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28 Transporting Data Across Platforms

You can use RMAN to transport tablespaces across platforms with different endian formats. You can also use RMAN to transport an entire database to a different platform so long as the two platforms have the same endian format.

This chapter contains the following topics:

About Cross-Platform Data Transport

Cross-platform transportable tablespace is a variation of ordinary transportable tablespace. All of the restrictions that apply to transportable tablespaces apply here also, such as the need to ensure that all of the objects being transported are completely contained within the set of tablespaces being transported. Cross-platform transportable tablespace can be performed between platforms that have the same, or different, endian format.

Cross-platform transportable database is not the same thing as transportable tablespace. In this case you are copying an entire database, including the SYSTEM tablespace from one platform to another. Containment checks are irrelevant, and because the SYSTEM tablespace is being copied, no export/import step is required. Cross-platform transportable database can only be performed between platforms that have the same endian format.

Purpose of Cross-Platform Data Transport

You can transport tablespaces in a database that runs on one platform into a database that runs on a different platform. Typical uses of cross-platform transportable tablespaces include the following:

  • Publishing structured data as transportable tablespaces for distribution to customers, who can convert the tablespaces for integration into their existing databases regardless of platform

  • Moving data from a large data warehouse server to data marts on smaller computers such as Linux-based workstations or servers

  • Sharing read-only tablespaces across a heterogeneous cluster in which all hosts share the same endian format

  • Migrating tablespaces across platforms with minimal application downtime

A full discussion of transportable tablespaces, their uses, and the different techniques for creating and using them is found in Oracle Database Administrator's Guide.

You can also use RMAN to transport an entire database from one platform to another. For example, business requirements demand that you run your databases on less expensive servers that use a different platform. In this case, you can use RMAN to transport the entire database rather than re-create it and use import utilities or transportable tablespaces to repopulate the data.

You can convert a database on the destination host or source host. Reasons for converting on the destination host include:

  • Avoiding performance overhead on the source host due to the conversion process

  • Distributing a database from one source system to multiple recipients on several different platforms

  • Evaluating a migration path for a new platform

Methods of Transporting Data Across Platforms

RMAN enables you to transport data files, tablespaces, or an entire database from one platform to another. When you transport an entire database to a different platform, the destination platform must have the same endian format as the source platform.

Use one of the following methods to transport data across platforms:

Platforms that Support Cross-Platform Data Transport

The Oracle Database maintains a list of internal names for each platform that supports cross-platform data transport. These names are stored in the V$TRANSPORTABLE_PLATFORM view. Use this view to determine the internal name of the source platform or destination platform. While transporting data across platforms, you may need to specify the exact name of the source or destination platform. Any platform names specified as a parameter of the CONVERT or BACKUP command must be entered exactly as shown in the V$TRANSPORTABLE_PLATFORM view.

Use the following query to obtain the platform name of the connected database:

SELECT PLATFORM_NAME
    FROM V$TRANSPORTABLE_PLATFORM
    WHERE PLATFORM_ID =
       ( SELECT PLATFORM_ID FROM V$DATABASE );

Use the following query to obtain the name of the Linux platform:

SELECT PLATFORM_ID, PLATFORM_NAME, ENDIAN_FORMAT
FROM V$TRANSPORTABLE_PLATFORM
WHERE UPPER(PLATFORM_NAME) LIKE '%LINUX%';

Overview of Cross-Platform Data Transport Using Image Copies

RMAN enables you to use image copies to transport tablespaces, data files, or an entire database. You use the RMAN CONVERT command to perform cross-platform transport with image copies. Tablespace transport is sometimes performed by individually transporting the data files that store the tablespace data. However, it is not possible to transport a single data file that is part of a tablespace that consists of multiple data files.

You must use the RMAN CONVERT command in a transportable tablespace operation when the source platform is different from the destination platform and the endian formats are different. If you are converting part of the database between platforms that have the same endian format, you can use operating system methods to copy the files from the source to the destination. If you are converting an entire, same endian database, any data files with undo information must be converted. You cannot copy these files directly from the source to the destination platform.

Tablespace and Data File Conversion

You can perform tablespace conversion with the RMAN CONVERT TABLESPACE command on the source host, but not on the destination host. The CONVERT TABLESPACE command does not perform in-place conversion of data files. Rather, the command produces output files in the correct format for use on the destination platform. The command does not alter the contents of data files in the source database.

You can use the CONVERT DATAFILE command to convert files. Typically, the CONVERT DATAFILE command is used on the destination host and the CONVERT TABLESPACE command is used on the source host. When you use the CONVERT DATAFILE command on the source host, ensure that data files are cleanly offline or the tablespaces containing those data files are read-only. The Data Pump Export utility generates an export dump file that, with data files manually copied to the destination host, can be imported into the destination database. Until the Data Pump export dump file is imported into the destination database, the data files are not associated with a tablespace name in the database. In this case, RMAN cannot translate the tablespace name into a list of data files. Therefore, you must use CONVERT DATAFILE and identify the data files by file name.

Note:

Using CONVERT TABLESPACE or CONVERT DATAFILE is only one step in using cross-platform transportable tablespaces. Read the discussion of transportable tablespaces in Oracle Database Administrator's Guide in its entirety before attempting to follow the procedures in this chapter.

Database Conversion

To convert a whole database to a different platform, both platforms must use the same endian format. The RMAN CONVERT DATABASE command automates the movement of an entire database from a source platform to a destination platform. The transported database contains the same data as the source database and also has, with a few exceptions, the same settings as the source database.

Files automatically transported to the destination platform include:

  • Data files that belong to permanent tablespaces

    Unlike transporting tablespaces across platforms, transporting entire databases requires that certain types of blocks, such as blocks in undo segments, be reformatted to ensure compatibility with the destination platform. Even though the endian formats for the source and destination platforms are the same, certain types of files must undergo a conversion process. See "Checking the Database Before Cross-Platform Database Conversion" for details about the types of files that need conversion.

  • Initialization parameter file or server parameter file

    If the database uses a text-based initialization parameter file, then RMAN transports it. If the database uses a server parameter file, then RMAN generates an initialization parameter file based on the server parameter file, transports it and creates a new server parameter file at the destination based on the settings in the initialization parameter file.

    Usually, some parameters in the initialization parameter file require manual updating for the new database. For example, you may change the DB_NAME and parameters such as CONTROL_FILES that indicate the locations of files on the destination host.

You can convert the format of the data files either on the source platform or on the destination platform. The CONVERT DATABASE ON DESTINATION PLATFORM command does not convert the format of data files. Rather, it generates scripts that you can run manually to perform the conversion. The CONVERT SCRIPT parameter creates a convert script that you can manually execute at the destination host to convert data file copies in batch mode. The TRANSPORT SCRIPT parameter generates a transport script that contains SQL statements to create the new database on the destination platform.

See Also:

My Oracle Support Note 1079563.1, "RMAN DUPLICATE/RESTORE/RECOVER Mixed Platform Support" for the following information:
  • List of platform combinations that do not require the CONVERT DATABASE command

  • Prerequisites for the source database and destination databases

See Also:

http://www.oracle.com/goto/maa for best practices on using cross-platform transportable tablespace and database procedures as part of data migration tasks

Performing Cross-Platform Tablespace Conversion with Image Copies

See the list of CONVERT command prerequisites described in Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference. Meet all these prerequisites before doing the steps in this section.

For purposes of illustration, assume that you must transport tablespaces finance and hr from source database prod_source, which runs on a Sun Solaris host. You plan to transport them to destination database prod_dest running on a Linux PC. You plan to store the converted data files in the temporary directory /tmp/transport_linux/ on the source host.

To perform cross-platform tablespace conversion with image copies:

  1. Start SQL*Plus and connect to the source database prod_source with administrator privileges.

  2. Query the name for the destination platform in the V$TRANSPORTABLE_PLATFORM view.

    The PLATFORM_NAME for Linux on a PC is Linux IA (64-bit).

    See Also:

    "Platforms that Support Cross-Platform Data Transport" for information about determining the platform name
  3. Check if the tablespaces to be transported are self-contained by executing the DBMS_TTS.TRANSPORT_SET_CHECK procedure. If the TRANSPORT_SET_VIOLATIONS view contains rows corresponding to the specified tablespaces, then you must resolve the dependencies before proceeding with the conversion.

    See Also:

    Example 21-1 for information about executing the DBMS_TTS.TRANSPORT_SET_CHECK procedure
  4. Place the tablespaces to be transported in read-only mode. For example, enter:

    ALTER TABLESPACE finance READ ONLY;
    ALTER TABLESPACE hr READ ONLY;
    
  5. Choose a method for naming the output files.

    You must use the FORMAT or DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT arguments to the CONVERT command to control the names of the output files. The rules are listed in order of precedence:

    1. Any file that matches any pattern provided in the DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT clause is named based upon this pattern.

    2. If you specify a FORMAT clause, then any file not named based on the pattern provided in the DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT clause is named based on the FORMAT pattern.

    Note:

    You cannot use the DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT clause to generate output file names for the CONVERT command when the source and destination files have Oracle Managed File names.
  6. Start RMAN and connect to the source database (not the destination database) as TARGET. For example, enter:

    % rman
    RMAN> CONNECT TARGET "sbu@prod_source AS SYSBACKUP";
    
  7. Run the CONVERT TABLESPACE command to convert the data files into the endian format of the destination host.

    In the following example, the FORMAT argument controls the name and location of the converted data files:

    RMAN> CONVERT TABLESPACE finance,hr
    2>   TO PLATFORM 'Linux IA (64-bit)'
    3>   FORMAT '/tmp/transport_linux/%U';
    

    The result is a set of converted data files in the /tmp/transport_linux/ directory, with data in the correct endian format for the Linux IA (64-bit) platform.

    See Also:

    Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference for the full semantics of the CONVERT command
  8. Follow the rest of the general outline for transporting tablespaces:

    1. Use the Oracle Data Pump Export utility to create the export dump file on the source host.

    2. Move the converted data files and the export dump file from the source host to the desired directories on the destination host.

