Oracle® Database SQL Language Reference 12c Release 1 (12.1) E1720915 


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Oracle complied fully with last Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS), which was FIPS PUB 1272. That standard is no longer published. However, for users whose applications depend on information about the sizes of some database constructs that were defined in FIPS 1272, the details of our compliance are listed in Table C4.
Table C4 Sizing for Database Constructs
Database Constructs  FIPS  Oracle Database 

Length of an identifier (in bytes) 
18 
30 
Length of 
240 
2,000 
Decimal precision of 
15 
38 
Decimal precision of 
15 
38 
Decimal precision of 
9 
38 
Decimal precision of 
4 
38 
Binary precision of 
20 
126 
Binary precision of 
20 
63 
Binary precision of 
30 
126 
Columns in a table 
100 
1,000 
Values in an 
100 
1,000 
SET clauses in an 
20 
1,000 
Length of a row (Note2, Note 3) 
2,000 
2,000,000 
Columns in a 
6 
32 
Length of a 
120 
(Note 4) 
Length of foreign key column list (Note 2) 
120 
(Note 4) 
Columns in a 
6 
255 (Note 5) 
Length of 
120 
(Note 5) 
Sort specifications in 
6 
255 (Note 5) 
Length of 
120 
(Note 5) 
Columns in a referential integrity constraint 
6 
32 
Tables referenced in a SQL statement 
15 
No limit 
Cursors simultaneously open 
10 
(Note 6) 
Items in a 
100 
1,000 
Note 1: The number of SET
clauses in an UPDATE
statement refers to the number items separated by commas following the SET
keyword.
Note 2: The FIPS PUB defines the length of a collection of columns to be the sum of: twice the number of columns, the length of each character column in bytes, decimal precision plus 1 of each exact numeric column, binary precision divided by 4 plus 1 of each approximate numeric column.
Note 3: The Oracle limit for the maximum row length is based on the maximum length of a row containing a LONG
value of length 2 gigabytes and 999 VARCHAR2
values, each of length 4000 bytes: 2(254) + 231 + (999(4000)).
Note 4: The Oracle limit for a UNIQUE
key is half the size of an Oracle data block (specified by the initialization parameter DB_BLOCK_SIZE
) minus some overhead.
Note 5: Oracle places no limit on the number of columns in a GROUP
BY
clause or the number of sort specifications in an ORDER
BY
clause. However, the sum of the sizes of all the expressions in either a GROUP
BY
clause or an ORDER
BY
clause is limited to the size of an Oracle data block (specified by the initialization parameter DB_BLOCK_SIZE
) minus some overhead.
Note 6: The Oracle limit for the number of cursors simultaneously opened is specified by the initialization parameter OPEN_CURSORS
. The maximum value of this parameter depends on the memory available on your operating system and exceeds 100 in all cases.