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Oracle® Database Security Guide
12c Release 1 (12.1)

E17607-26
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B Data Encryption and Integrity Parameters

This appendix contains:

About Data Encryption and Integrity Parameters

This appendix describes encryption and data integrity parameters supported by Oracle Database. It also includes an example of a sqlnet.ora file generated by performing the network configuration described in Chapter 13, "Configuring Network Data Encryption and Integrity" and Chapter 18, "Configuring Secure Sockets Layer Authentication."

Sample sqlnet.ora File

This section contains a sample sqlnet.ora configuration file for a set of clients with similar characteristics and a set of servers with similar characteristics. The file includes examples of Oracle Database encryption and data integrity parameters.

By default, the sqlnet.ora file is located in the ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory or in the location set by the TNS_ADMIN environment variable. Ensure that you have properly set the TNS_ADMIN variable to point to the correct sqlnet.ora file. See SQL*Plus User's Guide and Reference for more information and examples of setting the TNS_ADMIN variable.

Trace File Setup

#Trace file setup 
trace_level_server=16 
trace_level_client=16  
trace_directory_server=/orant/network/trace 
trace_directory_client=/orant/network/trace 
trace_file_client=cli  
trace_file_server=srv 
trace_unique_client=true 

Oracle Database Network Encryption

sqlnet.encryption_server=accepted 
sqlnet.encryption_client=requested 
sqlnet.encryption_types_server=(RC4_40) 
sqlnet.encryption_types_client=(RC4_40) 

Oracle Database Network Data Integrity

#ASO Checksum 
sqlnet.crypto_checksum_server=requested 
sqlnet.crypto_checksum_client=requested  
sqlnet.crypto_checksum_types_server = (SHA256) 
sqlnet.crypto_checksum_types_client = (SHA256) 

Secure Sockets Layer

#SSL 
WALLET_LOCATION = (SOURCE=
                   (METHOD = FILE) 
                      (METHOD_DATA = 
                         DIRECTORY=/wallet) 

SSL_CIPHER_SUITES=(SSL_DH_anon_WITH_RC4_128_MD5) 
SSL_VERSION= 3 
SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION=FALSE 

Common

#Common
automatic_ipc = off
sqlnet.authentication_services = (beq)
names.directory_path = (TNSNAMES)

Kerberos

#Kerberos 
sqlnet.authentication_services = (beq, kerberos5)
sqlnet.authentication_kerberos5_service = oracle
sqlnet.kerberos5_conf= /krb5/krb.conf
sqlnet.kerberos5_keytab= /krb5/v5srvtab
sqlnet.kerberos5_realms= /krb5/krb.realm
sqlnet.kerberos5_cc_name = /krb5/krb5.cc
sqlnet.kerberos5_clockskew=900

RADIUS

#Radius
sqlnet.authentication_services = (beq, RADIUS )
sqlnet.radius_authentication_timeout = (10)
sqlnet.radius_authentication_retries = (2)
sqlnet.radius_authentication_port = (1645)
sqlnet.radius_send_accounting = OFF
sqlnet.radius_secret = /orant/network/admin/radius.key
sqlnet.radius_authentication = radius.us.example.com
sqlnet.radius_challenge_response = OFF
sqlnet.radius_challenge_keyword = challenge
sqlnet.radius_challenge_interface =
oracle/net/radius/DefaultRadiusInterface
sqlnet.radius_classpath = /jre1.1/

Data Encryption and Integrity Parameters

This section contains:

About the Data Encryption and Integrity Parameters

If you do not specify any values for Server Encryption, Client Encryption, Server Checksum, or Client Checksum, the corresponding configuration parameters do not appear in the sqlnet.ora file. However, the defaults are ACCEPTED.

For both data encryption and integrity algorithms, the server selects the first algorithm listed in its sqlnet.ora file that matches an algorithm listed in the client sqlnet.ora file, or in the client installed list if the client lists no algorithms in its sqlnet.ora file. If there are no entries in the server sqlnet.ora file, the server sequentially searches its installed list to match an item on the client side—either in the client sqlnet.ora file or in the client installed list. If no match can be made and one side of the connection REQUIRED the algorithm type (data encryption or integrity), then the connection fails. Otherwise, the connection succeeds with the algorithm type inactive.

Data encryption and integrity algorithms are selected independently of each other. Encryption can be activated without integrity, and integrity can be activated without encryption, as shown by Table B-1:

Table B-1 Algorithm Type Selection

Encryption Selected? Integrity Selected?

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

No


SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_SERVER Parameter

The SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_SERVER parameter specifies the desired encryption behavior when a client or a server acting as a client connects to this server. The behavior of the server partially depends on the SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_CLIENT setting at the other end of the connection.

Table B-2 describes the SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_SERVER parameter attributes.

Table B-2 SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_SERVER Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_SERVER = valid_value

Valid Values

ACCEPTED, REJECTED, REQUESTED, REQUIRED

Default Setting

ACCEPTED


See Also:

Oracle Database Net Services Reference for more information about the SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_SERVER parameter

SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_CLIENT Parameter

The SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_CLIENT parameter specifies the desired encryption behavior when this client or server acting as a client connects to a server. The behavior of the client partially depends on the value set for SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_SERVER at the other end of the connection.

Table B-3 describes the SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_CLIENT parameter attributes.

Table B-3 SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_CLIENT Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_CLIENT = valid_value

Valid Values

ACCEPTED, REJECTED, REQUESTED, REQUIRED

Default Setting

ACCEPTED


See Also:

Oracle Database Net Services Reference for more information about the SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_CLIENT parameter

SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_SERVER Parameter

The SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_SERVER parameter specifies the desired data integrity behavior when a client or another server acting as a client connects to this server. The behavior partially depends on the SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_CLIENT setting at the other end of the connection.

Table B-4 describes the SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_SERVER parameter attributes.

Table B-4 SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_SERVER Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_SERVER = valid_value

Valid Values

ACCEPTED, REJECTED, REQUESTED, REQUIRED

Default Setting

ACCEPTED


See Also:

Oracle Database Net Services Reference for more information about the SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_SERVER parameter

SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_CLIENT Parameter

The SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_CLIENT parameter specifies the desired data integrity behavior when this client or server acting as a client connects to a server. The behavior partially depends on the SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_SERVER setting at the other end of the connection.

Table B-5 describes the SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_CLIENT parameter attributes.

Table B-5 SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_CLIENT Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_CLIENT = valid_value

Valid Values

ACCEPTED, REJECTED, REQUESTED, REQUIRED

Default Setting

ACCEPTED


SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_SERVER Parameter

The SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_SERVER parameter specifies a list of encryption algorithms used by this server in the order of intended use. This list is used to negotiate a mutually acceptable algorithm with the client end of the connection. Each algorithm is checked against the list of available client algorithm types until a match is found. If an algorithm that is not installed is specified on this side, the connection terminates with the error message ORA-12650: No common encryption or data integrity algorithm.

Table B-6 describes the SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_SERVER parameter attributes.

Table B-6 SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_SERVER Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_SERVER = (valid_encryption_algorithm [,valid_encryption_algorithm])

Valid Values

  • RC4_256: RSA RC4 (256-bit key size)

  • AES256: AES (256-bit key size)

  • AES192: AES (192-bit key size)

  • 3DES168: 3-key Triple-DES (168-bit effective key size)

  • RC4_128: RSA RC4 (128-bit key size)

  • AES128: AES (128-bit key size)

  • 3DES112: 2-key Triple-DES (112-bit effective key size)

  • RC4_56: RSA RC4 (56-bit key size)

  • DES: Standard DES (56-bit key size)

  • RC4_40: RSA RC4 (40-bit key size)

  • DES40: DES40 (40-bit key size)

Default Setting

If no algorithms are defined in the local sqlnet.ora file, then all installed algorithms are used in a negotiation in the preceding sequence.

Usage Notes

You can specify multiple encryption algorithms. It can be either a single value or a list of algorithm names. For example, either of the following encryption parameters is acceptable:

SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_SERVER=(RC4_40)

SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_SERVER=(3DES112,RC4_56,RC4_128,3DES168)


See Also:

Oracle Database Net Services Reference for more information about the SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_SERVER parameter

SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_CLIENT Parameter

The SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_CLIENT parameter specifies a list of encryption algorithms used by this client or server acting as a client. This list is used to negotiate a mutually acceptable algorithm with the other end of the connection. If an algorithm that is not installed is specified on this side, the connection terminates with the ORA-12650: No common encryption or data integrity algorithm error message.

Table B-7 describes the SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_CLIENT parameter attributes.

Table B-7 SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_CLIENT Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_CLIENT = (valid_encryption_algorithm [,valid_encryption_algorithm])

Valid Values

  • RC4_256: RSA RC4 (256-bit key size).

  • AES256: AES (256-bit key size).

  • AES192: AES (192-bit key size).

  • 3DES168: 3-key Triple-DES (168-bit effective key size).

  • RC4_128: RSA RC4 (128-bit key size).

  • AES128: AES (128-bit key size).

  • 3DES112: 2-key Triple-DES (112-bit effective key size).

  • RC4_56: RSA RC4 (56-bit key size).

  • DES: Standard DES (56-bit key size).

  • RC4_40: RSA RC4 (40-bit key size).

  • DES40: DES40 (40-bit key size).

Default Setting

If no algorithms are defined in the local sqlnet.ora file, all installed algorithms are used in a negotiation.

Usage Notes

You can specify multiple encryption algorithms.


See Also:

Oracle Database Net Services Reference for more information about the SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_CLIENT parameter

SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_SERVER Parameter

The SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_SERVER parameter specifies a list of data integrity algorithms that this server or client to another server uses, in order of intended use. This list is used to negotiate a mutually acceptable algorithm with the other end of the connection. Each algorithm is checked against the list of available client algorithm types until a match is found. If an algorithm is specified that is not installed on this side, the connection terminates with the ORA-12650: No common encryption or data integrity algorithm error error message.

Table B-8 describes the SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_SERVER parameter attributes.

Table B-8 SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_SERVER Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_SERVER = (valid_crypto_checksum_algorithm [,valid_crypto_checksum_algorithm])

Valid Values

  • SHA512: SHA-2, produces a 512-bit hash.

  • SHA384: SHA-2, produces a 384-bit hash.

  • SHA256: SHA-2, produces a 256-bit hash. This is the default value.

  • SHA1: Secure Hash Algorithm

  • MD5: Message Digest 5

Default Setting

If no algorithms are defined in the local sqlnet.ora file, all installed algorithms are used in a negotiation starting with SHA256.


See Also:

Oracle Database Net Services Reference for more information about the SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_SERVER parameter

SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_CLIENT Parameter

The SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_CLIENT parameter specifies a list of data integrity algorithms that this client or server acting as a client uses. This list is used to negotiate a mutually acceptable algorithm with the other end of the connection. If an algorithm that is not installed on this side is specified, the connection terminates with the ORA-12650: No common encryption or data integrity algorithm error error message.

Table B-9 describes the SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_CLIENT parameter attributes.

Table B-9 SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_CLIENT Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_CLIENT = (valid_crypto_checksum_algorithm [,valid_crypto_checksum_algorithm])

Valid Values

  • SHA512: SHA-2, produces a 512-bit hash.

  • SHA384: SHA-2, produces a 384-bit hash.

  • SHA256: SHA-2, produces a 256-bit hash. This is the default value.

  • SHA1: Secure Hash Algorithm

  • MD5: Message Digest 5

Default Setting

If no algorithms are defined in the local sqlnet.ora file, all installed algorithms are used in a negotiation starting with SHA256.


See Also:

Oracle Database Net Services Reference for more information about the SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_CLIENT parameter