Skip Headers
Oracle® Database Enterprise User Security Administrator's Guide
12c Release 1 (12.1)

E17731-11
Go to Documentation Home
Home
Go to Book List
Book List
Go to Table of Contents
Contents
Go to Index
Index
Go to Master Index
Master Index
Go to Feedback page
Contact Us

Go to previous page
Previous
Go to next page
Next
PDF · Mobi · ePub

2 Getting Started with Enterprise User Security

Enterprise User Security enables you to centrally manage database users across the enterprise. Enterprise users are created in Oracle Internet Directory, and can be assigned roles and privileges across various enterprise databases registered with the directory.

This chapter uses a tutorial approach to help you get started with Enterprise User Security. The following steps discuss configuring Enterprise User Security:

  1. Configuring Your Database to Use the Directory

  2. Registering Your Database with the Directory

  3. Creating a Shared Schema in the Database

  4. Mapping Enterprise Users to the Shared Schema

  5. Connecting to the Database as an Enterprise User

  6. Using Enterprise Roles

  7. Using Proxy Permissions

  8. Using Pluggable Databases

2.1 Configuring Your Database to Use the Directory

The first step in configuring Enterprise User Security is to configure the database to use the directory. Running the Net Configuration Assistant (NetCA) tool enables you to configure the directory host name and port that your database should use.

To configure your database for directory usage:

  1. Start NetCA using the netca command.

    • On Windows, you can also start NetCA from the Start menu:

      Click Start, All Programs, Oracle - OracleHomeName, Configuration and Migration Tools, Net Configuration Assistant.

    • On Unix systems, you can start NetCA using the following command:

      $ORACLE_HOME/bin/netca

    The Welcome screen appears.

    Description of netca1.gif follows
    Description of the illustration netca1.gif

  2. Select Directory Usage Configuration. Click Next.

    The Directory Type screen appears.

    Description of netca2.gif follows
    Description of the illustration netca2.gif

  3. Click Next.

    The Directory Location screen appears.

    Description of netca3.gif follows
    Description of the illustration netca3.gif

  4. Enter the name of the host on which the Oracle Internet Directory server is running. Also enter the LDAP non-SSL and SSL port numbers. These port numbers are 3060 and 3131 by default. Click Next.

    The Select Oracle Context screen appears.

    Description of netca4.gif follows
    Description of the illustration netca4.gif

  5. Select the default Oracle Context to use. You need to select this if there are multiple identity management realms on the directory server. Click Next.

    The Directory Usage Configuration, Done screen is displayed.

  6. Confirm that the directory usage configuration is successfully completed. Click Next.

  7. Click Finish.

    NetCA creates an ldap.ora file in the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory. This is the $ORACLE_HOME\network\admin directory in Windows. The ldap.ora file stores the connection information details about the directory.

2.2 Registering Your Database with the Directory

The next step is to register the database with the directory service. The Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) tool enables you to register the database with Oracle Internet Directory.

To register the database with the directory:

  1. Start DBCA using the dbca command.

    • On Windows, you can also start DBCA from the Start menu:

      Click Start, All Programs, Oracle - OracleHomeName, Configuration and Migration Tools, Database Configuration Assistant.

    • On Unix systems, you can start DBCA using the following command:

      $ORACLE_HOME/bin/dbca

    The Welcome screen appears.

  2. Click Next.

    The Operations screen displays.

  3. Select Configure Database Options. Click Next.

    The Database screen appears.

  4. Select the database name that you wish to configure. You might also be asked to enter SYS user credentials if you are not using operating system authentication. Click Next.

    The Management Options screen appears.

  5. Select the management options, and click Next.

    The Security Settings screen appears.

  6. Select Keep the enhanced 12c default security settings to keep the Oracle Database 12c security settings. Click Next.

    The Network Configuration screen appears.

  7. Select Yes, register the database to register the database with the directory. Enter the distinguished name (DN) of a user who is authorized to register databases in Oracle Internet Directory. Also, enter the password for the directory user. Enter a wallet password. Reenter the password in the Confirm Password field. Click Next.

    Note:

    The database uses a randomly generated password to log in to the directory. This database password is stored in an Oracle wallet. The wallet can also be used to store certificates needed for SSL connections.

    The wallet password that you specify is different from the database password. The wallet password is used to protect the wallet.

    The Database Components screen appears.

  8. Click Next.

    The Connection Mode page appears.

  9. Select Dedicated Server Mode or Shared Server Mode. Click Finish.

    The Confirmation dialog box appears.

  10. Click OK.

Note:

After you register the database with the directory, make sure that auto login is enabled for the database wallet. The default wallet is created in the $ORACLE_BASE/admin/database_sid/wallet directory.

