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Oracle® Database Vault Administrator's Guide
12c Release 1 (12.1)

E17608-17
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12 Oracle Database Vault Schemas, Roles, and Accounts

This chapter contains:

Oracle Database Vault Schemas

The Oracle Database Vault objects include two schemas with database tables, sequences, views, triggers, roles, packages, procedures, functions, and contexts that support the administration and run-time processing of Oracle Database Vault.

Oracle Database Vault has the following schemas:

  • DVSYS Schema: Owns the Oracle Database Vault schema and related objects

  • DVF Schema: Owns the Oracle Database Vault functions that are created to retrieve factor identities

DVSYS Schema

The DVSYS schema contains Oracle Database Vault database objects, which store Oracle Database Vault configuration information and support the administration and run-time processing of Oracle Database Vault. In a default installation, the DVSYS schema is locked. The DVSYS schema also owns the AUDIT_TRAIL$ table.

In a multitenant environment, the DVSYS schema is considered a common schema, which means that the objects within DVSYS (tables, views, PL/SQL packages, and so on) are automatically available to any child pluggable databases (PDBs). In addition, the DVSYS schema account cannot switch to other containers using the ALTER SESSION statement.

Oracle Database Vault secures the DVSYS schema by using a protected schema design. A protected schema design guards the schema against improper use of system privileges (for example, SELECT ANY TABLE, CREATE ANY VIEW, or DROP ANY).

Oracle Database Vault protects and secures the DVSYS schema in the following ways:

  • The DVSYS protected schema and its administrative roles cannot be dropped. By default, the DVSYS account is locked.

  • By default, users cannot directly log into the DVSYS account. To control the ability of users to directly log into this account, you can run the DBMS_MACADM.DISABLE_DV_DICTIONARY_ACCTS procedure to prevent users from logging in and the DBMS_MACADM.ENABLE_DV_DICTIONARY_ACCTS procedure to allow users to log in.

  • Statements such as CREATE USER, ALTER USER, DROP USER, CREATE PROFILE, ALTER PROFILE, and DROP PROFILE can only be issued by a user with the DV_ACCTMGR role. A user logged in with the SYSDBA administrative privilege can issue these statements only if it is allowed to do so by modifying the Can Maintain Accounts/Profiles rule set.

  • The powerful ANY system privileges for database definition language (DDL) and data manipulation language (DML) commands are blocked in the protected schema. This means that the objects in the DVSYS schema must be created by the schema account itself. Also, access to the schema objects must be authorized through object privilege grants.

  • Object privileges in the DVSYS schema can only be granted to Database Vault administrative roles in the schema. This means that users can access the protected schema only through predefined administrative roles.

  • Only the protected schema account DVSYS can issue ALTER ROLE statements on Database Vault predefined administrative roles of the schema. "Oracle Database Vault Roles" describes Oracle Database Vault predefined administrative roles in detail.

  • The SYS.DBMS_SYS_SQL.PARSE_AS_USER procedure cannot be used to run SQL statements on behalf of the protected schema DVSYS.

Note:

Database users can grant additional object privileges and roles to the Oracle Database Vault administrative roles (DV_ADMIN and DV_OWNER, for example) provided they have sufficient privileges to do so.

DVF Schema

The DVF schema is the owner of the Oracle Database Vault DBMS_MACSEC_FUNCTION PL/SQL package, which contains the functions that retrieve factor identities. After you install Oracle Database Vault, the installation process locks the DVF account to better secure it. When you create a new factor, Oracle Database Vault creates a new retrieval function for the factor and saves it in this schema.

In a multitenant environment, the DVF user cannot switch to other containers using the ALTER SESSION statement.

By default, users cannot directly log into the DVF account. To control the ability of users to directly log into this account, you can run the DBMS_MACADM.DISABLE_DV_DICTIONARY_ACCTS procedure to prevent users from logging in and the DBMS_MACADM.ENABLE_DV_DICTIONARY_ACCTS procedure to allow users to log in.

Oracle Database Vault Roles

This section describes the default roles Oracle Database Vault provides. It includes the following topics:

About Oracle Database Vault Roles

Oracle Database Vault provides a set of roles that are required for managing Oracle Database Vault.

Figure 12-1 illustrates how these roles are designed to implement the first level of separation of duties within the database. How you use these roles depends on the requirements that your company has in place.

See Also:

Oracle Database Security Guide for general guidelines on managing roles

Figure 12-1 How Oracle Database Vault Roles Are Categorized

Description of Figure 12-1 follows
Description of "Figure 12-1 How Oracle Database Vault Roles Are Categorized"

Note:

You can grant additional object privileges and roles to the Oracle Database Vault roles to extend their scope of privileges. For example, a user logged in with the SYSDBA administrative privilege can grant object privileges to an Oracle Database Vault role as long as the object is not in the DVSYS schema or realm.

Table 12-1 summarizes the privileges available with Oracle Database Vault roles. (The DV_PATCH_ADMIN, DV_STREAMS_ADMIN, DV_XSTREAM, DV_GOLDENGATE_ADMIN, and DV_GOLDENGATE_REDO_ACCESS roles are not included because they have no system privileges.)

