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Oracle® Database Installation Guide
12c Release 1 (12.1) for Oracle Solaris

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2 Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks

This chapter describes the tasks that you must complete before you start Oracle Universal Installer.

Note:

To use Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) or Oracle Restart, you must first install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server before you install and create the database. Otherwise, you must manually register the database with Oracle Restart.

This chapter includes information about the following topics:

See Also:

2.1 Guidelines for Solaris Operating System Installation

Refer to your Oracle Solaris documentation to obtain information about installing Oracle Solaris on your servers. You may want to use Oracle Solaris 11 installation services such as Oracle Solaris Automated Installer (AI) to create and manage services to install the Oracle Solaris 11 operating system over the network.

See Also:

2.2 Logging In to the System as root

During installation, you must perform tasks as root or as other users on remote terminals. Complete the following procedure for user accounts that you want to enable for remote display.

Note:

If you log in as another user (for example, grid), then repeat this procedure for that user as well.

To log in as the root user and enable remote display, complete one of the following procedures:

  • If you are installing the software from an X Window System workstation or X terminal, then:

    1. Start a new X terminal session (xterm).

    2. If you are installing the software on another system and using the system as an X11 display, then enter a command using the following syntax to enable remote hosts to display X applications on the local X server:

      $ xhost + RemoteHost
      

      where RemoteHost is the fully qualified remote host name. For example:

      $ xhost + somehost.example.com
      somehost.example.com being added to the access control list
      
    3. If you are not installing the software on the local system, then use the ssh, rlogin, or telnet command to connect to the system where you want to install the software:

      $ ssh -Y RemoteHost
      
    4. If you are not logged in as the root user, then enter the following command to switch the user to root:

      $ su - root
      password:
      #
      
  • To install the software from a PC or other system with X server software:

    Note:

    If necessary, see the X server documentation, or contact your X server vendor or system administrator for more information about completing this procedure. Depending on the X server software that you are using, you may have to complete the tasks in a different order.
    1. Start the X Window System software.

    2. Configure the security settings of the X Window System software to permit remote hosts to display X applications on the local system.

    3. Connect to the remote system where you want to install the software as the oracle software installation owner (oracle) and start an X terminal session (xterm) on that system.

    4. Open another terminal on the remote system, and log in as the root user on the remote system, so you can run scripts as root when prompted.

2.3 Configuring Servers for Oracle Database

This section describes the following operating system tasks you must complete before you install Oracle Database:

2.3.1 Checking Server Hardware and Memory Configuration

Run the following commands to check your current system information:

  1. To determine the available RAM and swap space, enter the following command to obtain the system activity report:

    # sar -r n i
    

    For example:

    # sar -r 2 10
    

    If the size of the physical RAM installed in the system is less than the required size, then install more memory before continuing.

  2. To determine the size of the configured swap space, enter the following command:

    # /usr/sbin/swap -l
    

    If necessary, see your operating system documentation for information about how to configure additional swap space.

    Note:

    Review your Oracle Solaris documentation for swap space allocation guidance for your server. The Oracle Solaris documentation guidelines supersede the swap space requirements listed in this guide.
  3. To determine the amount of space available in the /tmp directory, enter the following command:

    # df -k /tmp
    

    The df -k command displays disk space in 1 kilobyte blocks. On most systems, you can use the df command with the -h flag (df -h) to display output in "human-readable" format.

    If the free space available in the /tmp directory is less than what is required, then complete one of the following steps:

    • Delete unnecessary files from the /tmp directory to meet the disk space requirement.

    • Set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables when setting the oracle user's environment.

      See Also:

      "Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment" for more information about setting TMP and TMPDIR
    • Extend the file system that contains the /tmp directory.

