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Oracle® Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide
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11 Reporting on RMAN Operations

This chapter describes how to report on RMAN operations. This chapter contains the following topics:

Overview of RMAN Reporting

This section explains the purpose and basic concepts of RMAN reporting.

Purpose of RMAN Reporting

As part of your backup and recovery strategy, you should periodically run reports that indicate what you have backed up. You can determine which data files need backups or which files were not backed up recently. Also, you can preview which backups RMAN must restore if a problem occurs.

Another important aspect of backup and recovery is monitoring space usage. If you back up to disk, then it is possible for the disk to fill, which can create performance problems or even cause the database to halt. You can use RMAN to determine whether a backup is an obsolete backup and can therefore be deleted.

You may also need to obtain historical information about RMAN jobs. For example, you may want to know how many backup jobs have been issued, the status of each backup job (for example, whether it failed or completed), when a job started and finished, and what type of backup was performed.

Basic Concepts of RMAN Reporting

RMAN always stores its RMAN repository of metadata in the control file of each target database on which it performs operations. For example, suppose that you use RMAN to back up the prod1 and prod2 databases. RMAN stores the metadata for backups of prod1 in the control file of prod1, and the metadata for backups of prod2 in the control file of prod2.

Optionally, you can use RMAN with a recovery catalog. In this case, RMAN maintains an additional repository of metadata in a set of tables in a separate recovery catalog database. For example, you could create a recovery catalog in prod3. You can register multiple target databases in this recovery catalog. For example, if you register prod1 and prod2 in the recovery catalog stored in prod3, then RMAN stores metadata about its backups of prod1 and prod2 in the recovery catalog schema.

You can access metadata from the RMAN repository in several different ways:

  • The RMAN LIST and REPORT commands provide extensive information about available backups and how they can be used to restore and recover your database.

    The LIST command is described in "Listing Backups and Recovery-Related Objects" and REPORT is described in "Reporting on Backups and Database Schema".

  • When the database is open, several V$ views provide direct access to RMAN repository records in the control file of each target database.

    Some V$ views such as V$DATAFILE_HEADER, V$PROCESS, and V$SESSION contain information not found in the recovery catalog views. The V$ views are documented in Oracle Database Reference.

  • If your database is registered in a recovery catalog, then RC_ views provide direct access to the RMAN repository data stored in the recovery catalog.

    The RC_ views mostly correspond to the V$ views. The RC_ views are documented in Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference.

  • The RESTORE ... PREVIEW and RESTORE ... VALIDATE HEADER commands list the backups that RMAN can restore to the specified time.

    RESTORE ... PREVIEW queries the metadata but does not read the backup files. The RESTORE ... VALIDATE HEADER command performs the same work, but in addition to listing the files needed for restore and recovery operations, the command validates the backup file headers to determine whether the files on disk or in the media management catalog correspond to the metadata in the RMAN repository. These commands are documented in "Previewing Backups Used in Restore Operations".

As explained in Chapter 12, "Maintaining RMAN Backups and Repository Records," the RMAN repository can sometimes fail to reflect the reality on disk and tape. For example, a user may delete a backup with an operating system utility, so that the RMAN repository incorrectly reports the backup as available.

You can use commands such as CHANGE, CROSSCHECK, and DELETE to update the RMAN repository to reflect the actual state of available backups. Otherwise, the output of the commands and views may be misleading, which means that RMAN may not be able to find the backups to restore and recover your database.

See Also:

Reporting in a Data Guard Environment

As explained in "RMAN File Management in a Data Guard Environment", every backup is associated with the primary or standby database that created it. For example, if you backed up the database with the DB_UNIQUE_NAME of standby1, then the standby1 database is associated with this backup.

In a Data Guard environment, you can use the LIST, REPORT, and SHOW commands just as you can when not using Data Guard. You can run these commands with the FOR DB_UNIQUE_NAME clause to show the backups associated with a specified database. For example, the following command lists archived redo logs associated only with sfstandby:

LIST ARCHIVELOG ALL FOR DB_UNIQUE_NAME sfstandby;

If you use the LIST, REPORT, and SHOW commands in a Data Guard environment without specifying the FOR DB_UNIQUE_NAME clause, then RMAN shows the files that are accessible to the target database. "Association of Backups in a Data Guard Environment" explains when backups are considered accessible to RMAN.

In a Data Guard environment, you must use RMAN with a recovery catalog. RMAN stores the metadata for all backup and recovery files in the Data Guard environment in the recovery catalog. When running the RMAN reporting commands, you can either connect RMAN as TARGET to a mounted or open database, or identify the database with the SET DBID command.

See Also:

Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration to report on RMAN operations in a Data Guard environment

Reporting in CDBs and PDBs

You can view reports on the metadata related to a multitenant container database (CDB), the root only, or one or more pluggable databases (PDBs). The information in this chapter about reporting pertains to CDBs and PDBs, with the differences described in the following sections.

Reporting in CDBs

The steps to view reporting information for a CDB are similar to the ones used for a non-CDB. The only difference is that you must connect to the root as a common user with the common SYSBACKUP or common SYSDBA privilege.

The LIST and LIST BACKUP OF commands will display backups of the whole CDB. The REPORT NEED BACKUP TABLESPACE command displays information about the tablespaces in the root that need backup.