You can verify that auto login for the wallet is enabled by checking for the presence of the cwallet.sso file in the wallet directory. If the file is not present, you can enable auto login by opening the wallet using Oracle Wallet Manager, and using the option to enable auto login for the wallet.

2.3 Creating a Shared Schema in the Database

Creating a shared schema in the database enables you to map multiple enterprise users to the same schema. Example 2-1creates a shared schema, global_ident_schema_user, and grants the CONNECT role to it.

Example 2-1 Creating a Shared Schema

SQL> CREATE USER global_ident_schema_user IDENTIFIED GLOBALLY;
User created.
SQL> GRANT CONNECT TO global_ident_schema_user;
Grant succeeded.

2.4 Mapping Enterprise Users to the Shared Schema

Enterprise User Security can be managed using Enterprise Manager. Example 2-2 maps the DN, cn=users, dc=us, dc=oracle, dc=com to the shared database schema, global_ident_schema_user.

Example 2-2 Mapping Enterprise Users to the Shared Schema

To create the user-schema mapping:

  1. Log in to Enterprise Manager Cloud Control, as an administrative user.

  2. To navigate to your database, select Databases from the Targets menu.

  3. Click the database name in the list that appears. The database page appears.

  4. Under the Administration menu, select Security, Enterprise User Security. The Oracle Internet Directory Login page appears.

  5. Enter the distinguished name (DN) of a directory user who can administer enterprise users in the User field. Enter the user password in the Password field. Click Login.

    The Enterprise User Security page appears.

  6. Click Manage Enterprise Domains.

    The Manage Enterprise Domains page appears.

  7. Select the enterprise domain which contains the database. Click Configure.

    The Configure Domain page appears.

  8. Click the User-Schema Mappings tab. All user-schema maps that apply to the enterprise domain are displayed.

  9. Click Create.

    The Create Mapping page is displayed.

  10. Under the From section, select Subtree. Click the Search icon. Select the DN, cn=Users, dc=us,dc=oracle,dc=com.

  11. Under the To section, enter global_ident_schema_user in the Schema field. Click Continue.

    The user-schema mapping is added in the Configure Domain page.

  12. Click OK.

2.5 Connecting to the Database as an Enterprise User

All users in the mapped Oracle Internet Directory subtree can now connect to the database as enterprise users. Example 2-3 shows the cn=orcladmin, cn=users, dc=us,dc=oracle,dc=com user connecting to the database.

Example 2-3 Connecting to the Database as an Enterprise User

SQL> CONNECT orcladmin
Enter password:
Connected.

2.6 Using Enterprise Roles

Enterprise roles are created in the directory. Enterprise roles contain global roles from different databases that are part of the enterprise domain. Enterprise roles are used to assign database privileges to enterprise users.

Example 2-4 creates two enterprise users, Joe and Nina. Both these users are created in the subtree, cn=Users, dc=us,dc=oracle,dc=com, which is already mapped to the global_ident_schema_user in the EUSDB database.

Nina is an HR manager. She needs the SELECT privilege on the hr.employees table in the EUSDB database. Example 2-4 achieves this using enterprise roles.

Example 2-4 Using Enterprise Roles

We start by creating two enterprise users, Joe and Nina. You can create enterprise users using the Oracle Internet Directory Self Service Console.

To create enterprise users, Joe and Nina:

  1. Connect to the Oracle Internet Directory Self Service Console. Use the following URL:

    http://hostname:port/oiddas/

    Here, hostname is the name of the host that is running the Oracle Internet Directory server. The port number is the TCP port number on which the Oracle Internet Directory Self Service Console is running. This is 7777 by default.

    Description of getstrtd7.gif follows
    Description of the illustration getstrtd7.gif

  2. Click the Directory tab.

    The Sign In page appears.

    Description of getstrtd8.gif follows
    Description of the illustration getstrtd8.gif

  3. Log in as the user that can create users in Oracle Internet Directory.

    The User page appears.

  4. Click Create.

    The Create User page appears.

    Description of getstrtd9.gif follows
    Description of the illustration getstrtd9.gif

  5. Enter joe under User Name. Enter values for the other required fields. Select Enabled under Is Enabled.

  6. Click Submit.

  7. Click Create Another User.

    The Create User page appears.

  8. Enter Nina under User Name. Enter values for the other required fields. Select Enabled under Is Enabled.

  9. Click Submit. Click OK.

Next, we create a global role in the database that allows access to the hr.employees table. The following SQL*Plus statements create a global role, hr_access and grant the necessary privilege to it.

SQL> CREATE ROLE hr_access IDENTIFIED GLOBALLY;
Role created.
SQL> GRANT SELECT ON hr.employees TO hr_access;
Grant succeeded.

Next, we create an enterprise role called hr_access and assign the global role to it. We then assign this enterprise role to the enterprise user, Nina. The enterprise role can be created using Enterprise Manager.

To create the enterprise role, hr_access:

  1. Log in to Enterprise Manager Cloud Control, as an administrative user.

  2. To navigate to your database, select Databases from the Targets menu.

  3. Click the database name in the list that appears. The database page appears.

  4. Under the Administration menu, select Security, Enterprise User Security. The Oracle Internet Directory Login page appears.

  5. Enter the distinguished name (DN) of a directory user who can administer enterprise users in the User field. Enter the user password in the Password field. Click Login.

    The Enterprise User Security page appears.

  6. Click Manage Enterprise Domains.

    The Manage Enterprise Domains page appears. This page lists the enterprise domains in the identity management realm.

  7. Select the enterprise domain that contains the database. Click Configure.

    The Configure Domain page appears.

  8. Click the Enterprise Roles tab.

  9. Click Create.

    The Create Enterprise Role page appears.

  10. Enter hr_access in the Name field.

  11. Click Add to add the database global role to the enterprise role.

    The Search and Select Database Global Roles window is displayed.

  12. Select the hr_access global role in your database. Click Select.

    Note:

    You will be required to log in to the database before you can select the global role.
  13. Click the Grantees tab. Click Add.

    The Select Users or Groups window appears.

  14. Select user Nina. Click Select.

  15. Click Continue in the Create Enterprise Role page.

  16. Click OK in the Configure Domain page.

The enterprise user, Nina can now access the hr.employees table in the database. The following SQL*Plus statements illustrate this:

SQL> CONNECT Nina
Enter password:
Connected.
SQL> SELECT employee_id FROM hr.employees;
EMPLOYEE_ID
-----------
        100
        101
        102
...
...
107 rows selected.

The enterprise user, Joe cannot access the hr.employees table, as he does not have the enterprise role assigned to him.

SQL> CONNECT joe
Enter password:
Connected.
SQL> SELECT employee_id FROM hr.employees;
SELECT employee_id FROM hr.employees

ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00942: table or view does not exist

2.7 Using Proxy Permissions

Proxy permissions are created at the enterprise domain level. Proxy permissions allow an enterprise user to proxy a local database user, which means that the enterprise user can log in to the database as the local database user. You can grant proxy permissions to individual enterprise users or groups. Proxy permissions are especially useful for middle-tier applications that operate across multiple databases as enterprise users.

Example 2-5 illustrates the use of proxy permissions. The enterprise user, joe is a sales manager and needs to log in to enterprise databases as the target database user, SH. The SH user owns the sample SH schema that contains Sales History related tables.

Example 2-5 Using Proxy Permissions

The first step in allowing enterprise user proxy is to ALTER the target database user to allow CONNECT through enterprise users. The following SQL statements unlock the SH database account, set a password for it, and ALTER the account to allow enterprise user proxy:

SQL> CONNECT SYSTEM
Enter password:
Connected.
SQL> ALTER USER SH IDENTIFIED BY hrd2guess ACCOUNT UNLOCK;
User altered.
SQL> ALTER USER SH GRANT CONNECT THROUGH ENTERPRISE USERS;
User altered.

Next, use Enterprise Manager to configure the proxy permission. This allows the enterprise user joe to connect as the local database user, SH.

To configure the proxy permission for enterprise user, joe:

  1. Log in to Enterprise Manager Cloud Control, as an administrative user.

  2. To navigate to your database, select Databases from the Targets menu.

  3. Click the database name in the list that appears. The database page appears.

  4. Under the Administration menu, select Security, Enterprise User Security. The Oracle Internet Directory Login page appears.

  5. Enter the distinguished name (DN) of a directory user who can administer enterprise users in the User field. Enter the user password in the Password field. Click Login.

    The Enterprise User Security page appears.

  6. Click Manage Enterprise Domains.

    The Manage Enterprise Domains page appears. This page lists the enterprise domains in the identity management realm.

  7. Select the enterprise domain that you wish to configure. Click Configure.

    The Configure Domain page appears.

  8. Click the Proxy Permissions tab.

  9. Click Create to create a new proxy permission.

    The Create Proxy Permission page appears.

  10. Enter SH_Proxy, as the name of the proxy permission, in the Name field.

  11. Ensure that the Target DB Users tab is selected. Click Add.

    The Search and Select window appears.

  12. Log in to the database that contains the SH user. A list of all database users that have been altered to allow enterprise user proxy is displayed.

  13. Select the SH user. Click Select.

    The SH user is added under Target DB Users in the Create Proxy Permission page.

  14. Click the Grantees tab.

  15. Click Add.

    The Select Users or Groups window appears.

  16. Select cn=users,dc=us,dc=oracle,dc=com under Search Base. Select User under View. Click Go.

    A list of users under the subtree, cn=users,dc=us,dc=oracle,dc=com is displayed.

  17. Select cn=joe,cn=users,dc=us,dc=oracle,dc=com. Click Select.

    The user joe is added under Grantees in the Create Proxy Permission page.

  18. Click Continue in the Create Proxy Permission page.

    The proxy permission, SH_Proxy is added in the Configure Domain page.

  19. Click OK.

The enterprise user, joe can now log in as the local database user SH. The following SQL statements illustrate this:

SQL> REMARK Joe uses his own password to connect as the local database user, SH.
SQL> CONNECT joe[SH]
Enter password:
Connected.
SQL> SELECT * FROM SH.sales WHERE cust_id=4;

   PROD_ID    CUST_ID TIME_ID   CHANNEL_ID   PROMO_ID QUANTITY_SOLD AMOUNT_SOLD
---------- ---------- --------- ---------- ---------- ------------- -----------
        37          4 31-MAY-00          3        999             1       60.43
        39          4 31-MAY-00          3        999             1       38.45
        40          4 31-MAY-00          3        999             1        48.1
...
...
72 rows selected.

2.8 Using Pluggable Databases

You can use Enterprise User Security with Pluggable Databases (PDBs), introduced in Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1). Each PDB has its own Enterprise User Security metadata, such as global users, global roles, and so on. Each PDB should have its own identity in the directory. A PDB is like any regular database registered with the directory, except for the following restrictions:

  • You must use the default wallet location. This holds true whether the database-to-directory connection is SSL or password-based. If the wallet_location parameter is present in the sqlnet.ora file, then enterprise user logins will fail.

  • Client-side SSL authentication uses the Container Database (CDB)-wide wallet configured for the listener. The PDB-specific wallet is used for database-to-directory authentication.

  • If the client-to-database authentication uses SSL, and the database-to-directory authentication also uses SSL, then two wallets need to be configured for the database with certificates. The first wallet is the CDB-wide wallet and the second wallet is the PDB-specific wallet.

  • Current user database link is not supported in the CDB environment.

Note:

LDAP_DIRECTORY_ACCESS parameter is the same for all PDBs. Even if only a subset of PDBs register with the directory, each PDB sees the LDAP_DIRECTORY_ACCESS value as if the PDB is registered.

2.8.1 Wallet Location for Pluggable Databases

For pluggable databases, when a PDB is registered with the directory, the Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) creates the wallet at the following location:

  • If the ORACLE_BASE environment variable is set:

    ORACLE_BASE/admin/db_unique_name/pdb_GUID/wallet 
    
  • If ORACLE_BASE is not set:

    ORACLE_HOME/admin/db_unique_name/pdb_GUID/wallet
    

    The GUID of the PDB is used because the PDB name can change, but the GUID does not change. So, the PDB wallet location is still valid even if the PDB name changes.

Note:

On the Microsoft Windows x64 platform, without specifying the WALLET_LOCATION parameter in the listener.ora file and server side sqlnet.ora file, the server does not pick up the wallets from the default system location, which is %USERPROFILE%\ORACLE\WALLETS. Hence, when you try to login using an SSL connection, the login fails with the following error: ORA-28864: SSL connection closed gracefully. There is no workaround to this known issue.

2.8.2 Default Database DN Format

When a PDB is registered with the directory using DBCA, the default PDB Distinguished Name (DN) is generated in the following format:

cn=PDB_NAME.DB_UNIQUE_NAME,cn=oraclecontext,realm

You can change the default cn (PDB_NAME.DB_UNIQUE_NAME) to a custom value in the DBCA registration screen. It cannot be altered after registration.

2.8.3 Plugging and Unplugging PDBs

You can plug existing registered databases into a CDB. You do not need to register the PDB again, as long as you perform the following steps:

  • Pick the wallet files from the source location and put them in the new default wallet location for the PDB.

  • Set the LDAP_DIRECTORY_ACCESS parameter to the desired value in the CDB.

Similarly, when unplugging an existing PDB that is registered with the directory, you do not need to re-register the database. You need to copy the wallet to the new default location after unplug. The default location should be:

  • If the ORACLE_BASE environment variable is set:

    ORACLE_BASE/admin/db_unique_name/wallet 
    
  • If ORACLE_BASE is not set:

    ORACLE_HOME/admin/db_unique_name/wallet
    

2.8.4 Switching Containers

An Enterprise User cannot execute the ALTER SESSION SET CONTAINER target-CDB command, as an enterprise user is not a common user.