|Oracle® Database Installation Guide
12c Release 1 (12.1) for Microsoft Windows
|PDF · Mobi · ePub|
Oracle recommends installing the latest patch set release after successful installation of Oracle Database.
You must register online before using My Oracle Support. After logging in to My Oracle Support, select the Patches and Updates tab from the top of the screen.
To download required patches:
Use a web browser to view the My Oracle Support website:
Log in to My Oracle Support.
Note:If you are not a My Oracle Support registered user, click Register here and follow the registration instructions.
On the main My Oracle Support page, click Patches and Updates tab.
In the Patch Search group, select Product or Family (Advanced).
In the Product field, select Oracle Database.
In the Release field select the release number. For example, Oracle 220.127.116.11.0.
Any available patch updates are displayed in the Patch Search page.
Select the patch number and click ReadMe. The README page is displayed and contains information about the patch set and how to apply the patches to your installation.
Return to the Patch Search page, click Download, and save the file on your system.
Use the unzip utility provided with Oracle Database 12c to uncompress the Oracle patch updates that you downloaded from My Oracle Support. The unzip utility is located in the
Oracle recommends running the
utlrp.sql script after creating or upgrading a database. This script recompiles all PL/SQL modules that may be in an INVALID state, including packages, procedures, types, and so on. This step is optional, but recommended so that the performance cost of recompilation is incurred during the installation rather than in the future.
Note:There should be no other data definition language (DDL) statements running on the database while the script is running, and packages
DBMS_STANDARDmust be valid.
DRIVE_LETTER:\> sqlplus /nolog
Connect to the database with the
SQL> CONNECT SYS AS SYSDBA Enter password: SYS_password
Start the database (if necessary):
utlrp.sql script, which by default is located in
\rdbms\admin\utlrp.sql. For example:
Oracle highly recommends you configure and use a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) to ensure that passwords and other sensitive data are not transmitted in clear text in HTTP requests.
See Also:Oracle Database Security Guide for more information about Secure Socket Layer
Many Oracle products and options must be configured before you use them for the first time. Before using individual Oracle products or options, refer to the appropriate manual in the product documentation library.
This section contains these topics:
"Available Installation Scenarios" in Oracle Application Express Installation Guide
"Post-installation Database Configuration" section in Oracle Configuration Manager Installation and Administration Guide for information about postinstallation tasks for Oracle Configuration Manager
Note:You need only perform postinstallation tasks for components that you intend to use.
Direct NFS Client is an alternative to using kernel-managed NFS. Refer to the following sections to configure Direct NFS Client:
With Oracle Database, you can store data files on a supported NFS system. You can configure Oracle Database to access NFS servers directly using an Oracle internal Direct NFS Client. Direct NFS Client supports NFSv3, NFSv4 and NFSv4.1 except Parallel NFS to access the NFS server. If Oracle Database cannot open an NFS server using Direct NFS Client, then an informational message is logged into the Oracle alert and trace files indicating that Direct NFS Client could not be established.
Management of Oracle data files created with Direct NFS Client should be done according to the guidelines specified in Oracle Database Administrator's Guide. The Oracle database files resident on the NFS server that are served by the Direct NFS Client can also be accessed through a third party NFS client. The volume must be mounted through CIFS or kernel NFS to enable regular windows utilities and commands, such as copy, and so on, access the database files in the remote location. Volumes mounted through CIFS cannot be used for database file storage without configuring Direct NFS Client. The atomic write requirements required for database access are not guaranteed by CIFS protocol. Consequently, CIFS can only be used for operating system level commands, such as copy, move, and so on.
Some NFS file servers require NFS clients to connect using reserved ports. If your filer is running with reserved port checking, then you must disable it for Direct NFS Client to operate. To disable reserved port checking, consult your NFS file server documentation.
To enable the Direct NFS Client, you must add an
oranfstab file to
oranfstab is placed in this directory, the entries in this file are specific to a single database.
Direct NFS Client determines mount point settings for NFS storage devices based on the configuration information in
oranfstab. Direct NFS Client looks for the mount point entries in
\dbs\oranfstab. It uses the first matched entry as the mount point.
Direct NFS Client can use up to four network paths defined in the oranfstab file for an NFS server. The Direct NFS Client performs load balancing across all specified paths. If a specified path fails, then Direct NFS Client reissues I/O commands over any remaining paths.
Direct NFS Client requires an NFS server supporting NFS read/write buffers of at least 16384 bytes.