The following command, when connected to the root, displays all the data files in the CDB that need backup:

REPORT NEED BACKUP; 

This command, when connected to the root, provides a summary list of backups of the whole CDB:

LIST BACKUP SUMMARY;

Reporting in PDBs

Use one of the following techniques to view reporting information for PDBs:

  • Connect to the root and use the LIST ... PLUGGABLE DATABASE or REPORT PLUGGABLE DATABASE commands. This enables you to display information regarding one or more PDBs.

    The following command, when connected to the root, provides a verbose list of backups in the PDBs hr_pdb and sales_pdb.

    LIST BACKUP OF PLUGGABLE DATABASE hr_pdb, sales_pdb;
    
  • Connect to the PDB and use the LIST BACKUP or REPORT commands. This approach displays information for only one PDB and also uses the same commands that are used for non-CDBs.

    The following command, when connected to a particular PDB, displays all the data files in the PDB that need backup:

    REPORT NEED BACKUP; 
    

    When connected to a PDB, you cannot view reporting information about obsolete backups or delete obsolete backups.

Listing Backups and Recovery-Related Objects

The LIST command uses the information in the RMAN repository to provide lists of backups and other objects relating to backup and recovery. This section contains the following topics:

About the LIST Command

The primary purpose of the LIST command is to list backup and copies. For example, you can list:

  • Backups and proxy copies of a database, tablespace, data file, archived redo log, or control file

  • Backups that have expired

  • Backups restricted by time, path name, device type, tag, or recoverability

  • Archived redo log files and disk copies

Besides backups and copies, RMAN can list other types of data. Table 11-1 summarizes several useful objects that you can list.

Table 11-1 LIST Objects

Contents of List Command Description

Backup sets and proxy copies

LIST BACKUP

You can list all backup sets, copies, and proxy copies of a database, tablespace, data file, archived redo log, control file, or server parameter file.

Image copies

LIST COPY

You can list data file copies and archived redo log files. By default, LIST COPY displays copies of all database files and archived redo logs. Both usable and unusable image copies are included in the output, even those that cannot be restored or are expired or unavailable.

Archived redo log files

LIST ARCHIVELOG

You can list archive redo log files. You can list all archive log redo log files or specify individual archive log files through SCN, time, or sequence number ranges. If you specify a range you can further restrict the list returned by specifying an incarnation number.

Database incarnations

LIST INCARNATION

You can list all incarnations of a database. A new database incarnation is created when you open with the RESETLOGS option.

Databases in a Data Guard environment

LIST DB_UNIQUE_NAME

A database in a Data Guard environment is distinguished by its DB_UNIQUE_NAME initialization parameter setting. You can list all databases that have the same DBID.

Backups and copies for a primary or standby database in a Data Guard environment

LIST ... FOR DB_UNIQUE_NAME

You can list all backups and copies for a specified database in a Data Guard environment or for all databases in the environment.

RMAN restricts the output to files or objects associated exclusively with the database with the specified DB_UNIQUE_NAME. For example, you can use LIST with FOR DB_UNIQUE_NAME to display the list of archived redo log files associated with a particular standby or primary database. Objects that are not owned by any database (SITE_KEY column in the recovery catalog view is null) are not listed.

Restore points

LIST RESTORE POINT

You can list restore points known to the RMAN repository.

Names of stored scripts

LIST SCRIPT NAMES

You can list the names of recovery catalog scripts created with the CREATE SCRIPT or REPLACE SCRIPT command. A recovery catalog is required.

Failures for use with Data Recovery Advisor

LIST FAILURE

A failure is a persistent data corruption mapped to a repair option. Chapter 15, "Diagnosing and Repairing Failures with Data Recovery Advisor" explains how to use LIST FAILURE with the ADVISE and REPAIR commands.


The LIST command supports options that control how output is displayed. Table 11-2 summarizes the most common LIST options.

Table 11-2 Most Common LIST Options

LIST Option Description

LIST EXPIRED

Lists backups or copies that are recorded in the RMAN repository but that were not present at the expected location on disk or tape during the most recent crosscheck. Such backups may have been deleted outside of RMAN.

LIST ... BY FILE

Lists backups of each data file, archived redo log file, control file, and server parameter file. Each row describes a backup of a file.

LIST ... SUMMARY

Provides a one-line summary of each backup.


The LIST objects and options are not exhausted by the contents of the preceding tables. For example, you can list backups restricted by time, path name, device type, tag, or recoverability.

See Also:

Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference for a complete description of the LIST command

Listing All Backups and Copies

Specify the desired objects with the listObjList or recordSpec clause (refer to Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference). If you do not specify an object, then RMAN displays copies of all database files and archived redo log files.

By default, RMAN serially lists each backup or proxy copy and then identifies the files included in the backup. You can also list backups by file.

By default, RMAN lists in verbose mode, which means that it provides extensive, multiline information. You can also list backups in a summary mode if the verbose mode generates too much output.

To view a summary report of all backups and copies, execute the LIST command with the SUMMARY option.

