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Oracle® Database Installation Guide
12c Release 1 (12.1) for Linux

E17720-18
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D How to Complete Preinstallation Tasks Manually

This appendix provides instructions for how to complete configuration tasks manually that Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) and Oracle Universal Installer normally complete during installation. Use this appendix as a guide if you cannot use the fixup script.

This appendix contains the following information:

D.1 Configuring Kernel Parameters for Linux

This section contains the following topics:

Note:

Unless otherwise specified, the kernel parameter and shell limit values shown in the following table are minimum values only. For production database systems, Oracle recommends that you tune these values to optimize the performance of the system. See the operating system documentation for more information about tuning kernel parameters.

D.1.1 Minimum Parameter Settings for Installation

During the Oracle Database installation, you can generate and run the fixup script to check and set the kernel parameter values required for successful installation of the database. This script updates required kernel packages, if necessary, to minimum values.

If you cannot use the fixup script, then review the following table to set the values manually:

Parameter Value File
semmsl

semmns

semopm

semmni

250

32000

100

128

/proc/sys/kernel/sem
shmall 40 percent of the size of physical memory in pages

Note: If the server supports multiple databases, or uses a large SGA, then set this parameter to a value that is equal to the total amount of shared memory, in 4K pages, that the system can use at one time.

/proc/sys/kernel/shmall
shmmax Half the size of physical memory in bytes

See My Oracle Support Note 567506.1 for additional information about configuring shmmax.

/proc/sys/kernel/shmmax
shmmni 4096 /proc/sys/kernel/shmmni
file-max 6815744 /proc/sys/fs/file-max
aio-max-nr 1048576

Note: This value limits concurrent outstanding requests and should be set to avoid I/O subsystem failures.

/proc/sys/fs/aio-max-nr
ip_local_port_range Minimum: 9000

Maximum: 65500

See Setting UDP and TCP Kernel Parameters Manually

/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_port_range
rmem_default 262144 /proc/sys/net/core/rmem_default
rmem_max 4194304 /proc/sys/net/core/rmem_max
wmem_default 262144 /proc/sys/net/core/wmem_default
wmem_max 1048576 /proc/sys/net/core/wmem_max

Note:

If the current value for any parameter is greater than the value listed in this table, then the Fixup scripts do not change the value of that parameter.

D.1.2 Displaying and Changing Kernel Parameter Values

Enter the commands shown in the following table to display the current values of the kernel parameters. Note these values and identify any values that you must change:

Parameter Command
semmsl, semmns, semopm, and semmni # /sbin/sysctl -a | grep sem

This command displays the value of the semaphore parameters in the order listed.

shmall, shmmax, and shmmni # /sbin/sysctl -a | grep shm

This command displays the details of the shared memory segment sizes.

file-max # /sbin/sysctl -a | grep file-max

This command displays the maximum number of file handles.

ip_local_port_range # /sbin/sysctl -a | grep ip_local_port_range

This command displays a range of port numbers.

rmem_default # /sbin/sysctl -a | grep rmem_default
rmem_max # /sbin/sysctl -a | grep rmem_max
wmem_default # /sbin/sysctl -a | grep wmem_default
wmem_max # /sbin/sysctl -a | grep wmem_max
aio-max-nr # /sbin/sysctl -a | grep aio-max-nr

If the value of any kernel parameter is different from the minimum value, then perform the following:

  1. Using any text editor, create or edit the /etc/sysctl.conf file, and add or edit lines similar to the following. For example:

    Note:

    Include lines only for the kernel parameter values to change. For the semaphore parameters (kernel.sem), you must specify all four values. If any of the current values are larger than the minimum value, then specify the larger value.
    fs.aio-max-nr = 1048576
    fs.file-max = 6815744
    kernel.shmall = 2097152
    kernel.shmmax = 4294967295
    kernel.shmmni = 4096
    kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128
    net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500
    net.core.rmem_default = 262144
    net.core.rmem_max = 4194304
    net.core.wmem_default = 262144
    net.core.wmem_max = 1048576
    

    By specifying the values in the /etc/sysctl.conf file, they persist when you restart the system. On SUSE Linux Enterprise Server systems, enter the following command to ensure that the system reads the /etc/sysctl.conf file when it restarts:

    # /sbin/chkconfig boot.sysctl on
    
  2. Enter the following command to change the current values of the kernel parameters:

    # /sbin/sysctl -p
    

    Review the output from this command to verify that the values are correct. If the values are incorrect, edit the /etc/sysctl.conf file, then enter this command again.

  3. Enter the command /sbin/sysctl -a to confirm that the values are set correctly.

  4. After updating the values of the kernel parameters in the /etc/sysctl.conf file, either restart the computer, or run the command sysctl -p to make the changes in the /etc/sysctl.conf file available in the active kernel memory.

D.1.3 Additional Parameter and Kernel Settings for SUSE Linux

On SUSE Linux Enterprise Server systems only, complete the following steps as needed:

  1. Enter the following command to cause the system to read the /etc/sysctl.conf file when it restarts:

    # /sbin/chkconfig boot.sysctl on
    
  2. Enter the GID of the oinstall group as the value for the parameter /proc/sys/vm/hugetlb_shm_group. Doing this grants members of oinstall a group permission to create shared memory segments.

    For example, where the oinstall group GID is 501:

    # echo 501 > /proc/sys/vm/hugetlb_shm_group
    

    After running this command, use vi to add the following text to /etc/sysctl.conf, and enable the boot.sysctl script to run on system restart:

    vm.hugetlb_shm_group=501
    

    Note:

    Only one group can be defined as the vm.hugetlb_shm_group.

D.2 Setting UDP and TCP Kernel Parameters Manually

If you do not use a Fixup script or CVU to set ephemeral ports, then set TCP/IP ephemeral port range parameters to provide enough ephemeral ports for the anticipated server workload. Ensure that the lower range is set to at least 9000 or higher, to avoid Well Known ports, and to avoid ports in the Registered Ports range commonly used by Oracle and other server ports. Set the port range high enough to avoid reserved ports for any applications you may intend to use. If the lower value of the range you have is greater than 9000, and the range is large enough for your anticipated workload, then you can ignore Oracle Universal Installer warnings regarding the ephemeral port range.

For example, with IPv4, use the following command to check your current range for ephemeral ports:

$ cat /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_port_range
32768 61000

In the preceding example, the lowest port (32768) and the highest port (61000) are set to the default range.

If necessary, update the UDP and TCP ephemeral port range to a range high enough for anticipated system workloads, and to ensure that the ephemeral port range starts at 9000 and above. For example:

# echo 9000 65500 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_port_range

Oracle recommends that you make these settings permanent. For example, as root, use a text editor to open /etc/sysctl.conf, and add or change to the following: net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500, and then restart the network (# /etc/rc.d/init.d/network restart). Refer to your Linux distribution system administration documentation for detailed information about how to automate this ephemeral port range alteration on system restarts.

See Also:

"Setting TCP Network Protocol Buffer for Direct NFS Client" if you use Direct NFS Client