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Oracle® Database Installation Guide
12c Release 1 (12.1) for Microsoft Windows

E17735-07
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1 Overview of Oracle Database Installation

This chapter describes the different installation types of Oracle Database and issues to consider before you install Oracle Database:

1.1 New Oracle Products and Features Installed with This Release

There are many new features and products installed with this release. See the Changes in This Release for Oracle Database Installation Guide chapter.

1.2 Planning Your Installation

The Oracle Database installation process consists of six steps:

  1. Read the release notes: Read the Oracle Database release notes before you begin the installation. The release notes are available with the platform-specific documentation. The latest version of the release notes is available on Oracle Technology Network at

    http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/indexes/documentation/index.html

  2. Review the licensing information: Although the installation media in your media pack contain many Oracle components, you are permitted to use only those components for which you have purchased licenses.

    Oracle Support Services does not provide support for components for which licenses have not been purchased.

  3. Plan the installation: This overview chapter describes the Oracle products that you can install and issues that you must consider before starting the installation.

    You also may want to see Appendix G, which covers frequently asked questions about installing Oracle Database components, such as how to install Oracle Database if your site uses Oracle applications or if you need multiple Oracle Database client connections.

    If you plan to perform multiple installations, see Appendix C for information about silent or response file installations, and cloning the Oracle home.

    Oracle Database Client is installed separately. You cannot install Oracle Database Client during an Oracle Database installation.

  4. Complete preinstallation tasks: Chapter 2 describes tasks that you must complete before installing Oracle Database. Additionally, see Chapter 4 for Oracle Restart preinstallation tasks.

  5. Install the software: Use the following sections to install Oracle Database:

    • Chapter 4 describes how to use Oracle Universal Installer to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server.

    • Chapter 5 describes how to use Oracle Universal Installer to install Oracle Database and how to clone an Oracle home.

    • Appendix C describes how to perform silent or response file installations, which you may want to use to perform multiple installations of Oracle Database.

    • Appendix D describes how to install and use Oracle components in different languages.

    • Appendix F provides troubleshooting advice in case you encounter problems with the installation.

  6. Complete postinstallation tasks: Chapter 6 describes postinstallation tasks.

  7. Get started using Oracle Database: Use the following sections to get started using Oracle Database:

    • Chapter 7 describes how to check the contents of the installed Oracle Database, how to start the database and various other Oracle tools, and how to locate various files.

    • "Cloning an Oracle Home" describes how you can clone an existing Oracle Database home.

    • Appendix B on the Optimal Flexible Architecture, which is a set of guidelines that ensure reliable Oracle installations that require little maintenance.

    • Appendix D describes globalization support information.

    • Appendix E explains how to manage Oracle Database port numbers.

  8. Remove Oracle Database software: Chapter 8 describes how to remove Oracle Database software.

1.3 Installation Considerations

This section contains information that you should consider before deciding how to install this product. It contains the following sections:

1.3.1 Installation Differences Between Windows and UNIX Systems

If you are experienced with installing Oracle components in UNIX environments, note that many manual setup tasks required on UNIX are not required on Windows. The key differences between UNIX and Windows installations are:

  • Startup and shutdown services

    With Windows, you log in to a user account with Administrator privileges to install the Oracle Database software. You can also specify an Oracle Home User (standard Windows User Account, not an Administrator account) during installation. On Linux and UNIX systems, you must create and use a software owner user account, and this user must belong to the Oracle Inventory group.

  • Environment variables

    With Windows, Oracle Universal Installer sets environment variables such as PATH, ORACLE_BASE, ORACLE_HOME, and ORACLE_SID in the registry. In UNIX systems, you must manually set these environment variables.

    If you have multiple Oracle databases in an Oracle home, then only the SID of the last Oracle database is set in the registry. See Oracle Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide for Windows and UNIX for more information about managing Oracle homes.