Direct NFS Client issues writes at
wtmax granularity to the NFS server. Direct NFS Client does not serve an NFS server with a
wtmax less than 16384. Oracle recommends that you use the value 32768.
For NFS servers that restrict port range, you can use the
insecure option to enable clients other than
root to connect to the NFS server. Alternatively, you can disable Direct NFS Client as described in "Disabling Direct NFS Client."
Note:Use NFS servers supported for Oracle Database. See the My Oracle Support website for support information:
Complete the following procedure to enable Direct NFS Client:
oranfstab file with the following attributes for each NFS server to be accessed using Direct NFS Client:
server: The NFS server name.
path: Up to 4 network paths to the NFS server, specified either by IP address, or by name, as displayed using the
ifconfig command on the NFS server.
local: Up to 4 network interfaces on the database host, specified by IP address, or by name, as displayed using the
ipconfig command on the database host.
export: The exported path from the NFS server. Use UNIX-style path.
mount: The corresponding local mount point for the exported volume. Use WINDOWS-style path.
mnt_timeout: Specifies (in seconds) the time for which Direct NFS Client should wait for a successful mount before timing out. This parameter is optional and the default timeout is 10 minutes. (600)
uid: (Optional) The UNIX user ID to be used by Direct NFS Client to access all NFS servers listed in
oranfstab. The default value is
uid:65534, which corresponds to
user:nobody on the NFS server.
gid: (Optional) The UNIX group ID to be used by Direct NFS Client to access all NFS servers listed in
oranfstab. The default value is
gid:65534, which corresponds to
group:nogroup on the NFS server.
nfs_version: Specifies the NFS protocol version that the Direct NFS Client uses. Possible values are
NFSv4.1. The default version is
NFSv3. If you want to specify
NFSv4.x, then you must set the
nfs_version parameter accordingly in the oranfstab file.
See Also:"Limiting Asynchronous I/O in NFS Server Environments" in Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
The following is an example of an
oranfstab file with two NFS server entries:
server: MyDataServer1 local: 192.0.2.0 path: 192.0.2.1 local: 18.104.22.168 path: 22.214.171.124 nfs_version: nfsv3 export: /vol/oradata1 mount: C:\APP\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORCL
server: MyDataServer2 local: LocalInterface1 path: NfsPath1 local: LocalInterface2 path: NfsPath2 local: LocalInterface3 path: NfsPath3 local: LocalInterface4 path: NfsPath4 export: /vol/oradata2 mount: C:\APP\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORCL2 export: /vol/oradata3 mount: C:\APP\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORCL3
As a rule, a mount point specified in
oranfstab file represents local path where the database files reside normally, that is, without Direct NFS Client being enabled. For example, if a database that does not use Direct NFS Client would have kept its files in
C:\app\oracle\oradata\orcl directory, then
C:\app\oracle\oradata\orcl should be specified as a virtual mount point in the corresponding
Direct NFS Client ignores
gid value of
The exported path from the NFS server must be accessible for read, write, and execute operations by the user with the
uid, gid specified in
oranfstab. If neither
gid is listed, then the exported path must be accessible by the user with the
Oracle Database uses an ODM library,
oranfsodm11.dll, to enable Direct NFS Client. To replace the standard ODM library,
oraodm11.dll, with the ODM NFS library,
oranfsodm11.dll, complete the following steps:
Change directory to
Shutdown the Oracle database.
Enter the following commands:
DRIVE_LETTER:\> copy oraodm11.dll oraodm11.dll.stub DRIVE_LETTER:\> copy /Y oranfsodm11.dll oraodm11.dll
ORADNFS is a utility which enables the database administrators to perform basic file operations over Direct NFS Client on Microsoft Windows platforms.
ORADNFS is a multi-call binary, a single binary that acts like several utilities. This allows ORADNFS to be smaller since all the built-in commands can leverage DNFS code for many common operations. ORADNFS is run by issuing a command as an argument on the command line.
C:\> ORADNFS help causes ORADNFS to print a list of built-in commands, and
C:\> ORADNFS ls C:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORCL causes ORADNFS to behave as an
ls command of
C:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORCL remote directory, where
C:\ORACLE\ORADATA is a DNFS virtual mount point specified in the
oranfstab configuration file.
A valid copy of the oranfstab configuration file must be present in
\dbs directory for ORADNFS to operate.
The user must be a member of the local ORA_DBA group to execute ORADNFS.