Example 11-1 shows a summary of all RMAN backups:

Example 11-1 Summary Listing of All Backups

RMAN> list backup summary;

List of Backups
===============
Key     TY LV S Device Type Completion Time #Pieces #Copies Compressed Tag
------- -- -- - ----------- --------------- ------- ------- ---------- ---
1       B  A  A SBT_TAPE    21-OCT-07       1       1       NO         TAG20071021T094505
2       B  F  A SBT_TAPE    21-OCT-07       1       1       NO         TAG20071021T094513
3       B  A  A SBT_TAPE    21-OCT-07       1       1       NO         TAG20071021T094624
4       B  F  A SBT_TAPE    21-OCT-07       1       1       NO         TAG20071021T094639
5       B  F  A DISK        04-NOV-07       1       1       YES        TAG20071104T195949

To view verbose output for backups and copies, execute the LIST command without the SUMMARY option.

Example 11-2 lists RMAN backups and copies with the default verbose output:

Example 11-2 Verbose Listings of Backups and Copies

RMAN> list backup;

List of Backup Sets
===================

BS Key  Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
7       136M       DISK        00:00:20     04-NOV-06      
        BP Key: 7   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: NO  Tag: TAG20071104T200759
        Piece Name: /d2/RDBMS/backupset/2007_11_04/o1_mf_annnn_TAG20071104T200759_ztjxx3k8_.bkp

  List of Archived Logs in backup set 7
  Thrd Seq     Low SCN    Low Time  Next SCN   Next Time
  ---- ------- ---------- --------- ---------- ---------
  1    1       173832     21-OCT-06 174750     21-OCT-06
  1    2       174750     21-OCT-06 174755     21-OCT-06
  1    3       174755     21-OCT-06 174758     21-OCT-06

BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
8       Full    2M         DISK        00:00:01     04-NOV-06      
        BP Key: 8   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: NO  Tag: TAG20071104T200829
        Piece Name: /disk1/oracle/dbs/c-774627068-20071104-01
  Controlfile Included: Ckp SCN: 631510       Ckp time: 04-NOV-06
  SPFILE Included: Modification time: 21-OCT-06

RMAN> list copy;

List of Datafile Copies
=======================
 
Key     File S Completion Time Ckp SCN    Ckp Time
------- ---- - --------------- ---------- ---------------
1       7    A 11-OCT-06       360072     11-OCT-06
        Name: /work/orcva/RDBMS/datafile/o1_mf_tbs_2_2lv7bf82_.dbf
        Tag: DF7COPY
 
2       8    A 11-OCT-06       360244     11-OCT-06
        Name: /work/orcva/RDBMS/datafile/o1_mf_tbs_2_2lv7qmcj_.dbf
        Tag: TAG20071011T184835
 
List of Control File Copies
===========================
 
Key     S Completion Time Ckp SCN    Ckp Time
------- - --------------- ---------- ---------------
3       A 11-OCT-06       360380     11-OCT-06
        Name: /d2/RDBMS/controlfile/o1_mf_TAG20071011T185335_2lv80zqd_.ctl
        Tag: TAG20071011T185335
 
List of Archived Log Copies for database with db_unique_name RDBMS
=====================================================================
 
Key     Thrd Seq     S Low Time
------- ---- ------- - ---------
1       1    1       A 11-OCT-06
        Name: /work/arc_dest/arcr_1_1_603561743.arc
 
2       1    2       A 11-OCT-06
        Name: /work/arc_dest/arcr_1_2_603561743.arc
 
3       1    3       A 11-OCT-06
        Name: /work/arc_dest/arcr_1_3_603561743.arc

To list backups by file, execute LIST with the BY FILE option, as shown in Example 11-3.

Example 11-3 Listing Backups By File

RMAN> list backup by file;
List of Datafile Backups
========================

File Key     TY LV S Ckp SCN    Ckp Time  #Pieces #Copies Compressed Tag
---- ------- -  -- - ---------- --------- ------- ------- ---------- ---
1    5       B  F  A 631092     04-NOV-06 1       1       YES        TAG20071104T195949
     2       B  F  A 175337     21-OCT-06 1       1       NO         TAG20071021T094513
2    5       B  F  A 631092     04-NOV-06 1       1       YES        TAG20071104T195949
     2       B  F  A 175337     21-OCT-06 1       1       NO         TAG20071021T094513

... some rows omitted

List of Archived Log Backups
============================

Thrd Seq     Low SCN    Low Time  BS Key  S #Pieces #Copies Compressed Tag
---- ------- ---------- --------- ------- - ------- ------- ---------- ---
1    1       173832     21-OCT-06 7       A 1       1       NO         TAG20071104T200759
                                  1       A 1       1       NO         TAG20071021T094505
1    2       174750     21-OCT-06 7       A 1       1       NO         TAG20071104T200759
                                  1       A 1       1       NO         TAG20071021T094505
... some rows omitted
1    38      575472     03-NOV-06 7       A 1       1       NO         TAG20071104T200759
1    39      617944     04-NOV-06 7       A 1       1       NO         TAG20071104T200759


List of Controlfile Backups
===========================
CF Ckp SCN Ckp Time  BS Key  S #Pieces #Copies Compressed Tag
---------- --------- ------- - ------- ------- ---------- ---
631510     04-NOV-06 8       A 1       1       NO         TAG20071104T200829
631205     04-NOV-06 6       A 1       1       NO         TAG20071104T200432

List of SPFILE Backups
======================
Modification Time BS Key  S #Pieces #Copies Compressed Tag
----------------- ------- - ------- ------- ---------- ---
21-OCT-06         8       A 1       1       NO         TAG20071104T200829
21-OCT-06         6       A 1       1       NO         TAG20071104T200432

See Also:

Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference for an explanation of the various column headings in the LIST output

Listing Selected Backups and Copies

You can specify several different conditions to narrow your LIST output.