  • Operating System Groups

    On Windows systems, Oracle Universal Installer creates ORA_DBA, ORA_OPER, ORA_SID_DBA, ORA_SID_OPER, ORA_HOMENAME_DBA, ORA_HOMENAME_OPER and other groups, which are used for operating system authentication for Oracle Database and Oracle ASM instances. On Linux and UNIX systems, you must create these operating system groups manually, and they are used for granting permission to access various Oracle software resources and for operating system authentication. Windows does not use an Oracle Inventory group.

  • Account for running Oracle Universal Installer

    With Windows, you log in to a user account with Administrator privileges to install the Oracle Database software. You can also specify an Oracle Home User (standard Windows User Account, not Administrator account) during installation. On Linux and UNIX systems, you must create and use a software owner user account, and this user must belong to the Oracle Inventory group.

See Also:

"Oracle Database Differences on Windows and UNIX" appendix in Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows

1.3.2 Recommended File System

Oracle strongly recommends that you install the Oracle database home (Oracle database binaries, trace files, and so on) on Oracle ACFS or NTFS; the database files themselves must be placed on Oracle ASM if using Oracle ACFS; otherwise they can be placed on NTFS. Usage of Oracle ACFS and Oracle ASM or NTFS is recommended to ensure security of these files.

See Also:

"Setting File Permissions" in Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows for information about the default permissions when using Oracle Universal Installer and Database Configuration Assistant to install the Oracle Database software

1.3.3 Hardware and Software Certification

The platform-specific hardware and software requirements included in this installation guide were current at the time this guide was published. However, because new platforms and operating system software versions might be certified after this guide is published, review the certification matrix on the My Oracle Support website for the most up-to-date list of certified hardware platforms and operating system versions. This website also provides compatible client and database versions, patches, and workaround information for bugs. The My Oracle Support website is available at

https://support.oracle.com/

You must register online before using My Oracle Support. After logging in, from the menu options, select the Certifications tab. On the Certifications page, use the Certification Search options to search by Product, Release, and Platform. You can also search using the Certification Quick Links options such as Product Delivery, and Lifetime Support.

1.3.3.1 Third-Party Database Certification for Oracle SQL Developer

You can use Oracle SQL Developer to view metadata and data of several non-Oracle databases. Refer to "Database Certification for SQL Developer (Oracle and Third-Party)" in Oracle SQL Developer Installation Guide for more information.

1.3.4 Multiple Oracle Homes Support

Oracle Database supports multiple Oracle homes. You can install this release or previous releases of the software more than once on the same system, in different Oracle home directories. This allows flexibility in deployment and maintenance of the database software. For example, it enables you to run different versions of the database simultaneously on the same system, or it enables you to upgrade specific database instances on a system without affecting other running databases. However, when you have installed multiple Oracle homes on a single system, there is also some added complexity introduced that you must consider allowing these Oracle homes to coexist.

See Also:

1.3.4.1 Installing Oracle Database on a System with an Existing Oracle Software

You must install this product into a new Oracle home directory. You cannot install products from one release of Oracle Database into an Oracle home directory of a different release. For example, you cannot install Oracle Database 12c software into an existing Oracle9i Oracle home directory.

You can install this release more than once on the same system if each installation is installed in a separate Oracle home directory.

1.3.5 Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server

The Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server provides the infrastructure to include your single instance database in an enterprise grid architecture. Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) combines these infrastructure products into one software installation called the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home. On a single instance database, the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home includes Oracle Restart and Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) software.

To use Oracle Automatic Storage Management or Oracle Restart, you must first install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server before you install and create the database. Otherwise, you must manually register the database with Oracle Restart.

See Also:

Chapter 4, "Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server" for more information about installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server

1.3.6 Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services

When you install the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, Oracle Universal Installer configures the single-node version of Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services (CSS).

The CSS service is required to enable synchronization between an Oracle ASM instance and the database instances that rely on it for database file storage. Because the service must be running before an Oracle ASM instance or database instance starts, it is configured to start automatically by Oracle Restart before the Oracle ASM instance is started. It must be running if an Oracle database is using Oracle ASM for database file storage.

For single-instance installations, the CSS is installed-in and runs from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home which is the same home that runs Oracle ASM.