Use the following views for Direct NFS Client management:
v$dnfs_servers: Shows a table of servers accessed using Direct NFS Client.
v$dnfs_files: Shows a table of files currently open using Direct NFS Client.
v$dnfs_channels: Shows a table of open network paths (or channels) to servers for which Direct NFS Client is providing files.
v$dnfs_stats: Shows a table of performance statistics for Direct NFS Client.
Complete the following steps to disable the Direct NFS Client:
Log in as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner.
Restore the stub
oraodm11.dll file by reversing the process you completed in "Enabling Direct NFS Client".
See Also:"Loading and Setting Up Oracle Messaging Gateway" in Oracle Database Advanced Queuing User's Guide to configure Oracle Messaging Gateway and for additional instructions about configuring the
Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows requires the Microsoft Management Console and HTML Help 1.2 or later to run. Microsoft Management Console (MMC) version 3.0 is available with Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2. Oracle recommends the latest MMC version available.
See Also:Microsoft documentation at
You must configure Oracle Label Security in a database to use it. See "Oracle Label Security Using Oracle Internet Directory" in Oracle Label Security Administrator's Guide for more information.
Oracle Database Extensions for .NET depends on a Windows service to operate properly. This service is called the OraClrAgnt service, which can be accessed through the Service Control Panel, as
ORACLE_HOME represents an Oracle home name.
In earlier versions of Oracle Database, the OraClrAgnt service was automatically created by the installer. Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1), after installation you use the
OraClrCtl.exe utility to create, start, stop, and delete the OraClrAgnt service. The OraClrAgnt service is configured by this tool using the Oracle Home User account specified during the Oracle Database installation.
See Also:Oracle Database Extensions for .NET Developer's Guide for Microsoft Windows for more information about the OraClrCtl.exe tool and for installing and configuring the OraClrAgnt service
Oracle Database includes Database Vault by default, but you must register it before you can use it. Ensure that you create the Database Vault Owner and, optionally, the Database Vault Account Manager administrative accounts before you can use them.
See the "Registering Oracle Database Vault with an Oracle Database" section in Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide to register Oracle Database Vault.
If you have a previous release of Oracle software installed on this system, you can copy information from the Oracle Net
listener.ora configuration files from the previous release to the corresponding files for the new release.
Note:The default location for the
listener.orafiles is the
If you are upgrading from a previous release of Oracle Database, Oracle recommends that you use the current release of Oracle Net listener instead of the listener from the previous release.
If you have referenced the previous Oracle home directory names in the static listener information, then these directory names must be modified before the
listener.ora file can be used in the 12.1 environment.
For any database instances earlier than release 8.0.3, add static service information to the
listener.ora file. Oracle Database releases later than release 8.0.3 do not require static service information.
Unless you are using a central
tnsnames.ora file, copy Oracle Net service names and connect descriptors from the previous release
tnsnames.ora file to the version of that file used by the new release.
If necessary, you can also add connection information for additional database instances to the new file.
An Oracle Text knowledge base is a hierarchical tree of concepts used for theme indexing, ABOUT queries, and deriving themes for document services. If you plan to use any of these Oracle Text features, you can install two supplied knowledge bases (English and French) from the Oracle Database Examples media.
See Also:Oracle Text Reference for information about creating and extending knowledge bases, such as extending the supplied knowledge bases to accommodate your requirements, or creating your own knowledge bases in languages other than English and French
Oracle Text Filtering Technology requires the Visual C++ libraries included in the Visual C++ Redistributable Package provided by Microsoft. You can download the 2005 SP1 Redistributable Package version of the
vcredist_x64.exe file from
See Also:Oracle Text Reference for more information about Oracle Text Filtering Technology
Oracle XML DB is a component of the Oracle Database installation. However, you must manually configure the FTP and HTTP ports for Oracle XML DB.
See Also:The "Using FTP on the Standard Port Instead of the Oracle XML DB Default Port" and "Using HTTP(S) on a Standard Port Instead of an Oracle XML DB Default Port" sections in Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for configuring the Oracle XML DB ports
Also, see Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for more information about the following tasks:
Reinstalling Oracle XML DB
Configuring or customizing the Oracle XML DB tablespace
Configuring FTP, HTTP/WebDAV port numbers
Configuring PL/SQL depends on the network configuration files used. In nearly all cases, configuration is automatic. However, if you are using pre-8.0.3
listener.ora files with your 12c database, then you must manually configure them.
See Also:"Developing Applications for Windows" of Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows
The default setup for using Shared Server mode depends on how the software has been installed. If you installed Oracle Database through the Enterprise Edition, Standard Edition, or Personal Edition installation types, then shared support was not configured. If you created your database through Oracle Database Configuration Assistant, then you were offered a choice of shared or dedicated server support.
See Also:"Postinstallation Configuration Tasks on Windows" of Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows
Windows systems require that you set the correct credentials for the Jobs system to work properly in Oracle Enterprise Manager. By default, the Management Agent service is installed as a
LocalSystem user. When submitting jobs, such as stopping or starting the database, the operating system user submitting the job must have the Log on as a batch job privilege enabled.
Perform the following steps to establish that privilege for any operating system user who must submit an Oracle Enterprise Manager job.
Start the Local Security Policy tool:
Windows Server 2008: From the Start menu, select All Programs, Administrative Tools, then Local Security Policy.
Under the Security Settings list, expand the list to Local Policies.
Under Local Policies, double-click User Rights Assignment.
Under Policy, search for the Log on as a batch job policy.
If the Management Agent service is installed as any other user (that is, not
LocalSystem), then, in addition to granting the Log on as a batch job privilege, you must grant the "Windows service" user the following three privileges:
Act as part of the operating system
Adjust memory quotas for a process
Replace a process level token
The service under the "Windows service" user runs at the operating system level.
With each policy, perform the following steps:
Double-click the policy name.
In the Properties dialog box, click Add User or Group.
In the Select Users or Groups dialog box, enter the name of the user (for example,
administrator, and so on.)
Note:On Windows Server 2008, the name of the dialog box is Select Users, Computers, or Groups.
Click Check Names to check that you have entered the name correctly.
Click OK to exit the Properties dialog box, then exit Local Security Settings and Administrative Tools.
Restart your computer.
If a user exists locally and at the domain level, Windows gives the local user precedence. To use the domain user, qualify the user name with the domain name. For example, to use the user
joe in the
ACCOUNTS domain specify the user name as
On Windows, Oracle Database installations that use Oracle Automatic Storage Management must use Windows native authentication. By default, Windows native authentication is enabled. To ensure that it is, check the sqlnet.ora file, by default located in
\network\admin, and ensure that it has NTS enabled. For example:
See Also:Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows for more information about Windows native authentication
If you plan to use the following products or features, then download and install the products from the Oracle Database Examples media:
Oracle Database Examples
Oracle JDBC Development Drivers
Oracle Text Knowledge Base
See Also:Oracle Database Examples Installation Guide for detailed information about various Oracle product demonstrations
Oracle Services for Microsoft Transaction Server (OraMTS) permit Oracle databases to be used as resource managers in Microsoft application coordinated transactions. OraMTS acts as a proxy for the Oracle database to the Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator (MSDTC). As a result, OraMTS provides client-side connection pooling and allows client components that leverage Oracle to participate in promotable and distributed transactions. In addition, OraMTS can operate with Oracle databases running on any operating system, given that the services themselves are run on Windows.
On releases before Oracle Database 12c, the OraMTS service was created as part of a software-only installation. Starting with Oracle Database 12c, you must use a configuration tool to create this service.
To create the OraMTS service after performing a software-only installation for Oracle Database, perform the following steps:
Open a command window.
Change directories to
OraMTSCtl utility to create the OraMTS Service:
C:\ORACLE_HOME\bin> oramtsctl.exe -new
See Also:Oracle Services for Microsoft Transaction Server Developer's Guide for Microsoft Windows for more information about OraMTS, which allows Oracle databases to be used as resource managers in distributed transactions
During installation, by default you can create one disk group. If you plan to add an Oracle Database for a standalone server, then you should create the fast recovery area for database files.
The fast recovery area is a unified storage location for all Oracle Database files related to recovery. Database administrators can define the
DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE parameter to the path for the fast recovery area to enable on-disk backups, and rapid recovery of data. Enabling rapid backups for recent data can reduce requests to system administrators to retrieve backup tapes for recovery operations.
When you enable fast recovery in the
init.ora file, it writes all RMAN backups, archive logs, control file automatic backups, and database copies to the fast recovery area. RMAN automatically manages files in the fast recovery area by deleting obsolete backups and archive files no longer required for recovery.
Oracle recommends that you create a fast recovery area disk group. Oracle Clusterware files and Oracle Database files can be placed on the same disk group, and you can also place fast recovery files in the same disk group. However, Oracle recommends that you create a separate fast recovery disk group to reduce storage device contention.
