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Oracle® Database JDBC Developer's Guide
12c Release 1 (12.1)

E17657-14
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31 Database Administration

This chapter discusses the database administration methods introduced in Oracle Database 11g Release 1. This chapter contains the following sections:

Using the Database Administration Methods

Starting from Oracle Database 11g Release 1, two JDBC methods, startup and shutdown, has been added in the oracle.jdbc.OracleConnection interface, which enable you to start up and shut down an Oracle Database instance. This is similar to the way you would start up or shut down a database instance from SQL*Plus.

To use the startup and shutdown methods, you must:

  • Have a dedicated connection to the server. You cannot be connected to a shared server through a dispatcher.

  • Be connected as SYSDBA or SYSOPER. To connect as SYSDBA or SYSOPER with Oracle JDBC drivers, you need to set the INTERNAL_LOGON connection property accordingly.

To log on as SYSDBA with the JDBC Thin driver you must configure the server to use the password file. For example, to configure system/manager to connect as SYSDBA with the JDBC Thin driver, perform the following:

  1. From the command line, type:

    orapwd file=$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/orapw entries=5
    Enter password: password
    
  2. Connect to database as SYSDBA and run the following commands from SQL*Plus:

    GRANT SYSDBA TO system;
    PASSWORD system
           Changing password for system
           New password: password
           Retype new password: password
    
  3. Edit init.ora and add the following line:

    REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE=EXCLUSIVE
    
  4. Restart the database instance.

As opposed to the JDBC Thin driver, the JDBC OCI driver can connect as SYSDBA or SYSOPER locally without specifying a password file on the server.

Using the startup Method

To start a database instance using the startup method, the application must first connect to the database as a SYSDBA or SYSOPER in the PRELIM_AUTH mode, which is the only connection mode that is permitted when the database is down. You can do this by setting the connection property PRELIM_AUTH to true. In the PRELIM_AUTH mode, you can only start up a database instance that is down. You cannot run any SQL statements in this mode.

Example

The following code snippet shows how to start up a database instance that is down:

 OracleDataSource ds = new OracleDataSource();
    Properties prop = new Properties();
    prop.setProperty("user","sys");
    prop.setProperty("password","manager");
    prop.setProperty("internal_logon","sysdba");
    prop.setProperty("prelim_auth","true");
    ds.setConnectionProperties(prop);
    ds.setURL("jdbc:oracle:thin:@(DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=XYZ.com)(PORT=5221))"
+ "(CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=rdbms.devplmt.XYZ.com)))");
    OracleConnection conn = (OracleConnection)ds.getConnection();
    conn.startup(OracleConnection.DatabaseStartupMode.NO_RESTRICTION);
    conn.close();

Note:

The startup method will start up the database using the server parameter file. Oracle JDBC drivers do not support database startup using the client parameter file.

Database Startup Options

The startup method takes a parameter that specifies the database startup option. Table 31-1 lists the supported database startup options. These options are defined in the oracle.jdbc.OracleConnection.DatabaseStartupMode class.

Table 31-1 Supported Database Startup Options

Option Description

FORCE

Shuts down the current instance, if any, of database in the abort mode before starting a new instance.

NO_RESTRICTION

Starts up the database with no restrictions.

RESTRICT

Starts up the database and allows database access only to users with both the CREATE SESSION and RESTRICTED SESSION privileges, typically, the DBA.


The startup method only starts up a database instance. It neither mounts it nor opens it. For mounting and opening the database instance, you have to reconnect as SYSDBA or SYSOPER, without the PRELIM_AUTH mode.

Example

The following code snippet shows how to mount and open a database instance:

    OracleDataSource ds1 = new OracleDataSource();
    Properties prop1 = new Properties();
    prop1.setProperty("user","sys");
    prop1.setProperty("password","manager");
    prop1.setProperty("internal_logon","sysdba");
    ds1.setConnectionProperties(prop1);
    ds1.setURL(DB_URL);
    OracleConnection conn1 = (OracleConnection)ds1.getConnection();
    Statement stmt = conn1.createStatement();
    stmt.executeUpdate("ALTER DATABASE MOUNT");
    stmt.executeUpdate("ALTER DATABASE OPEN");

Using the shutdown Method

The shutdown method enables you to shut down an Oracle Database instance. To use this method, you must be connected to the database as a SYSDBA or SYSOPER.

Example

The following code snippet shows how to shut down a database instance:

    OracleDataSource ds2 = new OracleDataSource();
...
    OracleConnection conn2 = (OracleConnection)ds2.getConnection();
    conn2.shutdown(OracleConnection.DatabaseShutdownMode.IMMEDIATE);
    Statement stmt1 = conn2.createStatement();
    stmt1.executeUpdate("ALTER DATABASE CLOSE NORMAL");
    stmt1.executeUpdate("ALTER DATABASE DISMOUNT");
    stmt1.close();
    conn2.shutdown(OracleConnection.DatabaseShutdownMode.FINAL);
    conn2.close();

Database Startup Options

Like the startup method, the shutdown method also takes a parameter. In this case, the parameter specifies the database shutdown option. Table 31-2 lists the supported database shutdown options. These options are defined in the oracle.jdbc.OracleConnection.DatabaseShutdownMode class.

Table 31-2 Supported Database Shutdown Options

Option Description

ABORT

Does not wait for current calls to complete or users to disconnect from the database.

CONNECT

Refuses any new connection and waits for existing connection to end.

FINAL

Shuts down the database.

IMMEDIATE

Does not wait for current calls to complete or users to disconnect from the database.

TRANSACTIONAL

Refuses new transactions and waits for active transactions to end.

TRANSACTIONAL_LOCAL

Refuses new local transactions and waits for active local transactions to end.


For shutdown options other than ABORT and FINAL, you must call the shutdown method again with the FINAL option to actually shut down the database.

Note:

The shutdown(DatabaseShutdownMode.FINAL) method must be preceded by another call to the shutdown method with one of the following options: CONNECT, TRANSACTIONAL, TRANSACTIONAL_LOCAL, or IMMEDIATE. Otherwise, the call hangs.

Standard Database Shutdown Process

A standard way to shut down the database is as follows:

  1. Initiate shutdown by prohibiting further connections or transactions in the database. The shut down option can be either CONNECT, TRANSACTIONAL, TRANSACTIONAL_LOCAL, or IMMEDIATE.

  2. Dismount and close the database by calling the appropriate ALTER DATABASE command.

  3. Finish shutdown using the FINAL option.

In special circumstances to shut down the database as fast as possible, the ABORT option can be used. This is the equivalent to SHUTDOWN ABORT in SQL*Plus.

A Complete Example

Example 31-1 illustrates the use of the startup and shutdown methods.

Example 31-1 Database Startup and Shutdown

import java.sql.Statement;
import java.util.Properties;
import oracle.jdbc.OracleConnection;
import oracle.jdbc.pool.OracleDataSource;
/**
 * To logon as sysdba, you need to create a password file for user "sys":
 *   orapwd file=/path/orapw password=password entries=300
 * and add the following setting in init.ora:
 *   REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE=EXCLUSIVE
 * then restart the database.
 */
public class DBStartup
{
  static final String DB_URL = "jdbc:oracle:thin:@(DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=localhost)(PORT=5221))"
+ "(CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=rdbms.devplmt.XYZ.com)))";

  public static void main(String[] argv) throws Exception
  {
// Starting up the database:
    OracleDataSource ds = new OracleDataSource();
    Properties prop = new Properties();
    prop.setProperty("user","sys");
    prop.setProperty("password","manager");
    prop.setProperty("internal_logon","sysdba");
    prop.setProperty("prelim_auth","true");
    ds.setConnectionProperties(prop);
    ds.setURL(DB_URL);
    OracleConnection conn = (OracleConnection)ds.getConnection();
    conn.startup(OracleConnection.DatabaseStartupMode.NO_RESTRICTION);
    conn.close();

// Mounting and opening the database
    OracleDataSource ds1 = new OracleDataSource();
    Properties prop1 = new Properties();
    prop1.setProperty("user","sys");
    prop1.setProperty("password","manager");
    prop1.setProperty("internal_logon","sysdba");
    ds1.setConnectionProperties(prop1);
    ds1.setURL(DB_URL);
    OracleConnection conn1 = (OracleConnection)ds1.getConnection();
    Statement stmt = conn1.createStatement();
    stmt.executeUpdate("ALTER DATABASE MOUNT");
    stmt.executeUpdate("ALTER DATABASE OPEN");
    stmt.close();
    conn1.close();

// Shutting down the database
    OracleDataSource ds2 = new OracleDataSource();
    Properties prop = new Properties();
    prop.setProperty("user","sys");
    prop.setProperty("password","manager");
    prop.setProperty("internal_logon","sysdba");
    ds2.setConnectionProperties(prop);
    ds2.setURL(DB_URL);
    OracleConnection conn2 = (OracleConnection)ds2.getConnection();
    conn2.shutdown(OracleConnection.DatabaseShutdownMode.IMMEDIATE);
    Statement stmt1 = conn2.createStatement();
    stmt1.executeUpdate("ALTER DATABASE CLOSE NORMAL");
    stmt1.executeUpdate("ALTER DATABASE DISMOUNT");
    stmt1.close();
    conn2.shutdown(OracleConnection.DatabaseShutdownMode.FINAL);
    conn2.close();
  }
}