Note:

On cluster systems with Oracle RAC installations, the CSS is configured during the Oracle Clusterware installation. If the system is running Oracle Clusterware, then refer to Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for information about removing Oracle RAC or Oracle Clusterware.

1.3.7 Oracle Universal Installer Overview

Oracle Universal Installer is a Java-based graphical user interface (GUI) tool that enables you to install Oracle software. Oracle Universal Installer provides the following capabilities:

  • Component and suite installations

  • Globalization support

  • Distributed installation support

  • Unattended silent installations using response files

  • Removal of installed components

  • Multiple Oracle homes support

Oracle Universal Installer can run a silent or response file installation of Oracle software using response files. See Appendix C, "Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files" for more information.

You must use the Oracle Universal Installer 12c to install components into an Oracle Database 12c Oracle home directory.

Oracle Universal Installer automatically installs the Oracle version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE). This version is required to run Oracle Universal Installer and several Oracle assistants. Do not modify the JRE, unless doing so with a patch provided by My Oracle Support. Visit the following site to find Oracle patches to download:

https://support.oracle.com/

When Oracle Universal Installer runs, it creates an dbhome_n directory, which keeps track of the components you are installing. Do not modify the contents of this directory. By default, this directory is located at the same directory level as ORACLE_HOME.

1.3.8 Oracle Base Directory

If you install Oracle Database 12c on a computer with no other Oracle software installed, Oracle Universal Installer creates an Oracle base directory for you. If Oracle software is installed, then one or more Oracle base directories exist. In the latter case, Oracle Universal Installer offers you a choice of Oracle base directories to install Oracle Database.

The Oracle Home User has complete control over the Oracle Base for a particular home. For reasons of security, different Windows User Accounts used as Oracle Home Users for different Oracle homes are not allowed to share the same Oracle Base. However, to support Oracle Database upgrade, Oracle supports the sharing of Oracle Base between a Windows Built-in Account and a Windows User Account. This means that if you choose to reuse an Oracle Base from an earlier release of Oracle Database in Oracle Database 12c, then the Oracle Home User of Oracle Database 12c Oracle home has complete control over the Oracle Base of the earlier release.

See Also:

"Managing Oracle Home User" in Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows

In a default Windows installation, the Oracle base directory appears as follows:

DRIVE_LETTER:\app\username

where username is the Oracle Installation User if you choose Windows Built-in Account, else it is the Oracle Home User (standard Windows User Account).

Caution:

After installing Oracle Database 12c or later with a Windows User Account used as the Oracle Home User, do not install older version of databases and share the same Oracle base directory. During the installation of older releases of Oracle Database, ACLs are reset corresponding to older releases. Thus Oracle Database 12c or later services might not be able to access the Oracle base directory and the files in it.

Note:

You can choose to create an Oracle base directory, even if other Oracle base directories exist on the system.

1.3.9 Oracle Home Directory

This section covers the following topics:

1.3.9.1 Contents of the Oracle Home Environment

The Oracle home directory is located under the Oracle base directory. For example, in a default Windows installation, if you name the Oracle home directory dbhome_1, it appears in the Oracle base directory as follows:

DRIVE_LETTER:\app\username\product\12.1.0\dbhome_1

where username is the installation user if you choose Windows Built-in Account, else it is the Oracle Home User specified.

An Oracle home corresponds to the environment in which Oracle components run. This environment includes the following:

  • Location of installed component files

  • PATH variable pointing to binary files of installed components

  • Registry entries

  • Service names

  • Program groups

Oracle homes also have a name associated with them, which is automatically assigned by the installer.

1.3.9.2 Multiple Oracle Home Components

You can install all Oracle components in multiple Oracle homes on the same computer. However, some components can only support one active instance at a time. The current (latest) installation renders the previous one inactive. These components are:

  • Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows

  • Oracle Provider for OLE DB

1.3.10 Oracle Inventory Directory

The Oracle Inventory directory is the central inventory location for all Oracle software installed on a server. By default, the location of the Oracle Inventory directory is C:\Program Files\Oracle\Inventory. This directory is created automatically the first time you install Oracle software on a Windows server.