The fast recovery area is enabled by setting
DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE. The size of the fast recovery area is set with
DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE. As a general rule, the larger the fast recovery area, the more useful it becomes. For ease of use, Oracle recommends that you create a fast recovery area disk group on storage devices that can contain at least three days of recovery information. Ideally, the fast recovery area should be large enough to hold a copy of all of your data files and control files, the online redo logs, and the archived redo log files needed to recover your database using the data file backups kept under your retention policy.
Multiple databases can use the same fast recovery area. For example, assume you have created one fast recovery area disk group on disks with 150 GB of storage, shared by three different databases. You can set the size of the fast recovery for each database depending on the importance of each database. For example, if
database1 is your least important database,
database2 is of greater importance and
database3 is of greatest importance, then you can set different
DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE settings for each database to meet your retention target for each database: 30 GB for
database1, 50 GB for
database2, and 70 GB for
To create a fast recovery file disk group:
Navigate to the Grid home bin directory, and start ASM Configuration Assistant (ASMCA). For example:
DRIVE_LETTER:\> cd \app\oracle\product\12.1.0\grid\bin DRIVE_LETTER:\> asmca
ASMCA opens at the Disk Groups tab. Click Create to create a disk group.
The Create Disk Groups window opens.
In the Disk Group Name field, enter a descriptive name for the fast recovery area group. For example:
In the Redundancy section, select the level of redundancy you want to use.
In the Select Member Disks field, select eligible disks to be added to the fast recovery area, and click OK.
The Diskgroup Creation window opens to inform you when disk group creation is complete. Click OK.
"Setting the Fast Recovery Area Location and Initial Size" section in Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide
When you install Oracle Database, by default certain options are enabled and others are disabled. You can view the enabled Oracle Database options by querying the V$OPTION view using SQL*Plus.
See Also:Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information about connecting to the database using SQL*Plus
If you need to enable or disable a particular database feature for an Oracle home, then use the
chopt tool. The
chopt tool is a command-line utility that is located in the
\bin directory. The syntax for
chopt is as follows:
chopt [ enable | disable] db_option
The possible values for
db_option described in the following table.
||Oracle Data Mining RDBMS Files|
||Oracle Real Application Testing|
||Oracle Database Extensions for .NET|
To enable the Oracle Data Mining RDBMS Files option in your Oracle binary files:
Shut down the database with
srvctl or SQL*Plus:
srvctl stop database -d myDb
Stop the database service,
SID, using the Services program in Control Panel.
Run the following commands:
cd %ORACLE_HOME%/bin chopt enable dm
Start the database service,
SID, using the Services program in Control Panel.
Start up the database:
Oracle Home User Control is a command-line utility that allows an administrator to update the password for an Oracle Home User. This tool updates the password for Windows services in the Oracle home. The input password must match the password for the Windows User Account used as the Oracle Home User. So, first use Windows operating system tools to change the Windows password and then use this tool to update the Windows services in the Oracle home to use the same password.
Note:You must have administrator privileges to run this Oracle Home User Control utility.
The following is the command syntax:
orahomeuserctl list | updpwd [-user username] [-host hostname1, hostname2, . . .] [-log logfilename]
orahomeuserctl is used to display the Oracle Home User name associated with the current Oracle home or to update the Oracle Home User password.
list displays the Oracle Home User name associated with the current Oracle home.
updpwd prompts for the new password and updates the password for the named Oracle Service User. The following are the options for
This option determines the Oracle Home User name. If this option is not present, then the user name associated with the current Oracle home is used. If the named user, be it the
username or user of the current Oracle home, is an MSA or Windows Built-in account, then an error message is displayed and the command is terminated.
hostname2,. . .
When this option is present, the utility updates the passwords for all services belonging to the named Oracle Home User on the specified hosts. Otherwise, the Oracle Home User Control utility updates the passwords for all the services belonging to the named Oracle Home User on a specified host with single instance installation, or updates the passwords for all services belonging to the named Oracle Home User on all the specified hosts.
When the update completes, the utility displays the number of successful updates and any services that failed to update with the new password.
This option adds the password update operation results to a log file for every service name receiving the new password. By default, the log files are located in the
\log directory. If
logfilename specifies only a file name, then the log is stored in the named file in the default directory. However, if the
logfilename contains a path, then that path is used without modification.
See the following sections in Oracle SQL Developer Installation Guide for recommended postinstallation tasks for SQL Developer: