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Oracle® Database Security Guide
12c Release 1 (12.1)

E17607-26
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14 Configuring the Thin JDBC Client Network

This chapter contains:

About the Java Implementation

This chapter describes the thin JDBC client implementation of Oracle Database network encryption and strong authentication, which lets thin Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) clients securely connect to Oracle databases.

The Java implementation of Oracle Database network encryption and strong authentication provides network authentication, encryption and integrity protection for Thin JDBC clients communicating with Oracle Databases that have Oracle Database network encryption and strong authentication configured.

Java Database Connectivity Support

Java Database Connectivity (JDBC), an industry-standard Java interface, is a Java standard for connecting to a relational database from a Java program. Sun Microsystems defined the JDBC standard and Oracle implements and extends the standard with its own JDBC drivers.

Oracle JDBC drivers are used to create JDBC applications to communicate with Oracle databases. Oracle implements two types of JDBC drivers: Thick JDBC drivers built on top of the C-based Oracle Net client, as well as a Thin (Pure Java) JDBC driver to support downloadable applets. Oracle extensions to JDBC include the following features:

  • Data access and manipulation

  • LOB access and manipulation

  • Oracle object type mapping

  • Object reference access and manipulation

  • Array access and manipulation

  • Application performance enhancement

Thin JDBC Features

Because the Thin JDBC driver is designed to be used with downloadable applets used over the Internet, Oracle designed a 100 percent Java implementation of Oracle Database network encryption and strong authentication, encryption, and integrity algorithms, for use with thin clients. Oracle Database provides the following features for Thin JDBC:

  • Strong Authentication

  • Data encryption

  • Data integrity checking

  • Secure connections from Thin JDBC clients to the Oracle RDBMS

  • Ability for developers to build applets that transmit data over a secure communication channel

  • Secure connections from middle tier servers with Java Server Pages (JSP) to the Oracle RDBMS

  • Secure connections from Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) to older versions of Oracle databases

The Oracle JDBC Thin driver supports the Oracle Database SSL implementation and third party authentication methods such as RADIUS and Kerberos. Thin JDBC support for authentication methods like RADIUS, Kerberos, and SSL were introduced in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1).

The Oracle Database network encryption and strong authentication Java implementation provides Java versions of the following encryption algorithms:

  • AES256: AES 256-bit key

  • AES192: AES 192-bit key

  • AES128: AES 128-bit key

  • 3DES168: 3-key 3DES

  • 3DES112: 2-key 3DES

  • DES56C: DES 56-bit key CBC

  • DES40C: DES 40-bit key CBC

  • RC4_256: RC4 256-bit key

  • RC4_128: RC4 128-bit key

  • RC4_56: RC4 56-bit key

  • RC4_40: RC4 40-bit key

Note:

In the preceding list of algorithms, CBC refers to the Cipher Block Chaining mode.

Thin JDBC support for the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) has been newly introduced in Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1).

In addition, this implementation provides data integrity checking for Thin JDBC using Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA1) and Message Digest 5 (MD5). Thin JDBC support for SHA1 was introduced in Oracle Database 11g release 1 (11.1).

See Also:

Oracle Database JDBC Developer's Guide for details on configuring authentication, encryption, and integrity for thin JDBC clients.

Implementation Overview

On the server side, the negotiation of algorithms and the generation of keys function exactly the same as Oracle Database native encryption. This enables backward and forward compatibility of clients and servers.

On the client side, the algorithm negotiation and key generation occur in exactly the same manner as OCI clients. The client and server negotiate encryption algorithms, generate random numbers, use Diffie-Hellman to exchange session keys, and use the Oracle Password Protocol, in the same manner as the traditional Oracle Net clients. Thin JDBC contains a complete implementation of an Oracle Net client in pure Java.

Obfuscation of the Java Cryptography Code

The Java cryptography code is obfuscated. Obfuscation protects Java classes and methods that contain encryption and decryption capabilities with obfuscation software.

Java byte code obfuscator is a process frequently used to protect intellectual property written in the form of Java programs. It mixes up Java symbols found in the code. The process leaves the original program structure intact, letting the program run correctly while changing the names of the classes, methods, and variables in order to hide the intended behavior. Although it is possible to decompile and read non-obfuscated Java code, obfuscated Java code is sufficiently difficult to decompile to satisfy U.S. government export controls.

Configuration Parameters for the Thin JDBC Network Implementation

This section contains:

About the Thin JDBC Network Implementation Configuration Parameters

A properties class object containing several configuration parameters is passed to the Oracle Database network encryption and strong authentication interface.

All JDBC connection properties including the ones pertaining to Oracle Database are defined as constants in the oracle.jdbc.OracleConnection interface. The following list enumerates some of these connection properties:

See Also:

Oracle Database JDBC Developer's Guide for detailed information on configuration parameters and configuration examples

Client Encryption Level Parameter

The CONNECTION_PROPERTY_THIN_NET_ENCRYPTION_LEVEL client encryption level parameter defines the level of security that the client wants to negotiate with the server.

Table 14-1 describes the attributes of this parameter.

Table 14-1 CONNECTION_PROPERTY_THIN_NET_ENCRYPTION_LEVEL Attributes

Attribute Description

Parameter Type

String

Parameter Class

Static

Permitted Values

REJECTED; ACCEPTED; REQUESTED; REQUIRED

Default Value

ACCEPTED

Syntax

prop.setProperty(OracleConnection.CONNECTION_PROPERTY_THIN_NET_ENCRYPTION_LEVEL,level);

where prop is an object of the Properties class

Example

prop.setProperty(OracleConnection.CONNECTION_PROPERTY_THIN_NET_ENCRYPTION_LEVEL,"REQUIRED");

where prop is an object of the Properties class


Client Encryption Selected List Parameter

The CONNECTION_PROPERTY_THIN_NET_ENCRYPTION_TYPES client encryption selected list parameter defines the encryption algorithm to be used.

Table 14-2 describes attributes of this parameter.

Table 14-2 CONNECTION_PROPERTY_THIN_NET_ENCRYPTION_TYPES Attributes

Attribute Description

Parameter Type

String

Parameter Class

Static

Permitted Values

AES256 (AES 256-bit key), AES192 (AES 192-bit key), AES128 (AES 128-bit key), 3DES168 (3-key 3DES), 3DES112 (2-key 3DES), DES56C (DES 56-bit key CBC), DES40C (DES 40-bit key CBC), RC4_256 (RC4 256-bit key), RC4_128 (RC4 128-bit key), RC4_56 (RC4 56-bit key), RC4_40 (RC4 40-bit key)

Syntax

prop.setProperty(OracleConnection.CONNECTION_PROPERTY_THIN_NET_ENCRYPTION_TYPES,algorithm);

where prop is an object of the Properties class

Example

prop.setProperty(OracleConnection.CONNECTION_PROPERTY_THIN_NET_ENCRYPTION_TYPES, "( AES256, AES192 )");

where prop is an object of the Properties class


Client Integrity Level Parameter

The CONNECTION_PROPERTY_THIN_NET_CHECKSUM_LEVEL client integrity level parameter defines the level of security that it wants to negotiate with the server for data integrity.

Table 14-3 describes the attributes of this parameter.

Table 14-3 CONNECTION_PROPERTY_THIN_NET_CHECKSUM_LEVEL Attributes

Attribute Description

Parameter Type

String

Parameter Class

Static

Permitted Values

REJECTED; ACCEPTED; REQUESTED; REQUIRED

Default Value

ACCEPTED

Syntax

prop.setProperty(OracleConnection.CONNECTION_PROPERTY_THIN_NET_CHECKSUM_LEVEL,level);

where prop is an object of the Properties class

Example

prop.setProperty(OracleConnection.CONNECTION_PROPERTY_THIN_NET_CHECKSUM_LEVEL,"REQUIRED");

where prop is an object of the Properties class


Client Integrity Selected List Parameter

The CONNECTION_PROPERTY_THIN_NET_CHECKSUM_TYPES client integrity selected list parameter defines the data integrity algorithm to be used.

Table 14-4 describes this parameter's attributes.

Table 14-4 CONNECTION_PROPERTY_THIN_NET_CHECKSUM_TYPES Attributes

Attribute Description

Parameter Type

String

Parameter Class

Static

Permitted Values

MD5, SHA1

Syntax

prop.setProperty(OracleConnection.CONNECTION_PROPERTY_THIN_NET_CHECKSUM_TYPES, algorithm);

where prop is an object of the Properties class

Example

prop.setProperty(OracleConnection.CONNECTION_PROPERTY_THIN_NET_CHECKSUM_TYPES,"( MD5, SHA1 )");

where prop is an object of the Properties class


Client Authentication Service Parameter

The CONNECTION_PROPERTY_THIN_NET_AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES client authentication service parameter determines the authentication service to be used.

Table 14-5 describes this parameter's attributes.

