option, 14.7.51
remote database
declaration of, E.15
restrictions
AT clause, 3.2.2.1
CURRENT OF clause, 5.4.6
cursor declaration, 5.4.1
cursor variables, 6.10.7
dynamic SQL, 14.7.35
FOR clause, 7.9.1
host tables, 7.3.1.1, 7.4.4, 7.5.1, 7.7.1
host variables, 4.3.2.2
naming, 2.2.16
referencing, 4.3.2.2
input host variable, 5.1.1
on host tables, 7.3.5
REDEFINES clause, 2.2.23
RELEASE option, 3.8
separate precompilation, 2.6.1.1
SET TRANSACTION statement, 3.10
SQLGLM subroutine, 8.3.6
SQLIEM subroutine, 8.3.6
TO SAVEPOINT clause, 3.8
use of CURRENT OF clause, 7.3.5
retrieving rows from a table
embedded SQL, E.54
RETURN-CODE special register is unpredictable, A.1.6
returning clause, 5.3.3
in INSERT, 5.3.3
roll back
to a savepoint, E.53
to the same savepoint multiple times, E.52
rollback
automatic, 3.7
purpose, 3.4
statement-level, 3.7.1
rollback segments, 3.3
ROLLBACK statement, 3.7, 3.7, E.52
effects, 3.7
ending a transaction, E.52
example, 3.7
examples, E.52
RELEASE option, 3.7
TO SAVEPOINT clause, 3.7
using in a PL/SQL block, 3.14.3
using in error-handling routines, 3.7
where to place, 3.7
rolling back
transactions, E.52
row lock
acquiring with FOR UPDATE OF, 3.11.1
using to improve performance, C.8
when acquired, 3.11.1.1
when released, 3.11.1.1
ROWID datatype
heap tables versus index-organized tables, 4.7
Universal, 4.7
use of, 4.7
use of ALLOCATE, 4.7
ROWID pseudocolumns
retrieving with SQLROWIDGET, 4.7.1
universal ROWID, 4.7
using to mimic CURRENT OF, 3.12, 7.11
ROWNUM pseudocolumns, 4.1.2.23
rows
fetching from cursors, E.26, E.27
inserting into tables and views, E.30
updating, E.56
rows-processed count, 8.3.3.3
RR diagrams
see syntax diagrams, E.3

S

sample database table
DEPT table, 2.8
EMP table, 2.8
sample programs
calling a stored procedure, 6.9, 6.9
cursor operations, 5.8
cursor variable use, 6.10.8
cursor variables
PL/SQL source, 6.10.8.1
datatype equivalencing, 4.14, 4.14
dynamic SQL Method 1, 9.8
dynamic SQL method 2, 9.10
dynamic SQL Method 3, 9.12
dynamic SQL method 4, 11.8
EXEC ORACLE scope, 14.4.2.2
fetching in batches, 7.4.7, 7.13
LOBDEMO1.PCO, 13.5
location of, 1.7
PL/SQL examples, 6.4.1
SAMPLE10.PCO, 11.8
SAMPLE11.PCO, 6.10.8
SAMPLE12.PCO, 10.7
SAMPLE13.PCO, 2.4.1.2
SAMPLE14.PCO, 7.13
SAMPLE1.PCO, 2.9
SAMPLE2.PCO, 5.8
SAMPLE3.PCO, 7.4.7
SAMPLE4.PCO, 4.14
SAMPLE6.PCO, 9.8
SAMPLE7.PCO, 9.10
SAMPLE8.PCO, 9.12
SAMPLE9.PCO, 6.9
simple query, 2.9
tables of group items, 7.13
WHENEVER...DO CALL example, 8.3.9.2
savepoint, 3.8
SAVEPOINT statement, 3.8, E.53
example, 3.8
examples, E.53
savepoints
creating, E.53
when erased, 3.8
scalar types, 11.4.3
scale
definition of, 4.12.2
using SQLPRC to extract, 4.12.2
when negative, 4.12.2
scope
cursor variables, 6.10.1
of DECLARE STATEMENT directive, E.16
of precompiler options, 14.5, 14.5
of the EXEC ORACLE statement, 14.4.2.2
WHENEVER directive, 8.3.9.3
search condition, 5.3.7
using in the WHERE clause, 5.3.7
SELDFCLP variable (SQLDA), 11.3
SELDFCRCP variable (SQLDA), 11.3
SELDFMT variable (SQLDA), 11.3
SELDH-CUR-VNAMEL variable (SQLDA), 11.3
SELDH-MAX-VNAMEL variable (SQLDA), 11.3
SELDH-VNAME variable (SQLDA), 11.3
SELDI variable (SQLDA), 11.3
SELDI-CUR-VNAMEL variable (SQLDA), 11.3
SELDI-MAX-VNAMEL variable (SQLDA), 11.3
SELDI-VNAME variable (SQLDA), 11.3
SELDV variable (SQLDA), 11.3
SELDVLN variable (SQLDA), 11.3
SELDVTYP variable (SQLDA), 11.3
select descriptor, 11.2.1
select descriptors
information in, 9.13.2
select list, 5.3.1
select SQLDA
purpose of, 11.1.3
SELECT statement, E.54
available clauses, 5.3.1.1
embedded SQL examples, E.54
example, 5.3.1
INTO clause, 5.3.1
using host tables, 7.4
SELECT_ERROR option, 5.3.1
SELECT_ERROR precompiler option, 14.7.53
select-list items
naming, 11.2.1
semantic checking, D.1
enabling, D.3.1
using the SQLCHECK option, D.1
separate precompilation
guidelines, 2.6.1
restrictions, 2.6.1.1
session, 3.3
sessions
beginning, E.9
SET clause, 5.3.5
using a subquery, 5.3.5
SET DESCRIPTOR statement, E.55
SET TRANSACTION statement
example, 3.10
READ ONLY parameter, 3.10
restrictions, 3.10
snapshot, 3.3
SQL
summary of statements, E.1
SQL codes
returned by SQLGLS routine, 8.3.10
SQL Communications Area, 2.1.9.2
SQL Descriptor Area, 9.13.1, 11.2
SQL directives
CONTEXT USE, 12.4.2.4
DECLARE CURSOR, E.14
DECLARE DATABASE, E.15
DECLARE STATEMENT, E.16
DECLARE TABLE, E.17
VAR, E.57
WHENEVER, E.58
SQL directives CONTEXT USE, E.12
SQL statements
ALLOCATE, E.4
ALLOCATE DESCRIPTOR, E.5
CALL, E.6
CLOSE, E.7
COMMIT, E.8
CONNECT, E.9
CONTEXT ALLOCATE, E.10
CONTEXT FREE, E.11
controlling transactions, 3.4
DEALLOCATE DESCRIPTOR, E.13
DELETE, E.18
DESCRIBE, E.19
DESCRIBE DESCRIPTOR, E.20
ENABLE THREADS, E.21
EXECUTE, E.23
EXECUTE DESCRIPTOR, E.24
EXECUTE IMMEDIATE, E.25
EXECUTE...END-EXEC, E.22
FETCH, E.26, E.27
FETCH DESCRIPTOR, E.27
FREE, E.28, E.28
GET DESCRIPTOR, E.29
INSERT, E.30
LOB APPEND, E.31
LOB ASSIGN, E.32
LOB CLOSE, E.33
LOB COPY, E.34
LOB CREATE, E.35
LOB DESCRIBE, E.36
LOB DISABLE BUFFERING, E.37
LOB ENABLE BUFFERING, E.38
LOB ERASE, E.39
LOB FILE CLOSE, E.40
LOB FILE SET, E.41
LOB FLUSH BUFFER, E.42
LOB FREE TEMPORARY, E.43
LOB LOAD, E.44
LOB OPEN, E.45
LOB READ, E.46
LOB TRIM, E.47
LOB WRITE, E.48
OPEN, E.49, E.49, E.50
OPEN DESCRIPTOR, E.50
optimizing to improve performance, C.5
PREPARE, E.51
ROLLBACK, E.52
SAVEPOINT, E.53
SELECT, E.54
SET DESCRIPTOR, E.55
static versus dynamic, 2.1.4
summary of, E.1
UPDATE, E.56, E.56
using to control a cursor, 5.3, 5.4
SQL*Plus, 1.4
SQL_CURSOR, E.4
SQLADR subroutine
example, 11.6.4
parameters, 11.4.1
storing buffer addresses, 11.1.3
syntax, 11.4.1
SQLCA, 1.7.1, 8.2.1
components set for a PL/SQL block, 8.3.5
declaring EXTERNAL, 2.6.1.3
fields, 8.3.4
interaction with Oracle, 2.1.9.2
overview, 2.1.9.2
sharing, 2.6.1.3
SQLCABC field, 8.3.4.2
SQLCAID field, 8.3.4.1
SQLCODE field, 8.3.4.4
SQLERRD(3) field, 8.3.4.5
SQLERRD(5) field, 8.3.4.5
SQLERRMC field, 8.3.4.4
SQLERRML field, 8.3.4.4
SQLWARN(4) flag, 8.3.4.6
using with Oracle Net Services, 8.3
SQLCA status variable
data structure, 8.3.1
declaring, 8.3.2
effect of MODE option, 8.2.3
explicit versus implicit checking, 8.2.1
purpose, 8.3
SQLCABC field, 8.3.4.2
SQLCAID field, 8.3.4.1
SQLCHECK option
using the DECLARE TABLE statement, D.3.1.2
using to check syntax/semantics, D
SQLCHECK precompiler option, 14.7.54
SQLCODE field, 8.3.4.4
interpreting its value, 8.3.4.4
SQLCODE status variable
effect of MODE option, 8.2.3
usage, 8.2.3
SQL-CONTEXT, 12.4.2
host tables not allowed, 12.4.2.1
variable declaration, 4.3.1
SQLDA, 1.7.1, 9.13.1, 9.13.3
bind versus select, 9.13.3
BNDDFCLP variable, 11.3
BNDDFCRCP variable, 11.3
BNDDFMT variable, 11.3
BNDDH-CUR-VNAMEL variable, 11.3
BNDDH-MAX-VNAMEL variable, 11.3
BNDDH-VNAME variable, 11.3
BNDDI variable, 11.3
BNDDI-CUR-VNAMEL variable, 11.3
BNDDI-MAX-VNAMEL variable, 11.3
BNDDI-VNAME variable, 11.3
BNDDV variable, 11.3
BNDDVLN variable, 11.3
BNDDVTYP variable, 11.3
declaring, 11.2.3
example, 11.2.3
information stored in, 9.13.3
purpose, 11.2.1
SELDFCLP variable, 11.3
SELDFCRCP variable, 11.3
SELDFMT variable, 11.3
SELDH-CUR-VNAMEL variable, 11.3
SELDH-MAX-VNAMEL variable, 11.3
SELDH-VNAME variable, 11.3
SELDI variable, 11.3
SELDI-CUR-VNAMEL variable, 11.3
SELDI-MAX-VNAMEL variable, 11.3
SELDI-VNAME variable, 11.3
SELDV variable, 11.3
SELDVLN variable, 11.3
SELDVTYP variable, 11.3
SQLADR subroutine, 11.4.1
SQLDFND variable, 11.3
SQLDNUM variable, 11.3
structure, 11.3
SQLDFND variable (SQLDA), 11.3
SQLDNUM variable (SQLDA), 11.3
SQLERRD(3) field, 8.3.4.5
using with batch fetch, 7.4.3
SQLERRD(3) variable, 8.3.3.3
SQLERRD(5) field, 8.3.4.5
SQLERRMC field, 8.3.4.4
SQLERRMC variable, 8.3.3.5
SQLERRML field, 8.3.4.4
SQLERROR condition, 8.3.8.3
of WHENEVER directive, 8.3.8.3
WHENEVER directive, E.58
SQLFC parameter, 8.3.10
SQLGLM subroutine
example, 8.3.6
parameters, 8.3.6
provides DSNTIAR support for DB2 conversions, 8.3.7
purpose, 8.3.6
restrictions, 8.3.6
syntax, 8.3.6
SQLGLS routine, 8.3.10, 8.3.10
parameters, 8.3.10
SQL codes returned by, 8.3.10
syntax, 8.3.10
using to obtain SQL text, 8.3.10
SQLIEM subroutine
restrictions, 8.3.6
SQLNUL subroutine
example, 11.4.4
parameters, 11.4.4
purpose, 11.4.4
syntax, 11.4.4
SQLPRC subroutine
example, 11.4.3
parameters, 11.4.3
purpose, 11.4.3
syntax, 11.4.3
SQLROWIDGET
retrieving ROWID of last row inserted, 4.7.1
SQLSTATE
declaring, 8.2.4
SQLSTATE status variable
class code, 8.2.4.1
coding scheme, 8.2.4.1
effect of MODE option, 8.2.3
interpreting values, 8.2.4.1
predefined classes, 8.2.4.1
subclass code, 8.2.4.1
usage, 8.2.3
SQLSTM parameter, 8.3.10
SQLSTM routine, 8.3.10
SQLWARN(4) flag, 8.3.4.6
SQLWARNING
condition WHENEVER directive, E.58
SQLWARNING condition, 8.3.8.2
of WHENEVER directive, 8.3.8.2
statement-level rollback, 3.7.1
breaking deadlocks, 3.7.1
status codes for error reporting, 8.3.3.1
STMLEN parameter, 8.3.10
STOP action
of WHENEVER directive, 8.3.8.10, E.58
stored procedure
opening a cursor, 6.10.8
sample programs, 6.10.8
stored procedures
opening a cursor, 6.10.3.1
sample programs, 6.9
stored subprogram
calling, 6.8.2.1
creating, 6.8.1
packaged versus standalone, 6.8
stored versus inline, C.4
using to improve performance, C.4
stored subprogram, calling, 6.8
STRING datatype, 4.1.2.17
string literals
continuing on the next line, 2.2.7
subprogram, PL/SQL, 6.2.4
subprogram, PL/SQL or Java, 6.8
subquery, 5.3.4
example, 5.3.4, 5.3.5
using in the SET clause, 5.3.5
using in the VALUES clause, 5.3.4
syntactic checking, D.1
syntax
continuation lines, 2.2.7
embedded SQL statements, 2.2.12
SQLADR subroutine, 11.4.1
SQLGLM subroutine, 8.3.6
SQLNUL subroutine, 11.4.4
SQLPRC, 11.4.3
syntax diagrams
description of, E.3
how to read, E.3
how to use, E.3
symbols used in, E.3
syntax, embedded SQL, 2.1.3
SYSDATE function, 4.1.2.23
SYSDBA privilege show to set, 3.2.5.2
SYSOPER privilege
how to set, 3.2.5.2
system failures
effect on transactions, 3.5
System Global Area (SGA), 6.8

T

table (host) elements
maximum, 7.3.1.1
table lock
acquiring with LOCK TABLE, 3.12.1
row share, 3.12.1
when released, 3.12.1
tables
elements, 7.1
index-organized, 4.7
inserting rows into, E.30
updating rows in, E.56
tables, host, 7.1
TERMINAL format
COBOL statements, 2.2.4
terminator for embedded SQL statements, 2.2.25
THREADS, E.10
allocating context, 12.4.2.3, E.10
enabling, 12.4.2.2, E.21
freeing context, 12.4.2.5, E.11
precompiler option, 12.4.1
use context, 12.4.2.4, E.12
TIMESTAMP datatype, 4.2
TIMESTAMP WITH LOCAL TIME ZONE datatype, 4.2
TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE datatype, 4.2
TO SAVEPOINT clause, 3.8
restrictions, 3.8
using in ROLLBACK statement, 3.8
trace facility
using to improve performance, C.5.1.1
transaction, 3.4
transactions
committing, E.8
contents, 3.5
guidelines, 3.14.1
how to begin, 3.5
how to end, 3.5
in-doubt, 3.13
making permanent, 3.6
read-only, 3.10
rolling back, E.52, E.52
subdividing with savepoints, 3.8
undoing, 3.7
undoing parts of, 3.8
when rolled back automatically, 3.5, 3.7
truncated values, 6.5.2
detecting, 4.4.2
indicator variables, 6.1.3.2
truncation errors
when generated, 5.2.7
tuning, performance, C.1
TYPE statements
using the CHARF datatype specifier, 4.12.3
TYPE_CODE option
effect on functionality, 10.5
TYPE_CODE precompiler option, 14.7.55, 14.7.56