To list selected backups and copies:

  1. Start RMAN and connect to a target database and recovery catalog (if used).

  2. Run LIST COPY or LIST BACKUP with the listObjList or recordSpec clause. For example, enter any of the following commands:

    # lists backups of all files in database
    LIST BACKUP OF DATABASE; 
    # lists copy of specified datafile    
    LIST COPY OF DATAFILE 'ora_home/oradata/trgt/system01.dbf'; 
    # lists specified backup set
    LIST BACKUPSET 213; 
    # lists datafile copy
    LIST DATAFILECOPY '/tmp/tools01.dbf';
    
    
    

    You can also restrict the search by specifying the maintQualifier or RECOVERABLE clause. For example, enter any of the following commands:

    # specify a backup set by tag
    LIST BACKUPSET TAG 'weekly_full_db_backup';
    # specify a backup or copy by device type
    LIST COPY OF DATAFILE 'ora_home/oradata/trgt/system01.dbf' DEVICE TYPE sbt;
    # specify a backup by directory or path
    LIST BACKUP LIKE '/tmp/%';
    # specify a backup or copy by a range of completion dates
    LIST COPY OF DATAFILE 2 COMPLETED BETWEEN '10-DEC-2002' AND '17-DEC-2002';
    # specify logs backed up at least twice to tape
    LIST ARCHIVELOG ALL BACKED UP 2 TIMES TO DEVICE TYPE sbt;
    
  3. Examine the output.

The output depends upon the options that you pass to the LIST command. For example, the following lists copies of data file 1 contained in backup sets.

RMAN> LIST BACKUP OF DATAFILE 1;

List of Backup Sets
===================

BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
2       Full    230M       SBT_TAPE    00:00:49     21-OCT-06
        BP Key: 2   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: NO  Tag: TAG20071021T094513
        Handle: 02f4eatc_1_1   Media: /smrdir
  List of Datafiles in backup set 2
  File LV Type Ckp SCN    Ckp Time  Name
  ---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----
  1       Full 175337     21-OCT-06 /oracle/dbs/tbs_01.f

BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
5       Full    233M       DISK        00:04:30     04-NOV-06
        BP Key: 5   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: NO  Tag: TAG20071104T195949
        Piece Name: /disk1/2007_11_04/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20071104T195949_ztjxfvgz_.bkp
  List of Datafiles in backup set 5
  File LV Type Ckp SCN    Ckp Time  Name
  ---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----
  1       Full 631092     04-NOV-06 /oracle/dbs/tbs_01.f

See Also:

Listing Database Incarnations

Each time an OPEN RESETLOGS operation is performed on a database, this operation creates a new incarnation of the database. Database incarnations and their effect on database recovery are explained in "Database Incarnations".

When performing incremental backups, RMAN can use a backup from a previous incarnation or the current incarnation as a basis for subsequent incremental backups. When performing restore and recovery operations, RMAN can use backups from a previous incarnation just as it can use backups from the current incarnation, if all archived logs are available.

To list database incarnations:

  1. Start RMAN and connect to a target database and recovery catalog (if used).

  2. Run the LIST INCARNATION command, as shown in the following example:

    LIST INCARNATION;
    

    If you are using a recovery catalog, and if you register multiple target databases in the same catalog, then you can distinguish them by using the OF DATABASE option:

    LIST INCARNATION OF DATABASE prod3;
    

    See Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference for an explanation of the various column headings in the LIST output). Sample output follows:

    RMAN> LIST INCARNATION OF DATABASE trgt;
    
    List of Database Incarnations
    DB Key  Inc Key DB Name  DB ID            STATUS  Reset SCN  Reset Time
    ------- ------- -------- ---------------- ------  ---------- ----------
    1       1       RDBMS    774627068        PARENT  1          21-OCT-06
    2       2       RDBMS    774627068        CURRENT 173832     21-OCT-06
    

    The preceding output indicates that a RESETLOGS operation was performed on database trgt at SCN 164378, resulting in a new incarnation. The incarnation is distinguished by incarnation key (represented in the Inc Key column).

Reporting on Backups and Database Schema

The RMAN REPORT command analyzes the available backups and your database. This section contains the following topics:

About Reports of RMAN Backups

You can use the REPORT command to answer important questions, such as:

  • Which files need a backup?

  • Which files have had unrecoverable operations performed on them?

  • Which backups are obsolete and can be deleted?

  • What was the physical schema of the target database or a database in the Data Guard environment at some previous time?

  • Which files have not been backed up recently?

Reports enable you to confirm that your backup and recovery strategy is in fact meeting your requirements for database recoverability. The two major forms of REPORT used to determine whether your database is recoverable are:

  • REPORT NEED BACKUP

    Reports which database files must be backed up to meet a configured or specified retention policy

  • REPORT UNRECOVERABLE

    Reports which database files require backup because they have been affected by some NOLOGGING operation such as a direct-path INSERT

The RMAN repository contains other information that you can access with the REPORT command. Table 11-3 summarizes the REPORT options.

