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Oracle® Database Installation Guide
12c Release 1 (12.1) for Linux

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3 Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks

This chapter describes the tasks that you must complete before you start Oracle Universal Installer.

Note:

To use Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) or Oracle Restart, you must first install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server before you install and create the database. Otherwise, you must manually register the database with Oracle Restart.

This chapter includes information about the following topics:

See Also:

3.1 Guidelines for Linux Operating System Installation

This section provides information about installing a supported Linux distribution. Complete the minimum hardware configuration before you install the operating system.

This section contains the following topics:

3.1.1 Completing a Minimal Linux Installation

Review the following sections regarding minimal Linux installation requirements:

3.1.1.1 About Minimal Linux Installations

To complete a minimal Linux installation, select one of the minimal installation options (either a custom installation where you select the Minimal option from Package Group Selection, or where you deselect all packages except for the Base pack). This installation lacks many RPMs required for database installation, so you must use an RPM package for your Oracle Linux release to install the required packages. The package you use depends on your Linux release, and your support status with Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN).

Note:

The Oracle Pre-Install RPM installs the X11 client libraries, but it does not install the X Window System server packages. To use graphical user interfaces such as OUI, configuration assistants, and Oracle Enterprise Manager, set the display to a system with X Window System server packages.

Refer to the following URL for documentation regarding installation of a reduced set of packages:

https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type=NOT&id=728346.1

Note:

If you are not a member of Unbreakable Linux Network or Red Hat Support network, and you are a My Oracle Support customer, then you can download instructions to configure a script that documents installation of a reduced set of packages:

https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type=NOT&id=579101.1

You can also search for "Linux reduced set of packages" to locate the instructions.

3.1.1.2 RPM Packages for Completing Operating System Configuration

Oracle Linux 6 Pre-Install RPM With ULN Support

Oracle RDBMS Server 12cR1 Pre-Install RPM for your Oracle Linux 6 kernel (oracle-rdbms-server-12cR1-preinstall).

Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN) customers can obtain the Oracle RDBMS Server Pre-Install RPM by using yum.

Oracle Linux 5 Oracle Validated RPM With ULN Support

Oracle Validated RPM (oracle-validated) for your Oracle Linux 5 kernel.

Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN) customers can obtain the Oracle Validated RPM by using up2date, or using yum (5.5 and later releases).

Oracle Linux 6 Pre-Install RPM Without ULN Support

http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/OracleLinux/OL6/latest/x86_64/

Oracle Linux 5 Oracle Validated RPM Without ULN Support

http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/OracleLinux/OL5/latest/x86_64/

3.1.1.3 Open SSH Requirement for Minimal Installation

SSH is required for Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. OpenSSH should be included in the Linux distribution minimal installation. To confirm that SSH packages are installed, enter the following command:

# rpm -qa | grep ssh

If you do not see a list of SSH packages, then install those packages for your Linux distribution.

3.1.2 Completing a Default Linux Installation

If you do not install the Oracle Pre-Install RPM, then Oracle recommends that you install your Linux operating system with the default software packages (RPMs). This installation includes most of the required packages and helps you limit manual verification of package dependencies. Oracle recommends that you do not customize the RPMs during installation.

For information about a default installation, log on to My Oracle Support:

https://support.oracle.com

Search for "default rpms linux installation," and look for your Linux distribution. For example:

https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type=NOT&id=401167.1

After installation, review system requirements for your distribution to ensure that you have all required kernel packages installed, and complete all other configuration tasks required for your distribution and system configuration.

3.1.3 About Oracle Linux and the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel

Oracle's Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel delivers the latest innovations from upstream development to customers who run RHEL 5 or Oracle Linux 5 in the data center. The Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel is included and enabled by default starting with Oracle Linux 5 Update 6.

The Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel is based on a recent stable mainline development Linux kernel, and also includes optimizations developed in collaboration with Oracle Database, Oracle middleware, and Oracle hardware engineering teams to ensure stability and optimal performance for the most demanding enterprise workloads.

Oracle highly recommends deploying the Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel in your Linux environment, especially if you are running enterprise applications. However, using Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel is optional. If you require strict Red Hat Enterprise Linux kernel (RHEL) compatibility, then Oracle Linux also includes a kernel compatible with the RHEL Linux kernel, compiled directly from the RHEL source code.

You can obtain more information about the Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Linux at the following URL:

http://www.oracle.com/us/technologies/linux/overview/index.html

The Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Linux is the standard kernel used with Oracle products. The build and QA systems for Oracle Database and other Oracle products use the Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Linux exclusively. The Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Linux is also the kernel used in Oracle Exadata and Oracle Exalogic systems. Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Linux is used in all benchmark tests on Linux in which Oracle participates, as well as in the Oracle RDBMS preinstall RPM program for x86-64.

Ksplice, which is part of Oracle Linux, updates the Linux operating system (OS) kernel, while it is running, without requiring restarts or any interruption. Ksplice is available only with Oracle Linux.

3.1.4 About the Oracle Pre-Install RPM

If your Linux distribution is Oracle Linux, or Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and you are an Oracle Linux customer, then you can complete most preinstallation configuration tasks by using the Oracle RDBMS Server 12cR1 Pre-Install RPM, available from the Oracle Linux Network, or available on the Oracle Linux DVDs. Using the Oracle Pre-Install RPM is not required, but Oracle recommends you use it to save time in setting up your cluster servers.

When it is installed, the Oracle Pre-Install RPM does the following:

  • Automatically downloads and installs any additional RPM packages needed for installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database, and resolves any dependencies

  • Creates an oracle user, and creates the oraInventory (oinstall) and OSDBA (dba) groups for that user

  • As needed, sets sysctl.conf settings, system startup parameters, and driver parameters to values based on recommendations from the Oracle RDBMS Pre-Install program

  • Sets hard and soft resource limits

  • Sets other recommended parameters, depending on your kernel version

To become an Oracle Linux Network customer, contact your sales representative, or purchase a license from the Oracle Linux store:

https://shop.oracle.com/product/oraclelinux

To register your server on the Unbreakable Linux Network, or to find out more information, see the following URL:

https://linux.oracle.com

If you are using Oracle Linux 5.2 and higher, then the Oracle Pre-Install RPM is included on the install media.

Note:

The Oracle Pre-Install RPM designated for each Oracle Database release sets kernel parameters and resource limits only for the user account oracle. To use multiple software account owners, you must perform system configuration for other accounts manually.

3.1.5 Using Ksplice to Perform a Zero Downtime Update

Ksplice Uptrack updates provide Linux security and bug fix updates, repackaged in a form that allows these updates to be applied without restarting the kernel.

To use Ksplice Uptrack:

  1. Obtain or verify your Oracle Linux premium support subscription from Unbreakable Linux Network:

    https://linux.oracle.com

  2. Log in as root.

  3. Ensure that you have access to the Internet on the server where you want to use Ksplice. For example, if you are using a proxy server, then set the proxy server and port values in the shell with commands similar to the following:

    # export http_proxy=http://proxy.example.com:port
    # export https_proxy=http://proxy.example.com:port
    
  4. Download the Ksplice Uptrack repository RPM package:

    https://www.ksplice.com/yum/uptrack/ol/ksplice-uptrack-release.noarch.rpm

  5. Run the following commands:

    rpm -i ksplice-uptrack-release.noarch.rpm
    yum -y install uptrack
    
  6. Open /etc/uptrack/uptrack.conf with a text editor, enter your premium support access key, and save the file. You must use the same access key for all of your systems.

  7. Run the following command to carry out a zero downtime update of your kernel:

    uptrack-upgrade -y
    

    See Also:

3.2 Logging In to the System as root

During installation, you must perform tasks as root or as other users on remote terminals. Complete the following procedure for user accounts that you want to enable for remote display.

Note:

If you log in as another user (for example, grid), then repeat this procedure for that user as well.

To log in as the root user and enable remote display, complete one of the following procedures:

  • If you are installing the software from an X Window System workstation or X terminal, then:

    1. Start a new X terminal session (xterm).

    2. If you are installing the software on another system and using the system as an X11 display, then enter a command using the following syntax to enable remote hosts to display X applications on the local X server:

      $ xhost + RemoteHost
      

      where RemoteHost is the fully qualified remote host name. For example:

      $ xhost + somehost.example.com
      somehost.example.com being added to the access control list
      
    3. If you are not installing the software on the local system, then use the ssh, rlogin, or telnet command to connect to the system where you want to install the software:

      $ ssh -Y RemoteHost
      
    4. If you are not logged in as the root user, then enter the following command to switch the user to root:

      $ su - root
      password:
      #
      
  • To install the software from a PC or other system with X server software:

    Note:

    If necessary, see the X server documentation, or contact your X server vendor or system administrator for more information about completing this procedure. Depending on the X server software that you are using, you may have to complete the tasks in a different order.
    1. Start the X Window System software.

    2. Configure the security settings of the X Window System software to permit remote hosts to display X applications on the local system.

    3. Connect to the remote system where you want to install the software as the oracle software installation owner (oracle) and start an X terminal session (xterm) on that system.

    4. Open another terminal on the remote system, and log in as the root user on the remote system, so you can run scripts as root when prompted.

3.3 Configuring Servers for Oracle Database

This section describes the following operating system tasks you must complete before you install Oracle Database:

3.3.1 Checking Server Hardware and Memory Configuration

Run the following commands to check your current system information:

  1. To determine the physical RAM size, enter the following command:

    # grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo
    

    If the size of the physical RAM installed in the system is less than the required size, then you must install more memory before continuing.

  2. To determine the size of the configured swap space, enter the following command:

    # grep SwapTotal /proc/meminfo
    

    If necessary, see your operating system documentation for information about how to configure additional swap space.

  3. To determine the amount of space available in the /tmp directory, enter the following command:

    # df -h /tmp
    
  4. To determine the amount of free disk space on the system, enter the following command:

    # df -h
    
  5. To determine the amount of free RAM and disk swap space on the system, enter the following command:

    # free
    
  6. To determine if the system architecture can run the software, enter the following command:

    # uname -m
    

    Verify that the processor architecture matches the Oracle software release to install. For example, you should see the following for a x86-64 bit system:

    x86_64
    

    If you do not see the expected output, then you cannot install the software on this system.

3.3.2 General Server Minimum Requirements

Ensure the following general minimum requirements on your system:

  • Ensure that the system is started with runlevel 3.

  • Ensure display cards provide at least 1024 x 768 display resolution, so that Oracle Universal Installer displays correctly while performing a system console-based installation

3.3.3 Server Storage Minimum Requirements

Ensure that your system meets the following minimum storage requirements, depending on your system architecture:

3.3.3.1 Disk Space Requirements for Linux x86-64

Ensure that your Linux x86-64 system meets the disk space requirements for software files as described in Table 3-1

Table 3-1 Disk Space Requirements on Linux x86-64

Installation Type Disk Space for Software Files

Enterprise Edition

6.4 GB

Standard Edition

6.1 GB

Standard Edition One

6.1 GB


Additional disk space, either on a file system or on an Oracle ASM disk group is required for the fast recovery area.

3.3.3.2 Disk Space Requirements for IBM: Linux on System z

Ensure that your system meets the disk space requirements for software files as described in Table 3-2

Table 3-2 Disk Space Requirements on IBM: Linux on System z:

Installation Type Disk Space for Software Files

Enterprise Edition

5.5 GB

Standard Edition

5.4 GB

Standard Edition One

5.5 GB


Additional disk space, either on a file system or on an Oracle ASM disk group is required for the fast recovery area.

3.3.3.3 Disk Space Requirements for the Temporary Directory

1 GB of space in the /tmp directory on your Linux system.

If the free space available in the /tmp directory is less than what is required, then complete one of the following steps:

  • Delete unnecessary files from the /tmp directory to meet the disk space requirement.

  • Set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables when setting the oracle user's environment.

    See Also:

    "Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment" for more information about setting TMP and TMPDIR
  • Extend the file system that contains the /tmp directory.

3.3.4 Server Memory Minimum Requirements

Ensure that your system meets the following memory requirements:

Minimum: 1 GB of RAM

Recommended: 2 GB of RAM or more

Table 3-3 describes the relationship between the installed RAM and the configured swap space recommendation:

Table 3-3 Swap Space Requirement for Linux

RAM Swap Space

Between 1 GB and 2 GB

1.5 times the size of the RAM

Between 2 GB and 16 GB

Equal to the size of the RAM

More than 16 GB

16 GB


3.4 Reviewing Operating System Security Common Practices

Secure operating systems are an important basis for general system security. Ensure that your operating system deployment is in compliance with common security practices as described in your operating system vendor security guide.

3.5 Using Installation Fixup Scripts

Oracle Universal Installer detects when the minimum requirements for an installation are not met, and creates shell scripts, called fixup scripts, to finish incomplete system configuration steps. If Oracle Universal Installer detects an incomplete task, then it generates fixup scripts (runfixup.sh). You can run the fixup script and click Fix and Check Again. The fixup script modifies both persistent parameter settings and parameters in memory, so you do not have to restart the system.

See Also:

"Cluster Verification Utility Reference" in Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for information about using the cluvfy command

The Fixup script does the following tasks:

  • If necessary sets kernel parameters to values required for successful installation, including:

    • Shared memory parameters.

    • Open file descriptor and UDP send/receive parameters.

  • Creates and sets permissions on the Oracle Inventory (central inventory) directory.

  • Creates or reconfigures primary and secondary group memberships for the installation owner, if necessary, for the Oracle Inventory directory and the operating system privileges groups.

  • Sets shell limits if necessary to required values.

Oracle recommends that you do not modify the contents of the generated fixup script.

Note:

Using fixup scripts does not ensure that all the prerequisites for installing Oracle Database are met. You must still verify that all the preinstallation requirements are met to ensure a successful installation.

3.6 Using Oracle RPM Checker on IBM: Linux on System z

Use the Oracle RPM Checker utility to verify that you have the required Red Hat Enterprise Linux or SUSE packages installed on the operating system before you start the Oracle Database or Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.

Download the Oracle RPM Checker utility from the link in the My Oracle Support note 1574412.1 available at the following URL:

https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type=NOT&id=1574412.1

Download the Oracle RPM Checker utility for your IBM: Linux on System z distribution, unzip the RPM, and install the RPM as root. Then, run the utility as root to check your operating system packages. For example:

# rpm -ivh ora-val-rpm-EL6-DB-12.1.0.1-1.s390x.rpm

On Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the utility checks and also installs all required RPMs. For example:

yum install ora-val-rpm-EL6-DB-12.1.0.1-1.s390x.rpm

3.7 About Operating System Requirements

Depending on the products that you intend to install, verify that you have the required operating system kernel and packages installed.

Requirements listed in this document are current as of the date listed on the title page. To obtain the most current information about kernel requirements, see the online version on the Oracle Technology Network at the following URL:

http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/indexes/documentation/index.html

Oracle Universal Installer performs checks your system to verify that it meets the listed operating system package requirements. To ensure that these checks complete successfully, verify the requirements before you start OUI.

Note:

Oracle does not support running different operating system versions on cluster members, unless an operating system is being upgraded. You cannot run different operating system version binaries on members of the same cluster, even if each operating system is supported.

3.8 Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms

The Linux distributions and packages listed in this section are supported for this release on x86-64. No other Linux distributions are supported.

Identify operating system requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure, and identify additional operating sytem requirements for Oracle Database and Oracle RAC installations.

Note:

  • The Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel can be installed on x86-64 servers running either Oracle Linux 5 Update 5, or Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Update 5. As of Oracle Linux 5 Update 6, the Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel is the default system kernel. An x86 (32-bit) release of Oracle Linux including the Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel is available with Oracle Linux 5 update 7 and later.

  • The 32-bit packages listed in the following sections are required only for 32-bit client installs.

  • Oracle Universal Installer requires an X Window System (for example, libX). The libX packages are part of a default Linux installation. If you install Linux using an Oracle RDBMS Server 12cR1 Pre-Install RPM, then the libX packages are installed as part of that RPM. If you perform an install on a system with a reduced set of packages, then you must ensure that libX is installed.

3.8.1 Supported Oracle Linux 6 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Distributions for x86-64

Use the following information to check the minimum supported Oracle Linux 6 and Red Hat Linux 6 distributions:

Table 3-4 x86-64 Supported Linux 6 Minimum Operating System Requirements

Item Minimum Requirements

SSH Requirement

Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the required SSH software.

Oracle Linux 6

Subscribe to the Oracle Linux 6 channel on the Unbreakable Linux Network, or configure a yum repository from the Oracle public yum site, and then install the Oracle RDBMS Pre-Install RPM. This RPM installs all required kernel packages for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database installations, and performs other system configuration.

Supported distributions:

  • Oracle Linux 6 with the Unbreakable Enterprise kernel: 2.6.39-200.24.1.el6uek.x86_64 or later

  • Oracle Linux 6 with the Red Hat Compatible kernel: 2.6.32-71.el6.x86_64 or later

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

Supported distributions:

  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6: 2.6.32-71.el6.x86_64 or later

  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel: 2.6.32-100.28.5.el6.x86_64 or later

Packages for Oracle Linux 6 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:

binutils-2.20.51.0.2-5.11.el6 (x86_64)
compat-libcap1-1.10-1 (x86_64)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 (x86_64)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 (i686)
gcc-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)
gcc-c++-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)
glibc-2.12-1.7.el6 (i686)
glibc-2.12-1.7.el6 (x86_64)
glibc-devel-2.12-1.7.el6 (x86_64)
glibc-devel-2.12-1.7.el6 (i686)
ksh
libgcc-4.4.4-13.el6 (i686)
libgcc-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)
libstdc++-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)
libstdc++-4.4.4-13.el6 (i686)
libstdc++-devel-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)
libstdc++-devel-4.4.4-13.el6 (i686)
libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 (x86_64)
libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 (i686)
libaio-devel-0.3.107-10.el6 (x86_64)
libaio-devel-0.3.107-10.el6 (i686)
libXext-1.1 (x86_64)
libXext-1.1 (i686)
libXtst-1.0.99.2 (x86_64)
libXtst-1.0.99.2 (i686)
libX11-1.3 (x86_64)
libX11-1.3 (i686)
libXau-1.0.5 (x86_64)
libXau-1.0.5 (i686)
libxcb-1.5 (x86_64)
libxcb-1.5 (i686)
libXi-1.3 (x86_64)
libXi-1.3 (i686)
make-3.81-19.el6
sysstat-9.0.4-11.el6 (x86_64)

3.8.2 Supported Oracle Linux 5 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Distributions for x86-64

Use the following information to check the minimum supported Oracle Linux 5 and Red Hat Linux 5 distributions:

Table 3-5 x86-64 Supported Linux 5 Minimum Operating System Requirements

Item Minimum Requirements

SSH Requirement

Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the required SSH software.

Oracle Linux 5

Subscribe to the Oracle Linux 5 channel on the Unbreakable Linux Network, and then install the Oracle Validated RPM. This RPM installs all required kernel packages for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database installations, and performs other system configuration.

Supported distributions:

  • Oracle Linux 5 Update 6 with the Unbreakable Enterprise kernel: 2.6.32-100.0.19 or later

  • Oracle Linux 5 Update 6 with the Red Hat compatible kernel: 2.6.18-238.0.0.0.1.el5 or later

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5

Supported distributions:

  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Update 6: 2.6.18-238.0.0.0.1.el5 or later

  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Update 6 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel: 2.6.32-100.0.19 or later

Package requirements for Oracle Linux 5 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5

The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:

binutils-2.17.50.0.6
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3 (32 bit)
gcc-4.1.2
gcc-c++-4.1.2
glibc-2.5-58
glibc-2.5-58 (32 bit)
glibc-devel-2.5-58
glibc-devel-2.5-58 (32 bit)
ksh
libaio-0.3.106
libaio-0.3.106 (32 bit)
libaio-devel-0.3.106
libaio-devel-0.3.106 (32 bit)
libgcc-4.1.2
libgcc-4.1.2 (32 bit)
libstdc++-4.1.2
libstdc++-4.1.2 (32 bit)
libstdc++-devel 4.1.2
libXext-1.0.1
libXext-1.0.1 (32 bit)
libXtst-1.0.1
libXtst-1.0.1 (32 bit)
libX11-1.0.3
libX11-1.0.3 (32 bit)
libXau-1.0.1
libXau-1.0.1 (32 bit)
libXi-1.0.1
libXi-1.0.1 (32 bit) 
make-3.81
sysstat-7.0.2

3.8.3 Supported SUSE Distributions for x86-64

Use the following information to check the minimum supported SUSE distributions:

Table 3-6 x86-64 Supported SUSE Minimum Operating System Requirements

Item Minimum Requirements

SSH Requirement

Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the required SSH software.

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server

Supported distributions:

  • SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP2: 3.0.13-0.27 or later

SUSE 11

The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:

binutils-2.21.1-0.7.25
gcc-4.3-62.198
gcc-c++-4.3-62.198 
glibc-2.11.3-17.31.1
glibc-devel-2.11.3-17.31.1
ksh-93u-0.6.1
libaio-0.3.109-0.1.46
libaio-devel-0.3.109-0.1.46
libcap1-1.10-6.10
libstdc++33-3.3.3-11.9
libstdc++33-32bit-3.3.3-11.9
libstdc++43-devel-4.3.4_20091019-0.22.17
libstdc++46-4.6.1_20110701-0.13.9
libgcc46-4.6.1_20110701-0.13.9
make-3.81
sysstat-8.1.5-7.32.1
xorg-x11-libs-32bit-7.4
xorg-x11-libs-7.4
xorg-x11-libX11-32bit-7.4
xorg-x11-libX11-7.4
xorg-x11-libXau-32bit-7.4
xorg-x11-libXau-7.4
xorg-x11-libxcb-32bit-7.4
xorg-x11-libxcb-7.4
xorg-x11-libXext-32bit-7.4
xorg-x11-libXext-7.4

3.9 Operating System Requirements for IBM: Linux on System z

The distributions and packages listed in this section are supported for this release on IBM: Linux on System z. No other IBM: Linux on System z distributions are supported.

Identify operating system requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure, and identify additional operating sytem requirements for Oracle Database and Oracle RAC installations.

Note:

The 32-bit packages listed in the following sections are required only for 32-bit client installs.

3.9.1 Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Distributions for IBM: Linux on System z

Use the following information to check the minimum supported Red Hat Linux 6 distributions:

Table 3-7 Linux 6 Minimum Operating System Requirements

Item Minimum Requirements

SSH Requirement

Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the required SSH software.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.3 (2.6.32-279.el6.s390x or later)

Note: You can install on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Update 3, but Oracle recommends that you install on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Update 4 as RHEL 6.4 includes significant I/O performance gains on Open Storage.

See My Oracle Support Note 1574412.1 for more information:

https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type=NOT&id=1574412.1

Packages for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:

binutils-2.20.51.0.2-5.34.el6 (s390x)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 (s390)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 (s390x)
compat-libcap1-1.10-1 (s390x)
gcc-4.4.6-4.el6 (s390x)
gcc-c++-4.4.6-4.el6 (s390x)
glibc-2.12-1.80.el6 (s390)
glibc-2.12-1.80.el6 (s390x)
glibc-devel-2.12-1.80.el6 (s390)
glibc-devel-2.12-1.80.el6 (s390x)
ksh-20100621-16.el6 (s390x)
libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 (s390)
libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 (s390x)
libaio-devel-0.3.107-10.el6 (s390x)
libgcc-4.4.6-4.el6 (s390)
libgcc-4.4.6-4.el6 (s390x)
libstdc++-4.4.6-4.el6 (s390x)
libstdc++-devel-4.4.6-4.el6 (s390x)
libXtst-1.0.99.2-3.el6 (s390)
libXtst-1.0.99.2-3.el6 (s390x)
libXi-1.3-3.el6 (s390)
libXi-1.3-3.el6 (s390x)
libXmu-1.0.5-1.el6 (s390)
libXaw-1.0.6-4.1.el6 (s390)
libXft-2.1.13-4.1.el6 (s390)
libXp-1.0.0-15.1.el6 (s390)
make-3.81-20.el6 (s390x)
sysstat-9.0.4-20.el6 (s390x)

3.9.2 Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Distributions for IBM: Linux on System z

Use the following information to check the minimum supported Red Hat Linux 5 distributions:

Table 3-8 Linux 5 Minimum Operating System Requirements

Item Minimum Requirements

SSH Requirement

Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the required SSH software.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.8 (2.6.18-308.el5 s390x or later).

Package requirements for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5

The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:

binutils-2.17.50.0.6-20.el5 (s390x)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-61 (s390)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-61 (s390x)
gcc-c++-4.1.2-52.el5 (s390x)
glibc-2.5-81 (s390)
glibc-2.5-81 (s390x)
glibc-devel-2.5-81 (s390)
glibc-devel-2.5-81 (s390x)
ksh-20100621-5.el5 (s390x)
libaio-0.3.106-5 (s390)
libaio-0.3.106-5 (s390x)
libaio-devel-0.3.106-5 (s390)
libaio-devel-0.3.106-5 (s390x)
libgcc-4.1.2-52.el5 (s390)
libgcc-4.1.2-52.el5 (s390x)
libstdc++-4.1.2-52.el5 (s390)
libstdc++-4.1.2-52.el5 (s390x)
libstdc++-devel-4.1.2-52.el5 (s390x)
libstdc++44-devel-4.4.6-3.el5.1 (s390)
libstdc++44-devel-4.4.6-3.el5.1 (s390x)
libXtst-1.0.1-3.1 (s390)
libXtst-1.0.1-3.1 (s390x)
libXi-1.0.1-4.el5_4 (s390)
libXi-1.0.1-4.el5_4 (s390x)
make-3.81-3.el5 (s390x)
sysstat-7.0.2-11.el5 (s390x)

3.9.3 Supported SUSE Distributions for IBM: Linux on System z

Use the following information to check the minimum supported SUSE distributions:

Table 3-9 SUSE 11 Minimum Operating System Requirements

Item Minimum Requirements

SSH Requirement

Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the required SSH software.

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP2 (3.0.13-0.27-default s390x or later).

SUSE 11

The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:

binutils-2.21.1-0.7.25 (s390x)
gcc-4.3-62.198 (s390x)
gcc-c++-4.3-62.198 (s390x)
glibc-2.11.3-17.31.1 (s390x)
glibc-32bit-2.11.3-17.31.1 (s390x)
glibc-devel-2.11.3-17.31.1 (s390x)
glibc-devel-32bit-2.11.3-17.31.1 (s390x)
ksh-93u-0.6.1 (s390x)
make-3.81-128.20 (s390x)
libaio-0.3.109-0.1.46 (s390x)
libaio-32bit-0.3.109-0.1.46 (s390x)
libaio-devel-0.3.109-0.1.46 (s390x)
libaio-devel-32bit-0.3.109-0.1.46 (s390x)
libcap1-1.10-6.10 (s390x)
libgcc46-4.6.1_20110701-0.13.9 (s390x)
libstdc++33-3.3.3-11.9 (s390x)
libstdc++33-32bit-3.3.3-11.9 (s390x)
libstdc++43-devel-32bit-4.3.4_20091019-0.22.17 (s390x)
libstdc++43-devel-4.3.4_20091019-0.22.17 (s390x)
libstdc++46-32bit-4.6.1_20110701-0.13.9 (s390x)
libstdc++46-4.6.1_20110701-0.13.9 (s390x)
sysstat-8.1.5-7.32.1 (s390x)
xorg-x11-libs-32bit-7.4-8.26.32.1 (s390x)
xorg-x11-libs-7.4-8.26.32.1 (s390x)
xorg-x11-libX11-32bit-7.4-5.9.1 (s390x)
xorg-x11-libX11-7.4-5.9.1 (s390x)
xorg-x11-libXau-32bit-7.4-1.15 (s390x)
xorg-x11-libXau-7.4-1.15 (s390x)
xorg-x11-libxcb-7.4-1.20.34 (s390x)
xorg-x11-libxcb-32bit-7.4-1.20.34 (s390x)
xorg-x11-libXext-32bit-7.4-1.16.21 (s390x)
xorg-x11-libXext-7.4-1.16.21 (s390x)

3.10 Additional Drivers and Software Packages for Linux

You are not required to install additional drivers and packages, but you may choose to install or configure drivers and packages in the following list:

Note:

Oracle Database Smart Flash Cache is an Enterprise Edition only feature.

3.10.1 Installation Requirements for Open Database Connectivity

Review the following sections if you plan to install Open Database Connectivity (ODBC):

3.10.1.1 About ODBC Drivers and Oracle Database

Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) is a set of database access APIs that connect to the database, prepare, and then run SQL statements on the database. An application that uses an ODBC driver can access non-uniform data sources, such as spreadsheets and comma-delimited files.

3.10.1.2 Installing Oracle ODBC Driver for Linux

If you intend to use ODBC, then install the most recent ODBC Driver Manager for Linux. Download and install the ODBC Driver Manager and Linux RPMs from the following website:

http://www.unixodbc.org

Review the minimum supported ODBC driver, and install the following ODBC driver, or later releases, for all distributions of Linux:

unixODBC-2.3.1 or later

3.10.2 Installation Requirements for PAM on Linux

Review the following sections to install PAM:

3.10.2.1 About PAM and Login Authentication

Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) is a system of libraries that handle user authentication tasks for applications. On Linux, external scheduler jobs require PAM. Oracle strongly recommends that you install the latest Linux-PAM library for your Linux distribution.

3.10.2.2 Installing PAM Library

Use a package management system (yum, up2date, YaST) for your distribution to install the latest pam library.

3.10.3 Installation Requirements for Oracle Messaging Gateway

Review the following sections to install Oracle Messaging Gateway:

3.10.3.1 About Oracle Messaging Gateway

Oracle Messaging Gateway is a feature of the Oracle database. It enables communication between applications based on non-Oracle messaging systems and Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing.

Oracle Messaging Gateway supports the integration of Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing (AQ) with applications based on WebSphere and TIBCO Rendezvous. For information on supported versions see Oracle Database Advanced Queuing User's Guide.

Note:

Oracle Messaging Gateway does not support the integration of Advanced Queuing with TIBCO Rendezvous on IBM: Linux on System z.

3.10.3.2 Installing Oracle Messaging Gateway

Oracle Messaging Gateway is installed with Oracle Database.

If you require a CSD for IBM WebSphere MQ, then see the following website for download and installation information:

http://www-947.ibm.com/support/entry/portal/Downloads/Software/WebSphere/WebSphere_MQ

3.10.4 Installation Requirements for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

Review the following sections to install Lightweight Directory Access Protocol:

3.10.4.1 About LDAP and Oracle Plug-ins

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is an application protocol for accessing and maintaining distributed directory information services over IP networks. You require the LDAP package if you want to use features requiring LDAP, including the Oracle Database scripts odisrvreg and oidca for Oracle Internet Directory, or schemasync for third-party LDAP directories.

3.10.4.2 Installing the LDAP Package

LDAP is included in a default Linux operating system installation.

If you did not perform a default Linux installation, and you intend to use Oracle scripts requiring LDAP, then use a package management system (up2date, YaST) for your distribution to install a supported LDAP package for your distribution, and install any other required packages for that LDAP package.

3.10.5 Installation Requirements for Programming Environments for Linux

Review the following sections to install programming environments:

3.10.5.1 About Programming Environments and Oracle Database

Oracle Database supports multiple programming languages for application development in different environments. Some languages require that you install additional compiler packages for the operating system.

Programming environments are options. They are not required for Oracle Database.

See Also :

Oracle Database Development Guide for an overview of programming environments

3.10.5.2 Configuring Support for Programming Environments

Ensure that your system meets the requirements for the programming environment you want to configure:

Table 3-10 Requirements for Programming Environments for Linux x86-64

Programming Environments Support Requirements

Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) / Oracle Call Interface (OCI)

JDK 6 (Java SE Development Kit release 1.6.0_37 or later updates of 1.6) with the JNDI extension with Oracle Java Database Connectivity. JDK 1.6 is installed with this release.


Oracle C++
Oracle C++ Call Interface
Pro*C/C++
Oracle XML Developer's Kit (XDK)

Intel C/C++ Compiler 12.0.5 or later, and the version of GNU C and C++ compilers listed in the software requirements section in this document for your platform.

Oracle C++ Call Interface (OCCI) applications can be built only with Intel C++ Compiler 12.0.5 used with the standard template libraries of the gcc versions listed in the software requirements section in this document for your platform.

Oracle XML Developer's Kit is supported with the same compilers as OCCI.

Pro*COBOL

Micro Focus Server Express 5.1


Table 3-11 Requirements for Programming Environments for IBM: Linux on System z

Programming Environments Support Requirements

Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) / Oracle Call Interface (OCI)

  • JDK 6 (1.6.0 SR12)

  • JDK 7 (1.7.0)

JDK 1.6 is installed with this release.

Pro*COBOL

Micro Focus Server Express 5.1


3.10.6 Installation Requirements for Web Browsers

Web browsers are required only if you intend to use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express and Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control. Web browsers must support JavaScript, and the HTML 4.0 and CSS 1.0 standards. For a list of browsers that meet these requirements see the Enterprise Manager certification matrix on My Oracle Support:

https://support.oracle.com

See Also:

Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control Basic Installation Guide for steps on how to access the Enterprise Manager certification matrix

3.11 Checking the Software Requirements

To check the software requirements, perform the following steps:

  1. To determine the distribution and version of Linux installed, enter one of the following commands:

    # cat /etc/oracle-release
    # cat /etc/redhat-release
    # cat /etc/SuSE-release
    # lsb_release -id
    
  2. To determine whether the required kernel errata is installed, enter the following command:

    # uname -r
    

    The following is sample output displayed by running this command on an Oracle Linux 6 system:

    2.6.39-100.7.1.el6uek.x86_64
    

    Review the required errata level for your distribution. If the errata level is previous to the required minimum errata update, then obtain and install the latest kernel update from your Linux distributor.

  3. To determine whether the required packages are installed, enter commands similar to the following:

    # rpm -q package_name
    

    Alternatively, if you require specific system architecture information, then enter the following command:

    # rpm -qa --queryformat "%{NAME}-%{VERSION}-%{RELEASE} (%{ARCH})\n" | grep package_name
    

    You can also combine a query for multiple packages, and review the output for the correct versions. For example:

    # rpm -q binutils compat-libstdc++ gcc glibc libaio libgcc libstdc++ \
    make sysstat unixodbc
    

    If a package is not installed, then install it from your Linux distribution media or download the required package version from your Linux distributor's website.

3.12 Installing the cvuqdisk RPM for Linux

If you do not use an Oracle Pre-Install RPM, then you must install the cvuqdisk RPM. Without cvuqdisk, the Cluster Verification Utility cannot find shared disks, and you receive a "Package cvuqdisk not installed" error when you run the Cluster Verification Utility. Use the cvuqdisk RPM for your hardware (for example, x86_64, or i386).

To install the cvuqdisk RPM, complete the following procedure:

  1. Locate the cvuqdisk RPM package, which is in the directory rpm on the Oracle Database installation media. If you installed Oracle Grid Infrastructure, then it is in the directory oracle_home1/cv/rpm.

  2. Log in as root.

  3. Use the following command to find if you have an existing version of the cvuqdisk package:

    # rpm -qi cvuqdisk
    

    If you have an existing version, then enter the following command to deinstall the existing version:

    # rpm -e cvuqdisk
    
  4. Set the environment variable CVUQDISK_GRP to point to the group that owns cvuqdisk, typically oinstall, for example:

    # CVUQDISK_GRP=oinstall; export CVUQDISK_GRP
    
  5. In the directory where you have saved the cvuqdisk RPM, use the following command to install the cvuqdisk package:

    rpm -iv package
    

    For example:

    # rpm -iv cvuqdisk-1.0.9-1.rpm
    

3.13 Checking Shared Memory File System Mount on Linux

Ensure that the /dev/shm mount area is of type tmpfs and is mounted with the following options:

  • With rw and execute permissions set on it

  • With noexec or nosuid not set on it

Use the following procedure to check the shared memory file system:

  1. Check the current mount settings. For example:

    $ more /etc/fstab |grep "tmpfs"
    tmpfs         /dev/shm       /tmpfs     defaults     0 0
    
  2. If necessary, change the mount settings. For example, log in as root, open the /etc/fstab file with a text editor, and modify the tmpfs line:

    tmpfs     /dev/shm     /tmpfs     rw,exec      0 0
    

See Also:

Oracle Database Administrator's Reference for Linux and UNIX-Based Operating Systems for more information about shared memory mounts

3.14 Confirming Host Name Resolution

Typically, the computer on which you want to install Oracle Database is connected to a network. Ensure that the computer host name is resolvable through a Domain Name System (DNS), a network information service (NIS), or a centrally-maintained TCP/IP host file, such as /etc/hosts. Use the ping command to ensure that your computer host name is resolvable. For example:

ping myhostname
pinging myhostname.example.com [192.0.2.2] with 32 bytes of data:
Reply from 192.0.2.2: bytes=32 time=138ms TTL=56

If your computer host name does not resolve, then contact your system administrator.

3.15 Identifying Required Software Directories

You must identify or create the following directories for the Oracle software:

Note:

  • Ensure that the paths you select for Oracle software, such as the Oracle home path and the Oracle base path, use only ASCII characters. Because installation owner names are used by default for some paths, this ASCII character restriction applies to user names, file names, and directory names.

  • Ensure that all paths used by the database software, such as the Oracle home path and the Oracle base path, use characters only from the following set: "# % & ' () * + , - . / : ; < = > ? @ _ A-Z a-z 0-9. This includes user names, file names, and directory names. At the time of this release, the use of other characters for an Oracle Grid Infrastructure home or Oracle Database home is not supported. The set of characters provided is further restricted by user and file naming rules of the operating system.

3.15.1 Oracle Base Directory

The Oracle base directory is a top-level directory for Oracle software installations. The Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines recommend that you use a path similar to the following for the Oracle base directory:

/mount_point/app/software_owner

In this example:

  • mount_point is the mount point directory for the file system that contains the Oracle software.

    The examples in this guide use /u01 for the mount point directory.

  • software_owner is the operating system user name of the software owner installing the Oracle software, for example oracle or grid.

Note:

If you start a database instance using the server parameter file (spfile) with the ORACLE_BASE environment variable set, then its value is automatically stored in spfile. If you unset the ORACLE_BASE environment variable and start the instance again, then the database uses the value of the Oracle base directory stored in spfile.

You must specify the Oracle base directory that contains all Oracle products.

Note:

If you have an existing Oracle base directory, then you can select it from the Oracle Base list during the database installation. If you do not have an Oracle base, then you can create one by editing the text in the list box. By default, the list contains the existing value for the Oracle base. See "Installing the Oracle Database Software" for more information.

You can use the same Oracle base directory for multiple installations or you can create separate Oracle base directories for different installations. If different operating system users install Oracle software on the same system, then each user must create a separate Oracle base directory. The following are examples of Oracle base directories that can exist on the same system:

/u01/app/oracle
/u01/app/orauser

See "Creating an Oracle Base Directory".

3.15.2 Oracle Inventory Directory

The Oracle Inventory directory (oraInventory) stores an inventory of all software installed on the system. It is required and shared by all Oracle software installations on a single system. If you have an existing Oracle Inventory path, then Oracle Universal Installer continues to use that Oracle Inventory.

The first time you install Oracle software on a system, Oracle Universal Installer provides an Optimal Flexible Architecture-compliant path in the format /u[01-09]/app, such as /u01/app. The user running the installation has permissions to write to that path. If this is true, then Oracle Universal Installer creates the Oracle Inventory directory in the path /u[01-09]/app/oraInventory. For example:

/u01/app/oraInventory

If you have set ORACLE_BASE for the oracle user during installation, then Oracle Universal Installer creates the Oracle Inventory directory one level above the ORACLE_BASE in the path ORACLE_BASE/../oraInventory. For example, if ORACLE_BASE is set to /u01/app/oracle, then the Oracle Inventory directory is created in the path /u01/app/oraInventory.

If you have neither created an OFA-compliant path nor set ORACLE_BASE, then the Oracle Inventory directory is placed in the home directory of the user that is performing the installation. For example:

/home/oracle/oraInventory

Oracle Universal Installer creates the directory that you specify and sets the correct owner, group, and permissions for it. You do not have to create it.

Note:

  • All Oracle software installations rely on the Oracle Inventory directory. Ensure that you back it up regularly.

  • Do not delete this directory unless you have completely removed all Oracle software from the system.

  • By default, the Oracle Inventory directory is not installed under the Oracle Base directory. This is because all Oracle software installations share a common Oracle Inventory, so there is only one Oracle Inventory for all users. Whereas, there is a separate Oracle Base for each user.

3.15.3 Oracle Home Directory

The Oracle home directory is the directory where you install the software for a particular Oracle product. You must install different Oracle products or different releases of the same Oracle product in separate Oracle home directories. When you run Oracle Universal Installer, it prompts you to specify the path to this directory and a name that identifies it. In accordance with the OFA guidelines, Oracle strongly recommends that the Oracle home directory you specify is a subdirectory of the Oracle base directory for the user account performing the installation. Oracle recommends that you specify a path similar to the following for the Oracle home directory:

oracle_base/product/11.2.0/db_home_1
oracle_base/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1
oracle_base/product/12.1.0/grid

Oracle Universal Installer creates the directory path that you specify under the Oracle base directory. It also sets the correct owner, group, and permissions on it. You do not have to create this directory.

Note:

During the installation, you must not specify an existing directory that has predefined permissions applied to it as the Oracle home directory. If you do, then you may experience installation failure due to file and group ownership permission errors.

3.16 Identifying or Creating an Oracle Base Directory

Before starting the installation, you must either identify an existing Oracle base directory or, if required, create one. This section contains information about the following topics:

Note:

You can create an Oracle base directory, even if other Oracle base directories exist on the system.

3.16.1 Identifying an Existing Oracle Base Directory

Existing Oracle base directories may not have paths that follow the Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines. However, if you identify an existing Oracle Inventory directory or existing Oracle home directories, then you can usually identify the Oracle base directories, as follows:

  • Identifying an existing Oracle Inventory directory. See "Creating the Oracle Inventory Group If an Oracle Inventory Does Not Exist" for more information.

    Note:

    Oracle recommends that you do not put the oraInventory directory under the Oracle base directory for a new installation. If you have an existing installation, then follow the steps in this section.
  • Identifying an existing Oracle home directory

    Enter the following command to display the contents of the oratab file:

    # more /etc/oratab
    

    If the oratab file exists, then it contains configuration information similar to the following:

    *:/u03/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1:N
    *:/opt/orauser/infra_904:N
    *:/oracle/9.2.0:N
    

    The directory paths specified on each line identify Oracle home directories. Directory paths that end with the user name of the Oracle software owner to use are valid choices for an Oracle base directory. If you intend to use the oracle user to install the software, then you can choose one of the following directories listed in the previous example:

    /u03/app/oracle
    /oracle
    

    Note:

    If possible, choose a directory path similar to the first one (/u03/app/oracle). This path complies with the OFA guidelines.
  • Identifying an existing Oracle base directory

    After you locate the Oracle home directory, run a similar command to confirm the location of Oracle base:

    cat /u01/app/oraInventory/ContentsXML/inventory.xml
    

Before deciding to use an existing Oracle base directory for this installation, ensure that it meets the following conditions:

  • It is not on the same file system as the operating system.

  • It has sufficient free disk space, as follows:

    Requirement Free Disk Space
    The Oracle base directory contains only software files. Up to 4 GB
    The Oracle base directory contains both software and database files (not recommended for production databases). Up to 6 GB

    To determine the free disk space on the file system where the Oracle base directory is located, enter the following command:

    # df -h oracle_base_path
    

See the following sections for more information:

3.16.2 Creating an Oracle Base Directory

Before you create an Oracle base directory, you must identify an appropriate file system with sufficient free disk space.

To identify an appropriate file system, perform the following:

  1. Determine the free disk space on each mounted file system, using the following command:

    # df -h
    
  2. Identify a file system that has the appropriate amount of free space, from the display:

    The file system that you identify can be a local file system, a cluster file system, or an NFS file system on a certified NAS device.

  3. Note the name of the mount point directory for the file system that you identified.

To create the Oracle base directory and specify the correct owner, group, and permissions for it, perform the following:

  1. Enter commands similar to the following to create the recommended subdirectories in the mount point directory that you identified and set the appropriate owner, group, and permissions on them:

    # mkdir -p /mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner
    # chown -R oracle:oinstall /mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner
    # chmod -R 775 /mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner
    

    For example:

    # mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle
    # chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle
    # chmod -R 775 /u01/app/oracle
    
  2. When you configure the oracle user's environment later in this chapter, set the ORACLE_BASE environment variable to specify the Oracle base directory that you created.

3.17 Setting Disk I/O Scheduler on Linux

Disk I/O schedulers reorder, delay, or merge requests for disk I/O to achieve better throughput and lower latency. Linux has multiple disk I/O schedulers available, including Deadline, Noop, Anticipatory, and Completely Fair Queuing (CFQ). For best performance for Oracle ASM, Oracle recommends that you use the Deadline I/O Scheduler.

Enter the following command to ensure that the Deadline disk I/O scheduler is configured for use:

# echo deadline > /sys/block/${ASM_DISK}/queue/scheduler

3.18 Choosing a Storage Option for Oracle Database and Recovery Files

Oracle Database files include data files, control files, redo log files, the server parameter file, and the password file. For all installations, you must choose the storage option to use for Oracle Database files. During the database installation, you must choose the storage option to use for recovery files (the fast recovery area). You do not have to use the same storage option for each file type.

Note:

Database files and recovery files are supported on file systems and Oracle ASM.

Use the following guidelines when choosing the storage options for each file type:

For information on how to configure disk storage before you start the installation, see one of the following sections depending on your choice:

3.19 Creating Directories for Oracle Database or Recovery Files

This section contains the following topics:

3.19.1 Guidelines for Placing Oracle Database Files on a File System

If you choose to place the Oracle Database files on a file system, then use the following guidelines when deciding where to place them:

  • The default path suggested by Oracle Universal Installer for the database file directory is a subdirectory of the Oracle base directory.

  • You can choose either a single file system or more than one file system to store the database files:

    • If you want to use a single file system, then choose a file system on a physical device that is dedicated to the database.

      For best performance and reliability, choose a RAID device or a logical volume on more than one physical device and implement the stripe-and-mirror-everything (SAME) methodology.

    • If you want to use more than one file system, then choose file systems on separate physical devices that are dedicated to the database.

      This method enables you to distribute physical input-output operations and create separate control files on different devices for increased reliability. It also enables you to fully implement the OFA guidelines. You can choose the Advanced database creation option to implement this method.

  • If you intend to create a preconfigured database during the installation, then the file system (or file systems) that you choose must have at least 2 GB of free disk space.

    For production databases, you must estimate the disk space requirement depending on the use of the database.

  • For optimum performance, the file systems that you choose must be on physical devices that are used only by the database.

  • The oracle user must have write permissions to create the files in the path that you specify.

3.19.2 Creating Required Directories

Note:

You must perform this procedure only to place the Oracle Database or recovery files on a separate file system from the Oracle base directory.

To create directories for the Oracle database or recovery files on separate file systems from the Oracle base directory:

  1. Use the following command to determine the free disk space on each mounted file system:

    # df -h
    
  2. Identify the file systems to use, from the display:

    File Type File System Requirements
    Database files Choose either:
    • A single file system with at least 2 GB of free disk space

    • Two or more file systems with at least 2 GB of free disk space in total

    Recovery files Choose a file system with at least 2.4 GB of free disk space

    If you are using the same file system for many file types, then add the disk space requirements for each type to determine the total disk space requirement.

  3. Note the names of the mount point directories for the file systems that you identified.

  4. Enter commands similar to the following to create the recommended subdirectories in each of the mount point directories and set the appropriate owner, group, and permissions on them:

    • Database file directory:

      # mkdir /mount_point/oradata
      # chown oracle:oinstall /mount_point/oradata
      # chmod 775 /mount_point/oradata
      

      The default location for the database file directory is $ORACLE_BASE/oradata.

    • Recovery file directory (fast recovery area):

      # mkdir /mount_point/fast_recovery_area
      # chown oracle:oinstall /mount_point/fast_recovery_area
      # chmod 775 /mount_point/fast_recovery_area
      

      The default fast recovery area is $ORACLE_BASE/fast_recovery_area. Oracle recommends that you keep the fast recovery area on a separate physical disk than that of the database file directory. This method enables you to use the fast recovery area to retrieve data if the disk containing oradata is unusable for any reason.

  5. See "Configuring Servers for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server" and "Stopping Existing Oracle Processes" for information about using Oracle ASM for storage.

3.20 Configuring Storage for Oracle Database Files Using Block Devices

This section describes how to configure Oracle Database files on block devices. Use the following procedure to create block device partitions:

  1. Use fdisk to create disk partitions on block devices for database files.

    If you intend to configure block devices and use Oracle ASM to manage data files, then create one partition for each disk comprising the whole disk, and see "Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMLIB."

  2. Create or modify the rules file in /etc/udev/rules.d to change the permissions of the data files from the default root ownership.

    Ensure that the file you create is appropriate for your distribution. For example, name this file 99-oracle.rules on Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Oracle Linux, and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server systems.

    Example 3-1 Example of a Rules File with User oracle

    /etc/udev/rules.d/99-oracle.rules
    #
    # ASM disks
    KERNEL=="sdb[6-9]", OWNER="oracle", GROUP="dba", MODE="0660"
    KERNEL=="sdb10", OWNER="oracle", GROUP="dba", MODE="0660"
    

    Example 3-2 Example of a Rules File with User grid

    /etc/udev/rules.d/99-oracle.rules
    #
    # ASM disks
    KERNEL=="sdb[6-9]", OWNER="grid", GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660"
    KERNEL=="sdb10", OWNER="grid", GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660"
    

    See Also:

    Chapter 2, "Preparing Storage for ASM" in the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for information about preparing the storage subsystem before you configure Oracle ASM

3.21 Configuring Disk Devices for Oracle Database

The O_DIRECT parameter enables direct read and writes to block devices, avoiding kernel overhead. Starting with Oracle Database Release 10.2, Oracle Database files are configured by default to use direct I/O.

With the 2. 6 kernel or later for Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Oracle Linux, and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server, you must create a permissions file to maintain permissions on Oracle database files. If you do not create this permissions file, then permissions on disk devices revert to their default values, root:disk, and Oracle Database fails to start. Use the following steps to set the permissions file number:

On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, Oracle Linux 5, Oracle Linux 6, or SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11, you must create a permissions file number that is higher than 50.

To configure a permissions file for disk devices, see the following examples:

See Also:

Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for information about configuring storage for Oracle database files on shared storage devices

3.21.1 Example of Creating a Udev Permissions File for Oracle Database

See the examples mentioned in "Configuring Storage for Oracle Database Files Using Block Devices" for more information about creating a permissions file.

3.21.2 Example of Configuring Block Device Storage for Oracle Database

The following procedure creates partitions for Oracle Database files on block devices:

  1. Log in as root or switch the user to root using sudo.

  2. Enter the fdisk command to format a specific storage disk. For example, /sbin/fdisk /dev/sdb

  3. Create a partition. For example, create a 280 MB partition for data files.

  4. Use the command similar to the following to update the kernel partition table for the shared storage device:

    /sbin/partprobe diskpath
    

The following is an example of how to use the fdisk command to create one partition on a shared storage block disk device for a data file:

$ sudo sh
Password:
# /sbin/fdisk /dev/sdb
The number of cylinders for this disk is set to 1024.
Command (m for help): n
Command action
  e   extended
  P   primary partition (1-4)
p
Partition number (1-4): 1
First cylinder (1-1024, default 1):
Using default value 1
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-4462, default 1)
Using default value 1
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-1024, default 4462): using default value 4462

Command (m for help):w

The partition table has been altered!
Calling ioctl () to re-read partition table.
Synching disks.
# exit
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