Table 14-5 CONNECTION_PROPERTY_THIN_NET_AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES

Attribute Description

Parameter Type

String

Parameter Class

Static

Permitted Values

RADIUS, KERBEROS, SSL

Syntax

prop.setProperty(OracleConnection.CONNECTION_PROPERTY_THIN_NET_AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES,authentication);

where prop is an object of the Properties class

Example

prop.setProperty(OracleConnection.CONNECTION_PROPERTY_THIN_NET_AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES,"( RADIUS, KERBEROS, SSL)");

where prop is an object of the Properties class


AnoServices Constants

The oracle.net.ano.AnoServices interface has been updated in this release to include the names of all the encryption, authentication, and checksum algorithms supported by the JDBC Thin driver. The following constants have been added to the oracle.net.ano.AnoServices interface:

// ---- SUPPORTED ENCRYPTION ALG -----
public static final String ENCRYPTION_RC4_40 = "RC4_40";
public static final String ENCRYPTION_RC4_56 = "RC4_56";
public static final String ENCRYPTION_RC4_128 = "RC4_128";
public static final String ENCRYPTION_RC4_256 = "RC4_256";
public static final String ENCRYPTION_DES40C = "DES40C";
public static final String ENCRYPTION_DES56C = "DES56C";
public static final String ENCRYPTION_3DES112 = "3DES112";
public static final String ENCRYPTION_3DES168 = "3DES168";
public static final String ENCRYPTION_AES128 = "AES128";
public static final String ENCRYPTION_AES192 = "AES192";
public static final String ENCRYPTION_AES256 = "AES256";
// ---- SUPPORTED INTEGRITY ALG ----
public static final String CHECKSUM_MD5 = "MD5";
public static final String CHECKSUM_SHA1 = "SHA1";
// ---- SUPPORTED AUTHENTICATION ADAPTORS ----
public static final String AUTHENTICATION_RADIUS = "RADIUS";
public static final String AUTHENTICATION_KERBEROS = "KERBEROS";

You can use these constants to set the encryption, integrity, and authentication parameters. Example 14-1 illustrates one such scenario.

Example 14-1 Using AnoServices Constants in JDBC Client Code

import java.sql.*;
import java.util.Properties;import oracle.jdbc.*;
import oracle.net.ano.AnoServices;
/**
 * JDBC thin driver demo: new security features in 11gR1.
 * 
 * This program attempts to connect to the database using the JDBC thin
 * driver and requires the connection to be encrypted with either AES256 or AES192
 * and the data integrity to be verified with SHA1.
 * 
 * In order to activate encryption and checksumming in the database you need to 
 * modify the sqlnet.ora file. For example:
 * 
 *   SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_SERVER = (AES256,AES192,AES128)
 *   SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_SERVER = accepted
 *   SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_SERVER= (SHA1)
 *   SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_SERVER = accepted
 *
 * This output of this program is:
 *   Connection created! Encryption algorithm is: AES256, data integrity algorithm
 *   is: SHA1
 *
 */
public class DemoAESAndSHA1
{
  static final String USERNAME= "hr";
  static final String PASSWORD= "hr";
  static final String URL =
"jdbc:oracle:thin:@(DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=somehost.us.example.com)(PORT=5561))"  +"(CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=itydemo.regress.rdbms.dev.us.example.com)))";
  
  public static final void main(String[] argv)
  {
    DemoAESAndSHA1 demo = new DemoAESAndSHA1();
    try
    {
      demo.run();
    }catch(SQLException ex)
    {
      ex.printStackTrace();
    }
  }
  void run() throws SQLException
  {
    OracleDriver dr = new OracleDriver();
    Properties prop = new Properties();
    // We require the connection to be encrypted with either AES256 or AES192.
    // If the database doesn't accept such a security level, then the connection
    // attempt will fail.
    prop.setProperty(
     
OracleConnection.CONNECTION_PROPERTY_THIN_NET_ENCRYPTION_LEVEL,AnoServices.ANO_REQUIRED);
    prop.setProperty(
      OracleConnection.CONNECTION_PROPERTY_THIN_NET_ENCRYPTION_TYPES,      "( " + AnoServices.ENCRYPTION_AES256 + "," +AnoServices.ENCRYPTION_AES192 + ")");
    // We also require the use of the SHA1 algorithm for data integrity checking.
    prop.setProperty(
     
OracleConnection.CONNECTION_PROPERTY_THIN_NET_CHECKSUM_LEVEL,AnoServices.ANO_REQUIRED);
    prop.setProperty(
      OracleConnection.CONNECTION_PROPERTY_THIN_NET_CHECKSUM_TYPES,      "( " + AnoServices.CHECKSUM_SHA1 + " )");
      
    prop.setProperty("user",DemoAESAndSHA1.USERNAME);
    prop.setProperty("password",DemoAESAndSHA1.PASSWORD);
    OracleConnection oraConn =
 (OracleConnection)dr.connect(DemoAESAndSHA1.URL,prop);
    
    System.out.println("Connection created! Encryption algorithm is: "+oraConn.getEncryptionAlgorithmName()    +", data integrity algorithm is: "+oraConn.getDataIntegrityAlgorithmName());
   
    oraConn.close();
  }
  
}