Table 11-3 REPORT Options

Contents of Report Command Description

Obsolete backups

REPORT OBSOLETE

Full backups, data file copies, and archived redo logs recorded in the RMAN repository that can be deleted because they are no longer needed

Database schema

REPORT SCHEMA

The names of all data files (permanent and temporary) and tablespaces for the target database at the specified point in time. If you use RMAN in a Data Guard environment, then you can report the schema for a specified DB_UNIQUE_NAME.


See Also:

Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference for a description of the REPORT command

Reporting on Files Needing a Backup Under a Retention Policy

Use the REPORT NEED BACKUP command to determine which database files need backup under a specific retention policy.

With no arguments, REPORT NEED BACKUP reports which objects need backup under the currently configured retention policy. The output for a configured retention policy of REDUNDANCY 1 is similar to this example:

RMAN> REPORT NEED BACKUP;

RMAN retention policy will be applied to the command
RMAN retention policy is set to redundancy 1
Report of files with less than 1 redundant backups
File #bkps Name
---- ----- -----------------------------------------------------
2    0     /oracle/oradata/trgt/undotbs01.dbf

Note:

If you disable the retention policy using CONFIGURE RETENTION POLICY TO NONE, then REPORT NEED BACKUP returns an error message, because without a retention policy, RMAN cannot determine which files must be backed up.

Using RMAN REPORT NEED BACKUP with Different Retention Policies

You can specify different criteria for REPORT NEED BACKUP, using one of the following forms of the command:

  • REPORT NEED BACKUP RECOVERY WINDOW OF n DAYS

    Displays objects requiring backup to satisfy a recovery window-based retention policy

  • REPORT NEED BACKUP REDUNDANCY n

    Displays objects requiring backup to satisfy a redundancy-based retention policy

  • REPORT NEED BACKUP DAYS n

    Displays files that require more than n days' worth of archived redo log files for recovery

  • REPORT NEED BACKUP INCREMENTAL n

    Displays files that require application of more than n incremental backups for recovery

Using RMAN REPORT NEED BACKUP with Tablespaces and Data Files

The REPORT NEED BACKUP command can check the entire database, skip specified tablespaces, or check only specific tablespaces or data files against different retention policies, as shown in the following examples:

REPORT NEED BACKUP RECOVERY WINDOW OF 2 DAYS DATABASE SKIP TABLESPACE TBS_2;
REPORT NEED BACKUP REDUNDANCY 2 DATAFILE 1;
REPORT NEED BACKUP TABLESPACE TBS_3; # uses configured retention policy
REPORT NEED BACKUP INCREMENTAL 2; # checks entire database

See Also:

Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference for all possible options for REPORT NEED BACKUP and an explanation of the various column headings in the output

Using REPORT NEED BACKUP with Backups on Tape or Disk Only

You can limit the backups tested by the REPORT NEED BACKUP command to disk-based or tape-based backups only, as shown in these examples:

REPORT NEED BACKUP RECOVERY WINDOW OF 2 DAYS DATABASE DEVICE TYPE sbt;
REPORT NEED BACKUP DEVICE TYPE DISK;
REPORT NEED BACKUP TABLESPACE TBS_3 DEVICE TYPE sbt; 

Reporting on Data Files Affected by Unrecoverable Operations

When a data file has been changed by an unrecoverable operation, such as a direct load insert, normal media recovery cannot be used to recover the file, because an unrecoverable operation does not generate redo. You must perform either a full or incremental backup of affected data files after such operations, to ensure that data blocks affected by the unrecoverable operation can be recovered using RMAN.

To identify data files affected by an unrecoverable operation:

  1. Start RMAN and connect to a target database and recovery catalog (if used).

  2. Execute the REPORT UNRECOVERABLE command.

    The following example includes sample output:

    RMAN> REPORT UNRECOVERABLE;
    
    Report of files that need backup due to unrecoverable operations
    File Type of Backup Required Name
    ---- ----------------------- -----------------------------------
    1    full                    /oracle/oradata/trgt/system01.dbf
    

Reporting on Obsolete Backups

You can report backup sets, backup pieces, and data file copies that are obsolete that is, not needed to meet a specified retention policy by specifying the OBSOLETE keyword.

To report obsolete backups:

  1. Start RMAN and connect to a target database and recovery catalog (if used).

  2. Execute the CROSSCHECK command to update the status of backups in the repository compared to their status on disk.

    In the simplest case, you could crosscheck all backups on disk, tape or both, using any one of the following commands:

    CROSSCHECK BACKUP DEVICE TYPE DISK;
    CROSSCHECK BACKUP DEVICE TYPE sbt;
    CROSSCHECK BACKUP; # crosschecks all backups on all devices 
    

    See Chapter 12, "Maintaining RMAN Backups and Repository Records" for more details on how to update the RMAN repository record to contain the actual set of available backups.

  3. Run REPORT OBSOLETE to identify which backups are obsolete because they are no longer needed for recovery.

    If you do not specify any other options, then REPORT OBSOLETE displays the backups that are obsolete according to the current retention policy, as shown in the following example:

    RMAN> REPORT OBSOLETE;
    
    Datafile Copy        44     08-FEB-06          /backup/ora_df549738566_s70_s1
    Datafile Copy        45     08-FEB-06          /backup/ora_df549738567_s71_s1
    Datafile Copy        46     08-FEB-06          /backup/ora_df549738568_s72_s1
    Backup Set           26     08-FEB-06
      Backup Piece       26     08-FEB-06          /backup/ora_df549738682_s76_s1
    .
    .
    .
    

