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Oracle® Database Vault Administrator's Guide
12c Release 1 (12.1)

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10 Integrating Oracle Database Vault with Other Oracle Products

This chapter contains:

Integrating Oracle Database Vault with Enterprise User Security

You can integrate Oracle Database Vault with Oracle Enterprise User Security. Enterprise User Security enables you to centrally manage database users and authorizations in one place. It is combined with Oracle Identity Management and is available in Oracle Database Enterprise Edition.

In general, to integrate Oracle Database Vault with Oracle Enterprise User Security, you configure the appropriate realms to protect the data that you want to protect in the database.

After you define the Oracle Database Vault realms as needed, you can create a rule set for the Enterprise users to allow or disallow their access.

To configure an Enterprise User authorization:

  1. Create a rule to allow or disallow user access.

    Follow the instructions in "Creating a Rule to Add to a Rule Set" to create a new rule. In the Create Rule page, enter the following PL/SQL in the Rule Expression field:

    SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV','AUTHENTICATED_IDENTITY') = 'user_domain_name'
    

    Replace user_domain_name with the domain, for example:

    SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV','AUTHENTICATED_IDENTITY') = 'myserver.us.example.com'
    
  2. Add this rule to a new rule set.

    "Creating a Rule Set" explains how to create a new rule set, including how to add an existing rule to it.

  3. Add this rule set to the realm authorization for the data that you want to protect.

    "About Realm Authorization" explains how to create realm authorizations. In the Authorization Rule Set list, select the rule set that you created in Step 2. Afterward, the realm authorization applies to all users.

See Also:

Oracle Database Enterprise User Security Administrator's Guide for more information about Enterprise User Security

Configuring Oracle Database Vault Accounts as Enterprise User Accounts

To configure existing Oracle Database Vault user accounts as enterprise user accounts:

  1. Log into the database instance as a user who has been granted the CREATE ROLE system privilege.

    For example:

    sqlplus system
    Enter password: password
    
  2. In a multitenant environment, connect to the appropriate pluggable database (PDB).

    For example:

    CONNECT SYSTEM@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    

    To find the available PDBs, query the DBA_PDBS data dictionary view. To check the current PDB, run the show con_name command.

  3. Create a global role for the DV_OWNER role and a global role for the DV_ACCTMGR role.

    For example:

    CREATE ROLE g_dv_owner IDENTIFIED GLOBALLY;
    CREATE ROLE g_dv_acctmgr IDENTIFIED GLOBALLY;
    
  4. Connect as a user who has been granted the DV_OWNER role.

    For example:

    CONNECT dbv_owner -- Or, CONNECT dbv_owner@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    
  5. Grant the DV_OWNER role to the global DV_OWNER role.

    GRANT DV_OWNER TO g_dv_owner;
    
  6. Connect as a user who has been granted the DV_ACCTMGR role.

    For example:

    CONNECT dbv_acctmgr -- Or, CONNECT dbv_acctmgr@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    
  7. Grant the DV_ACCTMGR role to the global DV_ACCTMGR role.

    GRANT DV_ACCTMGR TO g_dv_acctmgr;
    
  8. Connect as user SYS with the SYSDBA administrative privilege.

    CONNECT SYS AS SYSDBA -- Or, CONNECT SYS@hrpdb AS SYSDBA
    Enter password: password
    
  9. Temporarily grant the DV_ACCTMGR user who will import the Database Vault users into OID the CREATE TABLE privilege and the SELECT_CATALOG_ROLE role.

    GRANT CREATE TABLE, SELECT_CATALOG_ROLE TO dbv_acctmgr;
    
  10. From the command line, run the User Migration Utility (UMU) to import the Database Vault accounts into Oracle Internet Directory (OID).

    The following example imports the Database Vault accounts leo_dvowner and bea_dvacctmgr into OID. The DV_ACCTMGR user is specified for the DBADMIN setting.

