Skip Headers
Oracle® Database Enterprise User Security Administrator's Guide
12c Release 1 (12.1)

E17731-11
Go to Documentation Home
Home
Go to Book List
Book List
Go to Table of Contents
Contents
Go to Index
Index
Go to Master Index
Master Index
Go to Feedback page
Contact Us

Go to previous page
Previous
Go to next page
Next
PDF · Mobi · ePub

3 Configuration and Administration Tools Overview

Configuring Enterprise User Security for an Oracle database primarily involves creating directory objects to store enterprise user and database information. For some implementations, it can also require creating special network configuration files (ldap.ora) that enable your databases to locate the correct directory server on the network.

While Oracle Enterprise Manager is your primary tool for both configuring Enterprise User Security and for administration tasks, this chapter introduces all the available tools, in the following topics:

3.1 Enterprise User Security Tools Overview

Enterprise users are database users whose identities are stored and centrally managed in an LDAP directory, such as Oracle Internet Directory. Table 3-1 provides a summary of Enterprise User Security configuration and management tasks and the tools to complete them. The tool names are links to sections that describe them.

Table 3-1 Enterprise User Security Tasks and Tools Summary

Task Tools

Create users and manage their passwords

Oracle Internet Directory Self-Service Console

Configure databases Oracle home for directory usage over the network

Oracle Net Configuration Assistant

Register and un-register databases in Oracle Internet Directory

Database Configuration Assistant

Manage Oracle wallets for Enterprise User Security

Oracle Wallet Manager

  • Configure enterprise domains and databases in Oracle Internet Directory including mappings, roles and proxy permissions

  • Manage identity management realm attributes and administrative groups that pertain to Enterprise User Security in Oracle Internet Directory

Oracle Enterprise Manager

Manage identity management realms in Oracle Internet Directory

For information about this tool and realms, refer to Oracle Identity Management Guide to Delegated Administration.

Oracle Internet Directory Self-Service Console

Perform bulk migrations of database users to Oracle Internet Directory

User Migration Utility


3.2 Oracle Internet Directory Self-Service Console

Oracle Internet Directory Self-Service Console is a tool based on Delegated Administration Services. This is a self service application that allows administrated access to the applications data managed in the directory. This tool comes ready to use with Oracle Internet Directory.

The Oracle Identity Management Guide to Delegated Administration discusses Delegated Administration Services and the Oracle Internet Directory Self-Service Console tool.

3.3 Oracle Net Configuration Assistant

Oracle Net Configuration Assistant is a wizard-based tool with a graphical user interface. Its primary uses are to configure basic Oracle Net network components, such as listener names and protocol addresses, and to configure your Oracle home for directory server usage. The latter use is what makes this tool important for configuring Enterprise User Security.

If you use Domain Name System (DNS) discovery (automatic domain name lookup) to locate Oracle Internet Directory on your network, then this assistant is not necessary. Note that using DNS discovery is the recommended configuration. See Oracle Fusion Middleware Administrator's Guide for Oracle Internet Directory for information about this configuration.

Before you can register a database with the directory, you must do either one of the following two tasks:

Your database initially uses the ldap.ora file to locate the correct Oracle Internet Directory server on your network. This configuration file contains the hostname, port number, and identity management realm information for your directory server.

Once database registration is complete, the realm is ascertained through the database DN stored in the database wallet.

3.3.1 Starting Oracle Net Configuration Assistant

To start Oracle Net Configuration Assistant:

  • (UNIX) From $ORACLE_HOME/bin, enter the following at the command line:

    netca
    
  • (Windows) Choose Start, Programs, Oracle-HOME_NAME, Configuration and Migration Tools, Net Configuration Assistant

After you start this tool, you will be presented with the opening page shown in Figure 3-1.

Choose the Directory Usage Configuration option on this page, click Next, and choose the directory server where you wish to store your enterprise users. Then, click Finish to create a properly configured ldap.ora file for your Oracle home.

Figure 3-1 Opening Page of Oracle Net Configuration Assistant

Description of Figure 3-1 follows
Description of "Figure 3-1 Opening Page of Oracle Net Configuration Assistant"

See Also:

3.4 Database Configuration Assistant

Database Configuration Assistant is a wizard-based tool used to create and configure Oracle databases.

Use Database Configuration Assistant to register a database with the directory. In that process, Database Configuration Assistant creates a distinguished name (DN) for the database and the corresponding entry and subtree in Oracle Internet Directory.

3.4.1 Starting Database Configuration Assistant

To start Database Configuration Assistant:

3.5 Oracle Wallet Manager

Security administrators use Oracle Wallet Manager, which is an application that wallet owners use to manage and edit the security credentials in their Oracle wallets. A wallet is a password-protected container used to store authentication and signing credentials, including private keys, certificates, and trusted certificates needed by SSL The wallets it creates can be read by Oracle Database, Oracle Application Server 10g, and the Oracle Identity Management infrastructure.

3.5.1 Starting Oracle Wallet Manager

To start Oracle Wallet Manager:

  • (Windows) Select Start, Programs, Oracle-HOME_NAME, Integrated Management Tools, Wallet Manager

  • (UNIX) At the command line, enter owm.

3.5.2 The orapki Command-Line Utility

The orapki command line utility enables administrators to manage wallets, certificate revocation lists, and other public key infrastructure (PKI) elements from the command line. It can be used inside scripts, enabling administrators to automate many routine PKI tasks. The orapki commands enable you to do the following tasks:

Table 3-2 Summary of orapki Commands

Object Affected Operations Possible with orapki Commands

Certificate

Create or display

CRL (certificate revocation list)

Delete, display, hash, list, or upload

Wallet

Create, display, add, or export


See Also:

orapki Utility in the Oracle Database Security Guide

3.6 Oracle Enterprise Manager

Enterprise User Security employs Oracle Enterprise Manager to administer enterprise users, administrative groups, enterprise domains, and enterprise roles stored in Oracle Internet Directory. You can use the Web-based user interface provided by Oracle Enterprise Manager to administer Enterprise User Security.

Enterprise users are users provisioned and managed centrally in an LDAP-compliant directory, such as Oracle Internet Directory, for database access. Enterprise domains are directory constructs containing databases, enterprise roles (the access privileges assigned to enterprise users), and proxy permissions (which enable enterprise users to connect to databases as other users).

See Also:

Chapter 1, "Introducing Enterprise User Security" for a discussion of Enterprise User Security administrative groups, enterprise domains, enterprise roles, enterprise users, shared schemas, and user-schema mappings

Use the following steps to access the Enterprise User Security link in Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control:

  1. Enter the URL for Cloud Control in a browser window. For example:

    https://mydbhost:1158/em
    
  2. Log in as an administrative database user.

  3. To navigate to your database, select Databases from the Targets menu.

  4. Click the database name in the list that appears. The database page appears.

  5. Under the Administration menu, select Security, Enterprise User Security. The Oracle Internet Directory Login page appears.

  6. Enter the distinguished name (DN) of a directory user, who has administrative privileges for the identity management realm, in the User field. Enter the user password in the Password field. Click Login.

    The Enterprise User Security page appears.

3.7 User Migration Utility

User Migration Utility is a command-line tool that enables you to perform bulk migrations of database users to Oracle Internet Directory where they are stored and managed as enterprise users. This tool performs a bulk migration in two phases: In phase one, it populates a table with database user information. During phase two, the database user information is migrated to the directory.

This tool is automatically installed in the following location when you install an Oracle Database client:

$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/bin/umu

The basic syntax for this utility is as follows:

umu parameter_keyword_1=value1:value2
parameter_keyword_2=value
parameter_keyword_3=value1:value2:value3
...
parameter_keyword_n=value

Note that when a parameter takes multiple values, they are separated with colons (:).

See Also:

Appendix A, "Using the User Migration Utility" for complete instructions (including usage examples) for using this tool to migrate database users to a directory

3.8 Duties of an Enterprise User Security Administrator/DBA

Enterprise User Security administrators plan, implement, and administer enterprise users. Table 3-3 lists the primary tasks of Enterprise User Security administrators, the tools used to perform the tasks, and the links to where the tasks are documented.

Table 3-3 Common Enterprise User Security Administrator Configuration and Administrative Tasks

Task Tools Used See Also

Create an identity management realm in Oracle Internet Directory

Oracle Internet Directory Self-Service Console (Delegated Administration Service)

Oracle Fusion Middleware Administrator's Guide for Oracle Internet Directory for information about how to perform this task

Upgrade an identity management realm in Oracle Internet Directory

Oracle Internet Directory Configuration Assistant

Oracle Fusion Middleware Administrator's Guide for Oracle Internet Directory and the online Help for this tool

Set up DNS to enable automatic discovery of Oracle Internet Directory over the network. Note that this is the recommended configuration.

Oracle Internet Directory Configuration Assistant

Oracle Fusion Middleware Administrator's Guide for Oracle Internet Directory (Domain Name System server discovery) and the online Help for this tool

Create an ldap.ora file to enable directory access

Oracle Net Configuration Assistant

"Task 5: (Optional) Configure your Oracle home for directory usage"

Register a database in the directory

Database Configuration Assistant

"Task 6: Register the database in the directory"

Configure password authentication for Enterprise User Security

Oracle Enterprise Manager

"Configuring Enterprise User Security for Password Authentication"

Configure Kerberos authentication for Enterprise User Security

  • Oracle Internet Directory Self-Service Console (Delegated Administration Service)

  • Oracle Enterprise Manager

"Configuring Enterprise User Security for Kerberos Authentication"

Configure SSL authentication for Enterprise User Security

  • Oracle Net Manager

  • Oracle Enterprise Manager

  • Oracle Wallet Manager

"Configuring Enterprise User Security for SSL Authentication"

Create or modify user entries and Oracle administrative groups in the directory

Oracle Internet Directory Self-Service Console (Delegated Administration Service)

Create or modify enterprise roles and domains in the directory

Oracle Enterprise Manager

Create or modify wallets for directory, databases, and clients

  • Oracle Wallet Manager

  • orapki command line utility

Change a user's database or directory password

Oracle Internet Directory Self-Service Console (Delegated Administration Service)

"Setting Enterprise User Passwords"

Change a database's directory password

Database Configuration Assistant

"To change the database's directory password:"

Manage user wallets on the local system or update database and directory wallet passwords

Oracle Wallet Manager

"Managing Oracle Wallets"

Request initial Kerberos ticket when KDC is not part of the operating system, such as Kerberos V5 from MIT

okinit utility

Oracle Database Security Guide for information about using the okinit utility to get an initial Kerberos ticket

Migrate large numbers of local or external database users to the directory for Enterprise User Security

User Migration Utility

Appendix A, "Using the User Migration Utility"