    You can also check which backups are obsolete under different recovery window-based or redundancy-based retention policies, by using REPORT OBSOLETE with RECOVERY WINDOW and REDUNDANCY options, as shown in these examples:

    REPORT OBSOLETE RECOVERY WINDOW OF 3 DAYS;
    REPORT OBSOLETE REDUNDANCY 1;
    

See Also:

Reporting on the Database Schema

The REPORT SCHEMA command lists and displays information about the database files, tablespaces, and so on. See Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference for a description of the REPORT SCHEMA output.

If you do not specify FOR DB_UNIQUE_NAME with REPORT SCHEMA, then a recovery catalog connection is optional, but a target database connection is required. In a Data Guard environment, you can specify REPORT SCHEMA FOR DB_UNIQUE_NAME to report the schema for a database in the environment. In this case, an RMAN connection to a target database is not required. You can connect RMAN to the recovery catalog and set the DBID instead.

To report on the database schema:

  1. Start RMAN and connect to the desired databases.

  2. If you did not connect RMAN to a target database in the previous step, and you intend to specify the FOR DB_UNIQUE_NAME clause on REPORT SCHEMA, then set the database DBID. For example, enter the following command:

    RMAN> SET DBID 28014364;
    
  3. Run the REPORT SCHEMA command as shown in the following example:

    RMAN> REPORT SCHEMA;
     
    Report of database schema for database with db_unique_name DGRDBMS
     
    List of Permanent Datafiles
    ===========================
    File Size(MB) Tablespace           RB segs Datafile Name
    ---- -------- -------------------- ------- ------------------------
    1    450      SYSTEM               YES     /disk1/oracle/dbs/t_db1.f
    2    141      SYSAUX               NO      /disk1/oracle/dbs/t_ax1.f
    3    50       UD1                  YES     /disk1/oracle/dbs/t_undo1.f
    4    50       TBS_11               NO      /disk1/oracle/dbs/tbs_111.f
    5    50       TBS_11               NO      /disk1/oracle/dbs/tbs_112.f
     
    List of Temporary Files
    =======================
    File Size(MB) Tablespace           Maxsize(MB) Tempfile Name
    ---- -------- -------------------- ----------- --------------------
    1    40       TEMP                 32767       /disk1/oracle/dbs/t_tmp1.f
    

    If you use a recovery catalog, then you can use the atClause to specify a past time, SCN, or log sequence number, as shown in these examples of the command:

    RMAN> REPORT SCHEMA AT TIME 'SYSDATE-14';     # schema 14 days ago
    RMAN> REPORT SCHEMA AT SCN 1000;              # schema at scn 1000
    RMAN> REPORT SCHEMA AT SEQUENCE 100 THREAD 1; # schema at sequence 100
    RMAN> REPORT SCHEMA FOR DB_UNIQUE_NAME standby1; # schema for database standby1
    

Using V$ Views to Query Backup Metadata

In some cases, V$ views supply information that is not available through use of the LIST and REPORT commands. This section describes cases in which V$ views are particularly useful.

Querying Details of Past and Current RMAN Jobs

An RMAN job is the set of commands executed within an RMAN session. Thus, one RMAN job can contain multiple commands. For example, you may execute two separate BACKUP commands and a RECOVER COPY command in a single session. An RMAN backup job is the set of BACKUP commands executed in one RMAN job. For example, a BACKUP DATABASE and BACKUP ARCHIVELOG ALL command executed in the same RMAN job constitute a single RMAN backup job.

The views V$RMAN_BACKUP_JOB_DETAILS and V$RMAN_BACKUP_SUBJOB_DETAILS and their corresponding recovery catalog versions provide details of RMAN backup jobs. For example, the views show how long a backup took, how many backup jobs have been issued, the status of each backup job (for example, whether it failed or completed), when a job started and finished, and what type of backup was performed. The SESSION_KEY column is the unique key for the RMAN session in which the backup job occurred.

RMAN backups often write less than they read. Because of RMAN compression, the OUTPUT_BYTES_PER_SEC column cannot be used as the measurement of backup speed. The appropriate column to measure backup speed is INPUT_BYTES_PER_SEC. The ratio between read and written data is described in the COMPRESSION_RATIO column.

To query details about past and current RMAN jobs:

  1. Connect SQL*Plus to the database whose backup history you intend to query.

  2. Query the V$RMAN_BACKUP_JOB_DETAILS view for information about the backup type, status, and start and end time.

    The following query shows the backup job history ordered by session key, which is the primary key for the RMAN session:

    COL STATUS FORMAT a9
    COL hrs    FORMAT 999.99
    SELECT SESSION_KEY, INPUT_TYPE, STATUS,
           TO_CHAR(START_TIME,'mm/dd/yy hh24:mi') start_time,
           TO_CHAR(END_TIME,'mm/dd/yy hh24:mi')   end_time,
           ELAPSED_SECONDS/3600                   hrs
    FROM V$RMAN_BACKUP_JOB_DETAILS
    ORDER BY SESSION_KEY;
    

    The following sample output shows the backup job history:

    SESSION_KEY INPUT_TYPE    STATUS    START_TIME     END_TIME           HRS
    ----------- ------------- --------- -------------- -------------- -------
              9 DATAFILE FULL COMPLETED 04/18/07 18:14 04/18/07 18:15     .02
             16 DB FULL       COMPLETED 04/18/07 18:20 04/18/07 18:22     .03
            113 ARCHIVELOG    COMPLETED 04/23/07 16:04 04/23/07 16:05     .01
    
  3. Query the V$RMAN_BACKUP_JOB_DETAILS view for the rate of backup jobs in an RMAN session.

    The following query shows the backup job speed ordered by session key, which is the primary key for the RMAN session. The columns in_sec and out_sec display the data input and output per second.