    3. Plug the tablespace in to the new database with the DataPump Import utility.

    4. If applicable, place the transported tablespaces into read/write mode.

    See Also:

    Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information about using transportable tablespaces

Performing Cross-Platform Data File Conversion with Image Copies

See the list of CONVERT command prerequisites described in Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference. Meet these prerequisites before performing the steps in this section.

About Cross-Platform Data File Conversion

Data file conversion necessitates that you choose a technique for naming the output files. You must use the FORMAT or DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT arguments to the CONVERT command to control the naming of output files. The rules are listed in order of precedence:

  1. Any file that matches any pattern provided in the DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT clause is named based upon this pattern.

  2. If you specify a FORMAT clause, then any file not named based on the pattern provided in the DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT clause is named based on the FORMAT pattern.

Note:

You cannot use the DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT clause to generate output file names for the CONVERT command when both the source and destination files are Oracle Managed Files.

If the source and destination platforms differ, then you must specify the FROM PLATFORM parameter. View platform names by querying the V$TRANSPORTABLE_PLATFORM. The FROM PLATFORM value must match the format of the data files to be converted to avoid an error. If you do not specify FROM PLATFORM, then this parameter defaults to the value of the destination platform.

See Also:

"Platforms that Support Cross-Platform Data Transport" for information about determining the platform name

Performing Tablespace Transportation on the Destination Host Using CONVERT DATAFILE

This section explains how to use the CONVERT DATAFILE command. The section assumes that you intend to transport tablespaces finance (data files fin/fin01.dbf and fin/fin02.dbf) and hr (data files hr/hr01.dbf and hr/hr02.dbf) from a source database named prod_source. The database runs on a Sun Solaris host. You plan to transport these tablespaces into a destination database named prod_dest, which runs on a Linux PC. You plan to perform conversion on the destination host.

When the data files are plugged in to the destination database, you plan to store them in /orahome/dbs and preserve the current directory structure. That is, data files for the hr tablespace are stored in the /orahome/dbs/hr subdirectory, and data files for the finance tablespace are stored in the /orahome/dbs/fin directory.

To perform cross-platform data file conversion with image copies:

  1. Start SQL*Plus and connect to the source database prod_source with administrator privileges.

  2. Query the name for the source platform in V$TRANSPORTABLE_PLATFORM.

    For this scenario, assume that the PLATFORM_NAME for the source host is Solaris[tm] OE (64-bit).

    See Also:

    "Platforms that Support Cross-Platform Data Transport" for information about determining the platform name
  3. Identify the tablespaces to be transported from the source database and place them in read-only mode.

    For example, enter the following SQL statements to place finance and hr in read-only mode:

    ALTER TABLESPACE finance READ ONLY;
    ALTER TABLESPACE hr READ ONLY;
    
  4. On the source host, use Data Pump Export to create the export dump file

    In this example, the dump file is named expdat.dmp.

  5. Make the export dump file and the data files to be transported available to the destination host.

    You can use NFS to make the dump file and current database files (not copies) accessible. Alternatively, you can use an operating system utility to copy these files to the destination host.

    In this example, you store the files in the /tmp/transport_solaris/ directory of the destination host. You preserve the subdirectory structure from the original location of the files; that is, the data files are stored as:

    • /tmp/transport_solaris/fin/fin01.dbf

    • /tmp/transport_solaris/fin/fin02.dbf

    • /tmp/transport_solaris/hr/hr01.dbf

    • /tmp/transport_solaris/hr/hr02.dbf

  6. Start RMAN and connect to the destination database (not the source database) as TARGET. For example, the following command connects to the target database prod_dest using the sbu user who is granted the SYSBACKUP privilege:

    % rman
    RMAN> CONNECT TARGET "sbu@prod_dest AS SYSBACKUP";
    
  7. Execute the CONVERT DATAFILE command to convert the data files into the endian format of the destination host.

    In this example, you use DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT to control the name and location of the converted data files. You also specify the FROM PLATFORM clause.

    RMAN> CONVERT DATAFILE
    2>   '/tmp/transport_solaris/fin/fin01.dbf',
    3>   '/tmp/transport_solaris/fin/fin02.dbf',
    4>   '/tmp/transport_solaris/hr/hr01.dbf',
    5>   '/tmp/transport_solaris/hr/hr02.dbf'
    6>   DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT
    7>     '/tmp/transport_solaris/fin','/orahome/dbs/fin',
    8>     '/tmp/transport_solaris/hr','/orahome/dbs/hr'
    9>   FROM PLATFORM 'Solaris[tm] OE (64-bit)
    

    The result is a set of converted data files in the /orahome/dbs/ directory that are named as follows:

    • /orahome/dbs/fin/fin01.dbf

    • /orahome/dbs/fin/fin02.dbf

    • /orahome/dbs/hr/hr01.dbf

    • /orahome/dbs/hr/hr02.dbf

  8. Follow the rest of the general outline for transporting tablespaces:

    1. Plug the tablespace in to the new database with the DataPump Import utility.

    2. If applicable, place the transported tablespaces into read-only mode.

See Also:

Performing Cross-Platform Database Conversion with Image Copies

When you perform cross-platform database conversion with image copies, you can convert the data files on either the source host or the destination host.

This section contains:

Checking the Database Before Cross-Platform Database Conversion

As explained in "Overview of Cross-Platform Data Transport Using Image Copies", you can use the RMAN CONVERT DATABASE command to automate the copying of an entire database from one platform to another. You convert the database data files on either the source or destination platforms.

Before converting the database, see the list of CONVERT DATABASE command prerequisites described in Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference. Confirm that you meet all these prerequisites before attempting the procedure in this section.

One prerequisite is that both the source and destination platform must share the same endian format. For example, you can transport a database from Microsoft Windows to Linux for x86 (both little-endian), or from HP-UX to AIX (both big-endian), but not from HP-UX to Linux for x86 (big-endian to little-endian).

Note:

If you cannot use the CONVERT DATABASE command because the platforms do not share endian formats, then you can create a new database on the destination platform and then use cross-platform transportable tablespace to copy your data.

When you transport entire databases, note that certain files require RMAN conversion to ensure compatibility with the destination platform. Even though the endian formats for the source and destination platform are the same, these files cannot be simply copied from the source to the destination system. The following kinds of files require RMAN conversion:

  • Any file containing undo segments

  • Any file containing automatic segment space management (ASSM) segment headers that is being transported to or from the HP Tru64 platform

Note:

When converting to or from Tru64 UNIX platform, even if the databases use the same endian format, you must use the CONVERT command to convert data files with automatic segment space management (ASSM) headers. See My Oracle Support Note 732053.1 for information about identifying data files that contain undo data or ASSM headers.

The CONVERT DATABASE command, by default, processes all data files in the database using RMAN conversion. The RMAN conversion copies the files from one location to another, even when it does not make any changes to the file. If you have other preferred means to copy those files that do not require RMAN conversion, you can use the SKIP UNNECESSARY DATAFILES option of the CONVERT DATABASE command. If you select this option, then the CONVERT DATABASE command only processes the files that require conversion. All other files must either be made accessible to the user or copied from the source to the destination database.

Whether the data file conversion is performed at the source or destination host, you must copy the files while the source database is open in read-only mode.

To check the database before cross-platform conversion:

  1. On the source database, start a SQL*Plus session as a user with the SYSDBA or SYSBACKUP privilege.

  2. Open the database in read-only mode.

    SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
    STARTUP MOUNT
    ALTER DATABASE OPEN READ ONLY;
    
  3. Ensure that server output is on in SQL*Plus.

    For example, enter the following SQL*Plus command:

    SET SERVEROUTPUT ON
    
  4. Execute the DBMS_TDB.CHECK_DB function.

    This check ensures that no conditions prevent the transport of the database, such as incorrect compatibility settings, in-doubt or active transactions, or incompatible endian formats between the source platform and destination platform.

    You can call CHECK_DB without arguments to see if a condition at the source database prevents transport. You can also call this function with the arguments shown in Table 28-1.

    Table 28-1 CHECK_DB Function Parameters

    Parameter Description

    target_platform_name

    The name of the destination platform as it appears in the V$DB_TRANSPORTABLE_PLATFORM view.

    This parameter is optional, but is required when the skip_option parameter is used. If omitted, it is assumed that the destination platform is compatible with the source platform, and only the conditions not related to platform compatibility are tested.

    skip_option

    Specifies which, if any, parts of the database to skip when checking whether the database can be transported. Supported values (of type NUMBER) are:

    • SKIP_NONE (or 0), which checks all tablespaces

    • SKIP_OFFLINE (or 2), which skips checking data files in offline tablespaces

    • SKIP_READONLY (or 3), which skips checking data files in read-only tablespaces


    Example 28-1 illustrates executing CHECK_DB on a 32-bit Linux platform for transporting a database to 32-bit Windows, skipping read-only tablespaces.

    Example 28-1 Executing DBMS_TDB.CHECK_DB

    DECLARE
      db_ready BOOLEAN;
    BEGIN
      db_ready := 
           DBMS_TDB.CHECK_DB('Microsoft Windows IA (32-bit)',DBMS_TDB.SKIP_READONLY);
    END;
    /
    
    PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
    

    If no warnings appear, or if DBMS_TDB.CHECK_DB returns TRUE, then you can transport the database. Proceed to Step 6.

    If warnings appear, or if DBMS_TDB.CHECK_DB returns FALSE, then you cannot currently transport the database. Proceed to Step 5.

  5. Examine the output to learn why the database cannot be transported, fix the problem if possible, and then return to the Step 4. See the DBMS_TDB documentation in the Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for the conditions present.

  6. Execute the DBMS_TDB.CHECK_EXTERNAL function to identify any external tables, directories, or BFILEs. RMAN cannot automate the transport of these files, so you must copy the files manually and re-create the database directories.

    Example 28-2 shows how to call the DBMS_TDB.CHECK_EXTERNAL function.

    Example 28-2 Executing DBMS_TDB.CHECK_EXTERNAL

    DECLARE
         external BOOLEAN;
    BEGIN
        /* value of external is ignored, but with SERVEROUTPUT set to ON
         * dbms_tdb.check_external displays report of external objects
         * on console */
        external := DBMS_TDB.CHECK_EXTERNAL;
    END;
    /
    

    If no external objects exist, then the procedure completes with no output. If external objects exist, however, then the output is similar to the following:

    The following external tables exist in the database:
    SH.SALES_TRANSACTIONS_EXT
    The following directories exist in the database:
    SYS.DATA_PUMP_DIR, SYS.MEDIA_DIR, SYS.DATA_FILE_DIR, SYS.LOG_FILE_DIR
    The following BFILEs exist in the database:
    PM.PRINT_MEDIA
     
    PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
    

Converting Data Files on the Source Host When Transporting a Database

When you transport entire databases, certain types of blocks such as blocks in undo segments must be reformatted to ensure compatibility with the destination platform. Even though the endian formats for the source and destination platform are the same, certain data files must undergo a conversion process and cannot be simply copied from one platform to another.

Data files with undo information and those from the HP Tru64 platform must be converted. By default, all data files are converted when the CONVERT DATABASE command is executed. If, however, SKIP UNNECESSARY DATAFILES is used in the CONVERT DATABASE command, then the data files with undo segments and those from the HP Tru64 platform are converted. All other data files do not require conversion and can be copied to the new database using FTP, an operating system copy command, or some other mechanism.

This section assumes that you have met all of the CONVERT DATABASE prerequisites and followed the steps in "Checking the Database Before Cross-Platform Database Conversion". The goal of this procedure is to convert the format of data files on the source host as part of a cross-platform database transport.

Assume that you want to convert a database running on Solaris to a database that runs on Windows.

To convert the database on the source host:

  1. Open the source database in read-only mode.

    ALTER DATABASE OPEN READ ONLY;
    
  2. Start RMAN and connect to the source database as TARGET as described in "Making Database Connections with RMAN".

  3. Run the CONVERT DATABASE command.

    Example 28-3 shows a CONVERT DATABASE command (sample output included). The TRANSPORT SCRIPT parameter specifies the location of the generated SQL script that you can use to create the new database. The TO PLATFORM parameter indicates the platform of the destination database. The DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT parameter specifies the naming scheme for the generated data files.

    Example 28-3 Converting a Database on the Source Host

    RMAN> CONVERT DATABASE
    2>   NEW DATABASE 'newdb'
    3>   TRANSPORT SCRIPT '/tmp/convertdb/transportscript.sql'
    4>   TO PLATFORM 'Microsoft Windows IA (32-bit)'
    5>   DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT '/disk1/oracle/dbs' '/tmp/convertdb';
     
    Starting convert at 25-NOV-06
    using channel ORA_DISK_1
     
    External table SH.SALES_TRANSACTIONS_EXT found in the database
     
    Directory SYS.DATA_PUMP_DIR found in the database
    Directory SYS.MEDIA_DIR found in the database
    Directory SYS.DATA_FILE_DIR found in the database
    Directory SYS.LOG_FILE_DIR found in the database
     
    BFILE PM.PRINT_MEDIA found in the database
     
    User SYS with SYSDBA and SYSOPER privilege found in password file
    User SBU with SYSBACKUP privilege found in password file
    channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile conversion
    input datafile fno=00001 name=/disk1/oracle/dbs/tbs_01.f
    converted datafile=/tmp/convertdb/tbs_01.f
    channel ORA_DISK_1: datafile conversion complete, elapsed time: 00:00:15
    channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile conversion
    input datafile fno=00002 name=/disk1/oracle/dbs/tbs_ax1.f
    converted datafile=/tmp/convertdb/tbs_ax1.f
    channel ORA_DISK_1: datafile conversion complete, elapsed time: 00:00:03
    .
    .
    .
    channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile conversion
    input datafile fno=00016 name=/disk1/oracle/dbs/tbs_52.f
    converted datafile=/tmp/convertdb/tbs_52.f
    channel ORA_DISK_1: datafile conversion complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
    Run SQL script /tmp/convertdb/transportscript.sql on the destination platform 
      to create database
    Edit init.ora file init_00gb3vfv_1_0.ora. This PFILE will be used to 
      create the database on the destination platform
    To recompile all PL/SQL modules, run utlirp.sql and utlrp.sql on 
      the destination platform
    To change the internal database identifier, use DBNEWID Utility
    Finished backup at 25-NOV-06
    
  4. After CONVERT DATABASE completes, you can open the source database read/write again.

  5. Move the data files generated by CONVERT DATABASE to the desired locations on the destination host.

    In Example 28-3, the command creates the files in the /tmp/convertdb/ directory on the source host. Move these files to the directory on the destination host that will contain the destination database files.

  6. If the path to the data files is different on the destination host, then edit the transport script to refer to the new data file locations.

  7. If necessary, edit the initialization parameter file to change any settings for the destination database.

    You must edit several entries at the top of the initialization parameter file when the database is moved to the destination platform. For example, the initialization parameter file may look as follows:

    # Please change the values of the following parameters:
     control_files            = "/tmp/convertdb/cf_D-NEWDBT_id-1778429277_00gb9u2s"
     db_recovery_file_dest    = "/tmp/convertdb/orcva"
     db_recovery_file_dest_size= 10737418240
     instance_name            = "NEWDBT"
     service_names            = "NEWDBT.example.com"
     plsql_native_library_dir = "/tmp/convertdb/plsqlnld1"
     db_name                  = "NEWDBT"
    
  8. If necessary, edit the transport script to use the new names for the converted data files.

    In Example 28-3, the transport script is named /tmp/convertdb/transportscript.sql. You run this script on the destination host to create the database. Thus, you must edit this script with the correct names for the data files.

  9. On the destination host, start SQL*Plus and connect to the destination database instance as SYSDBA or SYSBACKUP using operating system authentication.

    For example, connect as follows:

    SQL> CONNECT / AS SYSBACKUP
    

    If you choose not to use operating system authentication, you can create a password file and then connect with a user name and password.

  10. Execute the transport script in SQL*Plus to create the new database on the destination host.

    SQL> @transportscript
    

When the transport script finishes, the creation of the new database is complete.

See Also:

Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information about operating system authentication and password file authentication

Converting Data Files on the Destination Host When Transporting a Database

This section assumes that you have met all of the CONVERT DATABASE command prerequisites and followed the steps in "Checking the Database Before Cross-Platform Database Conversion". The goal of this procedure is to convert the format of data files on the destination host as part of a cross-platform database transport.

Perform the data file conversion in the following phases:

  1. Performing Preliminary Data File Conversion Steps on the Source Host

  2. Running the Conversion Scripts on the Destination Host

Performing Preliminary Data File Conversion Steps on the Source Host

In this procedure, you execute the CONVERT DATABASE command on the source host. This command generates an initialization parameter file and scripts that you can edit for use on the destination host. You also copy the unconverted data files from the source host to the destination host.

To perform preliminary data file conversion steps on the source host:

  1. Ensure that the database is open in read-only mode.

  2. Start RMAN and connect to the source database as TARGET, as described in "Making Database Connections with RMAN".

  3. Run the CONVERT DATABASE ON DESTINATION PLATFORM command.

    Example 28-4 shows a sample CONVERT DATABASE command (sample output included). The ON DESTINATION PLATFORM parameter specifies that any CONVERT commands required for data files are executed on the destination platform rather than the source platform. The FORMAT parameter specifies the naming scheme for the generated files.

    Example 28-4 Executing CONVERT DATABASE ON DESTINATION PLATFORM

    RMAN> CONVERT DATABASE
    2>   ON DESTINATION PLATFORM
    3>   CONVERT SCRIPT '/tmp/convertdb/convertscript-target'
    4>   TRANSPORT SCRIPT '/tmp/convertdb/transportscript-target'
    5>   NEW DATABASE 'newdbt'
    6>   FORMAT '/tmp/convertdb/%U';
     
    Starting convert at 28-JAN-05
    using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
    allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
    channel ORA_DISK_1: sid=39 devtype=DISK
     
    External table SH.SALES_TRANSACTIONS_EXT found in the database
     
    Directory SYS.DATA_PUMP_DIR found in the database
    Directory SYS.MEDIA_DIR found in the database
    Directory SYS.DATA_FILE_DIR found in the database
    Directory SYS.LOG_FILE_DIR found in the database
     
    BFILE PM.PRINT_MEDIA found in the database
     
    User SYS with SYSDBA and SYSOPER privilege found in password file
    User SBU with SYSBACKUP privilege found in password file
    channel ORA_DISK_1: starting to check datafiles
    input datafile fno=00001 name=/disk1/oracle/dbs/tbs_01.f
    channel ORA_DISK_1: datafile checking complete, elapsed time: 00:00:00
    channel ORA_DISK_1: starting to check datafiles
    input datafile fno=00002 name=/disk1/oracle/dbs/tbs_ax1.f
    channel ORA_DISK_1: datafile checking complete, elapsed time: 00:00:00
    channel ORA_DISK_1: starting to check datafiles
    input datafile fno=00017 name=/disk1/oracle/dbs/tbs_03.f
    channel ORA_DISK_1: datafile checking complete, elapsed time: 00:00:00
    .
    .
    .
    channel ORA_DISK_1: starting to check datafiles
    input datafile fno=00015 name=/disk1/oracle/dbs/tbs_51.f
    channel ORA_DISK_1: datafile checking complete, elapsed time: 00:00:00
    channel ORA_DISK_1: starting to check datafiles
    input datafile fno=00016 name=/disk1/oracle/dbs/tbs_52.f
    channel ORA_DISK_1: datafile checking complete, elapsed time: 00:00:00
    Run SQL script /tmp/convertdb/transportscript-target on the destination platform to create database
    Edit init.ora file /tmp/convertdb/init_00gb9u2s_1_0.ora. This PFILE will be used to create the database on the destination platform
    Run RMAN script /tmp/convertdb/convertscript-target on destination platform to convert datafiles
    To recompile all PL/SQL modules, run utlirp.sql and utlrp.sql on the destination platform
    To change the internal database identifier, use DBNEWID Utility
    Finished backup at 28-JAN-05
    

    The command in Example 28-4 creates a transport script, an initialization parameter file for the new database, and a convert script containing RMAN CONVERT DATAFILE commands for each data file being converted.

    Note:

    CONVERT DATABASE ON DESTINATION PLATFORM does not produce converted data file copies. The command only creates scripts.
  4. Use an operating system utility to copy the following files to a temporary location on the destination host:

    • The data files to be converted

    • The convert script

    • The transport script

    • The initialization file for the destination database

  5. Make the source database read/write.

Running the Conversion Scripts on the Destination Host

This section explains how to use the scripts created in the previous section to convert the data files on the destination host and complete the transport process.

The convert script created in the previous phase uses the original data file names of the source database files. The FORMAT parameter specifies the name that was generated with the FORMAT or DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT parameter of the CONVERT DATABASE command.

If the data files of the source database are accessible from the destination host with the same path names, then so long as the source database is read-only you can run the convert script on the destination host without any changes. For example, if the source and destination hosts both use NFS to mount a disk containing the source data files, and if the mount point for both hosts is /fs1/dbs/, then no editing is needed.

To run the conversion scripts on the destination host:

  1. If necessary, edit the convert script.

    In the script, one CONVERT DATAFILE command exists for each data file to be converted. The convert script must indicate the current temporary file names of the unconverted data files and the output file names of the converted data files. A typical convert script looks as follows:

    RUN
    {
     CONVERT
     FROM PLATFORM 'Linux IA (32-bit)'
     PARALLELISM 10
      DATAFILE '/disk1/oracle/dbs/tbs_01.f'
      FORMAT
     '/tmp/convertdb/data_D-TV_I-1778429277_TS-SYSTEM_FNO-1_7qgb9u2s';
     
     DATAFILE '/disk1/oracle/dbs/tbs_ax1.f'
     FORMAT
     '/tmp/convertdb/data_D-TV_I-1778429277_TS-SYSAUX_FNO-2_7rgb9u2s';
     
     DATAFILE '/disk1/oracle/dbs/tbs_03.f'
     FORMAT
     '/tmp/convertdb/data_D-TV_I-1778429277_TS-SYSTEM_FNO-17_7sgb9u2s';
     
     DATAFILE '/disk1/oracle/dbs/tbs_51.f'
     FORMAT
     '/tmp/convertdb/data_D-TV_I-1778429277_TS-TBS_5_FNO-15_8egb9u2u';
     
     DATAFILE '/disk1/oracle/dbs/tbs_52.f'
      FORMAT
     '/tmp/convertdb/data_D-TV_I-1778429277_TS-TBS_5_FNO-16_8fgb9u2u';
    }
    

    Edit each DATAFILE command in the convert script to specify the temporary location of each data file as input. Also, edit the FORMAT parameter of each command to specify the desired final location of the data files of the transported database.

  2. If necessary, edit the initialization parameter file on the destination host to change settings for the destination database.

    You must edit several entries at the top of the initialization parameter file. For example, the initialization parameter file may look as follows:

    # Please change the values of the following parameters:
    control_files            = "/tmp/convertdb/cf_D-NEWDBT_id-1778429277_00gb9u2s"
    db_recovery_file_dest    = "/tmp/convertdb/orcva"
    db_recovery_file_dest_size= 10737418240
    instance_name            = "NEWDBT"
    service_names            = "NEWDBT.example.com"
    plsql_native_library_dir = "/tmp/convertdb/plsqlnld1"
    db_name                  = "NEWDBT"
    
  3. On the destination host, use SQL*Plus to start the database instance in NOMOUNT mode.

    Specify the initialization parameter file that you copied in the preceding step. For example, enter the following command:

    SQL> STARTUP NOMOUNT PFILE='/tmp/init_convertdb_00i2gj63_1_0.ora'
    
  4. Start RMAN and connect to the destination database (not the source database) as TARGET. For example, enter the following command:

    % rman
    RMAN> CONNECT TARGET "sbu@prod_dest AS SYSBACKUP";
    
  5. Run the convert script at the RMAN prompt. For example, enter the following command:

    RMAN> @/tmp/convertdb/convertscript-target
    
  6. Shut down the database instance.

    This step is necessary because the transport script that must execute includes a STARTUP NOMOUNT command.

  7. If necessary, edit the transport script to use the new names for the converted data files.

    In Example 28-3, the transport script is /tmp/convertdb/transportscript.sql. You run this script on the destination host to create the database. Thus, you must edit this script with the correct names for the data files.

  8. Execute the transport script in SQL*Plus.

    For example, create the new database on the destination host as follows:

    SQL> @/tmp/convertdb/transportscript
    

When the transport script completes, the destination database is created.

Overview of Cross-Platform Data Transport Using Backup Sets

RMAN can transport databases, data files, and tablespaces across platforms by using backup sets. Performing cross-platform data transport with backup sets enables you to use block compression to reduce the size of backups. This improves backup performance and reduces the time taken to transport backups over the network.

Note:

To perform cross-platform data transport using backup sets, the version of the destination database must be Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) or later.

When you transport an entire database to a different platform, the source platform and the destination platform must use the same endian format. However, user tablespaces can be transported to a destination platform that uses a different endian format from the source platform.

On the source database, you create a cross-platform backup of the data that needs to be transported. A cross-platform backup is an RMAN backup that can be restored on a destination platform that is different from the source platform. On the destination database, you restore and then recover the cross-platform backup to obtain the data that you wanted to transport. Cross-platform backups can be restored on any platform that is supported in the V$TRANSPORTABLE_PLATFORM view.

RMAN does not catalog backup sets created for cross-platform transport in the control file. This ensures that backup sets created for cross-platform transport are not used during regular restore operations.

Clauses Used to Create Cross-Platform Backups Using Backups Sets

Use the FOR TRANSPORT or TO PLATFORM clause in the BACKUP command to create cross-platform backups. When you create a cross-platform backup of read-only tablespaces using either of these clauses, RMAN can also create a Data Pump export dump file containing the metadata required to plug these tablespaces into the destination database.

Although the TO PLATFORM and FOR TRANSPORT clauses are not supported in Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) or Oracle Database 11g, you can transport data from these versions of the database to Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1). On the source database, you first create backup sets of the tablespaces to be transported and then create the Data Pump export dump file by using the expdp command. To restore these backups on the destination database, you perform a restore operation using the RESTORE command and then use the impdp command to import the Data Pump export dump file.

Steps to Transport Data Across Platforms Using Backup Sets

Transporting data across platforms using backup sets consists of the following high-level steps:

  1. On the source database, use the BACKUP command to create a cross-platform backup of the database, tablespaces, or data files that need to be transported to a different platform. The backup is created as backup sets on the source host.

  2. Transfer the backup sets created on the source host to the destination host.

    You can transport the backup sets using operating system utilities. For example, if your operating system is Linux or UNIX, you can use the cp command to transfer backup sets.

  3. On the destination database, restore the backup sets that were transferred from the source host. Use the RESTORE command to restore cross-platform backups.

    When you are transporting tablespaces across platforms by using inconsistent tablespace backups, the additional step of recovering the tablespaces is required as described in "Performing Cross-Platform Transport of Tablespaces Using Inconsistent Backups".

Detailed information about how to transport data across platforms using backup sets, the prerequisites, and the RMAN syntax used are provided in the following sections:

Basic Terms Used in Cross-Platform Data Transport Using Backup Sets

Before using backup sets to perform cross-platform data transport, it is useful to understand the following terms.

Foreign Data File

Data files that do not belong to the destination database are called foreign data files. These data files are being plugged in to the destination database as part of a data transfer to the destination database. In the source database, this data file is identified by its original data file number.

Foreign Tablespace

A foreign tablespace is a set of foreign data files that comprise a tablespace in the source database. These foreign data files do not belong to the destination database, but are being transported into the destination database and are identified by the original tablespace name in the source database.

Foreign Data File Copy

A foreign data file copy is a data file that was restored from a cross-platform backup. It cannot be directly plugged in to the destination database because it is inconsistent. You must apply a cross-platform incremental backup to this data file and recover it before you can plug it in to the destination database.

Data Pump Destination

A Data Pump destination is a location on the disk of the server host of the destination database on which the Data Pump export dump file and the Data Pump log files are stored.

About Backing Up Data on the Source Database for Cross-Platform Data Transport

To create the backup set containing data that must be transported to the destination database, use the BACKUP command on the source database. To indicate that you are creating a cross-platform backup, the BACKUP command must contain either the FOR TRANSPORT or TO PLATFORM clause.

When you use FOR TRANSPORT, the backup set that is created can be transported to any destination database. If the destination database uses an endian format that is different from that of the source database, then the required endian format conversion is performed on the destination database. The benefit of this method is that the processing overhead of the conversion operation is offloaded to the destination database.

When you use TO PLATFORM, the endian format conversion is performed on the source database. The target platform specified by the TO PLATFORM clause must be a supported platform for cross-platform transport. The V$TRANSPORTABLE_PLATFORM view contains the list of supported platforms.

You can create cross-platform backups that contain multiple backup sets or multiple backup pieces. See the Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference for examples.

You cannot use certain clauses of the BACKUP command when you create a cross-platform backup using either the FOR TRANSPORT or TO PLATFORM clause. See Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference for information about the clauses that are not compatible with TO PLATFORM and FOR TRANSPORT.

About the Data Pump Export Dump File Used for Cross-Platform Tablespace Transport

When you create a cross-platform consistent tablespace backup, the backup set contains the data files that contain data related to the specified tablespaces. A consistent tablespace backup is a backup of one or more tablespaces that is created when the tablespaces are in read-only mode. After you restore this backup in your destination database, the tablespaces must be plugged in to the destination database. To do this, in addition to the backup set containing the tablespace data, you need the metadata for these tablespaces from the source database.

On the source database, use the DATAPUMP clause in the BACKUP command to create the metadata required to plug tablespaces in to the target database. The metadata is stored in a Data Pump export dump file as a separate backup set. Use this backup set to plug the transported tablespaces in to the target database.

You can specify how the backup set containing the tablespace metadata is named by using the FORMAT option with the DATAPUMP clause. If you omit the FORMAT option, then the format specified in the BACKUP command is used to name the export dump file. When no FORMAT option is specified in the BACKUP command, the default format is used.