  4. To determine the amount of free disk space on the system, enter one of the following commands:

    # df -k
    # df -h
    
  5. To determine the RAM size, enter the following command:

    # /usr/sbin/prtconf | grep "Memory size"
    
  6. To determine if the system architecture can run the Oracle software, enter the following command:

    # /bin/isainfo -kv
    

    This command displays the processor type. The following is the expected output of this command:

    Oracle Solaris on SPARC (64-Bit):

    64-bit sparcv9 kernel modules
    

    Oracle Solaris on x86-64 (64-Bit):

    64-bit amd64 kernel modules
    

    If you do not see the expected output, then you cannot install the software on this system. Obtain the correct software for your system architecture before proceeding further

2.3.2 General Server Minimum Requirements

Ensure the following general minimum requirements on your system:

  • Ensure that the system is started with run level 3.

  • Ensure display cards provide at least 1024 x 768 display resolution, so that Oracle Universal Installer displays correctly while performing a system console-based installation.

2.3.3 Server Storage Minimum Requirements

Ensure that your Oracle Solaris system meets the following storage requirements:

  • Ensure that your Oracle Solaris system meets the disk space requirement for software files as described in Table 2-1 and Table 2-2.

    Table 2-1 Disk Space Requirements for Software Files on Oracle Solaris on SPARC (64-Bit)

    Installation Type Disk Space

    Enterprise Edition

    6.1 GB

    Standard Edition

    5.9 GB

    Standard Edition One

    5.9 GB


    Table 2-2 Disk Space Requirements for Software Files on Oracle Solaris on x86-64 (64-Bit)

    Installation Type Disk Space

    Enterprise Edition

    5.9 GB

    Standard Edition

    5.8 GB

    Standard Edition One

    5.8 GB


  • 1 GB of space in the /tmp directory.

    If the free space available in the /tmp directory is less than what is required, then complete one of the following steps:

    • Delete unnecessary files from the /tmp directory to meet the disk space requirement.

    • Set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables when setting the oracle user's environment.

      See Also:

      "Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment" for more information about setting TMP and TMPDIR
    • Extend the file system that contains the /tmp directory.

2.3.4 Server Memory Minimum Requirements

Ensure that your Oracle Solaris system meets the following memory requirements:

Minimum: 1 GB of RAM

Recommended: 2 GB of RAM or more

Table 2-3 describes the relationship between the installed RAM and the configured swap space recommendation:

Table 2-3 Swap Space Requirement for Oracle Solaris

RAM Swap Space

Between 1 GB and 2 GB

1.5 times the size of the RAM

Between 2 GB and 16 GB

Equal to the size of the RAM

More than 16 GB

16 GB


2.4 Reviewing Operating System Security Common Practices

Secure operating systems are an important basis for general system security. Ensure that your operating system deployment is in compliance with common security practices as described in your operating system vendor security guide.

2.5 Using Installation Fixup Scripts

Oracle Universal Installer detects when the minimum requirements for an installation are not met, and creates shell scripts, called fixup scripts, to finish incomplete system configuration steps. If Oracle Universal Installer detects an incomplete task, then it generates fixup scripts (runfixup.sh). You can run the fixup script and click Fix and Check Again. The fixup script modifies both persistent parameter settings and parameters in memory, so you do not have to restart the system.

See Also:

"Cluster Verification Utility Reference" in Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for information about using the cluvfy command

The Fixup script does the following tasks:

  • If necessary sets kernel parameters to values required for successful installation, including:

    • Shared memory parameters.

    • Open file descriptor and UDP send/receive parameters.

  • Creates and sets permissions on the Oracle Inventory (central inventory) directory.

  • Creates or reconfigures primary and secondary group memberships for the installation owner, if necessary, for the Oracle Inventory directory and the operating system privileges groups.

  • Sets shell limits if necessary to required values.

Oracle recommends that you do not modify the contents of the generated fixup script.

Note:

Using fixup scripts does not ensure that all the prerequisites for installing Oracle Database are met. You must still verify that all the preinstallation requirements are met to ensure a successful installation.

2.6 About Operating System Requirements

Depending on the products that you intend to install, verify that you have the required operating system kernel and packages installed.

