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Oracle® Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
12c Release 1 (12.1) for Linux

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4 Configuring Operating Systems for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC

This chapter describes the operating system configuration tasks you must complete on your servers before you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster and Oracle Real Application Clusters.

This chapter contains the following topics:

4.1 Guidelines for Linux Operating System Installation

This section provides information about installing a supported Linux distribution. Complete the minimum hardware configuration before you install the operating system.

This section contains the following topics:

4.1.1 Completing a Minimal Linux Installation

Review the following sections regarding minimal Linux installation requirements:

4.1.1.1 About Minimal Linux Installations

To complete a minimal Linux installation, select one of the minimal installation options (either a custom installation where you select the Minimal option from Package Group Selection, or where you deselect all packages except for the Base pack). This installation lacks many RPMs required for database installation, so you must use an RPM package for your Oracle Linux release to install the required packages. The package you use depends on your Linux release, and your support status with Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN).

Note:

The Oracle Preinstallation RPM installs the X11 client libraries, but it does not install the X Window System server packages. To use graphical user interfaces such as OUI, configuration assistants, and Oracle Enterprise Manager, set the display to a system with X Window System server packages.

Refer to the following URL for documentation regarding installation of a reduced set of packages:

https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type=NOT&id=728346.1

Note:

If you are not a member of Unbreakable Linux Network or Red Hat Support network, and you are a My Oracle Support customer, then you can download instructions to configure a script that documents installation of a reduced set of packages:

https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type=NOT&id=579101.1

You can also search for "Linux reduced set of packages" to locate the instructions.

4.1.1.2 RPM Packages for Completing Operating System Configuration

Oracle Linux 6 Pre-Install RPM With ULN Support

Oracle Preinstallation RPM package 12c Release 1 (12.1) for your Oracle Linux 6 kernel (for example, oracle-rdbms-server-12cR1-preinstall-1.0-1.el6.x86_64.rpm).

Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN) customers can obtain the Oracle Preinstallation RPM package by using yum.

Oracle Linux 5 Oracle Validated RPM With ULN Support

Oracle Validated RPM (oracle-validated) for your Oracle Linux 5 kernel.

Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN) customers can obtain the Oracle Validated RPM by using up2date, or using yum (5.5 and later releases).

Oracle Linux 6 Pre-Install RPM Without ULN Support

http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/OracleLinux/OL6/latest/x86_64

Oracle Linux 5 Oracle Validated RPM Without ULN Support

http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/OracleLinux/OL5/latest/x86_64/

4.1.1.3 Open SSH Requirement for Minimal Installation

SSH is required for Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. OpenSSH should be included in the Linux distribution minimal installation. To confirm that SSH packages are installed, enter the following command:

# rpm -qa | grep ssh

If you do not see a list of SSH packages, then install those packages for your Linux distribution.

4.1.2 Completing a Default Linux Installation

If you do not install the Oracle Preinstallation RPM, then Oracle recommends that you install your Linux operating system with the default software packages (RPMs). This installation includes most of the required packages and helps you limit manual verification of package dependencies. Oracle recommends that you do not customize the RPMs during installation.

For information about a default installation, log on to My Oracle Support:

https://support.oracle.com

Search for "default rpms linux installation," and look for your Linux distribution. For example:

https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type=NOT&id=401167.1

After installation, review system requirements for your distribution to ensure that you have all required kernel packages installed, and complete all other configuration tasks required for your distribution and system configuration.

4.1.3 About Oracle Linux and the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel

Oracle's Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel delivers the latest innovations from upstream development to customers who run Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 5 or Oracle Linux 5 in the data center. The Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel is included and enabled by default starting with Oracle Linux 5 Update 6.

The Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel is based on a recent stable mainline development Linux kernel, and also includes optimizations developed in collaboration with Oracle Database, Oracle middleware, and Oracle hardware engineering teams to ensure stability and optimal performance for the most demanding enterprise workloads.

Oracle highly recommends deploying the Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel in your Linux environment, especially if you run enterprise applications. However, using Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel is optional. If you require strict RHEL kernel compatibility, then Oracle Linux also includes a kernel compatible with the RHEL Linux kernel, compiled directly from the RHEL source code.

You can obtain more information about the Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Linux at the following URL:

http://www.oracle.com/us/technologies/linux

The Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Linux is the standard kernel used with Oracle products. The build and QA systems for Oracle Database and other Oracle products use the Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Linux exclusively. The Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Linux is also the kernel used in Oracle Exadata and Oracle Exalogic systems. Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Linux is used in all benchmark tests on Linux in which Oracle participates, as well as in the Oracle RDBMS preinstall RPM program for x86-64.

Ksplice, which is part of Oracle Linux, updates the Linux operating system (OS) kernel, while it is running, without requiring restarts or any interruption. Ksplice is available only with Oracle Linux.

4.1.4 About the Oracle Preinstallation RPM

If your Linux distribution is Oracle Linux, or Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and you are an Oracle Linux customer, then you can complete most preinstallation configuration tasks by using the Oracle Preinstallation RPM, available from the Oracle Linux Network, or available on the Oracle Linux DVDs. Using the Oracle Preinstallation RPM is not required, but Oracle recommends you use it to save time in setting up your cluster servers.

When it is installed, the Oracle Preinstallation RPM does the following:

  • Automatically downloads and installs any additional RPM needed for installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database, and resolves any dependencies

  • Creates an oracle user, and creates the oraInventory (oinstall) and OSDBA (dba) groups for that user

  • As needed, sets sysctl.conf settings, system startup parameters, and driver parameters to values based on recommendations from the Oracle RDBMS Pre-Install program

  • Sets hard and soft resource limits

  • Sets other recommended parameters, depending on your kernel version

Note:

The Oracle Preinstallation RPM does not install OpenSSH, which is required for Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. If you perform a minimal Linux installation and install the Oracle Preinstallation RPM for your release, then you must also install the OpenSSH client manually. Using RSH is no longer supported.

To become an Oracle Linux Network customer, contact your sales representative, or purchase a license from the Oracle Linux store:

https://shop.oracle.com/product/oraclelinux

To register your server on the Unbreakable Linux Network, or to find out more information, see the following URL:

https://linux.oracle.com

If you are using Oracle Linux 5.2 and higher, then the Oracle Preinstallation RPM is included on the install media.

Note:

The Oracle Preinstallation RPM designated for each Oracle Database release sets kernel parameters and resource limits only for the user account oracle. To use multiple software account owners, you must perform system configuration for other accounts manually.

4.1.5 Using Ksplice to Perform a Zero Downtime Update

Ksplice Uptrack updates provide Linux security and bug fix updates, repackaged in a form that allows these updates to be applied without restarting the kernel.

To use Ksplice Uptrack:

  1. Obtain or verify your Oracle Linux premium support subscription from Unbreakable Linux Network:

    https://linux.oracle.com

  2. Log in as root.

  3. Ensure that you have access to the Internet on the server where you want to use Ksplice. For example, if you are using a proxy server, then set the proxy server and port values in the shell with commands similar to the following:

    # export http_proxy=http://proxy.example.com:port
    # export https_proxy=http://proxy.example.com:port
    
  4. Download the Ksplice Uptrack repository RPM:

    https://www.ksplice.com/yum/uptrack/ol/ksplice-uptrack-release.noarch.rpm

  5. Run the following commands:

    rpm -i ksplice-uptrack-release.noarch.rpm
    yum -y install uptrack
    
  6. Open /etc/uptrack/uptrack.conf with a text editor, enter your premium support access key, and save the file. You must use the same access key for all of your systems.

  7. Run the following command to carry out a zero downtime update of your kernel:

    uptrack-upgrade -y
    

    See Also:

4.2 Reviewing Operating System and Software Upgrade Best Practices

Review the following information regarding upgrades:

4.2.1 General Upgrade Best Practices

If you have an existing Oracle installation, then do the following:

Caution:

Always create a backup of existing databases before starting any configuration change.
  • Record the version numbers, patches, and other configuration information

  • Review upgrade procedures for your existing installation

  • Review Oracle upgrade documentation before proceeding with installation, to decide how you want to proceed

To find the most recent software updates, and to find best practices recommendations about preupgrade, postupgrade, compatibility, and interoperability, see Oracle 12c Upgrade Companion (My Oracle Support Note 1462240.1):

https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type=NOT&id=1462240.1

4.2.2 Oracle ASM Upgrade Notifications

Be aware of the following issues regarding Oracle ASM upgrades:

  • You can upgrade Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) 11g Release 1 (11.1) and later without shutting down an Oracle RAC database by performing a rolling upgrade either of individual nodes, or of a set of nodes in the cluster. However, if you have a standalone database on a cluster that uses Oracle ASM, then you must shut down the standalone database before upgrading. If you are upgrading from Oracle ASM 10g, then you must shut down the entire Oracle ASM cluster to perform the upgrade.

  • The location of the Oracle ASM home changed in Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g Release 2 (11.2) so that Oracle ASM is installed with Oracle Clusterware in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home (Grid home).

    If you have an existing Oracle ASM home from a previous release, then it should be owned by the same user that you plan to use to upgrade Oracle Clusterware.

4.2.3 Rolling Upgrade Procedure Notifications

Be aware of the following information regarding rolling upgrades:

  • During rolling upgrades of the operating system, Oracle supports using different operating system binaries when both versions of the operating system are certified with the Oracle Database release you are using.

  • Using mixed operating system versions is supported during upgrade only.

    Be aware that mixed operating systems are supported only supported for the duration of an upgrade, over the period of a few hours.

  • Oracle Clusterware does not support nodes that have processors with different instruction set architectures (ISAs) in the same cluster. Each node must be binary compatible with the other nodes in the cluster.

    For example, you cannot have one node using an Intel 64 processor and another node using an IA-64 (Itanium) processor in the same cluster. You could have one node using an Intel 64 processor and another node using an AMD64 processor in the same cluster because the processors use the same x86-64 ISA and run the same binary version of Oracle software.

4.3 Reviewing Operating System Security Common Practices

Secure operating systems are an important basis for general system security. Ensure that your operating system deployment is in compliance with common security practices as described in your operating system vendor security guide.

4.4 Using Installation Fixup Scripts

Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) detects when the minimum requirements for an installation are not met, and creates shell scripts, called Fixup scripts, to finish incomplete system configuration steps. If OUI detects an incomplete task, then it generates a Fixup script (runfixup.sh). You can run the script after you click Fix and Check Again.

You also can have CVU generate Fixup scripts before installation.

See Also:

Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for information about using the cluvfy command

Fixup scripts do the following:

  • If necessary set, kernel parameters to values required for successful installation, including:

    • Shared memory parameters.

    • Open file descriptor and UDP send/receive parameters.

  • Create and set permissions on the Oracle Inventory (central inventory) directory.

  • Create or reconfigures primary and secondary group memberships for the installation owner, if necessary, for the Oracle Inventory directory and the operating system privileges groups.

  • Set shell limits if necessary to required values.

If you have SSH configured between cluster member nodes for the user account that you will use for installation, then you can check your cluster configuration before installation and generate a fixup script to make operating system changes before starting the installation.

To do this, log in as the user account that will perform the installation, navigate to the staging area where the runcluvfy command is located, and use the following command syntax, where node is a comma-delimited list of nodes you want to make cluster members:

$ ./runcluvfy.sh stage -pre crsinst -n node -fixup -verbose

For example, if you intend to configure a two-node cluster with nodes node1 and node2, enter the following command:

$ ./runcluvfy.sh stage -pre crsinst -n node1,node2 -fixup -verbose

4.5 Logging In to a Remote System Using X Terminal

During installation, you are required to perform tasks as root or as other users on remote terminals. Complete the following procedure for user accounts that you want to enable for remote display.

Note:

If you log in as another user (for example, oracle), then repeat this procedure for that user as well.

To enable remote display, complete one of the following procedures:

  • If you are installing the software from an X Window System workstation or X terminal, then:

    1. Start an X terminal session (xterm).

    2. If you are installing the software on another system and using the system as an X11 display, then enter a command using the following syntax to enable remote hosts to display X applications on the local X server:

      # xhost + RemoteHost
      

      where RemoteHost is the fully qualified remote host name. For example:

      # xhost + somehost.example.com
      somehost.example.com being added to the access control list
      
    3. If you are not installing the software on the local system, then use the ssh command to connect to the system where you want to install the software:

      # ssh -Y RemoteHost
      

      where RemoteHost is the fully qualified remote host name. The -Y flag ("yes") enables remote X11 clients to have full access to the original X11 display.For example:

      # ssh -Y somehost.example.com
      
    4. If you are not logged in as the root user, then enter the following command to switch the user to root:

      $ su - root
      password:
      #
      
  • If you are installing the software from a PC or other system with X server software installed, then:

    Note:

    If necessary, see your X Window System documentation for more information about completing this procedure. Depending on the X software that you are using, you may need to complete the tasks in a different order.
    1. Start the X Window System software.

    2. Configure the security settings of the X Window System software to permit remote hosts to display X applications on the local system.

    3. Connect to the remote system where you want to install the software as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster software owner (grid, oracle) and start a terminal session on that system; for example, an X terminal (xterm).

    4. Open another terminal on the remote system, and log in as the root user on the remote system, so you can run scripts as root when prompted.

4.6 Using Oracle RPM Checker on IBM: Linux on System z

Use the Oracle RPM Checker utility to verify that you have the required Red Hat Enterprise Linux or SUSE packages installed on the operating system before you start Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.

Download the Oracle RPM Checker utility from the link in My Oracle Support note 1574412.1 available at the following URL:

https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type=ATT&id=1574412.1

Download the Oracle RPM Checker utility for your IBM: Linux on System z distribution, unzip the RPM, and install the RPM as root. Then run the utility as root to check your operating system packages. For example:

# rpm -ivh ora-val-rpm-EL6-DB-12.1.0.1-1.s390x.rpm

On Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the utility checks and also installs all required RPMs. For example:

yum install ora-val-rpm-EL6-DB-12.1.0.1-1.s390x.rpm

4.7 About Operating System Requirements

Depending on the products that you intend to install, verify that you have the required operating system kernel and packages installed.

Requirements listed in this document are current as of the date listed on the title page. To obtain the most current information about kernel requirements, see the online version on the Oracle Technology Network at the following URL:

http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/indexes/documentation/index.html

OUI performs checks on your system to verify that it meets the listed operating system package requirements. To ensure that these checks complete successfully, verify the requirements before you start OUI.

Note:

Oracle does not support running different operating system versions on cluster members, unless an operating system is being upgraded. You cannot run different operating system version binaries on members of the same cluster, even if each operating system is supported.

4.8 Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms

The Linux distributions and packages listed in this section are supported for this release on x86-64. No other Linux distributions are supported.

Identify operating system requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure, and identify additional operating sytem requirements for Oracle Database and Oracle RAC installations.

Note:

  • The Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel can be installed on x86-64 servers running either Oracle Linux 5 Update 6, or Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Update 6. As of Oracle Linux 5 Update 6, the Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel is the default system kernel. An x86 (32-bit) release of Oracle Linux including the Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel is available with Oracle Linux 5 update 7 and later.
  • The 32-bit packages listed in the following sections are required only for 32-bit client installs.

4.8.1 Supported Oracle Linux 6 and Red Hat Linux 6 Distributions for x86-64

Use the following information to check supported Oracle Linux 6 and Red Hat Linux 6 distributions:

Table 4-1 x86-64 Linux 6 Minimum Operating System Requirements

Item Requirements

SSH Requirement

Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the required SSH software.

Oracle Linux 6

Subscribe to the Oracle Linux 6 channel on the Unbreakable Linux Network, or configure a yum repository from the Oracle public yum site, and then install the Oracle Preinstallation RPM. This RPM installs all required kernel packages for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database installations, and performs other system configuration. Supported distributions:

  • Oracle Linux 6 with the Unbreakable Enterprise kernel: 2.6.39-200.24.1.el6uek.x86_64 or later

  • Oracle Linux 6 with the Red Hat Compatible kernel: 2.6.32-71.el6.x86_64 or later

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

Supported distributions:

  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6: 2.6.32-71.el6.x86_64 or later

  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel: 2.6.32-100.28.5.el6.x86_64 or later

Packages for Oracle Linux 6 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:

binutils-2.20.51.0.2-5.11.el6 (x86_64)
compat-libcap1-1.10-1 (x86_64)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 (x86_64)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6.i686
gcc-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)
gcc-c++-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)
glibc-2.12-1.7.el6 (i686)
glibc-2.12-1.7.el6 (x86_64)
glibc-devel-2.12-1.7.el6 (x86_64)
glibc-devel-2.12-1.7.el6.i686
ksh
libgcc-4.4.4-13.el6 (i686)
libgcc-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)
libstdc++-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)
libstdc++-4.4.4-13.el6.i686
libstdc++-devel-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)
libstdc++-devel-4.4.4-13.el6.i686
libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 (x86_64)
libaio-0.3.107-10.el6.i686
libaio-devel-0.3.107-10.el6 (x86_64)
libaio-devel-0.3.107-10.el6.i686
libXext-1.1 (x86_64)
libXext-1.1 (i686)
libXtst-1.0.99.2 (x86_64)
libXtst-1.0.99.2 (i686)
libX11-1.3 (x86_64)
libX11-1.3 (i686)
libXau-1.0.5 (x86_64)
libXau-1.0.5 (i686)
libxcb-1.5 (x86_64)
libxcb-1.5 (i686)
libXi-1.3 (x86_64)
libXi-1.3 (i686)
make-3.81-19.el6
sysstat-9.0.4-11.el6 (x86_64)

Note:

Oracle Universal Installer requires an X Window System (for example, libx). The libx packages are part of a default Linux installation. If you install Linux using Oracle Preinstallation RPM, then the libx packages are installed as part of that RPM. If you perform an install on a system with a reduced set of packages, then you must ensure that libx is installed.


4.8.2 Supported Oracle Linux 5 and Red Hat Linux 5 Distributions for x86-64

Use the following information to check supported Oracle Linux 5 and Red Hat Linux 5 distributions:

Table 4-2 x86-64 Linux 5 Minimum Operating System Requirements

Item Requirements

SSH Requirement

Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the required SSH software.

Oracle Linux 5

Subscribe to the Oracle Linux 5 channel on the Unbreakable Linux Network, and then install the Oracle Validated RPM. This RPM installs all required kernel packages for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database installations, and performs other system configuration.

Supported distributions:

  • Oracle Linux 5 Update 6 with the Unbreakable Enterprise kernel: 2.6.32-100.0.19 or later

  • Oracle Linux 5 Update 6 with the Red Hat compatible kernel: 2.6.18-238.0.0.0.1.el5

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5

Supported distributions:

  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Update 6 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel: 2.6.32-100.0.19 or later

  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Update 6: 2.6.18-238.0.0.0.1.el5 or later

Package requirements for Oracle Linux 5 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5

The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:

binutils-2.17.50.0.6
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3 (32 bit)
gcc-4.1.2
gcc-c++-4.1.2
glibc-2.5-58
glibc-2.5-58 (32 bit)
glibc-devel-2.5-58
glibc-devel-2.5-58 (32 bit)
ksh
libaio-0.3.106
libaio-0.3.106 (32 bit)
libaio-devel-0.3.106
libaio-devel-0.3.106 (32 bit)
libgcc-4.1.2
libgcc-4.1.2 (32 bit)
libstdc++-4.1.2
libstdc++-4.1.2 (32 bit)
libstdc++-devel 4.1.2
libXext-1.0.1
libXext-1.0.1 (32 bit)
libXtst-1.0.1
libXtst-1.0.1 (32 bit)
libX11-1.0.3
libX11-1.0.3 (32 bit)
libXau-1.0.1
libXau-1.0.1 (32 bit)
libXi-1.0.1
libXi-1.0.1 (32 bit) 
make-3.81
sysstat-7.0.2

Note:

Oracle Universal Installer requires an X Window System (for example, libx). The libx packages are part of a default Linux installation. If you install Linux using Oracle Preinstallation RPM, then the libx packages are installed as part of that RPM. If you perform an install on a system with a reduced set of packages, then you must ensure that libx is installed.


4.8.3 Supported SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Distributions for x86-64

Use the following information to check supported SUSE Linux Enterprise Server distributions:

Table 4-3 x86-64 Supported SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Operating System Requirements

Item Requirements

SSH Requirement

Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the required SSH software.

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server

Supported distributions:

  • SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP2: 3.0.13-0.27 or later

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11

The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:

binutils-2.21.1-0.7.25
gcc-4.3-62.198
gcc-c++-4.3-62.198 
glibc-2.11.3-17.31.1
glibc-devel-2.11.3-17.31.1
ksh-93u-0.6.1
libaio-0.3.109-0.1.46
libaio-devel-0.3.109-0.1.46
libcap1-1.10-6.10
libstdc++33-3.3.3-11.9
libstdc++33-32bit-3.3.3-11.9
libstdc++43-devel-4.3.4_20091019-0.22.17
libstdc++46-4.6.1_20110701-0.13.9
libgcc46-4.6.1_20110701-0.13.9
make-3.81
sysstat-8.1.5-7.32.1
xorg-x11-libs-32bit-7.4
xorg-x11-libs-7.4
xorg-x11-libX11-32bit-7.4
xorg-x11-libX11-7.4
xorg-x11-libXau-32bit-7.4
xorg-x11-libXau-7.4
xorg-x11-libxcb-32bit-7.4
xorg-x11-libxcb-7.4
xorg-x11-libXext-32bit-7.4
xorg-x11-libXext-7.4

4.9 Operating System Requirements for IBM: Linux on System z

The distributions and packages listed in this section are supported for this release on IBM: Linux on System z. No other IBM: Linux on System z distributions are supported.

Identify operating system requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure, and identify additional operating sytem requirements for Oracle Database and Oracle RAC installations.

4.9.1 Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Distributions for IBM: Linux on System z

Use the following information to check the supported Red Hat Linux 6 distributions:

Table 4-4 IBM: Linux on System z Linux 6 Minimum Operating System Requirements

Item Requirements

SSH Requirement

Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the required SSH software.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.3: 2.6.32-279.el6.s390x or later

Note: You can install on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Update 3, but Oracle recommends that you install on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Update 4 as RHEL 6.4 includes significant I/O performance gains on Open Storage.

See My Oracle Support Note 1574412.1 for more information:

https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type=ATT&id=1574412.1

Packages for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:

binutils-2.20.51.0.2-5.28 (s390x)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 (s390x)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 (s390)
gcc-4.4.6-3.el6 (s390x)
gcc-c++-4.4.6-3.el6 (s390x)
glibc-2.12-1.47.el6 (s390)
glibc-2.12-1.47.el6 (s390x)
glibc-devel-2.12-1.47.el6 (s390)
glibc-devel-2.12-1.47.el6 (s390x) 
libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 (s390)
libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 (s390x)
libaio-devel-0.3.107-10.el6 (s390x)
libgcc-4.4.6-3.el6 (s390)
libgcc-4.4.6-3.el6 (s390x)
libstdc++-4.4.6-3.el6 (s390x)
libstdc++-devel-4.4.6-3.el6 (s390x)
libXtst-1.0.1 (s390)
libXtst-1.0.1 (s390x)
libXi-1.0.1 (s390)
libXi-1.0.1 (s390x)
libXmu-1.0.5-1.el6 (s390)
libXaw-1.0.6-4.1.el6 (s390)libXft-2.1.13-4.1.el6 (s390)libXp-1.0.0-15.1.el6 (s390)compat-libcap1-1.10-1 (s390x)
make-3.81-20.el6 (s390x)
ksh-20100621-16.el6 (s390x)
sysstat-9.0.4-20.el6 (s390x)

4.9.2 Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Distributions for IBM: Linux on System z

Use the following information to check supported Red Hat Linux 5 distributions:

Table 4-5 IBM: Linux on System z Linux 5 Minimum Operating System Requirements

Item Requirements

SSH Requirement

Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the required SSH software.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.8 (2.6.18-308.el5 s390x) or later

Package requirements for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5

The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:

binutils-2.17.50.0.6-20.el5 (s390x)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-61 (s390)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-61 (s390x)
gcc-c++-4.1.2-52.el5 (s390x)
glibc-2.5-81 (s390)
glibc-2.5-81 (s390x)
glibc-devel-2.5-81 (s390)
glibc-devel-2.5-81 (s390x)
ksh-20100621-5.el5 (s390x)
libaio-0.3.106-5 (s390)
libaio-0.3.106-5 (s390x)
libaio-devel-0.3.106-5 (s390)
libaio-devel-0.3.106-5 (s390x)
libgcc-4.1.2-52.el5 (s390)
libgcc-4.1.2-52.el5 (s390x)
libstdc++-4.1.2-52.el5 (s390)
libstdc++-4.1.2-52.el5 (s390x)
libstdc++-devel-4.1.2-52.el5 (s390x)
libstdc++44-devel-4.4.6-3.el5.1 (s390)
libstdc++44-devel-4.4.6-3.el5.1 (s390x)
libXtst-1.0.1-3.1(s390)
libXtst-1.0.1-3.1(s390x)
libXi-1.0.1-4.el5_4 (s390)
libXi-1.0.1-4.el5_4(s390x)
make-3.81-3.el5 (s390x)
sysstat-7.0.2-11.el5 (s390x)

4.9.3 Supported SUSE Distributions for IBM: Linux on System z

Use the following information to check supported SUSE distributions:

Table 4-6 IBM: Linux on System z SUSE 11 Minimum Operating System Requirements

Item Requirements

SSH Requirement

Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the required SSH software.

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP2 (3.0.13-0.27-default s390x) or later

SUSE 11

The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:

binutils-2.21.1-0.7.25 (s390x)
gcc-4.3-62.198 (s390x)
gcc-c++-4.3-62.198 (s390x)
glibc-2.11.3-17.31.1 (s390x)
glibc-32bit-2.11.3-17.31.1 (s390x)
glibc-devel-2.11.3-17.31.1 (s390x)
glibc-devel-32bit-2.11.3-17.31.1 (s390x)
ksh-93u-0.6.1 (s390x)
make-3.81-128.20 (s390x)
libaio-0.3.109-0.1.46 (s390x)
libaio-32bit-0.3.109-0.1.46 (s390x)
libaio-devel-0.3.109-0.1.46 (s390x)
libaio-devel-32bit-0.3.109-0.1.46 (s390x)
libcap1-1.10-6.10 (s390x)
libgcc46-4.6.1_20110701-0.13.9 (s390x)
libstdc++33-3.3.3-11.9 (s390x)
libstdc++33-32bit-3.3.3-11.9 (s390x)
libstdc++43-devel-32bit-4.3.4_20091019-0.22.17 (s390x)
libstdc++43-devel-4.3.4_20091019-0.22.17 (s390x)
libstdc++46-32bit-4.6.1_20110701-0.13.9 (s390x)
libstdc++46-4.6.1_20110701-0.13.9 (s390x)
sysstat-8.1.5-7.32.1 (s390x)
xorg-x11-libs-32bit-7.4-8.26.32.1 (s390x)
xorg-x11-libs-7.4-8.26.32.1 (s390x)
xorg-x11-libX11-32bit-7.4-5.9.1 (s390x)
xorg-x11-libX11-7.4-5.9.1 (s390x)
xorg-x11-libXau-32bit-7.4-1.15 (s390x)
xorg-x11-libXau-7.4-1.15 (s390x)
xorg-x11-libxcb-7.4-1.20.34 (s390x)
xorg-x11-libxcb-32bit-7.4-1.20.34 (s390x)                                       
xorg-x11-libXext-32bit-7.4-1.16.21 (s390x)
xorg-x11-libXext-7.4-1.16.21 (s390x)
OCFS2 1.4 (For Oracle RAC only) (s390x)

4.10 Additional Drivers and Software Packages for Linux

You are not required to install additional drivers and packages, but you may choose to install or configure drivers and packages in the following list:

4.10.1 Installation Requirements for Open Database Connectivity

Review the following sections if you plan to install Open Database Connectivity (ODBC):

4.10.1.1 About ODBC Drivers and Oracle Database

Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) is a set of database access APIs that connect to the database, prepare, and then run SQL statements on the database. An application that uses an ODBC driver can access non-uniform data sources, such as spreadsheets and comma-delimited files.

4.10.1.2 Installing ODBC Drivers for Linux

If you intend to use ODBC, then install the most recent ODBC Driver Manager for Linux. Download and install the ODBC Driver Manager and Linux RPMs from the following website:

http://www.unixodbc.org

Review the minimum supported ODBC driver releases, and install ODBC drivers of the following or later releases for all Linux distributions:

unixODBC-2.3.1 or later

4.10.2 Installation Requirements for PAM on Linux

Review the following sections to install PAM:

4.10.2.1 About PAM and Login Authentication

Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) is a system of libraries that handle user authentication tasks for applications. On Linux, external scheduler jobs require PAM. Oracle strongly recommends that you install the latest Linux-PAM library for your Linux distribution.

4.10.2.2 Installing PAM Library

Use a package management system (yum, up2date, YaST) for your distribution to install the latest pam (Pluggable Authentication Modules for Linux) library.

4.10.3 Installation Requirements for OCFS2

Review the following sections to install OCFS2

4.10.3.1 About OCFS2 and Shared Storage

Oracle Cluster File System 2 (OCFS2) is a POSIX-compliant general purpose shared disk cluster file system for Linux. You can use OCFS2 with Oracle Grid Infrastructure. However, you are not required to use OCFS2. OCFS2 is supported for this release only with Oracle Linux 5 and Oracle Linux 6.

On Linux, OCFS2 is supported for use with Regular Cluster deployments for OCR and voting files. OCFS2 is not supported for Grid homes, and is not supported for Oracle Flex Cluster deployments.

4.10.3.2 Installing OCFS2

OCFS2 Release 2.1.6 is included with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel available with Oracle Linux 5 and Oracle Linux 6.

See the OCFS2 project page for additional information:

http://oss.oracle.com/projects/ocfs2/

4.10.4 Installation Requirements for Oracle Messaging Gateway

Review the following sections to install Oracle Messaging Gateway

4.10.4.1 About Oracle Messaging Gateway

Oracle Messaging Gateway is a feature of the Oracle database. It enables communication between applications based on non-Oracle messaging systems and Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing.

Oracle Messaging Gateway supports the integration of Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing (AQ) with applications based on WebSphere and TIBCO Rendezvous. For information on supported versions, see Oracle Database Advanced Queuing User's Guide.

Note:

Oracle Messaging Gateway does not support the integration of Advanced Queuing with TIBCO Rendezvous on IBM: Linux on System z.

4.10.4.2 Installing Oracle Messaging Gateway

Oracle Messaging Gateway is installed with Oracle Database.

If you require a CSD for IBM WebSphere MQ, then see the following website for download and installation information:

http://www-947.ibm.com/support/entry/portal/Downloads/Software/WebSphere/WebSphere_MQ

4.10.5 Installation Requirements for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

Review the following sections to install Lightweight Directory Access Protocol:

4.10.5.1 About LDAP and Oracle Plug-ins

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is an application protocol for accessing and maintaining distributed directory information services over IP networks. You require the LDAP package to use features requiring LDAP, including the Oracle Database scripts odisrvreg and oidca for Oracle Internet Directory, or schemasync for third-party LDAP directories.

4.10.5.2 Installing the LDAP Package

LDAP is included in a default Linux operating system installation.

If you did not perform a default Linux installation, and you intend to use Oracle scripts requiring LDAP, then use a package management system (up2date, YaST) for your distribution to install a supported LDAP package for your distribution, and install any other required packages for that LDAP package.

4.10.6 Installation Requirements for Programming Environments for Linux

Review the following sections to install programming environments:

4.10.6.1 About Programming Environments and Oracle Database

Oracle Database supports multiple programming languages for application development in different environments. Some languages require that you install additional compiler packages for the operating system.

Programming environments are options. They are not required for Oracle Database.

See Also :

Oracle Database Advanced Application Developer's Guide for an overview of programming environments

4.10.6.2 Configuring Support for Programming Environments

Ensure that your system meets the requirements for the programming environment you want to configure:

Table 4-7 Requirements for Programming Environments for x86 and x86-64 Linux

Programming Environments Support Requirements

Java Database Connectivity/Oracle Call Interface (OCI)

JDK 6 (Java SE Development Kit release 1.6.0_37 or later updates of 1.6) with the JNDI extension with Oracle Java Database Connectivity. JDK 1.6 is installed with this release.


Oracle C++
Oracle C++ Call Interface
Pro*C/C++
Oracle XML Developer's Kit (XDK)

Intel C/C++ Compiler 12.05 or later, and the version of GNU C and C++ compilers listed in the software requirements section in this document for your platform.

Oracle C++ Call Interface (OCCI) applications can be built only with Intel C++ Compiler 12.0.5 used with the standard template libraries of the gcc versions listed in the software requirements section in this document for your platform.

Oracle XML Developer's Kit is supported with the same compilers as OCCI.

Pro*COBOL

Micro Focus Server Express 5.1


Table 4-8 Requirements for Programming Environments for IBM: Linux on System z

Programming Environments Support Requirements

Java Database Connectivity/Oracle Call Interface (OCI)

  • JDK 6 (1.6.0 SR12)

  • JDK 7 (1.7.0)

JDK 1.6 is installed with this release.

Pro*COBOL

Micro Focus Server Express 5.1


4.10.7 Installation Requirements for Web Browsers

Web browsers are required to use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express and Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control. Web browsers must support JavaScript, and the HTML 4.0 and CSS 1.0 standards. For a list of browsers that meet these requirements, see the Oracle Enterprise Manager certification matrix on My Oracle Support:

https://support.oracle.com

See Also:

4.11 Checking the Software Requirements

To ensure that the system meets these requirements, follow these steps:

  1. To determine which distribution and version of Linux is installed, enter the one of the following commands:

    # cat /etc/oracle-release
    # cat /etc/redhat-release
    # lsb_release -id
    
  2. To determine whether the required kernel errata is installed, enter the following command:

    # uname -r
    

    The following is sample output displayed by running this command on an Oracle Linux 6 system:

    2.6.39-100.7.1.el6uek.x86_64
    

    Review the required errata level for your distribution. If the errata level is previous to the required minimum errata update, then obtain and install the latest kernel update from your Linux distributor.

  3. To determine whether the required packages are installed, enter commands similar to the following:

    # rpm -q package_name
    

    Alternatively, if you require specific system architecture information, then enter the following command:

    # rpm -qa --queryformat "%{NAME}-%{VERSION}-%{RELEASE} (%{ARCH})\n" | grep package_name
    

    You can also combine a query for multiple packages, and review the output for the correct versions. For example:

    # rpm -q binutils compat-libstdc++ elfutils gcc glibc libaio libgcc libstdc++ \
    make sysstat unixodbc
    

    If a package is not installed, then install it from your Linux distribution media or download the required package version from your Linux distributor's website.

4.12 Installing the cvuqdisk RPM for Linux

If you do not use Oracle Preinstallation RPM, then you must install the cvuqdisk RPM. Without cvuqdisk, Cluster Verification Utility cannot discover shared disks, and you receive the error message "Package cvuqdisk not installed" when you run Cluster Verification Utility. Use the cvuqdisk rpm for your hardware (for example, x86_64).

To install the cvuqdisk RPM, complete the following procedure:

  1. Locate the cvuqdisk RPM, which is in the directory rpm on the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation media. If you have already installed Oracle Grid Infrastructure, then it is located in the directory grid_home/cv/rpm.

  2. Copy the cvuqdisk package to each node on the cluster. You should ensure that each node is running the same version of Linux.

  3. Log in as root.

  4. Use the following command to find if you have an existing version of the cvuqdisk package:

    # rpm -qi cvuqdisk
    

    If you have an existing version, then enter the following command to deinstall the existing version:

    # rpm -e cvuqdisk
    
  5. Set the environment variable CVUQDISK_GRP to point to the group that will own cvuqdisk, typically oinstall. For example:

    # CVUQDISK_GRP=oinstall; export CVUQDISK_GRP
    
  6. In the directory where you have saved the cvuqdisk rpm, use the following command to install the cvuqdisk package:

    # rpm -iv package
    

    For example:

    # rpm -iv cvuqdisk-1.0.9-1.rpm
    

4.13 Checking Shared Memory File System Mount on Linux

Ensure that the /dev/shm mount area is of type tmpfs and is mounted with the following options:

  • With rw and exec permissions set on it

  • Without noexec or nosuid set on it

Use the following procedure to check the shared memory file system:

  1. Check current mount settings. For example:

    $ more /etc/fstab |grep "tmpfs"
    tmpfs         /dev/shm       /tmpfs     defaults     0 0
    
  2. If necessary, change mount settings. For example, log in as root, open the /etc/fstab file with a text editor, and modify the tmpfs line:

    tmpfs     /dev/shm     /tmpfs     rw,exec      0 0
    

See Also:

Oracle Database Administrator's Reference for Linux and UNIX-Based Operating Systems for more information about shared memory mounts

4.14 Enabling the Name Service Cache Daemon

To allow Oracle Clusterware to better tolerate network failures with NAS devices or NFS mounts, enable the Name Service Cache Daemon (nscd).

To check to see if nscd is set to load when the system is restarted, enter the command chkconfig --list nscd. For example:

# chkconfig --list nscd
nscd                      0:off  1:off  2:off  3:on   4:off  5:off   6:off 

In the preceding example, nscd is turned on for run level 3, and turned off for run level 5. The nscd should be turned on for both run level 3 and run level 5.

To change the configuration to ensure that nscd is on for both run level 3 and run level 5, enter one of the following command as root:

# chkconfig --level 35 nscd on

To start up nscd in the current session, enter the command as root:

# service nscd start

To restart nscd with the new setting, enter the following command as root:

# service nscd restart

4.15 Setting the Disk I/O Scheduler on Linux

Disk I/O schedulers reorder, delay, or merge requests for disk I/O to achieve better throughput and lower latency. Linux has multiple disk I/O schedulers available, including Deadline, Noop, Anticipatory, and Completely Fair Queuing (CFQ). For best performance for Oracle ASM, Oracle recommends that you use the Deadline I/O Scheduler.

On each cluster node, enter the following command to ensure that the Deadline disk I/O scheduler is configured for use:

# echo deadline > /sys/block/${ASM_DISK}/queue/scheduler 

4.16 Setting Network Time Protocol for Cluster Time Synchronization

Oracle Clusterware requires the same time zone environment variable setting on all cluster nodes. During installation, the installation process picks up the time zone environment variable setting of the Grid installation owner on the node where OUI runs, and uses that time zone value on all nodes as the default TZ environment variable setting for all processes managed by Oracle Clusterware. The time zone default is used for databases, Oracle ASM, and any other managed processes.

You have two options for time synchronization:

  • An operating system configured network time protocol (NTP)

  • Oracle Cluster Time Synchronization Service

Oracle Cluster Time Synchronization Service is designed for organizations whose cluster servers are unable to access NTP services. If you use NTP, then the Oracle Cluster Time Synchronization daemon (ctssd) starts up in observer mode. If you do not have NTP daemons, then ctssd starts up in active mode and synchronizes time among cluster members without contacting an external time server.

Note:

Before starting the installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure, Oracle recommends that you ensure the clocks on all nodes are set to the same time.

If you have NTP daemons on your server but you cannot configure them to synchronize time with a time server, and you want to use Cluster Time Synchronization Service to provide synchronization service in the cluster, then deactivate and deinstall the NTP.

To deactivate the NTP service, you must stop the existing ntpd service, disable it from the initialization sequences and remove the ntp.conf file. To complete these step on Oracle Linux, and Asianux systems, run the following commands as the root user

# /sbin/service ntpd stop
# chkconfig ntpd off
# mv /etc/ntp.conf /etc/ntp.conf.org

Also remove the following file:

/var/run/ntpd.pid

This file maintains the pid for the NTP daemon.

When the installer finds that the NTP protocol is not active, the Cluster Time Synchronization Service is installed in active mode and synchronizes the time across the nodes. If NTP is found configured, then the Cluster Time Synchronization Service is started in observer mode, and no active time synchronization is performed by Oracle Clusterware within the cluster.

To confirm that ctssd is active after installation, enter the following command as the Grid installation owner:

$ crsctl check ctss

4.17 Using Automatic SSH Configuration During Installation

To install Oracle software, Secure Shell (SSH) connectivity should be set up between all cluster member nodes. OUI uses the ssh and scp commands during installation to run remote commands on and copy files to the other cluster nodes. You must configure SSH so that these commands do not prompt for a password.

Note:

Oracle configuration assistants use SSH for configuration operations from local to remote nodes. Oracle Enterprise Manager also uses SSH. RSH is no longer supported.

You can configure SSH from the OUI interface during installation for the user account running the installation. The automatic configuration creates passwordless SSH connectivity between all cluster member nodes. Oracle recommends that you use the automatic procedure if possible.

To enable the script to run, you must remove stty commands from the profiles of any existing Oracle software installation owners you want to use, and remove other security measures that are triggered during a login, and that generate messages to the terminal. These messages, mail checks, and other displays prevent Oracle software installation owners from using the SSH configuration script that is built into the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI). If they are not disabled, then SSH must be configured manually before an installation can be run.

In rare cases, Oracle Clusterware installation may fail during the "AttachHome" operation when the remote node closes the SSH connection. To avoid this problem, set the following parameter in the SSH daemon configuration file /etc/ssh/sshd_config on all cluster nodes to set the timeout wait to unlimited:

LoginGraceTime 0

See Also:

Section 6.2.5, "Preventing Installation Errors Caused by Terminal Output Commands" for information about how to remove stty commands in user profiles