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Oracle® Database Vault Administrator's Guide
12c Release 1 (12.1)

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Changes in This Release for Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide

This preface contains:

Changes in Oracle Database Vault 12c Release 1 (12.1)

The following are changes in Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide for Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1):

New Features

The following features are new in this release:

Changes to Registering Oracle Database Vault

In previous releases of Oracle Database Vault, you registered (that is, enabled) Database Vault with a database by using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA). You now can register Database Vault from the command line, by using the DVSYS.CONFIGURE_DV and DBMS_MACADM.ENABLE_DV procedures.

See the following sections for more information:

Changes to Enabling or Disabling Oracle Database Vault

This release introduces two new DBMS_MACADM procedures that you can use when you enable or disable Oracle Database Vault: DBMS_MACADM.ENABLE_DV and DBMS_MACADM.DISABLE_DV.

See the following sections for more information:

Simplified Oracle Database Vault Administration

Starting with this release, you can access Database Vault Administrator (DVA) from Oracle Enterprise Manager. DVA is no longer an independent application. The advantage of this design is that it makes it easier for you to create, view, and modify Oracle Database Vault settings from a centralized location when you are working with Oracle Database.

Another enhancement is that all of the configuration-related DBMS_MACADM PL/SQL package procedures and functions have been incorporated into the Enterprise Manager interface. For example, you now can delete rules from a rule set using the interface.

See "Logging into Oracle Database Vault" for more information.

Default Protection for Database Vault Schemas

Because the Database Vault metadata (for example, policy and factors) as well as the administrative packages reside in the DVSYS and DVF schemas, these schemas are critical to the integrity of Oracle Database Vault. Starting from this release, direct login to these accounts will be blocked by default. You can disable or re-enable this default protection by using two new DBMS_MACADM procedures: DBMS_MACADM.DISABLE_DV_DICTIONARY_ACCTS and DBMS_MACADM.ENABLE_DV_DICTIONARY_ACCTS. You must have the DV_OWNER role to execute these procedures.

Performing Privilege Analysis for System and Object Privileges

You now can easily identify excessive system and object privilege grants or roles and privileges that are not being used, even with large numbers of user accounts in complex Oracle Database installations. A privilege analysis finds privilege usage according to a specified condition. For example, the privilege analysis can record privileges that are used to run a given application module and privileges that are used by a given logon user. The results of the privilege analysis are stored in data dictionary views.

See Chapter 4, "Performing Privilege Analysis to Find Privilege Use," for more information.

New Oracle Database Vault Realms

  • Oracle Default Schema Protection realm. This realm protects roles and schemas that relate to Oracle Database options such as Oracle OLAP, Oracle Spatial, and Oracle Text.

  • Oracle System Privilege and Role Management realm. This realm protects sensitive roles that are used for exporting and importing data to and from a database. It also contains user authorizations for users who must be able to grant system privileges.

  • Oracle Default Component Protection realm. This realm protects the SYSTEM and OUTLN schemas.

Changed Oracle Database Vault Realms

  • Oracle Database Vault realm. This realm protects configuration and role information in the DVSYS, DVF, and LBACSYS schemas. Starting with this release, the SYS.AQ%DATAPUMP% tables and view have been removed from this realm. These objects no longer need realm protection because Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing and Oracle Data Pump authorizations are now handled differently.

    See the following sections for more information:

  • Database Vault Account Management realm. This realm is designed for administrators who are responsible for creating and managing database accounts and database profiles. Starting with this release, the account manager (role DV_ACCTMGR) can grant the CREATE SESSION privilege to users.

Mandatory Realm Protection

In previous releases of Oracle Database Vault, object owners or users who had object privileges for objects within a realm still had access to these objects, even if these users were not realm participants or realm owners. In this release, you optionally can restrict these users' access to the objects by using a mandatory realm. In a mandatory realm, only realm participants and realm owners can access realm-protected objects.

Mandatory realms enable you to have more flexibility when you create Database Vault policies and they help you to achieve more security. Additional advantages of mandatory realms are that in some cases they prevent roles from being altered to achieve access based on role authorization, and they are useful during patch upgrades. Roles that are protected by a mandatory realm cannot be modified. Therefore, no privileges can be granted to or revoked from a role once it is protected by a mandatory realm.

See "Using Mandatory Realms to Restrict User Access to Objects within a Realm" for more information.

Additional Audit Information for Realms

In previous releases, the audit trail recorded only the last realm evaluated for any realm enforcement policies. Starting with this release, the ACTION_OBJECT_ID and ACTION_OBJECT_NAME fields of the new DVSYS.DV$CONFIGURATION_AUDIT and DVSYS.DV$ENFORCEMENT_AUDIT data dictionary views will capture all realm IDs and realm names that have the audit option set to audit on failure or audit on success or failure.

See the following sections for more information:

Additional DBMS_MACADM PL/SQL Authorization Procedures

In this release, the following procedures have been added to the DBMS_MACADM PL/SQL package, to give you greater control over more specific user authorizations:

  • DBMS_MACADM.AUTHORIZE_DDL grants users authorization to execute data definition language (DDL) statements on the specified schema. To revoke this authorization, you can use the DBMS_MACADM.UNAUTHORIZE_DDL procedure.

  • DBMS_MACADM.AUTHORIZE_PROXY_USER grants users authorization to proxy other user account. To revoke this authorization, you can use the DBMS_MACADM.UNAUTHORIZE_PROXY_USER procedure.

See the following sections for more information:

Changes to Oracle Data Pump and Oracle Scheduler in Oracle Database Vault

In this release, the following default rule sets for Oracle Data Pump and Oracle Scheduler have been removed:

  • Allow Oracle Data Pump Operation

  • Allow Scheduler Job

The following data dictionary views have been added, which record information about the Oracle Data Pump and Oracle Scheduler authorizations in Database Vault:



The following DBMS_MACADM PL/SQL package procedures have been added so that you can authorize or unauthorize users to perform Oracle Data Pump transportable tablespace operations in an Oracle Database Vault environment:

See the following sections for more information:

Integration in a Multitenant Environment

Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) now enables you to consolidate multiple databases, called pluggable databases (PDBs), into one large Oracle database called a multitenant container database (CDB). This enables you to better manage many applications that are built on one or more Oracle databases. Databases that are protected by Oracle Database Vault can accommodate CDBs.

See the following for more information:

Ability to Control the Use of the ORADEBUG Utility

You can enable or disable the use of the ORADEBUG utility in an Oracle Database Vault environment. This enhancement enables you to prevent the misuse of critical ORADEBUG features such as manipulating and dumping internal structures, enabling or disabling SQL tracing for other users, and suspending intensive processes in a Database Vault-enabled database.

See "Using the ORADEBUG Utility in an Oracle Database Vault Environment" for more information.

Inclusion of Database Vault Records in the Unified Audit Trail

This release introduces the unified audit trail, in which the various Oracle Database audit trails (such as the standard audit trail, fine grained audit trail, and so on, in addition to the Database Vault and Oracle Label Security audit trails) are consolidated into one audit trail. In a new installation, unified auditing is enabled. If you are upgrading from an earlier release, then you can choose between a unified or non-unified auditing environment. If you choose to use unified auditing, then Oracle Database Vault audit records are stored in a table in the Oracle Database AUDSYS schema, not the Database Vault AUDIT_TRAIL$ table in the SYS schema.

By having the various audit trails in one location, you have one centralized view of all auditing that has occurred from different areas of the database. The unified audit records are presented in a consistent, uniform format. This makes it easier for you to run analysis reports, for example.

See Oracle Database Security Guide for more information about how to capture unified audit records for Oracle Database Vault.

Auditing of the Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Actions

Starting with this release, Oracle Database Vault can audit all actions performed by the Database Vault administrator. All configuration changes made to Database Vault components, such as realms or factors, are now written to the audit trail. This auditing captures the creation, modification, and deletion of most Database Vault enforcements as well as Database Vault authorization for components such as Oracle Data Pump and Oracle Scheduler. However, it does not audit by default the grants and revocations of Database Vault-protected roles, such as DV_OWNER and DV_ADMIN. This type of audit relies on the audit configuration of the relevant Oracle Database Vault realms.

See Appendix A, "Auditing Oracle Database Vault," for information about auditing.

New Data Dictionary Views to Capture Audit Data

The following unified auditing-specific data dictionary views are new for this release:

  • DVSYS.DV$CONFIGURATION_AUDIT provides information about Database Vault configuration changes made by the Database Vault administrator. See "DVSYS.DV$CONFIGURATION_AUDIT View" for more information.

  • DVSYS.DV$ENFORCEMENT_AUDIT provides information about user activities that affect Database Vault enforcement policies. See "DVSYS.DV$ENFORCEMENT_AUDIT View" for more information.

New Role for Cleaning the Oracle Database Vault Audit Trail

For better separation of duty, this release introduces the DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP role, which can be granted to any user who is responsible for cleaning the Database Vault audit trail. This role does not apply to unified auditing environments.

See the following sections for more information about using this role:

Deprecated Features

The following features are deprecated in this release, and may be desupported in a future release:

  • Deprecated realm:

    • Oracle Data Dictionary realm: In previous releases, the Oracle Data Dictionary realm protected many objects, all of which were considered highly sensitive. However, this large number of objects has made it difficult to achieve fine-grained authorization in order to meet better separation of duty standards. Starting with this release, the Oracle Data Dictionary realm has been deprecated. Instead, the objects formerly protected by the Oracle Data Dictionary realm have been migrated to the new realms that are described in this section.

    See "Default Realms" for information about alternatives.

  • Deprecated default rule sets:

    • Allow Oracle Data Pump Operation rule set: After you authorize a user to perform Data Pump operations in a Database Vault environment, you can check the user's authorization by querying the DVSYS.DBA_DV_DATAPUMP_AUTH data dictionary view, which is new for this release.

    • Allow Scheduler Job rule set: After you authorize a user to perform Oracle Scheduler operations, you can check this user's authorization by querying the DVSYS.DBA_DV_JOB_AUTH view, also new for this release.

    See "Default Rule Sets" for information about default rule sets.

  • The DBMS_MACADM.SYNC_RULES procedure has been deprecated because its functionality has been built into the rule creation functionality.

  • Database Vault Administrator (DVA) has been deprecated. Its functionality is now part of the of Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control interface.

    See "Logging into Oracle Database Vault" for more information.

Desupported Feature

Database Vault Configuration Assistant (DVCA) is desupported starting with this release. The functionality for DVCA has been replaced with PL/SQL equivalents.

See the following sections for more information: