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Oracle® Database Backup and Recovery Reference
12c Release 1 (12.1)

E17631-15
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SHUTDOWN

Purpose

Use the SHUTDOWN command to shut down the target database without exiting RMAN. This command is equivalent to the SQL*Plus SHUTDOWN statement.

See Also:

Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information on how to start and shut down a database, and SQL*Plus User's Guide and Reference for SHUTDOWN syntax

Usage Notes

You cannot use the RMAN SHUTDOWN command to shut down the recovery catalog database. To shut down this database, start a SQL*Plus session and issue a SHUTDOWN statement.

If the database operates in NOARCHIVELOG mode, then you must shut down the database cleanly and then issue a STARTUP MOUNT before a making a backup.

Semantics

Syntax Element Description
ABORT Performs an inconsistent shutdown of the target instance, with the following consequences:
  • All current client SQL statements are immediately terminated.

  • Uncommitted transactions are not rolled back until next startup.

  • All connected users are disconnected.

  • Instance recovery is performed on the database at next startup.

IMMEDIATE Performs an immediate, consistent shutdown of the target database, with the following consequences:
  • Current client SQL statements being processed by the database are allowed to complete.

  • Uncommitted transactions are rolled back.

  • All connected users are disconnected.

NORMAL Performs a consistent shutdown of the target database with normal priority (default option), which means:
  • No new connections are allowed after the statement is issued.

  • Before shutting down, the database waits for currently connected users to disconnect

  • The next startup of the database does not require instance recovery.

TRANSACTIONAL Performs a consistent shut down of the target database while minimizing interruption to clients, with the following consequences:
  • Clients currently conducting transactions are allowed to complete, that is, either commit or terminate before shutdown.

  • No client can start a new transaction on this instance; any client attempting to start a new transaction is disconnected.

  • After all transactions have either committed or terminated, any client still connected is disconnected.


Examples

Example 3-57 Shutting Down a Database with the Immediate Option

This example waits for current SQL transactions to be processed before shutting down, then mounts the database:

SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE;
STARTUP MOUNT;

Example 3-58 Shutting Down a Database in NOARCHIVELOG Mode

This example backs up a database running in NOARCHIVELOG mode:

STARTUP FORCE DBA;
SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE;
STARTUP MOUNT;
# executing the preceding commands ensures that database is in proper state 
# for NOARCHIVELOG backups
BACKUP DATABASE;
ALTER DATABASE OPEN;