Table 12-1 Privileges of Oracle Database Vault Roles

Privilege DV_OWNER DV_ADMIN DV_MONITOR DV_SECANALYST DV_ACCTMGR DV_REALM_OWNER  DV_REALM_RESOURCE DV_PUBLIC DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP

DVSYS schema, EXEC

YesFoot 1 

YesFoot 2 

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

DVSYS packages, EXECUTE

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

DVSYS schema, SELECT

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes, on some Database Vault viewsFoot 3 

No

No

No

NoFoot 4 

Yes, on some Database Vault tables and viewsFoot 5 

DVSYS schema, DELETE

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes, on some Database Vault tables and viewFoot 6 

DVSYS schema, grant privileges on objects

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

DVF schema, EXECUTE

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

DVF schema, SELECT

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

Monitor Database Vault

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

Run Database Vault reports

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

SYS schema, SELECT

Yes

No

Yes

Yes, on the same system views as DV_OWNER and DV_ADMIN

No

No

No

No

No

SYSMAN schema, SELECT

No

No

No

Yes, portions of

No

No

No

No

No

CREATE, ALTER, DROP user accounts and profilesFoot 7 

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

Manage objects in schemas that define a realmFoot 8 

No

No

No

No

No

YesFoot 9 

No

No

No

RESOURCE role privilegesFoot 10 

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No


Footnote 1 Includes the EXECUTE privilege on all Oracle Database Vault PL/SQL packages.

Footnote 2 Includes the EXECUTE privilege on all Oracle Database Vault PL/SQL packages.

Footnote 3 DV_SECANALYST can query DVSYS schema objects through Oracle Database Vault-supplied views only.

Footnote 4 DV_PUBLIC can query DVSYS schema objects through Oracle Database Vault-supplied views only.

Footnote 5 DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP can perform SELECT statements on the AUDIT_TRAIL$ table and the DV$ENFORCEMENT_AUDIT, and DV$CONFIGURATION_AUDIT views.

Footnote 6 DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP can perform DELETE statements on the AUDIT_TRAIL$ table and the DV$ENFORCEMENT_AUDIT, and DV$CONFIGURATION_AUDIT views.

Footnote 7 This privilege does not include the ability to drop or alter the DVSYS account, nor change the DVSYS password.

Footnote 8 This privilege includes ANY privileges, such as CREATE ANY, ALTER ANY, and DROP ANY.

Footnote 9 The user with this role also must be the realm participant or owner to exercise his or her system privileges.

Footnote 10 The RESOURCE role provides the following system privileges: CREATE CLUSTER, CREATE INDEXTYPE, CREATE OPERATOR, CREATE PROCEDURE, CREATE SEQUENCE, CREATE TABLE, CREATE TRIGGER, CREATE TYPE.

DV_OWNER Database Vault Owner Role

Use the DV_OWNER role to manage the Oracle Database Vault roles and its configuration. In this guide, the example account that uses this role is lbrown_dvowner.

Privileges Associated with the DV_OWNER Role

The DV_OWNER role has the administrative capabilities that the DV_ADMIN role provides, and the reporting capabilities the DV_SECANALYST role provides. It also provides privileges for monitoring Oracle Database Vault. It is created when you install Oracle Database Vault, and has the most privileges on the DVSYS schema. In addition to DV_ADMIN role, the DV_OWNER role has the GRANT ANY ROLE, ADMINISTER DATABASE TRIGGER, and ALTER ANY TRIGGER privileges.

Tip:

Consider creating a separate, named account for the DV_OWNER user. This way, if the user is no longer available (for example, he or she left the company), then you can easily recreate this user account and then grant this user the DV_OWNER role.

To find the full list of system and object privileges associated with the DV_OWNER role, log into the database instance with sufficient privileges and then enter the following queries:

SELECT TABLE_NAME, OWNER, PRIVILEGE FROM DBA_TAB_PRIVS WHERE GRANTEE = 'DV_OWNER';
SELECT PRIVILEGE FROM DBA_SYS_PRIVS WHERE GRANTEE = 'DV_OWNER';

When you install and register Oracle Database Vault, the DV_OWNER account is created. The user who is granted this role is also granted the ADMIN option and can run any Oracle Database Vault roles (except DV_ACCTMGR) to any account. Users granted this role also can run Oracle Database Vault reports and monitor Oracle Database Vault.

How Are GRANT and REVOKE Operations Affected by the DV_OWNER Role?

Anyone with the DV_OWNER role can grant the DV_OWNER and DV_ADMIN roles to another user. The account granted this role can revoke any granted Database Vault role from another account. Accounts such as SYS or SYSTEM, with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege alone (directly granted or indirectly granted using a role) do not have the right to grant or revoke the DV_OWNER role to or from any other database account. Note also that a user with the DV_OWNER role cannot grant or revoke the DV_ACCTMGR role.

Managing Password Changes for Users Who Have the DV_OWNER Role

Before you can change the password for another user who has been granted the DV_OWNER role, you must revoke the DV_OWNER role from that user account. However, be cautious about revoking the DV_OWNER role. At least one user on your site must have this role granted. If another DV_OWNER user has been granted this role and needs to have his or her password changed, then you can temporarily revoke DV_OWNER from that user. Note also that if you have been granted the DV_OWNER role, then you can change your own password without having to revoke the role from yourself.

To change the DV_OWNER user password:

  1. Log into the database instance using an account that has been granted the DV_OWNER role.

  2. Revoke the DV_OWNER role from the user account whose password needs to change.

  3. Connect as a user who has been granted the DV_ACCTMGR role and then change the password for this user.

  4. Connect as the DV_OWNER user and then grant the DV_OWNER role back to the user whose password you changed.

What Happens When Oracle Database Vault Security Is Disabled?

The protection of all Oracle Database Vault roles is enforced only if Oracle Database Vault is enabled. If Oracle Database Vault is disabled, then any account with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege can perform GRANT and REVOKE operations on protected Database Vault roles.

Appendix B, "Disabling and Enabling Oracle Database Vault," explains how to disable and enable Oracle Database Vault.

DV_ADMIN Database Vault Configuration Administrator Role

The DV_ADMIN role controls the Oracle Database Vault PL/SQL packages.

Privileges Associated with the DV_ADMIN Role

The DV_ADMIN role has the EXECUTE privilege on the DVSYS packages (DBMS_MACADM, DBMS_MACSECROLES, and DBMS_MACUTL). DV_ADMIN also has the capabilities provided by the DV_SECANALYST role, which allow the user to run Oracle Database Vault reports and monitor Oracle Database Vault. During installation, the DV_ADMIN role is granted to the DV_OWNER role with the ADMIN OPTION.

To find the full list of system and object privileges associated with the DV_ADMIN role, log into the database instance with sufficient privileges and then enter the following queries:

SELECT TABLE_NAME, OWNER, PRIVILEGE FROM DBA_TAB_PRIVS WHERE GRANTEE = 'DV_ADMIN';
SELECT PRIVILEGE FROM DBA_SYS_PRIVS WHERE GRANTEE = 'DV_ADMIN';

How Are GRANT and REVOKE Operations Affected by the DV_ADMIN Role?

Accounts such as SYS or SYSTEM, with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege alone do not have the rights to grant or revoke DV_ADMIN from any other database account. The user with the DV_OWNER role can grant or revoke this role to and from any database account.

Managing Password Changes for Users Who Have the DV_ADMIN Role

Before you can change the password for a user who has been granted the DV_ADMIN role, you must revoke the DV_ADMIN role from this account. If you have been granted the DV_ADMIN role, then you can change your own password without having to revoke the role from yourself.

To change the DV_ADMIN user password:

  1. Log into the database instance using an account that has been granted the DV_OWNER role.

  2. Revoke the DV_ADMIN role from the user account whose password needs to change.

  3. Connect as a user who has been granted the DV_ACCTMGR role and then change the password for this user.

  4. Connect as the DV_OWNER user and then grant the DV_ADMIN role back to the user whose password you changed.

What Happens When Oracle Database Vault Security Is Disabled?

The protection of all Oracle Database Vault roles is enforced only if Oracle Database Vault is enabled. If Oracle Database Vault is disabled, then any account with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege can perform GRANT and REVOKE operations on protected Database Vault roles.

Appendix B, "Disabling and Enabling Oracle Database Vault," explains how to disable and enable Oracle Database Vault.

DV_MONITOR Database Vault Monitoring Role

The DV_MONITOR role enables the Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control agent to monitor Oracle Database Vault for attempted violations and configuration issues with realm or command rule definitions. This enables Cloud Control to read and propagate realm definitions and command rule definitions between databases.

Privileges Associated with the DV_MONITOR Role

There are no system privileges associated with the DV_MONITOR role, but it does have the SELECT privilege on SYS and DVSYS objects. To find the full list of DV_MONITOR object privileges, log into the database instance with sufficient (such as DV_OWNER) privileges and then enter the following query:

SELECT TABLE_NAME, OWNER, PRIVILEGE FROM DBA_TAB_PRIVS WHERE GRANTEE = 'DV_MONITOR';

How Are GRANT and REVOKE Operations Affected by the DV_MONITOR Role?

By default, this role is granted to the DV_OWNER role and the DBSNMP user. Only a user who has been granted the DV_OWNER role can grant or revoke the DV_MONITOR role to another user.

Managing Password Changes for Users Who Have the DV_MONITOR Role

Before you can change the password for a user who has been granted the DV_MONITOR role, you must revoke the DV_MONITOR role from this account. If you have been granted the DV_MONITOR role, then you can change your own password without having to revoke the role from yourself.

To change the DV_MONITOR user password:

  1. Log into the database instance using an account that has been granted the DV_OWNER role.

  2. Revoke the DV_MONITOR role from the user account whose password needs to change.

  3. Connect as a user who has been granted the DV_ACCTMGR role and then change the password for this user.

  4. Connect as the DV_OWNER user and then grant the DV_MONITOR role back to the user whose password you changed.

What Happens When Oracle Database Vault Security Is Disabled?

The protection of all Oracle Database Vault roles is enforced only if Oracle Database Vault is enabled. If Oracle Database Vault is disabled, then any account with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege can perform GRANT and REVOKE operations on protected Database Vault roles.

Appendix B, "Disabling and Enabling Oracle Database Vault," explains how to disable and enable Oracle Database Vault.

DV_SECANALYST Database Vault Security Analyst Role

Use the DV_SECANALYST role to run Oracle Database Vault reports and monitor Oracle Database Vault. This role is also used for database-related reports. In addition, this role enables you to check the DVSYS configuration by querying the DVSYS views described in Chapter 22, "Oracle Database Vault Data Dictionary Views."

Privileges Associated with the DV_SECANALYST Role

There are no system privileges associated with the DV_SECANALYST role, but it does have the SELECT privilege for some DVSYS schema objects and portions of the SYS and SYSMAN schema objects for reporting on DVSYS- and DVF-related entities. To find the full list of DV_SECANALYST object privileges, log into the database instance with sufficient privileges and then enter the following query:

SELECT TABLE_NAME, OWNER, PRIVILEGE FROM DBA_TAB_PRIVS WHERE GRANTEE = 'DV_SECANALYST';

How Are GRANT and REVOKE Operations Affected by the DV_SECANALYST Role?

Any account, such as SYS or SYSTEM, with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege alone does not have the rights to grant this role to or revoke this role from any other database account. Only the user with the DV_OWNER role can grant or revoke this role to and from another user.

Managing Password Changes for Users Who Have the DV_SECANALYST Role

Before you can change the password for a user who has been granted the DV_SECANALYST role, you must revoke the DV_SECANALYST role from this account. If you have been granted the DV_SECANALYST role, then you can change your own password without having to revoke the role from yourself.

To change the DV_SECANALYST user password:

  1. Log into the database instance using an account that has been granted the DV_OWNER role.

  2. Revoke the DV_SECANALYST role from the user account whose password needs to change.

  3. Connect as a user who has been granted the DV_ACCTMGR role and then change the password for this user.

  4. Connect as the DV_OWNER user and then grant the DV_SECANALYST role back to the user whose password you changed.

What Happens When Oracle Database Vault Security Is Disabled?

The protection of all Oracle Database Vault roles is enforced only if Oracle Database Vault is enabled. If Oracle Database Vault is disabled, then any account with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege can perform GRANT and REVOKE operations on protected Database Vault roles.

Appendix B, "Disabling and Enabling Oracle Database Vault," explains how to disable and enable Oracle Database Vault.

DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP Audit Trail Cleanup Role

Grant the DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP role to any user who is responsible for purging the Database Vault audit trail in a non-unified auditing environment.

"Archiving and Purging the Oracle Database Vault Audit Trail" explains how to use this role to complete a purge operation.

Privileges Associated with the DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP Role

The DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP role has the following privileges:

  • SELECT and DELETE on the DVSYS.AUDIT_TRAIL$ table

  • SELECT and DELETE on the DVSYS.DV$ENFORCEMENT_AUDIT view

  • SELECT and DELETE on the DVSYS.DV$CONFIGURATION_AUDIT view

How Are GRANT and REVOKE Operations Affected by the DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP Role?

By default, this role is granted to the DV_OWNER role with the ADMIN OPTION. Only a user who has been granted the DV_OWNER role can grant or revoke the DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP role to another user.

Managing Password Changes for Users Who Have the DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP Role

Before you can change the password for a user who has been granted the DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP role, you must revoke the DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP role from this account. If you have been granted the DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP role, then you can change your own password without having to revoke the role from yourself.

To change the DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP user password:

  1. Log into the database instance using an account that has been granted the DV_OWNER role.

  2. Revoke the DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP role from the user account whose password needs to change.

  3. Connect as a user who has been granted the DV_ACCTMGR role and then change the password for this user.

  4. Connect as the DV_OWNER user and then grant the DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP role back to the user whose password you changed.

What Happens When Oracle Database Vault Security Is Disabled?

The protection of all Oracle Database Vault roles is enforced only if Oracle Database Vault is enabled. If Oracle Database Vault is disabled, then any account with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege can perform GRANT and REVOKE operations on protected Database Vault roles.

Appendix B, "Disabling and Enabling Oracle Database Vault," explains how to disable and enable Oracle Database Vault.

DV_DATAPUMP_NETWORK_LINK Data Pump Network Link Role

Grant the DV_DATAPUMP_NETWORK_LINK role to any user who is responsible for conducting the NETWORK_LINK transportable Data Pump import operation in an Oracle Database Vault environment. This role enables the management of the Oracle Data Pump NETWORK_LINK transportable import processes to be tightly controlled by Database Vault, but does not change or restrict the way you would normally conduct Oracle Data Pump operations.

Privileges Associated with the DV_DATAPUMP_NETWORK_LINK Role

There are no system privileges associated with the DV_DATAPUMP_NETWORK_LINK role, but it does have the EXECUTE privilege on DVSYS objects. To find the full list of DV_DATAPUMP_NETWORK_LINK object privileges, log into the database instance with sufficient privileges and then enter the following query:

SELECT TABLE_NAME, OWNER, PRIVILEGE FROM DBA_TAB_PRIVS WHERE GRANTEE = 'DV_DATAPUMP_NETWORK_LINK';

Be aware that the DV_DATAPUMP_NETWORK_LINK role does not provide a sufficient set of database privileges to conduct NETWORK_LINK transportable Data Pump import operation. Rather, the DV_DATAPUMP_NETWORK_LINK role is an additional requirement (that is, in addition to the privileges that Oracle Data Pump currently requires) for database administrators to conduct NETWORK_LINK transportable Data Pump import operations in an Oracle Database Vault environment.

How Are GRANT and REVOKE Operations Affected by the DV_DATAPUMP_NETWORK_LINK Role?

Only users who have been granted the DV_OWNER role can grant or revoke the DV_DATAPUMP_NETWORK_LINK role to or from other users.

What Happens When Oracle Database Vault Security Is Disabled?

The protection of all Oracle Database roles is enforced only if Oracle Database Vault is enabled. If Oracle Database Vault is disabled, then any account with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege can perform GRANT and REVOKE operations on protected Database Vault roles.

DV_STREAMS_ADMIN Oracle Streams Configuration Role

Grant the DV_STREAMS_ADMIN role to any user who is responsible for configuring Oracle Streams in an Oracle Database Vault environment. This enables the management of Oracle Streams processes to be tightly controlled by Database Vault, but does not change or restrict the way an administrator would normally configure Oracle Streams.

Privileges Associated with the DV_STREAMS_ADMIN Role

There are no system privileges associated with the DV_STREAMS_ADMIN role, but it does have the SELECT privilege on DVSYS objects. To find the full list of DV_STREAMS_ADMIN object privileges, log into the database instance with sufficient privileges and then enter the following query:

SELECT TABLE_NAME, OWNER, PRIVILEGE FROM DBA_TAB_PRIVS WHERE GRANTEE = 'DV_STREAMS_ADMIN';

Be aware that the DV_STREAMS_ADMIN role does not provide a sufficient set of database privileges for configuring Oracle Streams. Rather, the DV_STREAMS_ADMIN role is an additional requirement (that is, in addition to the privileges that Oracle Streams currently requires) for database administrators to configure Oracle Streams in an Oracle Database Vault environment.

How Are GRANT and REVOKE Operations Affected by the DV_STREAMS_ADMIN Role?

Only users who have been granted the DV_OWNER role can grant or revoke the DV_STREAMS_ADMIN role to or from other users.

What Happens When Oracle Database Vault Security Is Disabled?

The protection of all Oracle Database roles is enforced only if Oracle Database Vault is enabled. If Oracle Database Vault is disabled, then any account with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege can perform GRANT and REVOKE operations on protected Database Vault roles.

Appendix B, "Disabling and Enabling Oracle Database Vault," explains how to disable and enable Oracle Database Vault.

DV_XSTREAM_ADMIN XStream Administrative Role

Grant the DV_XSTREAM_ADMIN role to any user who is responsible for configuring Oracle XStream in an Oracle Database Vault environment. This enables the management of XStream processes to be tightly controlled by Database Vault, but does not change or restrict the way an administrator would normally configure XStream.

Privileges Associated with the DV_XSTREAM_ADMIN Role

There are no privileges associated with the DV_XSTREAM_ADMIN role.

Be aware that the DV_XSTREAM_ADMIN role does not provide a sufficient set of database privileges for configuring XStream. Rather, the DV_XSTREAM_ADMIN role is an additional requirement (that is, in addition to the privileges that XStream currently requires) for database administrators to configure XStream in an Oracle Database Vault environment.

How Are GRANT and REVOKE Operations Affected by the DV_XSTREAM_ADMIN Role?

Only users who have been granted the DV_OWNER role can grant or revoke the DV_XSTREAM_ADMIN role to or from other users.

What Happens When Oracle Database Vault Security Is Disabled?

The protection of all Oracle Database roles is enforced only if Oracle Database Vault is enabled. If Oracle Database Vault is disabled, then any account with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege can perform GRANT and REVOKE operations on protected Database Vault roles.

DV_GOLDENGATE_ADMIN Oracle GoldenGate Administrative Role

Grant the DV_GOLDENGATE_ADMIN role to any user who is responsible for configuring Oracle GoldenGate in an Oracle Database Vault environment. This enables the management of Oracle GoldenGate processes to be tightly controlled by Database Vault, but does not change or restrict the way an administrator would normally configure Oracle GoldenGate.

Privileges Associated with the DV_GOLDENGATE_ADMIN Role

There are no privileges associated with the DV_GOLDENGATE_ADMIN role.

Be aware that the DV_GOLDENGATE_ADMIN role does not provide a sufficient set of database privileges for configuring Oracle GoldenGate. Rather, the DV_GOLDENGATE_ADMIN role is an additional requirement (that is, in addition to the privileges that Oracle GoldenGate currently requires) for database administrators to configure Oracle GoldenGate in an Oracle Database Vault environment.

How Are GRANT and REVOKE Operations Affected by the DV_GOLDENGATE_ADMIN Role?

Only users who have been granted the DV_OWNER role can grant or revoke the DV_GOLDENGATE_ADMIN role to or from other users.

What Happens When Oracle Database Vault Security Is Disabled?

The protection of all Oracle Database roles is enforced only if Oracle Database Vault is enabled. If Oracle Database Vault is disabled, then any account with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege can perform GRANT and REVOKE operations on protected Database Vault roles.

DV_GOLDENGATE_REDO_ACCESS Oracle GoldenGate Redo Log Access Role

Grant the DV_GOLDENGATE_REDO_ACCESS role to any user who is responsible for using the Oracle GoldenGate TRANLOGOPTIONS DBLOGREADER method to access redo logs in an Oracle Database Vault environment. This enables the management of Oracle GoldenGate processes to be tightly controlled by Database Vault, but does not change or restrict the way an administrator would normally configure Oracle GoldenGate.

Privileges Associated with the DV_GOLDENGATE_REDO_ACCESS Role

There are no privileges associated with the DV_GOLDENGATE_REDO_ACCESS role.

Be aware that the DV_GOLDENGATE_REDO_ACCESS role does not provide a sufficient set of database privileges for configuring Oracle GoldenGate. Rather, the DV_GOLDENGATE_REDO_ACCESS role is an additional requirement (that is, in addition to the privileges that Oracle GoldenGate currently requires) for database administrators to configure Oracle Streams in an Oracle Database Vault environment.

How Are GRANT and REVOKE Operations Affected by the DV_GOLDENGATE_REDO_ACCESS Role?

You cannot grant the DV_GOLDENGATE_REDO_ACCESS role with ADMIN OPTION. Only users who have been granted the DV_OWNER role can grant or revoke the DV_GOLDENGATE_REDO_ACCESS role to or from other users.

What Happens When Oracle Database Vault Security Is Disabled?

The protection of all Oracle Database roles is enforced only if Oracle Database Vault is enabled. If Oracle Database Vault is disabled, then any account with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege can perform GRANT and REVOKE operations on protected Database Vault roles.

DV_PATCH_ADMIN Database Vault Database Patch Role

In order to generate all Database Vault-related audit records in accordance with the audit policies specified in the Database Vault metadata as well as Database Vault unified audit policies, execute the DBMS_MACADM.ENABLE_DV_PATCH_ADMIN_AUDIT procedure as a user who has been granted the DV_ADMIN role before using the DV_PATCH_ADMIN role.

Temporarily grant the DV_PATCH_ADMIN role to any database administrator who is responsible for performing database patching. Before this administrator performs the patch operation, run the DBMS_MACADM.ENABLE_DV_PATCH_ADMIN_AUDIT procedure. This procedure enables realm, command rule, and rule set auditing of the actions by users who have been granted the DV_PATCH_ADMIN role, in accordance with the existing audit configuration. If you have mixed-mode auditing, then this user's actions are written to the AUDIT_TRAIL$ table. If you have pure unified auditing enabled, then you should create a unified audit policy to capture this user's actions.

After the patch operation is complete, do not immediately disable the auditing of users who are responsible for performing database patch operations. This way, you can track the actions of the DV_PATCH_ADMIN role users. For backwards compatibility, this type of auditing is disabled by default.

See Also:

Oracle Database Security Guide for information about creating unified audit policies

Privileges Associated with the DV_PATCH_ADMIN Role

This role does not provide access to any secured data. The DV_PATCH_ADMIN role a special Database Vault role that does not have any object or system privilege. It is designed to allow the database administrator or the user SYS to patch Database Vault enabled databases (for example, applying a database patch without disabling Database Vault). It also enables the database administrator to create users, because some patches may require the need to create new schemas.

How Are GRANT and REVOKE Operations Affected by the DV_OWNER Role?

Only a user who has the DV_OWNER role can grant or revoke the DV_PATCH_ADMIN role to and from another user.

What Happens When Oracle Database Vault Security Is Disabled?

The protection of all Oracle Database roles is enforced only if Oracle Database Vault is enabled. If Oracle Database Vault is disabled, then any account with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege can perform GRANT and REVOKE operations on protected Database Vault roles.

Appendix B, "Disabling and Enabling Oracle Database Vault," explains how to disable and enable Oracle Database Vault.

DV_ACCTMGR Database Vault Account Manager Role

Use the DV_ACCTMGR role to create and maintain database accounts and database profiles. In this manual, the example DV_ACCTMGR role is assigned to a user named amalcolm_dvacctmgr.

Privileges Associated with the DV_ACCTMGR Role

A user who has been granted this role can use the CREATE, ALTER, and DROP statements for user accounts or profiles. This user also can grant the CREATE SESSION privilege to other users. However, a person who has been granted the DV_ACCTMGR role cannot perform the following operations:

  • ALTER or DROP statements on the DVSYS account

  • ALTER or DROP statements on users who have been granted the DV_ADMIN, DV_OWNER, DV_SECANALYST, DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP, and DV_MONITOR roles

  • Change passwords for users who have been granted the DV_ADMIN, DV_OWNER, DV_SECANALYST, DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP, and DV_MONITOR roles

To find the full list of system and object privileges associated with the DV_ACCTMGR role, log into the database instance with sufficient privileges and then enter the following queries:

SELECT TABLE_NAME, OWNER, PRIVILEGE FROM DBA_TAB_PRIVS WHERE GRANTEE = 'DV_ACCTMGR';
SELECT PRIVILEGE FROM DBA_SYS_PRIVS WHERE GRANTEE = 'DV_ACCTMGR';

Tips:

  • If you want the DV_ACCTMGR user to be able to grant other users ANY privileges, then log in as user SYS with the SYSDBA administrative privilege and grant this user the GRANT ANY PRIVILEGE privilege. Then add this user to the Oracle System Privilege and Role Management Realm as an owner.

  • Consider creating a separate, named account for the DV_ACCTMGR user. This way, if this user forgets his or her password, you can log in as the original DV_ACCTMGR account and reset the user's password. Otherwise, you must disable Oracle Database Vault, log in as SYS or SYSTEM to recreate the password, and then re-enable Database Vault.

How Are GRANT and REVOKE Operations Affected by the DV_ACCTMGR Role?

Any account, such as SYS or SYSTEM, with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege alone does not have the rights to grant this role to or revoke this role from any other database account. The account with the DV_ACCTMGR role and the ADMIN OPTION can grant this role to any given database account and revoke this role from another account.

What Happens When Oracle Database Vault Security Is Disabled?

The protection of all Oracle Database roles is enforced only if Oracle Database Vault is enabled. If Oracle Database Vault is disabled, then any account with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege can perform GRANT and REVOKE operations on protected Database Vault roles.

Appendix B, "Disabling and Enabling Oracle Database Vault," explains how to disable and enable Oracle Database Vault.

DV_REALM_OWNER Database Vault Realm DBA Role

Use the DV_REALM_OWNER role to manage database objects in multiple schemas that define a realm. Grant this role to the database account who is responsible for managing one or more schema database accounts within a realm and the roles associated with the realm.

Privileges Associated with the DV_REALM_OWNER Role

A user who has been granted this role can use powerful system privileges like CREATE ANY, ALTER ANY, and DROP ANY within the realm. However, before this user can exercise these privileges, you must make this user either a participant or an owner for the realm. See "About Realm Authorization" for instructions.

There are no object privileges granted to the DV_REALM_OWNER role, but it does have some system privileges. To find the full list of DV_REALM_OWNER system privileges, log into the database instance with sufficient privileges and enter the following query:

SELECT PRIVILEGE FROM DBA_SYS_PRIVS WHERE GRANTEE = 'DV_REALM_OWNER';

How Are GRANT and REVOKE Operations Affected by the DV_REALM_OWNER Role?

The realm owner of the Oracle System Privilege and Role Management realm, such as SYS, can grant this role to any given database account or role. Note that though this role has powerful system privileges, it does not have any Oracle Database Vault roles such as the DV_OWNER or DV_ADMIN roles.

If you want to attach this role to a specific realm, then you must assign it to an account or business-related role, then authorize that account or role in the realm.

What Happens When Oracle Database Vault Security Is Disabled?

The protection of all Oracle Database roles is enforced only if Oracle Database Vault is enabled. If Oracle Database Vault is disabled, then any account with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege can perform GRANT and REVOKE operations on protected Database Vault roles.

Appendix B, "Disabling and Enabling Oracle Database Vault," explains how to disable and enable Oracle Database Vault.

DV_REALM_RESOURCE Database Vault Application Resource Owner Role

Use the DV_REALM_RESOURCE role for operations such as creating tables, views, triggers, synonyms, and other objects that a realm would typically use.

Privileges Associated with the DV_REALM_RESOURCE Role

The DV_REALM_RESOURCE role provides the same system privileges as the Oracle RESOURCE role. In addition, both CREATE SYNONYM and CREATE VIEW are granted to this role.

There are no object privileges granted to the DV_REALM_RESOURCE role, but it does have some system privileges. To find the full list of DV_REALM_RESOURCE system privileges, log into the database instance with sufficient privileges and enter the following query:

SELECT PRIVILEGE FROM DBA_SYS_PRIVS WHERE GRANTEE = 'DV_REALM_RESOURCE';

Though this role has powerful system privileges, it does not have any Oracle Database Vault roles such as the DV_OWNER or DV_ADMIN roles.

How Are GRANT and REVOKE Operations Affected by the DV_REALM_RESOURCE Role?

You can grant the DV_REALM_RESOURCE role to a database account that owns database tables, objects, triggers, views, procedures, and so on that are used to support any database application. This is a role designed for a schema type database account. The realm owner of the Oracle System Privilege and Role Management realm, such as SYS, can grant this role to any database account or role.

What Happens When Oracle Database Vault Security Is Disabled?

The protection of all Oracle Database roles is enforced only if Oracle Database Vault is enabled. If Oracle Database Vault is disabled, then any account with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege can perform GRANT and REVOKE operations on protected Database Vault roles.

Appendix B, "Disabling and Enabling Oracle Database Vault," explains how to disable and enable Oracle Database Vault.

DV_PUBLIC Database Vault PUBLIC Role

The DV_PUBLIC role is no longer used. It is still created during installation, but it is not granted any roles or privileges. All privileges that were granted to DV_PUBLIC in previous releases are now granted directly to the PUBLIC role.

Oracle Database Vault Accounts

Oracle Database Vault prompts for two accounts during installation: Oracle Database Vault Owner and Oracle Database Vault Account Manager. You must supply an account name and password for the Oracle Database Vault Owner account during installation. Creating an Oracle Database Vault Account Manager is optional.

The Oracle Database Vault Owner account is granted the DV_OWNER role. This account can manage Oracle Database Vault roles and configuration. (See "DV_OWNER Database Vault Owner Role" for detailed information about this role.)

The Oracle Database Vault Account Manager account is granted the DV_ACCTMGR role. This account is used to manage database user accounts to facilitate separation of duties. (See "DV_ACCTMGR Database Vault Account Manager Role" for detailed information about this role.)

If you choose not to create the Oracle Database Vault Account Manager account during installation, then both the DV_OWNER and DV_ACCTMGR roles are granted to the Oracle Database Vault Owner user account.

Tip:

Oracle recommends that you grant the DV_OWNER and DV_ACCTMGR roles to existing user accounts. However, continue to maintain the original DV_OWNER and DV_ACCTMGR user accounts that you created during installation. This way, for example, if a user who has been granted one of these roles forgets his or her password, then you can log in as the original Database Vault Account Manager user and then recreate the password without having to disable Oracle Database Vault.

Table 12-2 lists the Oracle Database Vault database accounts that are needed in addition to the accounts that you create during installation.

Table 12-2 Database Accounts Used by Oracle Database Vault

Database Account Roles and Privileges Description

DVSYS

Several system and object privileges are provided to support Oracle Database Vault. The ability to create a session with this account is revoked at the end of the installation, and the account is locked.

Owner of Oracle Database Vault schema and related objects

DVF

A limited set of system privileges are provided to support Oracle Database Vault. The ability to create a session with this account is revoked at the end of the installation, and the account is locked.

Owner of the Oracle Database Vault functions that are created to retrieve factor identities

LBACSYS

This account is created when you install Oracle Label Security by using the Oracle Universal Installer custom installation option. (It is not created when you install Oracle Database Vault.) Do not drop or re-create this account.

If you plan to integrate a factor with an Oracle Label Security policy, you must assign this user as the owner of the realm that uses this factor. See "Using Oracle Database Vault Factors with Oracle Label Security Policies" for more information.

Owner of the Oracle Label Security schema


You can create different database accounts to implement the separation of duties requirements for Oracle Database Vault. Table 12-3 lists some model database accounts that can act as a guide. (The accounts listed in Table 12-3 serve as a guide to implementing Oracle Database Vault roles. These are not actual accounts that are created during installation.)

Table 12-3 Model Oracle Database Vault Database Accounts

Database Account Roles and Privileges Description

EBROWN

DV_OWNER (with DV_ADMIN and DV_SECANALYST)

Account that is the realm owner for the Oracle Database Vault realm. This account can:

  • Execute DVSYS packages

  • Grant privileges on the DVSYS schema objects

  • Select objects in the DVSYS schema

  • Monitor Oracle Database Vault activity

  • Run reports on the Oracle Database Vault configuration

JGODFREY

DV_ACCTMGR

Account for administration of database accounts and profiles. This account can:

  • Create, alter, and drop users

  • Create, alter, and drop profiles

  • Grant and revoke the CREATE SESSION privilege

  • Grant and revoke the DV_ACCTMGR role, but only if this account was created during the Database Vault installation (this account is created with the ADMIN option)

  • Grant and revoke the CONNECT role

Note: This account cannot create roles, or grant the RESOURCE or DBA roles.

RLAYTON

DV_ADMIN (with DV_SECANALYST)

Account to serve as the access control administrator. This account can:

  • Execute DVSYS packages

  • Monitor Oracle Database Vault activity

  • Run reports on the Oracle Database Vault configuration

Note: This account cannot directly update the DVSYS tables.

PSMYTHE

DV_SECANALYST

Account for running Oracle Database Vault reports


See Also:

"Configuring Oracle Database Vault Accounts as Enterprise User Accounts" for information about configuring the Database Vault accounts as enterprise user accounts