Note:

When you use the DATAPUMP clause, the tablespaces that are being transported must be made read-only.

About Restoring Data on the Destination Host During Cross-Platform Data Transport

On the destination database, you use the RESTORE command to restore the database, tablespaces, or data files contained in a cross-platform backup consisting of backup sets. When you perform a cross-platform restore operation, you must use the foreignFileSpec subclause of the RESTORE command. See Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference for more information.

When you restore cross-platform backups, you must specify the following information:

  • Backup sets that contain data that was backed up on the source database

    Use the BACKUPSET clause of the foreignFileSpec subclause to specify the name of the cross-platform backup set from which data must be restored. If the cross-platform backup consists of multiple backup sets, use a separate BACKUPSET clause for each backup set. To restore tablespaces, you must specify the backup sets that contain the tablespace data using the BACKUPSET clause and the backup set that contains the tablespace metadata using the DUMP FILE clause of the foreignFileSpec subclause.

    See Also:

    Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference for information about BACKPSET and DUMP FILE
  • Data file numbers or names of tablespaces as they exist in the source database

    If you are restoring data files or tablespaces, you can restore specific tablespaces or data files that are contained in a cross-platform backup.

  • Location where the restored data files must be stored

    Use the FORMAT clause to specify the location and the names used to store the restored data files.

    If you do not provide a destination, then the DB_FILE_CREATE_DEST initialization parameter must be set in the target platform. RMAN restores the data files to the location specified by this parameter using new Oracle Managed File (OMF) names.

  • Name of the source platform (only when conversion is performed on the destination database)

    Use FROM PLATFORM to specify the name of the source platform on which the backup sets were created. The platform name must exactly match the name specified while creating the backup set. If there is a difference in the platform names, the restore operation fails.

About Selecting Objects to Be Restored from Cross-Platform Backups

While restoring data from a cross-platform backup, you can either restore all the data contained in the cross-platform backup or only certain objects.

See Also:

Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference for more information about the clauses described in this section

Restoring All Data Contained in the Cross-Platform Backup

To restore the entire database, use the FOREIGN DATABASE clause in the RESTORE command. This clause can only be used when restoring from a whole database backup set and when both the source platform and destination platform use the same endian format. You can optionally use the FORMAT clause to specify the pattern used to name restored files.

To restore all the data files contained in the cross-platform backup, use the ALL FOREIGN DATAFILES clause in the RESTORE command.

Restoring Part of the Data Contained in the Cross-Platform Backup Set

You can restore some data files or tablespaces contained in a cross-platform backup. To restore only some data files, use the FOREIGN DATAFILE clause in the RESTORE command. Specify the absolute file number of the data file in the source database while restoring data. To restore only some tablespaces contained in a cross-platform backup, use the FOREIGN TABLESPACE clause in the RESTORE command. Specify the names of the tablespaces that must be restored as part of this clause.

About Names and Locations for Restored Objects on the Destination Database

When you restore a cross-platform backup, specify the data file names and the location to which they are restored using one of the following options in the RESTORE command:

  • Use the TO NEW option with the ALL FOREIGN DATAFILES clause to restore the data files to the location specified by the DB_FILE_CREATE_DEST parameter. By default, RMAN uses OMF names for the data files.

  • Use the FORMAT option to specify the pattern used to name restored data files. You can also specify the directory for these files as part of the FORMAT specification.

See Also:

Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference for more information about the clauses described in this section

About Importing the Data Pump Export Dump File Created During Cross-Platform Tablespace Transport

While restoring a cross-platform backup of read-only tablespaces on the destination database, use the DUMP FILE ... FROM BACKUPSET option of the foreignFileSpec subclause to restore the backup set that contains the Data Pump export dump file. The export dump file contains the metadata required to plug the tablespace in to the destination database

Use the DATAPUMP clause in the RESTORE command to specify the location on the destination host to which the export dump file is restored. If you omit this clause, the dump file is restored to a default operating system-specific location.

By default, RMAN automatically imports the export dump file after all the required foreign data files are restored. You can choose not to import the export dump file by specifying the NOIMPORT clause. If you do not import the export dump file as part of the restore operation, then you must manually import the dump file when you want to plug the tablespaces in to the destination database.

Note:

If the export dump file is automatically imported (that is, the NOIMPORT clause is not used), then the destination database must be open in read/write mode.

Performing Cross-Platform Database Transport with Backup Sets

You can transport an entire database from a source platform to a different destination platform. While creating the cross-platform backup to transport a database, you can convert the database either on the source database or the destination database. The benefit of performing the conversion on the destination database is that the processing overhead of the convert operation is offloaded from the source to the destination database.

Prerequisites for Cross-Platform Database Transport Using Backup Sets

Before you create a cross-platform backup to transport a database across platforms, the following prerequisites must be met:

Scenarios in Which RMAN Automatically Creates a Cross-Platform Backup of the Database

When you use backup sets to back up an entire database RMAN automatically creates a cross-platform backup of the database in addition to the specified backup if the following conditions are met:

The following BACKUP command creates a cross-platform backup of the database. Although the command does not contain either the FOR TRANSPORT or TO PLATFORM clause to indicate that it is a cross-platform backup, because the conditions described in "Prerequisites for Cross-Platform Database Transport Using Backup Sets" are satisfied, an implicit cross-platform backup of the database is created.

RUN
{
   ALLOCATE CHANNEL c1 DEVICE TYPE DISK;
   ALLOCATE CHANNEL c2 DEVICE TYPE DISK;
   ALLOCATE CHANNEL c3 DEVICE TYPE DISK;
   BACKUP
      SKIP OFFLINE
      FILESPERSET 1
      FORMAT '/tmp/xplat_backups/implicit_full_db_%U'
   DATABASE;}

Steps to Transport a Database to a Different Platform Using Backup Sets

Use the following steps to transport an entire database from one platform to another:

  1. Ensure that the prerequisites required to perform cross-platform database transport are met.

  2. Start SQL*Plus and connect to the source database prod_source with administrator privileges.

    % sqlplus sys@prod_source as SYSDBA
    

    When prompted, enter the password for the sys user.

  3. Query the name of the destination platform in V$TRANSPORTABLE_PLATFORM.

    To transport the entire database, the endian formats of the source platform and the destination platform must be the same.

    See Also:

    "Platforms that Support Cross-Platform Data Transport" for information about determining the platform name
  4. Choose a method for naming the output files.

    Use the FORMAT clause of the BACKUP command to specify the names of the output files.

    For example, the following FORMAT clause specifies that the output files must be stored using unique names that begin with transport_ in the directory /oradata/backups/special.

    FORMAT '/oradata/backups/special/transport_%U'
    
  5. Start RMAN and connect to the source database as TARGET.

    The source database is the database that contains the data that needs to be transported to a different platform.

    In this example, sbu is a user who is granted the SYSBACKUP privilege in the source database prod_source.

    % RMAN
    RMAN> CONNECT TARGET "sbu@prod_source AS SYSBACKUP";
    

    Enter the password for the sbu user when prompted.

  6. Place the database in read-only mode.

    SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE;
    STARTUP MOUNT;
    ALTER DATABASE OPEN READ ONLY;
    
  7. Back up the source database using the FOR TRANSPORT or TO PLATFORM clause in the BACKUP command. Using either of these clauses creates a cross-platform backup that uses backup sets.

    Example 28-5 creates a cross-platform backup of the entire database. This backup can be restored on any supported platform that uses the same endian format as the source database. The source platform is Sun Solaris x86 64-bit. Because the FOR TRANSPORT clause is used, the conversion is performed on the destination database. The cross-platform database backup is stored in db_trans.bck in the /tmp/xplat_backups directory on the source host.

    Example 28-5 Creating a Cross-Platform Database Backup for Restore on Any Supported Platform

    BACKUP
    FOR TRANSPORT
    FORMAT '/tmp/xplat_backups/db_trans.bck'
    DATABASE;
    

    Example 28-6 creates a cross-platform backup of the entire database that can be restored on the Linux x86 64-bit platform. Because the TO PLATFORM clause is used, conversion is performed on the source database. The backup is stored in the backup set db_trans_lin.bck in the /tmp/xplat_backups directory on the source host. The source platform is Sun Solaris x86 64-bit.

    Example 28-6 Creating a Cross-Platform Database Backup for Restore on a Specific Platform

    BACKUP
    TO PLATFORM='Linux x86 64-bit'
    FORMAT '/tmp/xplat_backups/db_trans_lin.bck'
    DATABASE;
    
  8. Disconnect from the source database.

  9. Move the backup sets created by the BACKUP command to the destination host.

    Use operating system-specific utilities to transfer the created backup sets from the source host to the destination host.

    For example, if the operating system of your source and destination hosts is Linux or UNIX, use the cp command to move files.

  10. Connect to the destination database, to which the database must be transported, as TARGET.

    In this example, sbu is a user who is granted the SYSBACKUP privilege in the destination database prod_dest.

    % RMAN
    RMAN> CONNECT TARGET "sbu@prod_dest AS SYSBACKUP";
    

    Enter the password for the sbu user when prompted.

  11. Ensure that the destination database is in NOMOUNT state.

  12. Restore the backup sets that were transferred from the source by using the RESTORE command with the FOREIGN DATABASE clause.

    Example 28-7 restores the cross-platform database backup created in Example 28-5. The destination database uses the same endian format as the source database. The FROM PLATFORM clause specifies the name of the platform on which the backup was created. This clause is required to convert backups on the destination. The backup set containing the cross-platform database backup is stored in the /tmp/xplat_restores directory on the destination host. The TO NEW option specifies that the restored foreign data files must use new OMF-specified names in the destination database. Ensure that the DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST initialization parameter is set.

    Example 28-7 Restoring a Cross-Platform Database Backup on the Destination Database

    RESTORE
    FROM PLATFORM 'Solaris Operating System (x86-64)'
    FOREIGN DATABASE TO NEW
    FROM BACKUPSET '/tmp/xplat_restores/db_trans.bck';
    

    Example 28-8 restores the cross-platform database backup that was created in Example 28-6. The destination database is on the Linux x86 64-bit platform. The backup set containing the cross-platform backup that needs to be restored is stored in /tmp/xplat_restores/db_trans_lin.bck. The restored foreign data files are stored in the /oradata/datafiles directory using names that begin with df_.

    Example 28-8 Restoring a Cross-Platform Database Backup that was Created for a Specific Platform

    RESTORE
    ALL FOREIGN DATAFILES
    FORMAT '/oradata/datafiles/df_%U'
    FROM BACKUPSET '/tmp/xplat_restores/db_trans_lin.bck';
    

Performing Cross-Platform Transport of Read-Only Tablespaces Using Backup Sets

Use the BACKUP command with the FOR TRANSPORT or TO PLATFORM clause to create backup sets that can be used to transport read-only tablespaces from one platform to another. When you transport read-only tablespaces, you must also export the metadata of these tablespaces. The metadata is required to plug the tablespaces in to the destination database. While transporting tablespaces across platforms, the source and destination platform can use different endian formats.

You can restore all the data files or tablespaces contained in a cross-platform backup or only some of them. After restoring these objects, you can specify the name and location for the restored data files.

Prerequisites for Performing Cross-Platform Tablespace Transport Using Backup Sets

Before you create a cross-platform backup that can be used to transport tablespaces to a different platform, the following prerequisites must be met:

  • COMPATIBLE parameter in the server parameter file of the source database and destination database is set to 12.0.0 or greater.

  • The tablespaces to be transported are in read-only mode, unless the ALLOW INCONSISTENT clause is used in the BACKUP command.

  • The tablespaces to be transported are self-contained.

    Execute the DBMS_TTS.TRANSPORT_SET_CHECK procedure to check for dependencies. If the TRANSPORT_SET_VIOLATIONS view contains rows corresponding to the specified tablespaces, then you must resolve the dependencies before creating the cross-platform backup.

    See Also:

    Example 21-1 for information about executing the DBMS_TTS.TRANSPORT_SET_CHECK procedure

Steps to Transport Read-Only Tablespaces to a Different Platform Using Backup Sets

  1. Ensure that the prerequisites required to transport tablespaces to another platform are met.

  2. Connect to the source database from which you need to transport tablespaces as TARGET.

    In this example, sbu is a user who is granted the SYSBACKUP privilege on the source database prod_source.

    $ RMAN
    RMAN> CONNECT TARGET "sbu@prod_source AS SYSBACKUP";
    

    Enter the password for the sbu user when prompted.

  3. Query the name of the destination platform in V$TRANSPORTABLE_PLATFORM.

    See Also:

    "Platforms that Support Cross-Platform Data Transport" for information about determining the platform name
  4. Place the tablespaces to be transported in read-only mode.

    The following command places the tablespace EXAMPLE in read-only mode.

    ALTER TABLESPACE example READ ONLY;
    
  5. Choose a method for naming the output files.

    Use the FORMAT clause of the BACKUP command to specify a pattern for naming the output files.

  6. Back up the tablespace on the source database using the BACKUP command with the TO PLATFORM or FOR TRANSPORT clause. Use the DATAPUMP clause to indicate that an export dump file for the tablespaces must be created. The export dump file is created in its own backup piece.

    Example 28-9 creates a cross-platform backup of the tablespaces projects and tasks that can be restored on the Solaris[tm] OE (64-bit) platform. This backup is stored in the backup set trans_ts.bck in the /tmp/xplat_backups directory. The Data Pump export dump file containing metadata required to plug the tablespaces in to the destination database is stored in trans_ts_dmp.bck in the /tmp/xplat_backups directory.

    Example 28-9 Creating a Cross-Platform Backup of Read-Only Tablespaces

    RMAN > BACKUP
              TO PLATFORM 'Solaris[tm] OE (64-bit)'
              FORMAT '/tmp/xplat_backups/trans_ts.bck'
              DATAPUMP FORMAT '/tmp/xplat_backups/trans_ts_dmp.bck'
              TABLESPACE projects, tasks;
    

    Because the TO PLATFORM clause is used, conversion to the endian format of the destination database is performed on the source database.

    Note:

    When you use the DATAPUMP clause, ensure that the target database is open.
  7. Disconnect from the source database.

  8. Move the backup sets created by the BACKUP command and the Data Pump export dump file to the destination host.

    You can use operating system utilities to move the backup sets from the source host to the destination host.

  9. Connect to the destination database, in to which the tablespaces must be transported, as TARGET.

    In this example, sbu is a user who is granted the SYSBACKUP privilege on the destination database prod_dest.

    % RMAN
    RMAN> CONNECT TARGET "sbu@prod_dest AS SYSBACKUP";
    

    Enter the password for the sbu user when prompted.

  10. Restore the backup sets that were transported from the source database using the RESTORE command. Use the DUMP FILE clause to import the export dump file containing the tablespace metadata and plug the tablespaces in to the destination database.

    Example 28-10 restores the projects and tasks tablespaces from the cross-platform backup created in Example 28-9. The backup set trans_ts.bck in the /tmp/xplat_restores directory on the destination host. The Data Pump export dump file containing the metadata that is required to plug these tablespaces in to the destination database is stored in the trans_ts_dump.bck in the /tmp/xplat_restores directory.

    Example 28-10 Restoring a Cross-Platform Tablespace Backup

    RMAN> RESTORE
          FOREIGN TABLESPACE projects, tasks TO NEW
          FROM BACKUPSET '/tmp/xplat_restores/trans_ts.bck'
          DUMP FILE FROM BACKUPSET '/tmp/xplat_restores/trans_ts_dmp.bck';
    

See Also:

Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference for additional examples on performing cross-platform backup and restore operations

Overview of Cross-Platform Transport of Tablespaces Using Inconsistent Backups

RMAN enables you to transport inconsistent tablespace backups across platforms. An inconsistent tablespace backup is a backup of one or more tablespaces that is created when the tablespaces are in read/write mode. The term inconsistent refers to the fact that data files in the backup contain changes that were made after the files were checkpointed. The foreign data files produced during a cross-platform inconsistent backup operation cannot be directly plugged in to the destination database. They must be made consistent before they can be opened on the destination database. You make the foreign data files consistent by applying a cross-platform incremental backup, created when the tablespaces are placed in read-only mode, to these foreign data files. This backup must also include the export dump file containing the metadata required for plug the transported tablespaces in to the destination database.

Inconsistent tablespace backups enable you to reduce application downtime. When the tablespaces are online and available to the users, you create cross-platform inconsistent backups on the source database. The first backup must be a level 0 incremental backup. Subsequently, create smaller level 1 incremental backups that contain the changes made to the tablespaces since the most recent level 1 backup. These level 0 and level 1 incremental backups can be restored and applied on the destination database even as other level 1 incremental backups are being created on the source database. You need not wait until all the level 1 incremental backups are created on the source database before you start applying previously-created level 1 backups on the destination database. Since the tablespaces are still online while these incremental backups are being created, there is no application downtime at this stage. The final level 1 incremental backup is created with the tablespaces placed in read-only mode. The application downtime begins at this stage. This final backup must include the metadata required to plug the tablespaces in to the destination database.

On the destination database, you first restore the level 0 incremental backup to create a set of foreign data files. Next, apply the level 1 incremental backups that were created when the tablespaces were in read/write mode to these restored foreign data files. Apply these backups in the same order in which they were created. In most cases, the destination database catches up with the last level 1 incremental backup before the final incremental backup, taken with the tablespaces placed in read-only mode, is created on the source database. The last step is to restore the final level 1 incremental backup, created when the tablespaces were placed in read-only mode, to make the foreign data files consistent. This backup contains the tablespace metadata required to plug the tablespaces in to the destination database.

Performing Cross-Platform Transport of Tablespaces Using Inconsistent Backups

You can transport inconsistent tablespaces across platforms using backup sets or image copies. Use the BACKUP command to create a cross-platform backup using backup sets. The CONVERT command creates cross-platform backups using image copies.

This section describes how to transport inconsistent tablespaces from one platform to another. An example of transporting an inconsistent tablespace across platforms using backup sets is included.

About Creating Inconsistent and Incremental Backups on the Source Database

Use the ALLOW INCONSISTENT clause in a BACKUP or CONVERT command to create a cross-platform inconsistent backup of one or more tablespaces. The tablespaces being transported are in read/write mode when an inconsistent backup is created. To create incremental backups, use the INCREMENTAL LEVEL 1 clause in the BACKUP command.

The first inconsistent backup is a level 0 incremental backup. Subsequently, you can create multiple cross-platform level 1 incremental backups. The final cross-platform incremental backup must be a consistent backup that is created when the tablespaces are read-only. When you create this final incremental backup, use the DUMP FILE clause in the BACKUP command to create the dump file containing the tablespace metadata.

When you use the CONVERT command, you must explicitly create the export dump file that contains the metadata for the tablespaces by using the Data Pump Export utility.

Note:

The ALLOW INCONSISTENT clause cannot be used for cross-platform whole database backups.

See Also:

"Steps to Transport Inconsistent Tablespaces to a Different Platform" for information about specifying the SCN

About Restoring and Recovering Inconsistent Backups on the Destination Database

You first restore the cross-platform level 0 incremental backup, taken when the tablespaces are placed in read/write mode, on the destination database. This operation creates restores the backup and creates foreign data file copies. These foreign data files are inconsistent because the tablespaces were not placed in read-only mode when the backup was created. To make these foreign data files consistent and achieve a consistent checkpointed SCN, apply the incremental backups in the order in which they were created. The final incremental backup applied must be a cross-platform incremental backup that was created when the tablespaces were in read-only mode. Next, to plug the tablespaces in to the destination database, you restore and import the dump file that contains the metadata of the tablespaces being transported.

Requirements for Applying Cross-Platform Incremental Backups to the Restored Data Files

To successfully apply a cross-platform incremental tablespace backup to a set of restored foreign data files, the following conditions must be satisfied:

  • For each data file that is included in the cross-platform incremental backup, the start SCN must be lower than the current checkpoint SCN of the foreign data file copy.

  • The foreign data file copies created by the restore operation must not be modified.

    For example, if a foreign data file copy has been plugged in to the destination database, made read/write, and then made read-only, then RMAN considers that this file has been modified.

Steps to Transport Inconsistent Tablespaces to a Different Platform

This section describes the steps used to transport inconsistent tablespaces across platforms. These steps apply to cross-platform transport using backup sets or image copies.

Before you perform these steps, ensure that the prerequisites described in "Prerequisites for Performing Cross-Platform Tablespace Transport Using Backup Sets" are met.

Step 1: On the source database, create the files required to transport the tablespaces to a different platform

This step consists of performing the following tasks in the source database:

  1. Create a cross-platform level 0 inconsistent backup of the tablespaces that must be transported to a different platform. The tablespaces are in read/write mode.

    Use the ALLOW INCONSISTENT and INCREMENTAL LEVEL 0 clauses in the BACKUP command to indicate that the backup is an inconsistent backup of one or more tablespaces.

  2. Create a cross-platform level 1 incremental backup of the tablespaces that must be transported to another platform. The tablespace are in read/write mode.

    Subsequent to the first level 0 inconsistent backup, you can create any number of level 1 incremental backups when the tablespaces are in read/write mode. Use the ALLOW INCONSISTENT and INCREMENTAL LEVEL 1 clause to create these incremental backups. Performing frequent incremental backups when the tablespaces are in read/write mode is advantageous because this reduces the amount of changed data that needs to be applied to the destination database using the final incremental backup that is taken when the tablespace is read-only.

  3. Create a cross-platform level 1 incremental backup of the tablespaces with the tablespaces in read-only mode.

    This is the final incremental backup and it must include the dump file that contains the metadata required to plug the transported tablespaces in to the destination database. Use the INCREMENTAL LEVEL 1 clause in the BACKUP command to create a level 1incremental backup.

    When you perform cross-platform transport using the BACKUP command, use the DATAPUMP clause to create the Data Pump export dump files along with the incremental backup. The dump file is created in a separate backup set. When you create cross-platform incremental backups using image copies, you must explicitly create the dump file containing tablespace metadata by using the Data Pump Export utility.

Step 2: Transfer the files created on the source host to the destination host

Use FTP, an operating system copy command, or some other mechanism to move the backup sets, data files, and the dump file that were created in the source database to the destination host.

Step 3: On the destination database, restore the tablespaces and plug them in to the destination database

This step consists of performing the following tasks on the destination database:

  1. Restore the cross-platform level 0 inconsistent backup.

    This restore operation creates a set of foreign data files on the destination database. These foreign data files are inconsistent, and they need recovery before they can be plugged in to the destination database.

    Use the RESTORE command to restore the cross-platform level 0 inconsistent backup. When you restore a cross-platform inconsistent backups that consist of backup sets, use the FROM BACKUPSET clause to specify the name of the backup set that contains the level 0 inconsistent backup.

    See Also:

    Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference for information about using the RESTORE command for cross-platform restore operations
  2. Apply the cross-platform level 1 incremental backup, taken when the tablespaces were in read/write mode, to the foreign data files restored in Step 1.

    If you created multiple cross-platform level 1 incremental backups, these incremental backups must be applied in the order in which they were created. Use the RECOVER command to apply the incremental backups. The FOREIGN DATAFILECOPY clause of the RECOVER command must list each data file to which the incremental backup must be applied. Use the FROM BACKPSET clause to specify the name of the backup set that contains the data to be recovered.

  3. Apply the cross-platform level 1 incremental backup, taken when the tablespaces were in read-only mode, to the foreign data files restored in Step 1.

    Use the RECOVER command to apply the incremental backup. The FOREIGN DATAFILECOPY clause of the RECOVER command must list each data file to which the incremental backup needs to be applied. Use the FROM BACKPSET clause to specify the name of the backup set that contains the data to be recovered.

  4. Restore the backup set containing the tablespace metadata.

    Use the RESTORE command to restore the backup set that contains the dump file created during the cross-platform incremental backup. The tablespaces were in read-only mode when this backup was created. You can optionally use the DUMP FILE clause to specify a name for the dump file on the destination database and the DATAPUMP DESTINATION clause to specify the directory in which the dump file is restored. If these clauses are omitted, RMAN uses the configured defaults. When transporting data using backup sets, use the FROM BACKUPSET clause to specify the name of the backup set that contains the dump file.

  5. Import the dump file containing the tablespace metadata into the destination database.

    Plug the recovered tablespaces in to the destination database by using the Data Pump Import utility to import the dump file created during the incremental backup. You must run the Data Pump Import utility as a user with the SYSDBA privilege.

Example: Performing Cross-Platform Inconsistent Tablespace Transport Using Backup Sets

This example transports the inconsistent tablespace my_tbs from the source database, which is on the Sun Solaris platform, to a destination database on the Linux x86 64-bit platform.

See Also:

"Steps to Transport Inconsistent Tablespaces to a Different Platform" for conceptual information about each step in this example

The following steps enable you to transport the inconsistent tablespace my_tbs across platforms using backup sets:

  1. Connect to the source database as a user who is granted the SYSBACKUP privilege.

    RMAN> CONNECT TARGET "sbu@prod_source AS SYSBACKUP";
    
  2. Ensure that the prerequisites required to transport tablespaces to another platform are met.

  3. Create a cross-platform level 0 inconsistent backup of the tablespace my_tbs when the tablespace is read/write mode. This backup is stored in a backup set named my_tbs_incon.bck in the directory /tmp/xplat_backups.

    BACKUP
    FOR TRANSPORT
    ALLOW INCONSISTENT
    INCREMENTAL LEVEL 0
    TABLESPACE my_tbs FORMAT '/tmp/xplat_backups/my_tbs_incon.bck';
    

    Because FOR TRANSPORT is used instead of TO PLATFORM, this cross-platform backup can be restored on any platform. The conversion will be performed on the destination database.

  4. Create a cross-platform level 1 incremental backup of the tablespace my_tbs that contains the changes made after backup in Step 2 was created. The tablespace is still in read/write mode. This incremental backup is stored in my_tbs_incon1.bck in the directory /tmp/xplat_backups.

    BACKUP
    FOR TRANSPORT
    ALLOW INCONSISTENT
    INCREMENTAL LEVEL 1
    TABLESPACE my_tbs FORMAT '/tmp/xplat_backups/my_tbs_incon1.bck';
    

    To minimize application downtime, the level 0 and level 1 incremental backups created in Steps 2 and 3 can be restored and applied on the destination database while the source tablespace is still in read/write mode. When the destination database catches up with last level 1 incremental backup, you can create the final incremental backup with the tablespace placed in read-only mode.

  5. Place the tablespace my_tbs in read-only mode.

    ALTER TABLESPACE my_tbs READ ONLY;
    
  6. Create the final cross-platform level 1 incremental backup of the tablespace my_tbs. This backup contains changes made to the database after the backup that was created in Step 3. It must include the export dump file that contains the tablespace metadata.

    BACKUP
    FOR TRANSPORT
    INCREMENTAL LEVEL 1
    TABLESPACE my_tbs
    FORMAT '/tmp/xplat_backups/my_tbs_incr.bck'
    DATAPUMP FORMAT '/tmp/xplat_backups/my_tbs_incr_dp.bck';
    

    The incremental backup is stored in my_tbs_incr.bck. The export dump file containing the tablespace metadata is stored in a backup set named my_tbs_incr_dp.bck.

    The following is a formatted output of the BACKUP command that was run in this step. The output is edited to display only the relevant information. Observe that the dump file is called backup_tts_RDBMS_13462.dmp, which is a name assigned by the operating system, and is stored in the directory specified by the DESTINATION clause.

    Starting backup at 12-SEP-12
    ……
    Performing export of metadata for specified tablespaces...
    EXPDP> Starting "SYS"."TRANSPORT_EXP_RDBMS_zocc":
       .........
       EXPDP>
     ***************************************************************************
       EXPDP> Dump file set for SYS.TRANSPORT_EXP_RDBMS_zocc is:
       EXPDP>   /ade/b/191802369/oracle/backup_tts_RDBMS_13462.dmp
       EXPDP>
     **************************************************************************
      .......
    Export completed
    .......
    ……
    channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
    input datafile file number=00006 name=/ade/b/191802369/oracle/dbs/tbs_11.f
    input datafile file number=00007 name=/ade/b/191802369/oracle/dbs/tbs_12.f
    input datafile file number=00020 name=/ade/b/191802369/oracle/dbs/tbs_14.f
    input datafile file number=00010 name=/ade/b/191802369/oracle/dbs/tbs_13.f
    ……
    ……
    Finished backup at 12-SEP-12
    
  7. Move the backup sets and the export dump file generated in Steps 2, 3, and 5 from the source host to the desired directories on the destination host.

    In this example, all the required files are moved to the directory /tmp/xplat_restores on the destination host.

  8. Connect to the destination database as a user who is granted the SYSBACKUP privilege.

    RMAN> CONNECT TARGET "sbu@prod_dest AS SYSBACKUP";
    

    sbu is a user who is granted the SYSBACKUP privilege in the destination database.

  9. Restore the cross-platform level 0 inconsistent backup created in Step 2.

    Use the FOREIGN DATAFILE clause to specify the data files that must be restored. The FROM PLATFORM clause specifies the name of the platform on which the backup was created. This clause is required to convert backups on the destination database.

    In this example, the data files with numbers 6, 7, 20, and 10 are restored to the names specified in the FORMAT clause corresponding to that data file. The data file numbers must be the numbers used on the source database. You can obtain the data file numbers from the RMAN output of the inconsistent backup created in Step 2.

    RESTORE
    FROM PLATFORM 'Solaris[tm] OE (64-bit)'
    FOREIGN DATAFILE 6
    FORMAT '/tmp/aux/mytbs_6.df',
    7
    FORMAT '/tmp/aux/mytbs_7.df',
    20
    FORMAT '/tmp/aux/mytbs_20.df',
    10
    FORMAT '/tmp/aux/mytbs_10.df'
    FROM BACKUPSET '/tmp/xplat_restores/my_tbs_incon.bck';
    
  10. Recover the foreign data files obtained in Step 8 by applying the first cross-platform level 1 incremental backup that was created Step 3.

    RECOVER
    FROM PLATFORM 'Solaris[tm] OE (64-bit)'
    FOREIGN DATAFILECOPY '/tmp/aux/mytbs_6.df','/tmp/aux/mytbs_7.df','/tmp/aux/mytbs_20.df','/tmp/aux/mytbs_10.df'
    FROM BACKUPSET '/tmp/xplat_restores/my_tbs_incon1.bck';
    

    In this example, the incremental backup that is being applied to the restored foreign data files is stored in /tmp/xplat_restores/my_tbs_incon1.bck.

  11. Recover the foreign data files obtained in Step 8 by applying the final cross-platform level 1 incremental backup that was created in Step 5. This backup was created with the tablespaces in read-only mode.

    RECOVER
    FROM PLATFORM 'Solaris[tm] OE (64-bit)'
    FOREIGN DATAFILECOPY '/tmp/aux/mytbs_6.df','/tmp/aux/mytbs_7.df','/tmp/aux/mytbs_20.df','/tmp/aux/mytbs_10.df'
    FROM BACKUPSET '/tmp/xplat_restores/my_tbs_incr.bck';
    

    In this example, the incremental backup that is being applied to the restored foreign data files is stored in /tmp/xplat_restores/my_tbs_incr.bck.

  12. Restore the backup set containing the export dump file. This dump file contains the tablespace metadata required to plug the tablespaces into the destination database.

    RESTORE
    FROM PLATFORM 'Solaris[tm] OE (64-bit)'
    DUMP FILE 'my_tbs_restore_md.dmp'
    DATAPUMP DESTINATION '/tmp/dump'
    FROM BACKUPSET '/tmp/xplat_restores/my_tbs_incr_dp.bck';
    

    In this example, the dump file is restored to a file called my_tbs_restore_md.dmp in the directory /tmp/dump. You can omit the name of the dump file and the DATAPUMP DESTINATION clause and allow RMAN to use operating-system defaults for these parameters.

  13. Plug the tablespace in to the destination database. Use the Data Pump import utility to import the dump file containing the tablespace metadata in to the destination database.

    # impdp directory=dp_dir dumpfile=backup_tts_RDBMS_13462.dmp transport_datafiles='/tmp/aux/mytbs_6.df','/tmp/aux/mytbs_7.df','/tmp/aux/mytbs_20.df','/tmp/aux/mytbs_10.df' nologfile=Y
    

    When prompted for a user name and password, enter the credentials of the SYS user. In this example, dp_dir is a directory object that was created using CREATE DIRECTORY command and is mapped to the /tmp directory.

Performing Cross-Platform Data Transport in CDBs and PDBs

RMAN provides support for transporting data across platforms in a multitenant environment. You can transport a whole multitenant container database (CDB), the root only, or one or more pluggable databases (PDBs) across platforms. The cross-platform transport can be performed using images copies or backup sets. The information in this chapter is applicable to CDBs and PDBs with the differences described in the following sections.

This section contains the following topics:

Performing Cross-Platform Transport of a Whole CDB

In a CDB, the steps to transport data across platforms are similar to the ones used for non-CDBs. The only difference is that, on both the source and destination databases, you must connect to the root as a common user with the common SYSBACKUP or SYSDBA privilege.

To transport an entire CDB, the source platform and the destination platform must use the same endian format.

The BACKUP FOR TRANSPORT or BACKUP TO PLATFORM command creates a cross-platform backup of the whole CDB. The CONVERT command creates image copies of the CDB that can be transported to a different platform.

The following command, when connected to the root, creates a cross-platform backup of the whole CDB:

BACKUP
TO PLATFORM 'Linux x86 64-bit'
DATABASE FORMAT '/tmp/backups/cdb_%U;

While restoring the cross-platform backup on the destination database, the RESTORE DATABASE command restores the whole CDB.

Performing Cross-Platform Transport of PDBs

To transport an entire PDB to a different platform, the source platform and destination platform must use the same endian format.

Use one of the following techniques to transport PDBs across platforms:

  • Connect to the root and use the BACKUP FOR TRANSPORT ... PLUGGABLE DATABASE or BACKUP TO PLATFORM ... PLUGGABLE DATABASE command to create a cross-platform backup of one or more PDBs.

    When you are connected to the root, the following command creates a cross-platform backup of the PDBs hr_pdb and sales_pdb. The PDBs must be read-only mode before the cross-platform backup is created.

    BACKUP FOR TRANSPORT
    PLUGGABLE DATABASE hr_pdb, sales_pdb FORMAT '/tmp/backups/pdb_%U';
    
  • Connect to the PDB and use the BACKUP FOR TRANSPORT or BACKUP TO PLATFORM commands to create backup sets that can be used to transport the PDB data to another platform.

Note:

Performing cross-platform data transport of one or more PDBs by using the CONVERT command is not supported.

Performing Cross-Platform Transport of Tablespaces in a PDB

RMAN enables you to transport user tablespaces contained in a PDB to a different platform by using either the CONVERT or BACKUP command. In this case, the source platform and the destination platform can use different endian formats.

Use one of the following techniques to transport a tablespace in a PDB:

  • Connect to the PDB as TARGET and use the BACKUP TABLESPACE command to create a cross-platform backup of the selected tablespaces.

    See Example 28-9, "Creating a Cross-Platform Backup of Read-Only Tablespaces".

  • Connect to the PDB as TARGET and use the CONVERT TABLESPACE command to transport a read-only tablespace.

    The following command, when connected to the PDB, converts the read-only tablespace my_tbs:

    CONVERT TABLESPACE my_tbs
        TO PLATFORM 'Solaris[tm] OE (64-bit)'
        FORMAT '/tmp/xplat_backups/my_tbs_%U.bck';
    
  • Connect to the PDB as TARGET and use the CONVERT DATAFILE command.

    The following command, when connected to the PDB, converts the data file sales.df:

    CONVERT
        FROM PLATFORM 'Solaris[tm] OE (64-bit)'
        DATAFILE '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/sales.df'
        FORMAT '/tmp/xplat_backups/sales_df_solaris.dat'
    

However, when connected as TARGET to a PDB, you cannot use the CONVERT DATAFILE command to convert a tablespace that contains undo segments.

Example: Transporting a Tablespace in a PDB

This example used the CONVERT command to transport the tablespace sales_tbs from the PDB pdb5 to the destination PDB pdb3. The source PDB is on a Sun Solaris platform and the destination PDB is on a Linux x86 64-bit platform.

  1. Ensure that the required prerequisites are met.

  2. Start SQL*Plus and connect to the source PDB as a user who is granted the SYSDBA or SYSBACKUP privilege.

    In this example, sbu is a user who has been granted the SYSBACKUP privilege on the source PDB pdb5.

    % sqlplus sbu@pdb5 AS SYSBACKUP
    
  3. Query the name for the destination platform in the V$TRANSPORTABLE_PLATFORM view.

    In this example, the platform name for the destination platform is Linux x86 64-bit.

  4. Verify that the tablespace that is to be transported is self-contained.

    See Also:

    Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information about determining whether tablespaces are self-contained
  5. Place the tablespace to be transported in read-only mode.

    SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE sales_tbs READ ONLY;
    
  6. Create the directory object that is used to store the files generated by the DataPump export and import utilities.

    SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY xtt_dir AS '/scratch/xtt';
    Directory created.
    
  7. Start RMAN and connect to the source PDB as a user with the SYSDBA or SYSBACKUP privilege.

    The following example starts RMAN and connects to the source PDB pdb5 as the sbu user who has been granted the SYSBACKUP privilege.

    % rman
    RMAN> CONNECT TARGET "sbu@pdb5 as sysbackup"
    
  8. Convert the tablespace on the source database using the CONVERT command.

    The following command converts the tablespace sales_tbs to the destination platform Linux x86-64 bit. The converted data files are stored in /tmp/xplat_convert/sales_tbs_conv.bck.

    RMAN> CONVERT TABLESPACE 'SALES_TBS'
    TO PLATFORM 'Linux x86 64-bit'
    FORMAT  '/tmp/xplat_convert/sales_tbs_conv.bck';
    
  9. Exit RMAN.

  10. On the source database, use the DataPump export utility to create an export dump file containing the metadata for tablespace sales_tbs. Use the credentials of the SYS user to perform the export.

    The following command creates an export dump file called sales_tbs_conv.dmp in the location specified by the directory object xtt_dir. The credentials used to perform the export are that of the SYS user.

    # expdp "'"sys@pdb5 as sysdba"'" directory=xtt_dir dumpfile=sales_tbs_conv.dmp logfile=sales_tbs_conv.log transport_tablespaces=sales_tbs
    
  11. Copy the converted data files created in Step 8 and the export dump file created in Step 10 to the destination PDB. You can use operating system commands to copy the files.

  12. On the destination PDB, plug the tablespace into the PDB by using the DataPump import utility. Use the credentials of the SYS user to perform the import.

    The following example imports the metadata contained in the export dump file sales_tbs_conv.dmp and the converted data files in /tmp/xplat_convert/sales_tbs_conv.bck into the PDB pdb3.

    #impdp "'"sys@pdb3 as sysdba"'" directory=xtt_dir dumpfile=sales_tbs_conv.dmp datafiles=/tmp/xplat_convert/sales_tbs_conv.bck
    
  13. Start SQL*Plus and connect to the destination PDB as a user with the SYSDBA or SYSBACKUP privilege.

    The following command connects to the PDB pdb3 as the sbu user who has been granted the SYSBACKUP privilege.

    %sqlplus sbu@pdb3 as sysbackup
    
  14. Verify the status of the converted tablespace on the destination PDB.

    The following query determines the status of the tablespace sales_tbs.

    SQL> SELECT status FROM dba_tablespaces
         WHERE tablespace_name LIKE 'SALES_TBS';
    
    STATUS
    ---------
    READ ONLY
    
  15. Make the tablespace sales_tbs in the destination PDB pdb3 online.

    SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE DUMMY08 READ WRITE;