    $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/bin/umu PHASE=ONE
    DBADMIN=dbv_acctmgr:password
    ENTADMIN=cn=jane_ent_admin,dc=example,dc=com:password
    USERS= LIST
    DBLOCATION=example.com:7777:orcl
    DIRLOCATION=example.com:636
    USERSLIST=leo_dvowner:bea_dvacctmgr
    MAPSCHEMA=PRIVATE
    CONTEXT=CONTEXT="c=Users, c=us"
    KREALM=EXAMPLE.COM
    
    $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/bin/umu PHASE=TWO
    DBADMIN=dbv_acctmgr:password
    ENTADMIN=cn=jane_ent_admin,dc=example,dc=com:password
    DBLOCATION=example.com:7777:orcl
    DIRLOCATION=example.com:636
    

    By default, errors are written to the $ORACLE_HOME/network/log/umu.log file.

  11. From the Oracle Internet Directory Self Service Console (http://hostname:port/oiddas/), grant the global DV_OWNER and DV_ACCTMGR roles (for example, g_dv_owner and g_dv_acctmgr) to the enterprise user Database Vault accounts.

    See the example of creating enterprise users in Oracle Database Enterprise User Security Administrator's Guide for a demonstration of creating an enterprise role from a global role and then granting this role to a user.

  12. From SQL*Plus, as user SYS with the SYSDBA administrative privilege, revoke the CREATE TABLE and SELECT_CATALOG_ROLE role from the DV_ACCTMGR user.

    REVOKE CREATE TABLE, SELECT_CATALOG_ROLE FROM dbv_acctmgr;
    

See Also:

Oracle Database Enterprise User Security Administrator's Guide for detailed information about the User Migration Utility

Integrating Oracle Database Vault with Transparent Data Encryption

Transparent Data Encryption complements Oracle Database Vault in that it provides data protection when the data leaves the secure perimeter of the database. With Transparent Data Encryption, a database administrator or database security administrator can simply encrypt columns with sensitive content in application tables, or encrypt entire application tablespaces, without any modification to the application. For detailed information about Transparent Data Encryption, see Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide.

If a user passes the authentication and authorization checks, Transparent Data Encryption automatically encrypts and decrypts information for the user. This way, you can implement encryption without having to change your applications.

Once you have granted the Transparent Data Encryption user the appropriate privileges, then Transparent Data Encryption can be managed as usual and be used complimentary to Database Vault.

Figure 10-1 shows how Oracle Database Vault realms handle encrypted data.

Figure 10-1 Encrypted Data and Oracle Database Vault

Description of Figure 10-1 follows
Description of "Figure 10-1 Encrypted Data and Oracle Database Vault"

Attaching Factors to an Oracle Virtual Private Database

You can attach factors to an Oracle Virtual Private Database. To do so, define a policy predicate that is a PL/SQL function or expression. Then, for each function or expression, you can use the DVF.F$ PL/SQL function that is created for each factor.

For more information about Oracle Virtual Private Database, see Oracle Database Security Guide.

Integrating Oracle Database Vault with Oracle Label Security

This section includes the following topics:

How Oracle Database Vault Is Integrated with Oracle Label Security

When you integrate Oracle Database Vault with Oracle Label Security, it means that you can assign an Oracle Label Security label to an Oracle Database Vault factor identity.

In Oracle Label Security, you can restrict access to records in database tables or PL/SQL programs. For example, Mary may be able to see data protected by the HIGHLY SENSITIVE label, an Oracle Label Security label on the EMPLOYEE table that includes records that should have access limited to certain managers. Another label can be PUBLIC, which allows more open access to this data.

In Oracle Database Vault, you can create a factor called Network, for the network on which the database session originates, with the following identities:

  • Intranet: Used for when an employee is working on site within the intranet for your company.

  • Remote: Used for when the employee is working at home from a VPN connection.

You then assign a maximum session label to both. For example:

  • Assign the Intranet identity to the HIGHLY SENSITIVE Oracle Label Security label.

  • Assign the Remote identity to the PUBLIC label.

This means that when Mary is working at home using her VPN connection, she has access only to the limited table data protected under the PUBLIC identity. But when she is in the office, she has access to the HIGHLY SENSITIVE data, because she is using the Intranet identity. "Tutorial: Integrating Oracle Database Vault with Oracle Label Security" provides an example of how to accomplish this type of integration.

In a non-unified auditing environment, you can audit the integration with Oracle Label Security by using the Label Security Integration Audit Report. See "Label Security Integration Audit Report" for more information. Oracle Database Vault writes the audit trail to the DVSYS.AUDIT_TRAIL$ table, described in Appendix A, "Auditing Oracle Database Vault." If unified auditing is enabled, then you can create audit policies to capture this information, as described in Oracle Database Security Guide.

You can use the Oracle Database Vault APIs to integrate Oracle Database Vault with Oracle Label Security. See Chapter 18, "Oracle Database Vault Oracle Label Security APIs," for more information.

For more information about Oracle Label Security labels, levels, and policies, see Oracle Label Security Administrator's Guide.

You can run reports on the Oracle Database Vault and Oracle Label Security integration. See "Related Reports and Data Dictionary Views" for more information.

Requirements for Using Oracle Database Vault with Oracle Label Security

You must have the following requirements in place before you use Oracle Database Vault with Oracle Label Security:

  • Oracle Label Security is licensed separately. Ensure that you have purchased a license to use it.

  • Before you install Oracle Database Vault, you must have already installed Oracle Label Security.

  • The installation process for Oracle Label Security creates the LBACSYS user account. As a user who has been granted the DV_ACCTMGR role, unlock this account and grant it a new password. For example:

    sqlplus bea_dvacctmgr -- Or, sqlplus bea_dvacctmgr@hrpdb for a PDB
    Enter password: password
    
    ALTER USER LBACSYS ACCOUNT UNLOCK IDENTIFIED BY password;
    

    Replace password with a password that is secure. See Oracle Database Security Guide for the minimum requirements for creating passwords.

  • If you plan to use the LBACSYS user account in Oracle Enterprise Manager, then log into Enterprise Manager as user SYS with the SYSDBA administrative privilege, and grant this user the SELECT ANY DICTIONARY and SELECT_CATALOG_ROLE system privileges.

  • Ensure that you have the appropriate Oracle Label Security policies defined. For more information, see Oracle Label Security Administrator's Guide.

  • If you plan to integrate an Oracle Label Security policy with a Database Vault policy, then ensure that the policy name for Oracle Label Security is less than 24 characters. You can check the names of Oracle Label Security policies by querying the POLICY_NAME column of the ALL_SA_POLICIES data dictionary view.

Using Oracle Database Vault Factors with Oracle Label Security Policies

Oracle Database Vault controls the maximum security clearance for a database session by merging the maximum allowable data for each label in a database session by merging the labels of Oracle Database Vault factors that are associated to an Oracle Label Security policy. In brief, a label acts as an identifier for the access privileges of a database table row. A policy is a name associated with the labels, rules, and authorizations that govern access to table rows. See Oracle Label Security Administrator's Guide for more information about row labels and policies.

Use the following steps to define factors that contribute to the maximum allowable data label of an Oracle Label Security policy:

  1. From Cloud Control, log into Oracle Database Vault Administrator as a user who has been granted the DV_OWNER or DV_ADMIN role.

    "Logging into Oracle Database Vault" explains how to log in.

  2. Make the user LBACSYS account an owner of the realm that contains the schema to which a label security policy has been applied.

    This enables the LBACSYS account to have access to all the protected data in the realm, so that it can properly classify the data.

    The LBACSYS account is created in Oracle Label Security using the Oracle Universal Installer custom installation option. Before you can create an Oracle Label Security policy for use with Oracle Database Vault, you must make LBACSYS an owner for the realm you plan to use. See "About Realm Authorization" for more information.

  3. Authorize the schema owner (on which the label security policy has been applied) as either a realm participant or a realm owner.