Requirements listed in this document are current as of the date listed on the title page. To obtain the most current information about kernel requirements, see the online version on the Oracle Technology Network at the following URL:

http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/indexes/documentation/index.html

Oracle Universal Installer performs checks your system to verify that it meets the listed operating system package requirements. To ensure that these checks complete successfully, verify the requirements before you start OUI.

Note:

Oracle does not support running different operating system versions on cluster members, unless an operating system is being upgraded. You cannot run different operating system version binaries on members of the same cluster, even if each operating system is supported.

2.7 Operating System Requirements for Oracle Solaris on SPARC (64-Bit)

The following Oracle Solaris kernels and packages listed in this section are supported on SPARC 64-bit systems for Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c:

2.7.1 Supported Oracle Solaris 11 Releases for SPARC (64-Bit)

Use the following information to check the minimum supported Oracle Solaris 11 releases:

Table 2-4 SPARC 64-Bit Supported Oracle Solaris 11 Operating System Requirements

Item Minimum Requirements

SSH Requirement

Secure Shell is configured at installation for Oracle Solaris.

Oracle Solaris 11 operating system

Oracle Solaris 11 SRU 7.5 or later SRUs and updates

Packages for Oracle Solaris 11

The following packages must be installed:

  • pkg://solaris/system/dtrace

  • pkg://solaris/developer/assembler

  • pkg://solaris/developer/build/make

  • pkg://solaris/system/xopen/xcu4 (if not already installed as part of standard Oracle Solaris 11 installation)

  • pkg://solaris/x11/diagnostic/x11-info-clients

  • pkg://solaris/compress/unzip


2.7.2 Supported Oracle Solaris 10 Releases for SPARC (64-Bit)

Use the following information to check the minimum supported Oracle Solaris 10 releases:

Table 2-5 SPARC 64-Bit Supported Oracle Solaris 10 Operating System Requirements

Item Minimum Requirements

SSH Requirement

Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the required SSH software.

Oracle Solaris 10 operating system

Oracle Solaris 10 Update 10 (Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 s10s_u10wos_17b) or later updates

Packages and Patches for Oracle Solaris 10

The following packages and patches (or later versions) must be installed:

SUNWarc
SUNWbtool
SUNWcsl
SUNWdtrc
SUNWeu8os
SUNWhea
SUNWi1cs (ISO8859-1)
SUNWi15cs (ISO8859-15)
SUNWi1of
SUNWlibC
SUNWlibm
SUNWlibms
SUNWsprot
SUNWtoo
SUNWxwfnt
147440-25
147441-25

Note: You may also require additional font packages for Java, depending on your locale. Refer to the following website for more information:

http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/solaris-font-requirements-142758.html

2.8 Operating System Requirements for Oracle Solaris on x86-64 (64-Bit)

The following Oracle Solaris kernels and packages listed are supported on x86-64 (64-bit) systems for Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c:

2.8.1 Supported Oracle Solaris 11 Releases for x86-64 (64-Bit)

Use the following information to check the minimum supported Oracle Solaris 11 releases:

Table 2-6 x86-64 (64-Bit) Supported Oracle Solaris 11 Operating System Requirements

Item Minimum Requirements

SSH Requirement

Secure Shell is configured at installation for Oracle Solaris.

Oracle Solaris 11 operating system

Oracle Solaris 11 SRU 7.5 or later SRUs and updates

Oracle Solaris 11 operating system and packages

The following packages must be installed:

  • pkg://solaris/system/dtrace

  • pkg://solaris/developer/assembler

  • pkg://solaris/developer/build/make

  • pkg://solaris/system/xopen/xcu4 (if not already installed as part of standard Oracle Solaris 11 installation)

  • pkg://solaris/x11/diagnostic/x11-info-clients

  • pkg://solaris/compress/unzip


2.8.2 Supported Oracle Solaris 10 Releases for x86-64 (64-Bit)

Use the following information to check the minimum supported Oracle Solaris 10 releases:

Table 2-7 x86-64 (64-Bit) Supported Oracle Solaris 10 Operating System Requirements

Item Minimum Requirements

SSH Requirement

Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the required SSH software.

Oracle Solaris 10 operating system

Oracle Solaris 10 Update 10 (Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 s10x_u10wos_17b) or later updates

Packages and Patches for Oracle Solaris 10

The following packages and patches (or later versions) must be installed:

SUNWarc
SUNWbtool
SUNWcsl
SUNWdtrc
SUNWeu8os
SUNWhea
SUNWi1cs (ISO8859-1)
SUNWi15cs (ISO8859-15)
SUNWi1of
SUNWlibC
SUNWlibm
SUNWlibms
SUNWsprot
SUNWtoo
SUNWxwfnt
147441-25

Note: You may also require additional font packages for Java, depending on your locale. Refer to the following website for more information:

http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/solaris-font-requirements-142758.html

2.9 Additional Drivers and Software Packages for Oracle Solaris

You are not required to install additional drivers and packages, but you may choose to install or configure drivers and packages in the following list:

Note:

Oracle Database Smart Flash Cache is an Enterprise Edition only feature.

2.9.1 Installation Requirements for Open Database Connectivity

Review the following sections if you plan to install Open Database Connectivity (ODBC):

2.9.1.1 About ODBC Drivers and Oracle Database

Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) is a set of database access APIs that connect to the database, prepare, and then run SQL statements on the database. An application that uses an ODBC driver can access non-uniform data sources, such as spreadsheets and comma-delimited files.

2.9.1.2 Installing ODBC Drivers for Oracle Solaris

To use ODBC on Oracle Solaris, you require the following package:

unixODBC-2.3.1 or later

Download and install the ODBC Driver from the following website:

http://www.unixodbc.org/

2.9.2 Installation Requirements for Oracle Messaging Gateway

Review the following sections to install Oracle Messaging Gateway:

2.9.2.1 About Oracle Messaging Gateway

Oracle Messaging Gateway is a feature of the Oracle database. It enables communication between applications based on non-Oracle messaging systems and Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing.

Oracle Messaging Gateway supports the integration of Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing (AQ) with applications based on WebSphere and TIBCO Rendezvous. For information on supported versions see Oracle Database Advanced Queuing User's Guide.

2.9.2.2 Installing Oracle Messaging Gateway

Oracle Messaging Gateway is installed with Oracle Database.

If you require a CSD for IBM WebSphere MQ, then see the following website for download and installation information:

http://www-947.ibm.com/support/entry/portal/Downloads/Software/WebSphere/WebSphere_MQ

2.9.3 Installation Requirements for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

Review the following sections to install Lightweight Directory Access Protocol:

2.9.3.1 About LDAP and Oracle Plug-ins

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is an application protocol for accessing and maintaining distributed directory information services over IP networks. You require the LDAP package if you want to use features requiring LDAP, including the Oracle Database scripts odisrvreg and oidca for Oracle Internet Directory, or schemasync for third-party LDAP directories.

2.9.3.2 Installing the LDAP Package

LDAP is included in a default Solaris operating system installation.

2.9.4 Installation Requirements for Programming Environments for Oracle Solaris

Review the following sections to install programming environments:

2.9.4.1 About Programming Environments and Oracle Database

Oracle Database supports multiple programming languages for application development in different environments. Some languages require that you install additional compiler packages for the operating system.

Programming environments are options. They are not required for Oracle Database.

See Also :

Oracle Database Development Guide for an overview of programming environments

2.9.4.2 Configuring Support for Programming Environments

Ensure that your system meets the requirements for the programming environment you want to configure:

Table 2-8 Requirements for Programming Environments for Oracle Solaris

Programming Environments Support Requirements

Java Database Connectivity

JDK 6 (Java SE Development Kit release 1.6.0_37 or later updates of 1.6) with the JNDI extension with Oracle Java Database Connectivity.

Supported on Solaris 11: JDK 7 (Java SE Development Kit release 1.7.0)

Supported on Solaris 10: JDK 7 (Java SE Development Kit release 1.7.0)

JDK 1.6 is installed with this release.

Oracle Call Interface (OCI)

JDK 6 (Java SE Development Kit release 1.6.0_37 or later updates of 1.6) with the JNDI extension, and Oracle Call Interface drivers. JDK 1.6 is installed with this release.


Oracle C++
Oracle C++ Call Interface
Pro*C/C++
Oracle XML Developer's Kit (XDK)

Oracle Solaris Studio 12 (formerly Sun Studio)

Additional patches may be needed depending on applications you deploy.

Download Oracle Solaris Studio from the following URL:

http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/server-storage/solarisstudio/overview/index.html

Pro*COBOL

Micro Focus Server Express 5.1

Pro*FORTRAN

Oracle Solaris Studio 12 (Fortran 95)


2.9.5 Installation Requirements for Web Browsers

Web browsers are required only if you intend to use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express and Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control. Web browsers must support Java Script, and the HTML 4.0 and CSS 1.0 standards. For a list of browsers that meet these requirements see the Enterprise Manager certification matrix on My Oracle Support:

https://support.oracle.com

See Also:

Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control Basic Installation Guide for steps on how to access the Enterprise Manager certification matrix

2.10 Checking the Software Requirements

To check the software requirements, perform the following steps:

  1. To determine which version of Oracle Solaris is installed, enter the following command:

    # uname -r
    5.11
    

    In this example, the version shown is Oracle Solaris 11 (5.11).

  2. To determine the release level enter the following command:

    # cat /etc/release
    Oracle Solaris 11.1 SPARC
    
  3. To determine if the required packages are installed, enter the following command:

    On Oracle Solaris 10

    pkginfo -i pkg_name
    

    On Oracle Solaris 11

    pkg list pkg_name
    

    Where pkg_name is the name of the package to check.

    For example, to determine if the required Oracle Solaris 10 packages are installed, enter a command similar to the following:

    # pkginfo -i SUNWarc SUNWbtool SUNWhea SUNWlibC SUNWlibm SUNWlibms SUNWsprot \
     SUNWtoo SUNWi1of SUNWi1cs SUNWi15cs SUNWxwfnt SUNWcsl SUNWdtrc
    

    If a package that is required for your system architecture is not installed, then install it. Refer to your operating system or software documentation for information about installing packages.

Note:

There may be more recent versions of packages listed installed on the system. If a listed patch is not installed, then determine if a more recent version is installed before installing the version listed.

2.11 Verifying Operating System Packages on Oracle Solaris 11

Use the following command to check if you have the required packages:

# /usr/bin/pkg verify [-Hqv] [pkg_pattern ...]

The -H option omits the headers from the verification output.

The -q option prints nothing but return failure if any fatal errors are found.

The -v option includes informational messages regarding packages.

If a package that is required for your system architecture is not installed, then download install it from My Oracle Support:

https://support.oracle.com

See Also:

2.12 Verifying Operating System Patches on Oracle Solaris 10

Note:

Your system may have more recent versions of the listed patches installed on it. If a listed patch is not installed, then determine if a more recent version is installed before installing the version listed.

Verify that you have the required operating system patches. To ensure that the system meets these requirements, use the following procedure:

  1. To determine whether an operating system patch is installed, and whether it is the correct version of the patch, enter a command similar to the following:

    # /usr/sbin/patchadd -p | grep patch_number
    

    For example, to determine if any version of the 119963 patch is installed, use the following command:

    # /usr/sbin/patchadd -p | grep 119963
    

    If an operating system patch is not installed, then download and install it from My Oracle Support:

    https://support.oracle.com
    

2.13 Confirming Host Name Resolution

Typically, the computer on which you want to install Oracle Database is connected to a network. Ensure that the computer host name is resolvable through a Domain Name System (DNS), a network information service (NIS), or a centrally-maintained TCP/IP host file, such as /etc/hosts. Use the ping command to ensure that your computer host name is resolvable. For example:

ping myhostname
pinging myhostname.example.com [192.0.2.2] with 32 bytes of data:
Reply from 192.0.2.2: bytes=32 time=138ms TTL=56

If your computer host name does not resolve, then contact your system administrator.

2.14 Identifying Required Software Directories

You must identify or create the following directories for the Oracle software:

Note:

  • Ensure that the paths you select for Oracle software, such as the Oracle home path and the Oracle base path, use only ASCII characters. Because installation owner names are used by default for some paths, this ASCII character restriction applies to user names, file names, and directory names.

  • Ensure that all paths used by the database software, such as the Oracle home path and the Oracle base path, use characters only from the following set: "# % & ' () * + , - . / : ; < = > ? @ _ A-Z a-z 0-9. This includes user names, file names, and directory names. At the time of this release, the use of other characters for an Oracle Grid Infrastructure home or Oracle Database home is not supported. The set of characters provided is further restricted by user and file naming rules of the operating system.

2.14.1 Oracle Base Directory

The Oracle base directory is a top-level directory for Oracle software installations. The Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines recommend that you use a path similar to the following for the Oracle base directory:

/mount_point/app/software_owner

In this example:

  • mount_point is the mount point directory for the file system that contains the Oracle software.

    The examples in this guide use /u01 for the mount point directory.

  • software_owner is the operating system user name of the software owner installing the Oracle software, for example oracle or grid.

Note:

If you start a database instance using the server parameter file (spfile) with the ORACLE_BASE environment variable set, then its value is automatically stored in spfile. If you unset the ORACLE_BASE environment variable and start the instance again, then the database uses the value of the Oracle base directory stored in spfile.

You must specify the Oracle base directory that contains all Oracle products.

Note:

If you have an existing Oracle base directory, then you can select it from the Oracle Base list during the database installation. If you do not have an Oracle base, then you can create one by editing the text in the list box. By default, the list contains the existing value for the Oracle base. See "Installing the Oracle Database Software" for more information.

You can use the same Oracle base directory for multiple installations or you can create separate Oracle base directories for different installations. If different operating system users install Oracle software on the same system, then each user must create a separate Oracle base directory. The following are examples of Oracle base directories that can exist on the same system:

/u01/app/oracle
/u01/app/orauser

See "Creating an Oracle Base Directory".

2.14.2 Oracle Inventory Directory

The Oracle Inventory directory (oraInventory) stores an inventory of all software installed on the system. It is required and shared by all Oracle software installations on a single system. If you have an existing Oracle Inventory path, then Oracle Universal Installer continues to use that Oracle Inventory.

The first time you install Oracle software on a system, Oracle Universal Installer provides an Optimal Flexible Architecture-compliant path in the format /u[01-09]/app, such as /u01/app. The user running the installation has permissions to write to that path. If this is true, then Oracle Universal Installer creates the Oracle Inventory directory in the path /u[01-09]/app/oraInventory. For example:

/u01/app/oraInventory

If you have set ORACLE_BASE for the oracle user during installation, then Oracle Universal Installer creates the Oracle Inventory directory one level above the ORACLE_BASE in the path ORACLE_BASE/../oraInventory. For example, if ORACLE_BASE is set to /u01/app/oracle, then the Oracle Inventory directory is created in the path /u01/app/oraInventory.

If you have neither created an OFA-compliant path nor set ORACLE_BASE, then the Oracle Inventory directory is placed in the home directory of the user that is performing the installation. For example:

/home/oracle/oraInventory

Oracle Universal Installer creates the directory that you specify and sets the correct owner, group, and permissions for it. You do not have to create it.

Note:

  • All Oracle software installations rely on the Oracle Inventory directory. Ensure that you back it up regularly.

  • Do not delete this directory unless you have completely removed all Oracle software from the system.

  • By default, the Oracle Inventory directory is not installed under the Oracle Base directory. This is because all Oracle software installations share a common Oracle Inventory, so there is only one Oracle Inventory for all users. Whereas, there is a separate Oracle Base for each user.

2.14.3 Oracle Home Directory

The Oracle home directory is the directory where you install the software for a particular Oracle product. You must install different Oracle products or different releases of the same Oracle product in separate Oracle home directories. When you run Oracle Universal Installer, it prompts you to specify the path to this directory and a name that identifies it. In accordance with the OFA guidelines, Oracle strongly recommends that the Oracle home directory you specify is a subdirectory of the Oracle base directory for the user account performing the installation. Oracle recommends that you specify a path similar to the following for the Oracle home directory:

oracle_base/product/11.2.0/db_home_1
oracle_base/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1
oracle_base/product/12.1.0/grid

Oracle Universal Installer creates the directory path that you specify under the Oracle base directory. It also sets the correct owner, group, and permissions on it. You do not have to create this directory.

Note:

During the installation, you must not specify an existing directory that has predefined permissions applied to it as the Oracle home directory. If you do, then you may experience installation failure due to file and group ownership permission errors.

2.15 Identifying or Creating an Oracle Base Directory

Before starting the installation, you must either identify an existing Oracle base directory or, if required, create one. This section contains information about the following topics:

Note:

You can create an Oracle base directory, even if other Oracle base directories exist on the system.

2.15.1 Identifying an Existing Oracle Base Directory

Existing Oracle base directories may not have paths that follow the Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines. However, if you identify an existing Oracle Inventory directory or existing Oracle home directories, then you can usually identify the Oracle base directories, as follows:

  • Identifying an existing Oracle Inventory directory. See "Creating the Oracle Inventory Group If an Oracle Inventory Does Not Exist" for more information.

    Note:

    Oracle recommends that you do not put the oraInventory directory under the Oracle base directory for a new installation. If you have an existing installation, then follow the steps in this section.
  • Identifying an existing Oracle home directory

    Enter the following command to display the contents of the oratab file:

    # more /var/opt/oracle/oratab
    

    If the oratab file exists, then it contains configuration information similar to the following:

    *:/u03/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1:N
    *:/opt/orauser/infra_904:N
    *:/oracle/9.2.0:N
    

    The directory paths specified on each line identify Oracle home directories. Directory paths that end with the user name of the Oracle software owner to use are valid choices for an Oracle base directory. If you intend to use the oracle user to install the software, then you can choose one of the following directories listed in the previous example:

    /u03/app/oracle
    /oracle
    

    Note:

    If possible, choose a directory path similar to the first one (/u03/app/oracle). This path complies with the OFA guidelines.
  • Identifying an existing Oracle base directory

    After you locate the Oracle home directory, run a similar command to confirm the location of Oracle base:

    cat /u01/app/oraInventory/ContentsXML/inventory.xml
    

Before deciding to use an existing Oracle base directory for this installation, ensure that it meets the following conditions:

  • It is not on the same file system as the operating system.

  • The Oracle base directory requires a free disk space of 5 GB for its software files.

    To determine the free disk space on the file system where the Oracle base directory is located, enter the following command:

    # df -k
    

    This command displays disk space in 1 kilobyte blocks. On most systems, you can use the df command with the -h flag (df -h) to display output in "human-readable" format.

See the following sections for more information:

2.15.2 Creating an Oracle Base Directory

Before you create an Oracle base directory, you must identify an appropriate file system with sufficient free disk space.

To identify an appropriate file system, perform the following:

  1. Determine the free disk space on each mounted file system, using the following command:

    # df -k
    

    This command displays disk space in 1 kilobyte blocks. On most systems, you can use the df command with the -h flag (df -h) to display output in "human-readable" format.

  2. Identify a file system that has the appropriate amount of free space, from the display:

    The file system that you identify can be a local file system, a cluster file system, or an NFS file system on a certified NAS device.

  3. Note the name of the mount point directory for the file system that you identified.

To create the Oracle base directory and specify the correct owner, group, and permissions for it, perform the following:

  1. Enter commands similar to the following to create the recommended subdirectories in the mount point directory that you identified and set the appropriate owner, group, and permissions on them:

    # mkdir -p /mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner
    # chown -R oracle:oinstall /mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner
    # chmod -R 775 /mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner
    

    For example:

    # mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle
    # chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle
    # chmod -R 775 /u01/app/oracle
    
  2. When you configure the oracle user's environment later in this chapter, set the ORACLE_BASE environment variable to specify the Oracle base directory that you created.

2.16 Choosing a Storage Option for Oracle Database and Recovery Files

Oracle Database files include data files, control files, redo log files, the server parameter file, and the password file. For all installations, you must choose the storage option to use for Oracle Database files. During the database installation, you must choose the storage option to use for recovery files (the fast recovery area). You do not have to use the same storage option for each file type.

Note:

Database files and recovery files are supported on file systems and Oracle ASM.

Use the following guidelines when choosing the storage options for each file type:

For information on how to configure disk storage before you start the installation, see one of the following sections depending on your choice:

2.17 Creating Directories for Oracle Database or Recovery Files

This section contains the following topics:

2.17.1 Guidelines for Placing Oracle Database Files on a File System

If you choose to place the Oracle Database files on a file system, then use the following guidelines when deciding where to place them:

  • The default path suggested by Oracle Universal Installer for the database file directory is a subdirectory of the Oracle base directory.

  • You can choose either a single file system or more than one file system to store the database files:

    • If you want to use a single file system, then choose a file system on a physical device that is dedicated to the database.

      For best performance and reliability, choose a RAID device or a logical volume on more than one physical device and implement the stripe-and-mirror-everything (SAME) methodology.

    • If you want to use more than one file system, then choose file systems on separate physical devices that are dedicated to the database.

      This method enables you to distribute physical input-output operations and create separate control files on different devices for increased reliability. It also enables you to fully implement the OFA guidelines. You can choose the Advanced database creation option to implement this method.

  • If you intend to create a preconfigured database during the installation, then the file system (or file systems) that you choose must have at least 2 GB of free disk space.

    For production databases, you must estimate the disk space requirement depending on the use of the database.

  • For optimum performance, the file systems that you choose must be on physical devices that are used only by the database.

  • The oracle user must have write permissions to create the files in the path that you specify.

2.17.2 Creating Required Directories

Note:

You must perform this procedure only to place the Oracle Database or recovery files on a separate file system from the Oracle base directory.

To create directories for the Oracle database or recovery files on separate file systems from the Oracle base directory:

  1. Use the following command to determine the free disk space on each mounted file system:

    # df -k
    

    This command displays disk space in 1 kilobyte blocks. On most systems, you can use the df command with the -h flag (df -h) to display output in "human-readable" format.

  2. Identify the file systems to use, from the display:

    File Type File System Requirements
    Database files Choose either:
    • A single file system with at least 2 GB of free disk space

    • Two or more file systems with at least 2 GB of free disk space in total

    Recovery files Choose a file system with at least 2.4 GB of free disk space

    If you are using the same file system for many file types, then add the disk space requirements for each type to determine the total disk space requirement.

  3. Note the names of the mount point directories for the file systems that you identified.

  4. Enter commands similar to the following to create the recommended subdirectories in each of the mount point directories and set the appropriate owner, group, and permissions on them:

    • Database file directory:

      # mkdir /mount_point/oradata
      # chown oracle:oinstall /mount_point/oradata
      # chmod 775 /mount_point/oradata
      

      The default location for the database file directory is $ORACLE_BASE/oradata.

    • Recovery file directory (fast recovery area):

      # mkdir /mount_point/fast_recovery_area
      # chown oracle:oinstall /mount_point/fast_recovery_area
      # chmod 775 /mount_point/fast_recovery_area
      

      The default fast recovery area is $ORACLE_BASE/fast_recovery_area. Oracle recommends that you keep the fast recovery area on a separate physical disk than that of the database file directory. This method enables you to use the fast recovery area to retrieve data if the disk containing oradata is unusable for any reason.

  5. See "Configuring Servers for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server" and "Stopping Existing Oracle Processes" for information about using Oracle ASM for storage.