1.3.11 Installing Oracle Database Vault in an Oracle Data Guard Environment

Starting with Oracle Database 12c, Oracle Database Vault is installed by default as part of the Oracle Database installation.

If you plan to use Oracle Data Guard with Oracle Database Vault, then see "Integrating Oracle Database Vault with Oracle Data Guard" in Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide.

1.3.12 Oracle Database Vault Default Audit Policy and Initialization Parameters

Oracle Database Vault installs a baseline database auditing policy. This policy covers the access control configuration information stored in Database Vault database tables, information stored in Oracle Catalog (rollback segments, tablespaces, and so on), the use of system privileges, and Oracle Label Security configuration. When you install Oracle Database Vault, the security specific database initialization parameters are initialized with default values.

See Also:

Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide for more information about the database audit policy

1.3.13 Consider Memory Allocation and Automatic Memory Management

During a Typical installation, you create your database with Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA), and automatic memory management is enabled. If you choose advanced installation, then you can either specify memory allocation manually, or enable automatic memory management.

With automatic memory management, the Oracle Database instances automatically manage and tune memory for you. With automatic memory management, you choose a memory target, and the instance automatically distributes memory between the system global area (SGA) and the instance program global area (instance PGA). As memory requirements change, the instance dynamically redistributes memory between the SGA and instance PGA.

You can enable automatic memory management either during, or after the database installation. Enabling automatic memory management after installation involves a shutdown and restart of the database.

See Also:

"Managing Memory" in Oracle Database Administrator's Guide

1.4 Oracle Database Installation Methods

You can choose different installation methods to install Oracle Database, which are as follows:

1.4.1 Interactive Installation Types

When you use the interactive method to install Oracle Database by selecting the Create and configure a database option, Oracle Universal Installer displays a series of screens that enable you to specify all the required information to install the Oracle Database software and create a database.

Oracle Universal Installer provides you the following options:

  • Desktop Class: Select this option if you are installing on a laptop or desktop class system. This option includes a starter database and allows minimal configuration. This option is designed for those who want to quickly set up a database.

  • Server Class: Select this option if you are installing on a server class system, such as what you would use when deploying Oracle in a production data center. This option allows for more advanced configuration options. Advanced configuration options available using this option include Oracle RAC, Oracle Automatic Storage Management, backup and recovery configuration, integration with Enterprise Manager Cloud Control, and more fine-grained memory tuning, among others.

    Furthermore, the Server Class option provides you with the following installation types:

    • Typical: Select this installation method to quickly install Oracle Database. This installation type requires minimal user input. It installs the software and optionally creates a general-purpose database using the information that you specify on the screen. It is the default installation type.

    • Advanced: Select this installation type to complete any of the following tasks:

      • Select a database character set or different product languages

      • Create the EXAMPLE tablespace during the installation

      • Create a database on a different file system from the software

      • Specify different passwords for administrative schemas

      • Configure recovery options

      • Configure Oracle Configuration Manager

      • In the Select Database Edition screen, if you select Enterprise Edition, then Oracle Universal Installer automatically selects the components most customers need for their Oracle Database installation.

1.4.2 Automated Installation Methods Using Response Files

By creating a response file and specifying this file when you start Oracle Universal Installer, you can automate some or all of the Oracle Database installation. These automated installation methods are useful if you must perform multiple installations on similarly configured systems.

When you use a response file, you can run Oracle Universal Installer in the following modes, depending on whether you specify all of the required information or not:

  • Silent Mode: Oracle Universal Installer runs in silent mode if you use a response file that specifies all required information, and specify the -silent option when starting Oracle Universal Installer. None of the Oracle Universal Installer screens are displayed.

  • Response File Mode: Oracle Universal Installer runs in response file mode if you do not specify all required information in the response file.

For more information about these modes and about how to complete an installation using response files, see Appendix C.

1.5 Software Updates Option

Use the Software Updates feature to dynamically download and apply the latest updates released by Oracle; such as, interim patch updates, Oracle Universal Installer updates, and the latest patch set updates. This functionality is available starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2).

You can choose to download the latest updates by providing your My Oracle Support credentials or you can apply previously downloaded updates. You can also download the updates separately using the -downloadUpdates option and later apply them during the Oracle Database installation by providing the location where the updates are present.

See Also:

"Installing the Oracle Database Software" for more information about the -downloadUpdates option, and dynamically applying software updates during installation

1.6 Oracle Database Editions

You can choose one of the following installation types when installing Oracle Database 12c:

  • Enterprise Edition: Installs licensable Oracle Database options, and database configuration and management tools in addition to all of the products that are installed during a Standard Edition installation. It also installs products most commonly used for data warehousing and transaction processing. This option also permits you to enable or disable individual components from a components list.

  • Standard Edition: This installation type is designed for department or workgroup-level applications and for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). It is engineered to provide core relational database management services and options. It installs an integrated set of management tools, full distribution, replication, web features, and facilities for building business-critical applications.

  • Standard Edition One: This installation type is designed for department, workgroup-level, or web applications. From single instance environments for small business to highly distributed branch environments, Oracle Database Standard Edition One includes all the facilities necessary to build business-critical applications.

  • Personal Edition: Installs the same software as the Enterprise Edition installation type, but supports only a single user development and deployment environment that requires full compatibility with Enterprise Edition and Standard Edition. Oracle RAC is not installed with Personal Edition.

See Also:

Note:

  • The installation process is the same for all the database editions.

  • Ensure that you install only those products for which you have a valid license.

1.7 Database Security Notification Options

Oracle issues security alerts as needed for vulnerability fixes that are determined to be too critical to wait for distribution in the next Critical Patch Update.

During the database installation, in the Configure Security Updates screen, Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to provide a security contact. Select one of the following options:

  • Provide an email address to receive security information for your installation.

  • Provide a My Oracle Support email address or account name to receive security information for your installation, and to enroll your system for Security Updates. You can receive information about alerts through My Oracle Support.

You can choose not to provide this information, but Oracle strongly recommends that you configure a security notification contact.

The information collected by Security Updates is limited to configuration information. The data collected does not include personally identifiable information (with the exception of a local contact name in case of transmission problems). You may still use all licensed Oracle functionality if you decline to enable Security Updates.To choose not to receive security notifications, leave all fields in the Configure Security Updates screen blank, and click Next to continue.

If you provide your My Oracle Support credentials, then Security Updates automatically gathers configuration information regarding your installed Oracle products and uploads it to Oracle's support systems. You can access the information it collects through your My Oracle Support account, and review health check recommendations, patch recommendations and other recommendations for your system in addition to security alerts.

See Also:

The Oracle Security Policies page, which is available from the following URL:

http://www.oracle.com/us/support/assurance/fixing-policies/index.html

1.8 Database Configuration Options

You can create an Oracle database during the installation process. If you choose to create an Oracle database, Oracle Universal Installer uses Oracle Database Configuration Assistant to create it. You can create one of the preconfigured database types, which are designed for a variety of different applications, modify one of the preconfigured database types, or create a customized database to suit your own requirements.

This section describes the following database configuration options:

1.8.1 Preconfigured Database Types

Oracle provides the following preconfigured database types that you can create or customize during the installation:

  • General Purpose/Transaction Processing

  • Data Warehouse

See the online help provided by either Oracle Universal Installer or Oracle Database Configuration Assistant for a description of these preconfigured database types.

1.8.2 Installation Choices That Affect Database Creation

Oracle Universal Installer runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in one of two modes, depending on the choices that you make during the installation:

  • Silent or response file mode

    If you choose the Enterprise Edition, Standard Edition, or Personal Edition as the database edition, then choose to create a preconfigured database type. Oracle Universal Installer prompts you for the minimum amount of information required to create a database of the type you choose. It then runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in silent or response file mode to create the database after it installs the software.

    Note:

    Oracle recommends that you use this method to create a database if you have not previously created one.
  • Interactive mode

    Install the database using Oracle Universal Installer and start Oracle Database Configuration Assistant from Oracle home. Oracle Database Configuration Assistant runs in interactive mode. Using the screens in Oracle Database Configuration Assistant, you can either modify one of the preconfigured database types or customize the database.

    Note:

    If you choose this method to create a database, click the Help button on any of the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant screens for a description of the information that you must specify on that screen.

1.8.3 Creating a Database After Installation

If you decide not to create a database during the installation, you can use Oracle Database Configuration Assistant to create one after you have installed the software.

See Also:

Oracle Database 2 Day DBA for more information about using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant to create a database after installation

1.9 Database Storage Options

If you choose to create a database during the installation, you can specify the following storage options for database files:

Note:

Installing files on raw devices is no longer an option during installation. You must use a file system, or use Oracle Automatic Storage Management.

1.9.1 File System

If you choose the file system option, then Oracle Database Configuration Assistant creates the database files in a directory on a file system on your computer. Oracle recommends that the file system you choose be separate from the file systems used by the operating system or the Oracle software. The file system that you choose can be any of the following:

  • A file system on a disk that is physically attached to the system

    If you are creating a database on basic disks that are not logical volumes or RAID devices, then follow the Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) recommendations and distribute the database files over multiple disks.

  • A file system on a logical volume manager (LVM) or a RAID device

    If you are using multiple disks in an LVM or RAID configuration, then Oracle recommends that you use the stripe-and-mirror-everything (SAME) methodology to increase performance and reliability. Using this methodology, you must not specify multiple file system mounting points for database storage.

  • A network file system (NFS) mounted from a certified network attached storage (NAS) device. You also have the option to use the Direct NFS Client feature, which simplifies the administration of NFS configurations and also offers performance improvements.

    See Also:

    "Configuring Direct NFS Client" for more information about the Direct NFS Client feature

    If the NAS device is certified by Oracle, then you can store the database files on them.

If you choose the Advanced database creation option, then you can also choose to use the Oracle-managed files feature with the new database. If you use this feature, then you must specify only the database object name instead of file names when creating or deleting database files.

See Also:

Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about Oracle-managed files

1.9.2 Oracle Automatic Storage Management

Oracle Automatic Storage Management is a high-performance storage management solution. For Oracle Database files, it simplifies the management of a dynamic database environment, such as creating and laying out databases and managing disk space.

Oracle Automatic Storage Management can be used with single database installations, multiple database installations, and in Oracle RAC environments. It can be used with databases created in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1.0.3 or later). However, Oracle Database 12c must use Oracle Automatic Storage Management from Oracle Database 12c or later. Oracle Automatic Storage Management is installed as part of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. If you plan to use Oracle Automatic Storage Management, then you must install Oracle Grid Infrastructure before you install and create the database. If you want to upgrade an existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management installation, then you must upgrade Oracle Automatic Storage Management by running an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade.

See Also:

Chapter 4, "Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server" for more information about installing the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software

Oracle Automatic Storage Management manages the storage of all database files, such as redo logs, control files, and data pump export files. Oracle Automatic Storage Management can manage the Oracle Database executable binary files and any other database file by creating a file system with Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System. Though Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System is cluster aware, it works as a file system on a single instance database also.

To use Oracle Automatic Storage Management, you allocate partitioned disks to Oracle with preferences for striping and mirroring. Oracle Automatic Storage Management manages the disk space for you, thus eliminating the need for traditional disk management tools such as logical volume managers (LVM), file systems, and the numerous commands necessary to manage both. The synchronization between Oracle Automatic Storage Management and the database instance is handled by Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services (CSS).

See Also:

Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for more information about Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System

1.9.2.1 Oracle Automatic Storage Management Components

Oracle Automatic Storage Management uses the following components:

Oracle Automatic Storage Management Disk Groups

A disk group is a set of disk devices that Oracle Automatic Storage Management manages as a unit. Each disk device can be an individual physical disk, a multiple disk device such as a RAID storage array or a logical volume, or a partition on a physical disk. However, mostly, disk groups consist of one or more individual physical disks. To enable Oracle Automatic Storage Management to balance I/O and storage appropriately within the disk group, ensure that all devices in the disk group have similar, if not identical, storage capacity and performance.

You can set the redundancy and striping attributes of individual file types within a disk group by using Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk group templates. When you create a disk group, Oracle Automatic Storage Management creates a set of default templates for that disk group. Default template settings depend on the disk group type. For example, the default template for control files for a normal redundancy disk group sets three-way mirroring. All other files are configured with two-way mirroring for normal redundancy, or three-way mirroring when configured for high redundancy. For a high redundancy disk group, the default mirroring cannot be changed, which implies that all files are always three-way mirrored in a high redundancy disk group. You can modify the default templates to suit the unique needs of your site. See Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for more information.

Oracle Automatic Storage Management spreads data evenly across all of the devices in the disk group to optimize performance and utilization. You can add or remove disk devices from a disk group without shutting down the database. When you add or remove disks, Oracle Automatic Storage Management rebalances the data files across the disk group. You can create multiple disk groups to handle specific tasks, such as backup and recovery operations, in addition to routine file storage activities.

When you add a device to a disk group, you can specify a failure group for that device. Failure groups identify disk devices that have common failure characteristics, for example, devices that are attached to the same controller. If the controller fails, then all devices attached to it become unavailable. By default, each device also belongs to its own failure group. By using the failure groups you specify, Oracle Automatic Storage Management can distribute data among the devices in the disk group to help minimize the risk of data loss caused by component failures.

Oracle Automatic Storage Management Instance

The Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance is a special Oracle instance that manages Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk groups. The Oracle ASM instance and the ASMSNMP account are created and started, if necessary, when you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure. Oracle Enterprise Manager uses this account to monitor Oracle ASM instances to retrieve data from Oracle ASM-related data dictionary views. The ASMSNMP account status is set to OPEN upon creation, and it is granted the SYSDBA privilege.

There is only one Oracle ASM instance per host regardless of the number of database instances running on that host.

See Also:

1.10 Database Management Options

To simplify database administration, Oracle provides a web-based management tool called Oracle Enterprise Manager.

  • Deploy Oracle Enterprise Manager centrally in your environment.

    To deploy Oracle Enterprise Manager centrally, you must install at least one Oracle Management Repository and at least one Oracle Management Service within the environment, then install an Oracle Enterprise Management Agent on every computer. You then can use a single HTML interface to manage and monitor software and hardware targets on all of those systems. Targets can include Oracle databases, application servers, Net listeners, and third-party software. This single interface is called Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control.

    Note:

  • Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express locally on the database system

    Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express 12c is a web-based management tool built into Oracle Database without any need for special installation or management.

    Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express can manage only a single database. If you want to administer multiple databases on a system, then you must either configure a separate Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express for each database, or you must install Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control.

This section contains the following topics:

1.10.1 Management Options for Preconfigured Databases

When you create a preconfigured database during the installation, you must select the Oracle Enterprise Manager interface to manage the database. The following options are available:

  • Use Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control for central database management

    This option is available only if an Oracle Management Agent is installed on the system. When Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) detects an Oracle Management Agent on the system, you can choose this option and specify the Oracle Management Service to use to manage the database.

    If an Oracle Management Agent is not installed, then you must use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express to manage the database. However, if Oracle Management Agent is installed after Oracle Database, then you can use Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control to manage this database.

  • Use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express for local database management

    Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express is built into Oracle Database without any need for special installation or management. Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express is available and configured by default during the database installation, and is not displayed as an option in Oracle Universal Installer during the database installation.

1.10.2 Management Options for Custom Databases

Install the database using Oracle Universal Installer and start Oracle Database Configuration Assistant from Oracle home. Oracle Database Configuration Assistant runs in interactive mode. Using a screen in Oracle Database Configuration Assistant, you can specify the Oracle Enterprise Manager interface to manage the database. Alternatively, you can choose not to configure the database with Enterprise Manager.

Oracle recommends that you configure the database to use Oracle Enterprise Manager during the database installation. However, if you do not do this, then see Oracle Database 2 Day DBA for configuring EM Express, or see Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control Administrator's Guide for information about how to use Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control to discover targets.

1.10.3 Features Provided by Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express 12c

Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express provides a web-based user interface that enables you to monitor, administer, and maintain an Oracle database.

You can use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express to perform basic database administration tasks, such as:

  • Configuration and Administration

    • Initialization Parameters

    • Memory Management

    • Database Feature Usage

    • Database Properties

  • Storage

    • Tablespaces Management

    • Undo Management

    • Redo Log Groups

    • Archive Logs

    • Control Files

  • Security

    • Users Management

    • Roles Management

    • Profiles Management

You can also use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express to complete Performance Monitoring and Tuning tasks, such as:

  • Performance Hub

    • Real Time SQL Monitoring

    • ASH (Active Session History) Analytics

    • ADDM (Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor)

    • AWR (Automatic Workload Repository) Browser

    • Historical performance monitoring and tuning

  • SQL Tuning Advisor

1.11 Database Backup and Recovery Options

To simplify the management of backup and recovery files, you can create a fast recovery area for your database. During the database installation, Oracle Universal Installer provides you with options to configure the fast recovery area location. However, to configure backups, and to implement a backup and recovery strategy, you must use either Recovery Manager (RMAN) or Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control.

See Also:

1.11.1 Configuring Recovery

You can provide the location of the fast recovery area during the database installation.

You can use either a file system directory or an Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk group for the fast recovery area. The default disk quota configured for the fast recovery area is 2 GB. For Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk groups, the required disk space depends on the redundancy level of the disk group that you choose. Chapter 2 describes how to choose the location of the fast recovery area and identifies its disk space requirements.

1.12 Upgrade Considerations

For information about upgrading an earlier release of Oracle Database to Oracle Database 12c, see Oracle Database Upgrade Guide. The following sections provide additional platform-specific upgrade information that you must review before upgrading an existing database:

1.12.1 Upgrading Your Operating System Before a Database Upgrade

When you upgrade to a new release of Oracle Database, the operating system requirements may have changed. If required, upgrade your operating system before upgrading Oracle Database. See Chapter 2, "Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks" for a list of supported operating systems.

To upgrade the operating system and then perform a database upgrade, perform one of the following procedures:

1.12.1.1 Upgrading the Operating System

Upgrade the operating system. Then, upgrade the database either manually or by using Oracle Database Upgrade Assistant.

1.12.1.2 Migrating to a New Computer

Migrate to a new computer using one of the following methods:

  • To upgrade the database on the new computer:

    1. Copy the database files from the computer running the previous operating system to the one running the supported operating system.

    2. Re-create the control files on the computer running the supported operating system.

    3. Manually upgrade the database using the method described in Oracle Database Upgrade Guide.

    Note:

    You cannot use Oracle Database Upgrade Assistant if you use this method. However, this method lets you easily revert to the earlier database.
  • You can also upgrade the database using the Export/Import utilities method described in Oracle Database Upgrade Guide.

    See Also:

    The table on "Supported Upgrade Paths for Upgrading Oracle Database" in Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for information about upgrading your current database release

1.12.2 Upgrading Oracle Automatic Storage Management

In previous releases, Oracle ASM was installed as part of the Oracle Database installation. With Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle ASM is part of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, either for a cluster or for a standalone server.

If you want to upgrade an existing Oracle ASM installation, then you must upgrade Oracle ASM by running an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade. If you do not have Oracle ASM installed and you want to use Oracle ASM as your storage option, then you must complete an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation before you start your Oracle Database installation.

1.13 Migration Considerations

You can migrate an existing Oracle Database 11g for 32-bit Windows to Oracle Database 12c for 64-bit Windows. See "Migrating an Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) or Earlier Database" section in the Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows for migration information.

Oracle Database Upgrade Assistant has an option, Move Database from a Different Release 12.1 Oracle home, which lets you move your database from a Windows Built-in Account secured home to a Windows User Account secured home. See the "Moving a Database from an Existing 12c Oracle Home to a New 12c Oracle Home" section in the Oracle Database Upgrade Guide.

See Also:

"Using Oracle Home User During Oracle Database Upgrade" section in Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows for more information