  4. In the Administration page, under Database Vault Components, click OLS Integration.

    Description of ols_policies_integration.gif follows
    Description of the illustration ols_policies_integration.gif

  5. In the Label Security Policies page:

    • To register a new label security policy with Database Vault, click Create.

    • To edit an existing label security policy that has been registered with Database Vault, select it from the list and then click Edit.

  6. Enter the following settings:

    • Label Security Policy: From the list, select the Oracle Label Security policy that you want to use.

    • Algorithm: Optionally change the label-merging algorithm for cases when Oracle Label Security has merged two labels. In most cases, you may want to select LII - Minimum Level/Intersection/Intersection. This setting is the most commonly used method that Oracle Label Security administrators use when they want to merge two labels. This setting provides optimum flexibility when your applications must determine the resulting label that is required when combining two data sets that have different labels. It is also necessary for situations in which you must perform queries using joins on rows with different data labels.

      For more information on these label-merging algorithms, see Oracle Label Security Administrator's Guide. If you want to use the DBMS_MACADM package to specify a merge algorithm, see Table 18-3, "Oracle Label Security Merge Algorithm Codes" for a full listing of possible merge algorithms.

    • Label Security Policy Factors: In the Available Factors list under Label Security Policy Factors, select the factor that you want to associate with the Oracle Label Security policy. Then click Move to move the factor to the Selected Factors list. You can select multiple factors by holding down the Ctrl key as you click each factor that you want to select.

  7. Click OK.

    The policy is listed in the Label Security Policies Integration page.

After you associate a factor with an Oracle Label Security policy, you can label the factor identities using the labels for the policy. "Adding an Identity to a Factor" provides detailed information.

Note:

If you do not associate an Oracle Label Security policy with factors, then Oracle Database Vault maintains the default Oracle Label Security behavior for the policy.

Tutorial: Integrating Oracle Database Vault with Oracle Label Security

This section contains:

About This Tutorial

You can use Oracle Database Vault factors with Oracle Label Security and Oracle Virtual Private Database (VPD) technology to restrict access to sensitive data. You can restrict this data so that it is only exposed to a database session when the correct combination of factors exists, defined by the security administrator, for any given database session.

This tutorial shows how you can integrate Oracle Database Vault with Oracle Label Security to grant two administrative users who normally have the same privileges different levels of access.

Step 1: Create Users for This Tutorial

  1. Log into the database instance as a user who has been granted the DV_ACCTMGR role.

    For example:

    sqlplus bea_dvacctmgr
    Enter password: password
    
  2. In a multitenant environment, connect to the appropriate PDB.

    For example:

    CONNECT bea_dvacctmgr@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    

    To find the available PDBs, query the DBA_PDBS data dictionary view. To check the current PDB, run the show con_name command.

  3. Create the following local users:

    CREATE USER mdale IDENTIFIED BY password CONTAINER = CURRENT;
    CREATE USER jsmith IDENTIFIED BY password CONTAINER = CURRENT;
    

    Replace password with a password that is secure. See Oracle Database Security Guide for the minimum requirements for creating passwords.

  4. Connect as user SYS with the SYSDBA administrative privilege and then grant administrative privileges to users mdale and jsmith.

    CONNECT SYS AS SYSDBA -- Or, CONNECT SYS@hrpdb AS SYSDBA
    Enter password: password
    
    GRANT CREATE SESSION, DBA TO mdale, jsmith;
    

    At this stage, users mdale and jsmith have identical administrative privileges.

Step 2: Create the Oracle Label Security Policy

  1. In SQL*Plus, connect as the Oracle Label Security administrator, LBACSYS.

    CONNECT LBACSYS -- Or, CONNECT LBACSYS@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    

    If user LBACSYS is locked and expired, connect as the Database Vault Account Manager, unlock and unexpire the LBACSYS account, and then log back in as LBACSYS.

    For example:

    CONNECT bea_dvacctmgr -- Or, CONNECT bea_dvaccmgr@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    
    ALTER USER LBACSYS ACCOUNT UNLOCK IDENTIFIED BY password;
    
    CONNECT LBACSYS
    Enter password: password
    
  2. Create a new Oracle Label Security policy:

    EXEC SA_SYSDBA.CREATE_POLICY('PRIVACY','PRIVACY_COLUMN','NO_CONTROL');
    
  3. Create the following levels for the PRIVACY policy:

    EXEC SA_COMPONENTS.CREATE_LEVEL('PRIVACY',2000,'S','SENSITIVE');
    EXEC SA_COMPONENTS.CREATE_LEVEL('PRIVACY',1000,'C','CONFIDENTIAL');
    
  4. Create the PII compartment.

    EXEC SA_COMPONENTS.CREATE_COMPARTMENT('PRIVACY',100,'PII','PERS_INFO');
    
  5. Grant users mdale and jsmith the following labels:

    EXEC SA_USER_ADMIN.SET_USER_LABELS('PRIVACY','mdale','S:PII');
    EXEC SA_USER_ADMIN.SET_USER_LABELS('PRIVACY','jsmith','C'); 
    

    User mdale is granted the more sensitive label, Sensitive, which includes the PII compartment. User jsmith gets the Confidential label, which is less sensitive.

Step 3: Create Oracle Database Vault Rules to Control the OLS Authorization

  1. Connect to SQL*Plus as the Database Vault Owner.

    For example:

    CONNECT leo_dvowner -- Or, CONNECT leo_dvowner@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    
  2. Create the following rule set:

    EXEC DBMS_MACADM.CREATE_RULE_SET('PII Rule Set', 'Protect PII data from privileged users','Y',1,0,2,NULL,NULL,0,NULL);
    
  3. Create a rule for the PII Rule Set.

    EXEC DBMS_MACADM.CREATE_RULE('Check OLS Factor',  'dominates(sa_utl.numeric_label(''PRIVACY''),  char_to_label(''PRIVACY'',''S:PII'')) = ''1''');
    

    Ensure that you use single quotes, as shown in this example, and not double quotes.

  4. Add the Check OLS Factor rule to the PII Rule Set.

    EXEC DBMS_MACADM.ADD_RULE_TO_RULE_SET('PII Rule Set', 'Check OLS Factor');
    

Step 4: Update the ALTER SYSTEM Command Rule to Use the Rule Set

  1. As the Database Vault Owner, check the current value of the ALTER SYSTEM command rule, which is one of the default command rules when you install Oracle Database Vault.

    SELECT * FROM DVSYS.DBA_DV_COMMAND_RULE WHERE COMMAND = 'ALTER SYSTEM';
    
  2. Make a note of these settings so that you can revert them to their original values later on.

    In a default installation, the ALTER SYSTEM command rule uses the Allow Fine Grained Control of System Parameters rule set, and is enabled.

  3. Update the ALTER SYSTEM command rule to be associated with the PII Rule Set.

    EXEC DBMS_MACADM.UPDATE_COMMAND_RULE('ALTER SYSTEM', 'PII Rule Set', '%', '%', 'Y');
    

    This command adds the PII Rule Set to the ALTER SYSTEM command rule, applies it to all object owners and object names, and enables the command rule.

Step 5: Test the Authorizations

  1. In SQL*Plus, log on as user mdale.

    CONNECT mdale -- Or, CONNECT mdale@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    
  2. Check the current setting for the CPU_COUNT initialization parameter.

    SHOW PARAMETER CPU_COUNT
    
    NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
    ------------------------------------ ----------- ----------------------
    cpu_count                            integer      2
    

    Make a note of this setting, so that you can revert it to its original setting later on.

  3. As user mdale, use the ALTER SYSTEM statement to modify the CPU_COUNT parameter.

    ALTER SYSTEM SET CPU_COUNT = 4;
    System altered.
    

    Because user mdale was assigned the Sensitive label with the PII compartment, he can use the ALTER SYSTEM statement to modify the AUDIT_TRAIL system parameter.

  4. Set the CPU_COUNT parameter back to its original value.

    For example:

    ALTER SYSTEM SET CPU_COUNT = 2;
    
  5. Log in as user jsmith and then issue the same ALTER SYSTEM statement:

    CONNECT jsmith -- Or, CONNECT jsmith@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    
    ALTER SYSTEM SET CPU_COUNT = 14;
    

    The following output should appear:

    ERROR at line 1:
    ORA-01031: insufficient privileges
    

    Because user jsmith was assigned only the Confidential label, he cannot perform the ALTER SYSTEM statement.

Step 6: Remove the Components for This Tutorial

  1. Connect as the Oracle Label Security administrator and remove the label policy and its components.

    CONNECT LBACSYS -- Or, CONNECT LBACSYS@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    
    EXEC SA_SYSDBA.DROP_POLICY('PRIVACY', TRUE);
    
  2. Connect as the Oracle Database Vault Owner and issue the following commands in the order shown, to set the ALTER SYSTEM command rule back to its previous setting and remove the rule set.

    For example:

    CONNECT leo_dvowner
    Enter password: password
    
    EXEC DBMS_MACADM.UPDATE_COMMAND_RULE('ALTER SYSTEM', 'Allow System Parameters','%', '%', 'Y');
    EXEC DBMS_MACADM.DELETE_RULE_FROM_RULE_SET('PII Rule Set', 'Check OLS Factor');
    EXEC DBMS_MACADM.DELETE_RULE('Check OLS Factor');
    EXEC DBMS_MACADM.DELETE_RULE_SET('PII Rule Set');
    COMMIT;
    
  3. Connect as the Database Vault Account Manager and remove users mdale and jsmith.

    CONNECT bea_dvacctmgr -- Or, CONNECT bea_dvacctmgr@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    
    DROP USER mdale;
    DROP USER jsmith;
    

Related Reports and Data Dictionary Views

Table 10-1 lists Oracle Database Vault reports that are useful for analyzing the integration of Oracle Database Vault and Oracle Label Security. See Chapter 24, "Oracle Database Vault Reports," for information about how to run these reports.

Table 10-1 Reports Related to Database Vault and Oracle Label Security Integration

Report Description

"Factor Configuration Issues Report"

Lists factors in which the Oracle Label Security policy does not exist.

"Identity Configuration Issues Report"

Lists invalid label identities (the Oracle Label Security label for this identity has been removed and no longer exists).

"Security Policy Exemption Report"

Lists accounts and roles that have the EXEMPT ACCESS POLICY system privilege granted to them. Accounts that have this privilege can bypass all Virtual Private Database policy filters and any Oracle Label Security policies that use Oracle Virtual Private Database indirectly.


Table 10-2 lists data dictionary views that provide information about existing Oracle Label Security policies used with Oracle Database Vault.

Table 10-2 Data Dictionary Views Used for Oracle Label Security

Data Dictionary View Description

"DVSYS.DBA_DV_MAC_POLICY View"

Lists the Oracle Label Security policies defined

"DVSYS.DBA_DV_MAC_POLICY_FACTOR View"

Lists the factors that are associated with Oracle Label Security policies

"DVSYS.DBA_DV_POLICY_LABEL View"

Lists the Oracle Label Security label for each factor identifier in the DBA_DV_IDENTITY view for each policy


Integrating Oracle Database Vault with Oracle Data Guard

This section covers the following topics:

Step 1: Configure the Primary Database

  1. For Linux and UNIX systems, ensure there is an /etc/oratab entry for the database on the node in which you are installing Oracle Database Vault.

  2. If you are using Data Guard Broker, then from the command prompt, disable the configuration as follows:

    dgmgrl sys
    Enter password: password
    
    DGMGRL> disable configuration;
    
  3. Run Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) and configure the database options to add Oracle Database Vault to the primary database.

    1. From the command line, enter the following command to start DBCA:

      dbca
      
    2. Select the correct database type (Cluster or Single Instance) and click Next.

    3. In the Database Operation page, select Configure Database Options and click Next.

    4. Select the appropriate database and click Next.

    5. Select Oracle Label Security, which then enables you to select Oracle Database Vault and click Next.

    6. Enter the name of the Database Vault owner (required) and the Database Vault account manager (recommended).

      Passwords must have at least one alphabetic character, one number, and one special character.

    7. Click Next.

    8. Choose appropriate connection mode and click Next.

    9. Click OK to restart the database.

    10. Click OK on Configure Additional Components.

    At this point, the installation on the primary site is complete.

  4. Log into the database instance as user SYS with the SYSDBA administrative privilege.

    sqlplus sys as sysdba
    Enter password: password
    
  5. Run the following ALTER SYSTEM statements:

    ALTER SYSTEM SET AUDIT_SYS_OPERATIONS=TRUE SCOPE=SPFILE; 
    ALTER SYSTEM SET OS_ROLES=FALSE SCOPE=SPFILE; 
    ALTER SYSTEM SET RECYCLEBIN='OFF' SCOPE=SPFILE; 
    ALTER SYSTEM SET REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE='EXCLUSIVE' SCOPE=SPFILE;
    ALTER SYSTEM SET SQL92_SECURITY=TRUE SCOPE=SPFILE;
    ALTER SYSTEM SET REMOTE_OS_AUTHENT=FALSE SCOPE=SPFILE; 
    ALTER SYSTEM SET REMOTE_OS_ROLES=FALSE SCOPE=SPFILE;
    
  6. Run the ALTER SYSTEM statement on each database instance to set the parameters as shown in Step 5.

  7. Restart each database instance.

    CONNECT SYS AS SYSOPER
    Enter password: password
    
    SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
    STARTUP
    

Step 2: Configure the Standby Database

  1. Log into the database instance as user SYS with the SYSDBA administrative privilege.

    sqlplus sys as sysdba
    Enter password: password
    
  2. In a multitenant environment, connect to the appropriate PDB.

    For example:

    CONNECT bea_dvacctmgr@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    

    To find the available PDBs, query the DBA_PDBS data dictionary view. To check the current PDB, run the show con_name command.

  3. Mount a standby database instance.

    ALTER DATABASE MOUNT STANDBY DATABASE;
    
  4. Run the following ALTER SYSTEM statements:

    ALTER SYSTEM SET AUDIT_SYS_OPERATIONS=TRUE SCOPE=SPFILE; 
    ALTER SYSTEM SET OS_ROLES=FALSE SCOPE=SPFILE; 
    ALTER SYSTEM SET RECYCLEBIN='OFF' SCOPE=SPFILE; 
    ALTER SYSTEM SET REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE='EXCLUSIVE' SCOPE=SPFILE;
    ALTER SYSTEM SET SQL92_SECURITY=TRUE SCOPE=SPFILE;
    ALTER SYSTEM SET REMOTE_OS_AUTHENT=FALSE SCOPE=SPFILE; 
    ALTER SYSTEM SET REMOTE_OS_ROLES=FALSE SCOPE=SPFILE;
    
  5. Restart or mount the database instance.

    For example:

    SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
    STARTUP
    
  6. Mount the next standby instance.

  7. Restart the managed recovery as follows:

    ALTER DATABASE RECOVER MANAGED STANDBY DATABASE USING CURRENT LOGFILE THROUGH ALL SWITCHOVER DISCONNECT; 
    
  8. If you are using Data Guard Broker, then from the command line, re-enable the configuration.

    dgmgrl sys
    Enter password: password
    
    DGMGRL> enable configuration; 
    

    This command applies the changes to the physical standby database made by the Oracle Database Vault installation on the primary database.

  9. Repeat the physical standby installation process on each physical standby database. For example, if there are three physical standby databases, then run these procedures or each standby database.