    COL in_sec FORMAT a10
    COL out_sec FORMAT a10
    COL TIME_TAKEN_DISPLAY FORMAT a10
    SELECT SESSION_KEY, 
           OPTIMIZED, 
           COMPRESSION_RATIO, 
           INPUT_BYTES_PER_SEC_DISPLAY in_sec,
           OUTPUT_BYTES_PER_SEC_DISPLAY out_sec, 
           TIME_TAKEN_DISPLAY
    FROM   V$RMAN_BACKUP_JOB_DETAILS
    ORDER BY SESSION_KEY;
    

    The following sample output shows the speed of the backup jobs:

    SESSION_KEY OPT COMPRESSION_RATIO IN_SEC     OUT_SEC    TIME_TAKEN
    ----------- --- ----------------- ---------- ---------- ----------
              9 NO                  1     8.24M      8.24M  00:01:14
             16 NO         1.32732239     6.77M      5.10M  00:01:45
            113 NO                  1     2.99M      2.99M  00:00:44
    
  4. Query the V$RMAN_BACKUP_JOB_DETAILS view for the size of the backups in an RMAN session.

    If you run BACKUP DATABASE, then V$RMAN_BACKUP_JOB_DETAILS.OUTPUT_BYTES shows the total size of backup sets written by the backup job for the database that you are backing up. To view backup set sizes for all registered databases, query V$RMAN_BACKUP_JOB_DETAILS.

    The following query shows the backup job size and throughput ordered by session key, which is the primary key for the RMAN session. The columns in_size and out_size display the data input and output per second.

    COL in_size  FORMAT a10
    COL out_size FORMAT a10
    SELECT SESSION_KEY, 
           INPUT_TYPE,
           COMPRESSION_RATIO, 
           INPUT_BYTES_DISPLAY in_size,
           OUTPUT_BYTES_DISPLAY out_size
    FROM   V$RMAN_BACKUP_JOB_DETAILS
    ORDER BY SESSION_KEY;
    

    The following sample output shows the size of the backup jobs:

    SESSION_KEY INPUT_TYPE    COMPRESSION_RATIO IN_SIZE    OUT_SIZE
    ----------- ------------- ----------------- ---------- ----------
             10 DATAFILE FULL                 1   602.50M    602.58M
             17 DB FULL              1.13736669   634.80M    558.13M
    

See Also:

Oracle Database Reference to learn about the V$RMAN_BACKUP_JOB_DETAILS view

Determining the Encryption Status of Backup Pieces

The ENCRYPTED column of the V$BACKUP_PIECE and V$RMAN_BACKUP_PIECE views indicates whether a backup piece is encrypted (YES) or unencrypted (NO). For example, you can run the following query in SQL*Plus to determine which backup pieces are encrypted:

COL BS_REC    FORMAT 99999
COL BP_REC    FORMAT 99999
COL MB        FORMAT 9999999
COL ENCRYPTED FORMAT A7
COL TAG       FORMAT A25

SELECT S.RECID AS "BS_REC", P.RECID AS "BP_REC", P.ENCRYPTED, 
       P.TAG, P.HANDLE AS "MEDIA_HANDLE"
FROM   V$BACKUP_PIECE P, V$BACKUP_SET S
WHERE  P.SET_STAMP = S.SET_STAMP
AND    P.SET_COUNT = S.SET_COUNT;

The following sample output shows that the backups are encrypted:

BS_REC BP_REC ENCRYPT TAG
------ ------ ------- -------------------------
MEDIA_HANDLE
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
     1      1 YES     TAG20070711T140124
/disk1/c-39525561-20070711-00
 
     2      2 YES     TAG20070711T140128
/disk1/c-39525561-20070711-01
 
     3      3 YES     TAG20070711T140130
/disk1/c-39525561-20070711-02

See Also:

Oracle Database Reference to learn about the V$BACKUP_PIECE view

Querying Recovery Catalog Views

The LIST, REPORT, and SHOW commands provide the easiest means of accessing the data in the control file and the recovery catalog. Nevertheless, you can sometimes also obtain useful information from the recovery catalog views, which reside in the recovery catalog schema and use the RC_ prefix.

About Recovery Catalog Views

RMAN obtains backup and recovery metadata from a target database control file and stores it in the tables of the recovery catalog. The recovery catalog views are derived from these tables. The recovery catalog views are not normalized or optimized for user queries.

In general, the recovery catalog views are not as user-friendly as the RMAN reporting commands. For example, when you start RMAN and connect to a target database, you obtain the information for this target database only when you issue LIST, REPORT, and SHOW commands. If you have 10 different target databases registered in the same recovery catalog, then any query of the catalog views shows the metadata for all incarnations of all 10 databases. You often must perform complex selects and joins among the views to extract usable information about a database incarnation.