U

UID function, 4.1.2.23
undo a transaction, E.52
universal ROWID
ROWID pseudocolumns, 4.7
UNSAFE_NULL precompiler option, 14.7.57
UNSIGNED datatype, 4.1.2.18
UPDATE statement, E.56
embedded SQL examples, E.56
example, 5.3.5
SET clause, 5.3.5
using host tables, 7.6
updating
rows in tables and views, E.56
use
thread context, 12.4.2.4
USER function, 4.1.2.23
user session, 3.3
user-defined record, 6.2.7
USERID option
using with the SQLCHECK option, D.3.1.1
USERID precompiler option, 14.7.58
usernames
defining, 3.1
hardcoding, 3.1
USING clause
CONNECT statement, 3.2.2.1
of FETCH statement, E.26
of OPEN statement, E.49
using in the EXECUTE statement, 9.9.1
using indicator variables, 9.9.1
using dbstring
Oracle Net Services database id specification, E.9

V

V7
value of DBMS option, 14.7.10
VALUE clause
initializing host variables, 4.3.1.2
VALUES clause
INSERT statement, 5.3.3
of embedded SQL INSERT statement, E.30
of INSERT statement, E.30
using a subquery, 5.3.4
VAR directive, E.57
examples, E.57
VAR statement
CONVBUFSZ clause, 4.12.2.1
syntax for, 4.12.2
using the CHARF datatype specifier, 4.12.3
VARCHAR datatype, 4.1.2.19
VARCHAR precompiler option, 14.7.59
VARCHAR pseudotype
using with PL/SQL, 6.4.3
VARCHAR variables
advantages, 4.6.4.2
as input variables, 4.6.4.1
as output variables, 4.6.4.2
declaring, 4.5.1
implicit group items, 4.5.2
length element, 4.5.1
maximum length, 4.5.1
referencing, 4.5.3
server handling, 4.6.4.1, 4.6.4.2
string element, 4.5.1
structure, 4.5.1
versus fixed-length strings, 4.6.4.2
with PL/SQL, 6.1.2
VARCHAR2 datatype
external, 4.1.2.20
VARNUM datatype, 4.1.2.21
VARRAW datatype, 4.1.2.22
VARYING keyword
versus VARYING phrase, 4.5.1
versions of COBOL supported, 2.2.3
views
inserting rows into, E.30
updating rows in, E.56

W

warning flags for error reporting, 8.3.3.2
WHENEVER
DO CALL example, 8.3.9.2
WHENEVER directive, 8.3.8, E.58
careless usage, 8.3.9.4
CONTINUE action, 8.3.8.6
DO CALL action, 8.3.8.7
DO PERFORM action, 8.3.8.8
example, 8.3.9.1
examples, E.58
GOTO action, 8.3.8.9
overview, 2.1.9.3
purpose, 8.3.8
scope of, 8.3.9.3
SQLERROR condition, 8.3.8.3
SQLWARNING condition, 8.3.8.2
STOP action, 8.3.8.10
syntax, 8.3.9
using to check SQLCA automatically, 8.3.8.1
WHERE clause, 5.3.7
DELETE statement, 5.3.6
of DELETE statement, E.18
of UPDATE statement, E.56
search condition, 5.3.7
SELECT statement, 5.3.1
UPDATE statement, 5.3.5
using host tables, 7.10
WHERE CURRENT OF clause, 5.4.5
WITH HOLD
clause of DECLARE CURSOR statement, 5.4.1
WORK option
of COMMIT statement, E.8
of ROLLBACK statement, E.52

X

XREF precompiler option, 14.7.60