Most of the catalog views have a corresponding V$ view in the database. For example, RC_BACKUP_PIECE corresponds to V$BACKUP_PIECE. The primary difference between the recovery catalog view and corresponding V$ view is that each recovery catalog view contains metadata about all the target databases registered in the recovery catalog. The V$ view contains information only about itself.

See Also:

Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference for a description of recovery catalog views

Unique Identifiers for Registered Databases

Most recovery catalog views contain the columns DB_KEY and DBINC_KEY. Each database registered in the recovery catalog can be uniquely identified by either the primary key, which is the DB_KEY column value, or the DBID, which is the 32-bit unique database identifier. Each incarnation of a database is uniquely identified by the DBINC_KEY column.

You can use DB_KEY and DBINC_KEY to retrieve the records of a specific incarnation of a target database. Then, you can perform joins with most of the other catalog views to isolate records belonging to this incarnation.

An important difference between catalog and V$ views is that a different system of unique identifiers is used for backup and recovery files. For example, many V$ views such as V$ARCHIVED_LOG use the RECID and STAMP columns to form a concatenated primary key. The corresponding recovery catalog view uses a derived value as its primary keys and stores this value in a single column. For example, the primary key in RC_ARCHIVED_LOG is the AL_KEY column. The AL_KEY column value is the primary key that RMAN displays in the LIST command output.

Unique Identifiers in a Data Guard Environment

Special considerations apply when querying the recovery catalog in a Data Guard environment. In a Data Guard environment, multiple databases share the same DBID. Several views contain a DB_UNIQUE_NAME column, which indicates the DB_UNIQUE_NAME of the database incarnation to which the record belongs. All databases in a Data Guard environment share the same DBID but have different DB_UNIQUE_NAME values.

The value of DB_UNIQUE_NAME is null when the database name is not known to the catalog, as for Oracle9i databases that are registered in a recovery catalog. Also, the column value is null when a database is upgraded to Oracle Database 11g but the recovery catalog schema has not reconciled the database names for all files.

In the recovery catalog views, the primary database and its associated standby databases share the same DB_KEY. However, every database in a Data Guard environment has a unique RC_SITE.SITE_KEY value. For example, a primary database prod and its standby database standby1 might both have the DB_KEY value of 1, whereas the SITE_KEY of prod is 3 and the SITE_KEY of standby1 is 30.

Some recovery catalog views do not have a DB_UNIQUE_NAME column, but include a SITE_KEY column. You can use the SITE_KEY column to join with RC_SITE.SITE_KEY to determine the DB_UNIQUE_NAME of the database associated with a file. As explained in "RMAN File Management in a Data Guard Environment", every file in a Data Guard environment is associated with the primary or standby database that created it.

See Also:

Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration to learn how to report on and manage files in a Data Guard environment

Querying Catalog Views for the Target DB_KEY or DBID Values

The DB_KEY value, which is the primary key for a registered database, is used only in the recovery catalog. The easiest way is to obtain the DB_KEY is to use the DBID of the target database, which is displayed whenever you connect RMAN to a database as TARGET. The DBID distinguishes databases registered in the RMAN recovery catalog.

Assume that you want to obtain information about a database registered in the recovery catalog.

To query the catalog for information about the current incarnation of a database:

  1. Determine the DBID for the database whose records you want to view.

    You can obtain the DBID by looking at the output displayed when RMAN connects to the database, querying V$RMAN_OUTPUT, or querying a V$DATABASE view. The following example connects SQL*Plus to the desired database and queries the DBID:

    SQL> CONNECT / AS SYSBACKUP
    SQL> SELECT DBID 
      2  FROM   V$DATABASE;
    
         DBID
    ---------
    598368217
    
  2. Start SQL*Plus and connect to the recovery catalog database as the owner of the recovery catalog.

  3. Obtain the database key for the database whose DBID you obtained in Step 1.

    To obtain the DB_KEY for a database run the following query, where dbid_of_target is the DBID obtained in Step 1:

    SELECT DB_KEY 
    FROM   RC_DATABASE 
    WHERE  DBID = dbid_of_target;
    
  4. Query the records for the current incarnation of the database whose DBID you obtained in Step 1.

    To obtain information about the current incarnation of a target database, specify the target database DB_KEY value and perform a join with the RC_DATABASE_INCARNATION view. Use a WHERE condition to specify that the CURRENT_INCARNATION column value is set to YES. For example, to obtain information about backup sets in the current incarnation of a target database with the DB_KEY value of 1, query as follows:

    SELECT BS_KEY, BACKUP_TYPE, COMPLETION_TIME
    FROM   RC_DATABASE_INCARNATION i, RC_BACKUP_SET b
    WHERE  i.DB_KEY = 1
    AND    i.DB_KEY = b.DB_KEY
    AND    i.CURRENT_INCARNATION = 'YES';
    

See Also:

Querying RC_BACKUP_FILES

You can query the view RC_BACKUP_FILES for information about all backups of any database registered in the recovery catalog. Before querying RC_BACKUP_FILES, however, you must call the DBMS_RCVMAN.SETDATABASE procedure. Specify the DBID of a database registered in the recovery catalog, as shown in the following example:

SQL> CALL DBMS_RCVMAN.SETDATABASE(null,null,null,2283997583);

The fourth parameter must be the DBID of a database registered in the recovery catalog. The other parameters must all be NULL.

See Also: