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Oracle® Database Concepts
12c Release 1 (12.1)

E17633-21
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Index

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X 

A

access drivers, external table, 2.4.2
access paths, data, 3.1.1, 3.1.4.2, 7.3.1, 7.3.3
accounts, user, 6.1
ACID properties, 10.1
active transactions, 10.2.2
ADDM (Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor), 20.3.4.3, 20.3.4.4
administrative accounts, 2.1.4, 6.1.1
administrator privileges, 2.1.4, 13.2.1.1, 13.2.1.1, 16.3.4.2
Advanced Queuing, Oracle Streams, 15.4.2, 15.4.2, 19.5.2.2
alert logs, 13.6.2, 15.4.1.5.2
ALL_ data dictionary views, 6.1.1.2
anonymous PL/SQL blocks, 8.2
ANSI/ISO standard, 7.1.2
APIs (application program interfaces), 16.4
embedded SQL statements, 7.2.6
external tables, 2.4.2, Glossary
Java, 8.3.1.1, 21.3.2.1.2, 21.3.2.2.2
JDBC, 7.2.6, 8.3.2.2, 10.4.2
network services, 16.3.1
OCI/OCCI, 21.3.2.2.1
ODBC, 7.2.6, 21.3.2.2.2
Oracle Data Pump, 20.2.5.2
Oracle Database Advanced Queuing, 19.5.2.2.2
SQLJ, 8.3.2.2
application architecture, 1.5.4.1
application contexts, auditing, 19.1.6.1
Application Continuity, 10.4, 19.2.1.4
architecture, 10.4.2
benefits, 10.4.1
application developers
duties of, 21.1
tools for, 21.2
topics for, 21.3
application domain indexes, 3.1.5, 3.1.5
application processes, 15.2
application program interface. See API
application servers, 1.5.4.1, 8.3.1.2
archived redo log files, 11.3.3, 11.4.2.3, 20.3.1.4.4
ARCHIVELOG mode, 15.4.2.1
archiver process (ARCn), 15.4.2.1
ascending indexes, 3.1.2.4
atomicity, statement-level, 10.1.3
AUDIT statement, 7.2.1
auditing, 6.1, 6.1.3, 7.2.1, 8.4.1, 11.1.3, 13.2.1.4.1, 19.1.6.1
application contexts, 19.1.6.1
Audit Administrator role, 19.1.6.1.2
audit configurations, 18.3.4
audit policies, 18.3.4, 18.3.4, 19.1.5.3, 19.1.6.1.1
audit records, 19.1.6.2
common objects, 18.3.4
fine-grained, 19.1.6.1
Oracle Audit Vault, 19.1.6.4
Oracle Label Security, 19.1.5.3
standard, 19.1.6.1
unified audit trail, 16.1.2.3, 19.1.5.3, 19.1.6.2
authentication, database, 7.2.4, 15.2.2, 19.1.2
Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor. See ADDM
automatic maintenance tasks, 20.3.4.2
automatic memory management, 20.3.2.1, 20.3.2.2
automatic undo management, 12.4.3
AutoTask, 20.3.4.2, 20.3.4.2

B

background processes, 15.4
backups, database, 20.3.1.3.1
bitmap indexes, 3.1.3, 3.1.3, 4.1.3.1
bitmap joins, 3.1.3.2
locks, 3.1.3
mapping table, 3.2.3.2
single-table, 3.1.3.1
storage, 3.1.3.3
bitmap tablespace management, 12.1.2.1
blocking transactions, 9.2.1.2
blocks, data. See data blocks
BOOLEAN data type, 2.2.4, 3.1.2.2.3, 7.2.2.1, 8.4.4, Glossary
branch blocks, index, 3.1.2.1
B-tree indexes, 2.2.6.3, 2.6.1, 3.1.2, Glossary
branch level, 3.1.2.1
height, 3.1.2.1
key compression, 3.1.2.5
reverse key, 3.1.2.3
buffer cache, database. See database buffer cache
buffers. See database buffers
business rules, enforcing, 5.1.1

C

cache fusion, 9.1.1.3
cardinality, column, 3.1.3, 7.3.2.2
Cartesian joins, 7.2.2.2
cartridges, 3.1.5
cascading deletions, 5.2.4.3
catalog.sql script, 6.2.1
CDBs, 1.5.5
about, 17.1
containers, 17.1.1
creation, 17.3.1
data dictionary, 18.1.3
files, 18.4
metadata links, 18.1.3.2
object links, 18.1.3.2
Oracle Data Pump, 17.3.2.4
root container, 18.1.1
chaining, rows. See row chaining
character data types, 2.2.4.1
CHAR, 2.2.4.1.1
VARCHAR2, 2.2.4.1
character sets, 2.2.4.1
ASCII, 2.2.4.1
EBCDIC, 2.2.4.1
Unicode, 2.2.4.1
check constraints, 5.2, 5.2.5
checkpoint process (CKPT), 15.4.1.6
checkpoints
control files, 11.3.1
database shutdowns, 13.2.2.1
definition, 13.3
inconsistent backups, 20.3.1.3.2
incremental, 13.3.2
position, 13.4.4
thread, 13.3.2
client processes, 15.2
connections and, 15.2.2
sessions and, 15.2.2
shared server processes and, 16.3.4.1.2
client result cache, 14.4.3.3
client/server architecture, 16.1.1
client-side programming, 8.1
cluster indexes, 2.6.1, Glossary
clusters, table, 2.6.2
cluster keys, 2.6
hash, 2.6.2
index, 2.6.2
Codd, E. F., 1.1.2
code points, 2.2.4.1
collections, PL/SQL, 8.2.5.1
columns
cardinality, 3.1.3, 3.1.3, 7.3.2.2
definition, 1.2.1, 2.2.1
invisible, 2.2.1.2
multiple indexes on, 3.1.1.2
order of, 2.2.6.1
prohibiting nulls in, 5.2.1
virtual, 2.2.1.1, 2.2.6.1, 3.1.4.2
COMMENT statement, 7.2.1
COMMIT statement, 7.2.3
committing transactions
COMMIT statement, 7.2.3
defined, 10.1
ending transactions, 10.1.2.2
fast commit, 15.4.1.5.1, 15.4.1.5.1
group commits, 15.4.1.5.1
implementation, 15.4.1.5.1
implicit commits, 7.2.1
lost commit problem, 10.3.2.1
two-phase commit, 10.6.1
common users, 17.1.1, 18.3.1.1
compiled PL/SQL
pseudocode, 8.4.6
shared pool, 8.2.6
triggers, 8.4.6
complete recovery, 20.3.1.4.4, 20.3.1.4.4
composite indexes, 3.1.1.2, 3.1.1.2, 3.1.1.2
composite partitioning, 4.1.1.2
compound triggers, 8.4.3
compression
basic table, 2.2.6.5.1
data block, 12.2.3
Hybrid Columnar Compression, 2.2.6.5.2
index key, 3.1.2.5
OLTP table, 2.2.6.5.1
online archival, 2.2.6.5.3
table, 2.2.6.5, 4.1.2
warehouse, 2.2.6.5.3
concatenated indexes, 3.1.1.2, 3.1.1.2
concurrency
definition, 9.1
dirty reads, 9.1.3
fuzzy reads, 9.1.3
phantom reads, 9.1.3
row locks, 9.4.1.1.1
transaction isolation, 9.1.3, 9.2.2, 9.2.3
conditions, SQL, 7.1.1, 7.2.2.1
conflicting writes, 9.2.1.2
connections, client/server
administrator privileges, 13.2.1.1
definition, 15.2.2
embedded SQL, 7.2.6
listener process, 16.3.2
sessions contrasted with, 15.2.2
consistency
conflicting writes, 9.2.1.2
definition, 9.1
locks, 9.1.2, 9.5
multiversioning, 9.1, 9.1.1
constraints, integrity
check, 5.2, 5.2.5
default values, 5.3.3.1
deferrable, 5.2.3, 5.3.2.2, 5.3.2.2, 7.2.3
enabling and disabling, 5.3.1
enforced with indexes, 5.2.3
foreign key, 5.2, 5.2.4
mechanisms of enforcement, 5.3.3
NOT NULL, 2.2.3, 5.2, 5.2.1
primary key, 2.2.3, 5.2, 5.2.3
REF, 5.2
referential, 5.2.4.3
self-referential, 5.2.4.1
state of, 5.3
unique key, 5.2, 5.2.2, 5.2.2
validating, 5.3.1
containers, CDB, 17.1.1, 18.1
root, 18.1.1
contention
deadlocks, 9.3.6
contexts, 2.1.1
control files, 11.3
changes recorded, 11.3.1
checkpoints and, 11.3.1
contents, 11.3.1
multiplexed, 11.3.2
overview, 11.3
used in mounting database, 13.2.1.3
CREATE CLUSTER statement, 2.6.1
CREATE DIMENSION statement, 4.5.2, 4.5.2
CREATE GLOBAL TEMPORARY TABLE statement, 2.3.1
CREATE INDEX statement, 2.3.1, 3.1.1.1, 3.1.1.2, 3.1.2.4, 3.1.2.4, 3.1.4.1, 3.1.6
storage parameters, 12.4.1.1
CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW statement, 4.3
CREATE SEQUENCE statement, 4.4.1
CREATE SYNONYM statement, 4.6
CREATE TABLE statement, 2.2, 2.2.3
CREATE TRIGGER statement
compiled and stored, 8.4.6
CREATE UNIQUE INDEX statement, 5.2.3
CREATE USER statement
temporary segments, 12.4.2.1
cursors
embedded SQL, 7.2.6
explicit, 8.2.4
fetching rows, 7.2.6

D

data blocks, 12.1
cached in memory, 14.4.1.6
clustered rows, 2.6
coalescing free space in blocks, 12.2.4.2.2
compression, 12.2.3
format, 12.2.2, 12.2.2.2
locks stored in, 9.4.1.1.2
overview, 12.1.1
shown in rowids, 12.2.2.2.3
stored in the buffer cache, 14.4.1
writing to disk, 14.4.1.6
data conversion
program interface, 16.4
data dictionary, 2.1.4, 2.2.5
ALL_ prefixed views, 6.1.1.2
cache, 14.4.3
CDBs, 18.1.3
comments in, 7.2.1
content, 6.1.1, 14.4.3.2
DBA_ prefixed views, 6.1.1.1
dictionary managed tablespaces, 12.1.2.2
DUAL table, 6.1.1.4
locks, 9.4.2
overview, 6.1
owner, 6.1.3
PDBs, 17.2.2
public synonyms, 6.1.3.1
stored subprograms, 8.2.1.2
USER_ prefixed views, 6.1.1.3
uses, 6.2
data dictionary cache, 6.1.3.2, 14.4.3, 14.4.3.2
data failures, protecting against human errors, 10.3, 10.3, 19.2.1.5
data files
contents, 11.2.4
data file 1, 12.5.1.1
moving online, 11.2.3
named in control files, 11.3.1
shown in rowids, 12.2.2.2.3
SYSTEM tablespace, 12.5.1.1
temporary, 11.2.2
data integrity, 5.1
enforcing, 5.1, 6.1.3
SQL and, 7.1
data manipulation language. See DML
data object number, extended rowid, 12.2.2.2.3
Data Recovery Advisor, 20.3.1.4.2
data redaction, 19.1.4
random, 19.1.4
data segments, 12.4.1
data types
BOOLEAN, 2.2.4, 3.1.2.2.3, 7.2.2.1, 8.4.4, Glossary
built-in, 2.2.4
CHAR, 2.2.4.1.1
character, 2.2.4.1
composite types, 2.2.4
conversions by program interface, 16.4
DATE, 2.2.4.3.1
datetime, 2.2.4.3
definition, 2.2.4
format models, 2.2.4.3.1
how they relate to tables, 2.2.1
in PL/SQL, 2.2.4
LONG, 2.2.6.1
NCHAR, 2.2.4.1.2
NUMBER, 2.2.4.2.1
numeric, 2.2.4.2
NVARCHAR2, 2.2.4.1.2
object, 2.5
reference types, 2.2.4
ROWID, 2.2.4.4
TIMESTAMP, 2.2.4.3.2
UROWID, 2.2.4.4
user-defined, 2.2.4, 4.2.3
data warehouses
architecture, 19.4.2
bitmap indexes in, 3.1.3
dimensions, 4.5
materialized views, 4.3
partitioning in, 4.1
summaries, 4.3
database applications, 1.1.1
database authentication, 7.2.4, 15.2.2
database backups, 20.3.1.3.1
database buffer cache, 2.2.6.5, 14.4.1, 15.4.1.4
cache hits and misses, 14.4.1.4.3
caching of comments, 6.1.3.2
database buffers
after committing transactions, 10.2.5
buffer bodies in flash cache, 14.4.1.4.3
buffer cache, 14.4.1
checkpoint position, 15.4.1.4
committing transactions, 15.4.1.5.1
definition, 14.4.1
writing, 15.4.1.4
Database Configuration Assistant, 6.2.1
Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA), 20.2.3
database consolidation, 17.2.1
database instances. See instances, database
database links, PDBs, 18.1.2.4
database objects, 1.2
database operations, 15.2.3
database resident connection pooling, 16.3.5
Database Resource Manager, 17.2.1, 19.1.1.4, 19.3.1.3, 20.3.3.1
Database Server Grid, 19.3
description, 19.3.1
Database Storage Grid, 19.3
description, 19.3.3
database structures
control files, 11.3
data blocks, 12, 12.2, 12.2.5
data files, 11
extents, 12.1
processes, 15
segments, 12.1, 12.4
tablespaces, 11, 12.5
Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA), 17.1.2, 20.2.3
multitenant architecture support, 17.1.2
database writer process (DBW), 15.4.1.4
multiple DBWn processes, 15.4.1.4
database writer process (DBWn)
checkpoints, 15.4.1.4
defined, 15.4.1.4
least recently used algorithm (LRU), 14.4.1.6
write-ahead, 15.4.1.5
databases
administrative accounts, 2.1.4
closing, 13.2.2.2
terminating the instance, 13.2.2.2.2
definition, 1.1
distributed
changing global database name, 14.4.3.1.3
hierarchical, 1.1.1
history, 1.1.4
incarnations, 20.3.1.4.4
introduction, 1
mounting, 13.2.1.3
name stored in control files, 11.3.1
network, 1.1.1
object-relational, 1.1.3
opening, 13.2.1.4, 13.2.1.4.1
relational, 1.1.2, 1.1.3, 7.1
shutting down, 13.2.2
starting up, 2.1.4, 13.1
forced, 13.2.2.4
structures
control files, 11.3
data blocks, 12, 12.2, 12.2.5
data files, 11
extents, 12.1, 12.3
logical, 12
processes, 15
segments, 12.1, 12.4
tablespaces, 11, 12.5
DATE data type, 2.2.4.3, 2.2.4.3.1
datetime data types, 2.2.4.3
DBA_ views, 6.1.1.1
DBMS (database management system), 1.1.1
DBMS_METADATA package, 6.3
DBMS_RADM package, 19.1.4
DBMS_SQL_MONITOR package, 15.2.3
DBMS_STATS package, 7.3.4
DBW background process, 15.4.1.4
DDL (data definition language), 6.1
described, 7.2.1
locks, 9.4.2
deadlocks, 7.4.1.1
definition, 9.3.6
decision support systems (DSS)
materialized views, 4.3
default values
constraints effect on, 5.3.3.1
definer’s rights, 8.2.1.1
DELETE statement, 7.2.2
freeing space in data blocks, 12.2.4.2
deletions, cascading, 5.2.4.3
denormalized tables, 4.5.2
dependencies, schema object, 2.1.3
descending indexes, 3.1.2.4
dictionary cache locks, 9.4.3.3
dictionary managed tablespaces, 12.1.2.2
dimensions, 4.5
attributes, 4.5.2
hierarchies, 4.5.2
join key, 4.5.2
normalized or denormalized tables, 4.5.2
tables, 4.5.1
directory objects, 2.1.1
dirty reads, 9.1.1, 9.1.3, Glossary
disk space
data files used to allocate, 11.2.4, 11.2.4
dispatcher processes
described, 16.3.4.1.1
dispatcher processes (Dnnn)
client processes connect through Oracle Net Services, 16.3.4, 16.3.4.1.1
network protocols and, 16.3.4.1.1
prevent startup and shutdown, 16.3.4.2
response queue and, 16.3.4.1
distributed databases
client/server architectures and, 16.1.1.1
job queue processes, 15.4.2.2
recoverer process (RECO) and, 15.4.1.8
server can also be client in, 16.1.1.1
transactions, 10.6
distributed transactions, 10.2.1, 10.6
in-doubt, 10.6.2
naming, 10.2.1
two-phase commit and, 10.6
DML (data manipulation language)
indexed columns, 3.1.3
invisible indexes, 3.1.1, 3.1.1
locks, 9.4.1
overview, 7.2.2
referential actions, 5.2.4.3
triggers, 8.4.1
downtime
avoiding during planned maintenance, 19.2.2
avoiding during unplanned maintenance, 19.2.1.2
drivers, 16.4.2
DUAL table, 6.1.1.4
dynamic partitioning, 15.4.3.2.3
dynamic SQL
DBMS_SQL package, 8.2.4
embedded, 8.2.4

E

embedded SQL, 7.1, 7.2.6, 8.3.2.2.2
enqueued transactions, 10.2.3.2
Enterprise Grids
with Oracle Real Application Clusters, 19.3
Enterprise Manager
alert log, 13.6.2
dynamic performance views usage, 6.2
executing a package, 8.2.2.3
lock and latch monitors, 9.4.3
multitenant architecture support, 17.1.2
shutdown, 13.2.2.1, 13.2.2.4
equijoins, 3.1.3.2
errors, recoverable, 10.3, 19.2.1.4
exceptions, PL/SQL, 8.2.4
exclusive locks, 9.3.3
row locks (TX), 9.4.1.1
table locks (TM), 9.4.1.2
EXECUTE statement, 8.2.1.3
execution plans, 4.3.3, 7.3.1, 7.3.2.3, 20.3.4.5.4
EXPLAIN PLAN, 7.2.2
EXPLAIN PLAN statement, 7.2.2, 20.3.4.5.1
explicit locking, 9.5, 9.5
expressions, SQL, 3.1.1.1, 7.2.2.1
extents
as collections of data blocks, 12.3
deallocation, 12.3.2
defined, 12.1.1
dictionary managed, 12.1.2.2
incremental, 12.3.1
locally managed, 12.1.2.1
overview of, 12.3
external procedures, 8.2.6
external tables, 2.2
extraction, transformation, and loading (ETL)
overview, 19.4.3

F

fact tables, 4.5.1
failures
database buffers and, 13.4.1
statement and process, 15.4.1.1
fast commit, 15.4.1.5.1
fast full index scans, 3.1.2.2.2
fast refresh, 4.3.2
fast-start
rollback on demand, 13.4.4
fields, 2.2.3
file management locks, 9.4.3.3
files
alert log, 15.4.1.5.2
initialization parameter, 13.2.1.2, 13.5
password
administrator privileges, 13.2.1.1
server parameter, 13.2.1.2, 13.5
trace files, 15.4.1.5.2
fine-grained auditing, 19.1.6.1
fixed views, 6.2.1
flash cache
buffer reads, 14.4.1.4.3
optimized physical reads, 14.4.1.4.3
floating-point numbers, 2.2.4.2.2
foreign key constraints, 5.2
foreign keys, 2.2.3, 5.2.4
changes in parent key values, 5.2.4.3
composite, 5.2.4
indexing, 3.1.1.1
updating parent key tables, 5.2.4.3
updating tables, 9.4.1.3
format models, data type, 2.2.4.3.1, 2.2.4.5
free space
automatic segment space management, 12.2.4
managing, 12.2.4
full index scans, 3.1.2.2.1
full table scans, 3.1, 3.1.2.2.2, 5.2.4.4, 7.3.3
LRU algorithm and, 14.4.1.6
parallel exe, 15.4.3.2.3
function-based indexes, 3.1.4
functions, 7.2.2.1
function-based indexes, 3.1.4
hash, 4.1.1.2.3
PL/SQL, 8.2.1
SQL, 2.2.4.4.2
fuzzy reads, 9.1.3

G

global database names
shared pool and, 14.4.3.1.3
global indexes, 4.1.3, 4.1.3.2
GoldenGate, 16.2.2, 16.2.2.1, 17.3.2.4, 19.5.2
GRANT statement, 4.6, 7.2.1
grid computing
Database Server Grid, 19.3
Database Storage Grid, 19.3
group commits, 15.4.1.5.1
GV$ views, 6.2.1

H

handles for SQL statements, 14.3.1.1
hash clusters, 2.6.2, 2.6.2
cluster keys, 2.6.2.1
hash collisions, 2.6.2.4
hash key values, 2.6.2.1
queries, 2.6.2.2
single-table, 2.6.2.3
storage, 2.6.2.4
hash functions, 2.6.2, 4.1.1.2.3
hash partitions, 4.1.1.2.3
headers, data block, 9.4.1.1.2
headers, data blocks, 12.2.2.1
Health Monitor, 20.3.1.4.2
heap-organized tables, 2.1.2, 3.2
height, index, 3.1.2.1
hierarchies
join key, 4.5.2
levels, 4.5.2
hints, optimizer, 7.3.1, 7.3.5
Hybrid Columnar Compression, 2.2.6.5.2

I

implicit queries, 7.2.2.3
incarnations, database, 20.3.1.4.4
incremental refresh, 4.3.2
index unique scans, 3.1.2.2.4
indexes
application domain, 3.1.5
ascending, 3.1.2.4
bitmap, 3.1.3, 4.1.3.1
bitmap join, 3.1.3.2
branch blocks, 3.1.2.1
B-tree, 2.2.6.3, 3.1.2
cardinality, 3.1.3
composite, 3.1.1.2, 3.1.1.2
compressed, 3.1.2.5
concatenated, 3.1.1.2
descending, 3.1.2.4
domain, 3.1.5
enforcing integrity constraints, 5.2.3
extensible, 3.1.5
function-based, 3.1.4
global, 4.1.3, 4.1.3.2
invisible, 3.1.1
keys, 3.1.1.1, 3.1.2.5, 5.2.3
leaf blocks, 3.1.2.1
multiple, 3.1.1.2
nonprefixed, local, 4.1.3.1.1
nonunique, 3.1.1.3
overview, 3.1
partitions, 4.1.3
prefixed, local, 4.1.3.1.1
reverse key, 3.1.2.3
scans, 3.1.2.2, 3.1.2.2.3, 3.1.2.2.5, 7.3.3
secondary, 3.2.3
segments, 3.1.3.3
selectivity, 3.1.2.2.3
storage, 3.1.6
storage space, 4.1.4
types, 3.1.1.4
unique, 3.1.1.3
indexes, local, 4.1.3
indexes, partitioned
partial global, 4.1.4
index-organized tables, 3.2, 3.2.3
benefits, 3.2
partitioned, 4.1.5
row overflow, 3.2.2
secondary indexes, 3.2.3
in-flight transactions, 10.3
information systems, 1.1
initialization parameter file, 13.2.1.2, 13.5
startup, 13.2.1.2
initialization parameters
basic, 13.5.1
OPEN_CURSORS, 14.3.1.1
SERVICE_NAMES, 16.3.2.2
INIT.ORA. See initialization parameter file.
inner joins, 7.2.2.2
INSERT statement, 7.2.2
instances, database, 7.2.5, 13.1
associating with databases, 13.2.1.3
failure, 11.4.1
failures, 9.4.1.1
memory structures of, 14.1
process structure, 15.1
recovery of
SMON process, 15.4.1.3
service names, 16.3.2
shutting down, 13.2.2, 13.2.2.4
terminating, 13.2.2.2.2
INSTEAD OF triggers, 8.4.2
integrity constraints, 5.1
advantages, 5.1
check, 5.2.5
definition, 2.2.5
views, 4.2.1.1
internal locks, 9.4.3.3
invisible indexes, 3.1.1
invoker’s rights, 8.2.1.1
isolation levels
read-only, 9.2.3
serialization, 9.2.2
setting, 9.5
isolation levels, transaction, 9.1.3
read committed, 9.2.1

J

Java
call specifications, 8.3.2.1
overview, 8.3
SQLJ translator, 8.3.2.2.2
stored procedures, 1.3.2, 8.3.2.1
virtual machine, 8.3.1
JDBC
accessing SQL, 8.3.2.2
driver types, 8.3.2.2.1
drivers, 8.3.2.2.1
embedded SQL, 7.2.6
job queue processes, 15.4.2.2
jobs, 15.1
join views, 4.2.2
joins, 6.1.1
views, 4.2.2
joins, table, 3.1.3.2, 7.2.2.2
Cartesian, 7.2.2.2
clustered tables, 2.6
conditions, 3.1.3.2
inner joins, 7.2.2.2
join conditions, 7.2.2.2
outer joins, 7.2.2.2
views, 4.2

K

keys
compression, 3.1.2.5
concatenation of index, 3.1.2.5
foreign, 5.2.4, 5.2.4
indexes, 3.1.1.1, 3.1.2.5, 5.2.3
natural, 5.2.3
parent, 5.2.4
partition, 4.1.1.1
prefixed index, 3.1.2.1, 3.1.2.5
referenced, 5.2.4
reverse, 3.1.2.3
surrogate, 5.2.3
unique, 5.2.2
values, 5.2

L

large pool, 14.4.4
latches
definition, 9.4.3.1
leaf blocks, index, 3.1.2.1
least recently used (LRU) algorithm
database buffers and, 14.4.1.4.1, 14.4.1.4.1
full table scans and, 14.4.1.6
latches, 14.4.1.6
shared SQL pool, 14.4.3.1.3, 14.4.3.1.3
LGWR background process, 15.4.1.5
library cache, 14.4.3, 14.4.3.1
list partitions, 4.1.1.2.2
Listener Control utility, 20.2.4
listener process, 16.3.2
service names, 16.3.2
listeners, 16.3.2
service names, 16.3.2
local indexes, 4.1.3
local role, 18.3.2.2
local rules, 18.3.2.2
local users, 18.3.1.2
locally managed tablespaces, 12.1.2.1
LOCK TABLE statement, 7.2.2
locks, 9.1.2
after committing transactions, 10.2.5
automatic, 9.3.2, 9.4
bitmap indexes, 3.1.3
conversion, 9.3.3, 9.3.3, 9.3.4
deadlocks, 7.4.1.1, 9.3.6
dictionary, 9.4.2
dictionary cache, 9.4.3.3
DML, 9.4.1
duration, 9.3.2, 9.3.5
escalation, 9.3.3
exclusive, 9.3.3
exclusive DDL, 9.4.2.1
exclusive table, 9.4.1.2
file management locks, 9.4.3.3
latches, 9.4.3.1
log management locks, 9.4.3.3
manual, 9.5
overview of, 9.1.2
parse, 9.4.2.3
restrictiveness, 9.3.3
rollback segments, 9.4.3.3
row (TX), 9.4.1.1
row exclusive table, 9.4.1.2
row share, 9.4.1.2
share DDL, 9.4.2.2
share locks, 9.3.3
share row exclusive, 9.4.1.2
share table, 9.4.1.2
system, 9.4.3
table, 3.1, 7.2.2
table (TM), 9.4.1.2
tablespace, 9.4.3.3
types of, 9.4
unindexed foreign keys and, 9.4.1.3
user-defined, 9.6
log management locks, 9.4.3.3
log switch
archiver process, 15.4.2.1
log switches
log sequence numbers, 11.4.2.1
log writer process (LGWR), 15.4.1.5
group commits, 15.4.1.5.1
online redo logs available for use, 11.4.2.1
redo log buffers and, 14.4.2
write-ahead, 15.4.1.5
writing to online redo log files, 11.4.2.1
logical database structures
definition, 1.5.2.2
tablespaces, 12.5
logical rowids, 3.2.3
logical transaction IDs, 10.3.2.2
LONG data type
storage of, 2.2.6.1
lost updates, 9.2.1.2
LRU, 14.4.1.4.1, 14.4.1.4.1, 14.4.1.6, 14.4.1.6
shared SQL pool, 14.4.3.1.3, 14.4.3.1.3

M

maintenance tasks, automatic, 20.3.4.2
maintenance window, 20.3.4.2
manual locking, 9.5
mapping tables, 3.2.3.2
master tables, 4.3
materialized views, 4.3
partitioned, 4.3.1
refresh
job queue processes, 15.4.2.2
refreshing, 4.3.2
media recovery
complete, 20.3.1.4.4, 20.3.1.4.4
overview, 20.3.1.4.4, 20.3.1.4.4, 20.3.1.4.4, 20.3.1.4.4, 20.3.1.4.4
memory
allocation for SQL statements, 14.4.3.1.1
content of, 14.1
processes use of, 15.1
stored procedures, 8.2.1.1
memory management
about, 20.3.2
automatic, 20.3.2.1
automatic shared, 20.3.2.2
MERGE statement, 7.2.2
metadata links, in CDBs, 18.1.3.2
metrics, 6.2, 20.3.4.1
monitoring user actions, 19.1.6.1
multiblock writes, 15.4.1.4
multiplexing
control files, 11.3.2
redo log file groups, 11.4.2.2
redo log files, 11.4.2.2, 11.4.2.2
multitenant architecture, 17.1
user interfaces, 17.1.2
multitenant container databases. See CDBs, 11.1.1
multiversion read consistency, 6.2.2, 9.1, 9.1.1, 9.1.3, 12.4.3, 12.4.3.2
dirty reads, 9.1.1, Glossary
read committed isolation level, 9.2.1.1
statement-level, 1.4.3, 9.1.1.1
transaction-level, 9.1.1.2
undo segments, 9.1.1.3
mutexes, 9.4.3.2

N

natural keys, 5.2.3
NCHAR data type, 2.2.4.1.2
network listener process
connection requests, 16.3.4.1.1
networks
client/server architecture use of, 16.1.1
communication protocols, 16.4.2, 16.4.3
dispatcher processes and, 16.3.4.1.1, 16.3.4.1.1
drivers, 16.4.2
listener processes of, 16.3.2
Oracle Net Services, 16.3
NLS_DATE_FORMAT parameter, 2.2.4.3.1
NOAUDIT statement, 7.2.1
non-CDBs, 1.5.5, 17.1
nonunique indexes, 3.1.1.3
normalized tables, 4.5.2
NOT NULL constraints, 5.2, 5.2.1
nulls, 2.2.3
foreign keys, 5.2.4.2
how stored, 2.2.3, 2.2.6.4
indexed, 3.1.1.3
prohibiting, 5.2.1
NUMBER data type, 2.2.4.2.1
numeric data types, 2.2.4.2
floating-point numbers, 2.2.4.2.2
NVARCHAR2 data type, 2.2.4.1.2

O

object links, in CDBs, 18.1.3.2
object tables, 2.5
object types, 2.5, 4.2.3
object views, 4.2.3
OLAP
index-organized tables, 3.2
introduction, 19.4.4.2
OLTP
table compression, 2.2.6.5.1
online analytical processing
See OLAP
online redo log, 11.4.1, 12.4.3.2
archiver process (ARCn), 15.4.2.1
buffer management, 15.4.1.5
checkpoints, 11.3.1
committed data, 13.4.1
committing a transaction, 15.4.1.5.1
log switch
archiver process, 15.4.2.1
log writer process, 14.4.2, 15.4.1.5
rolling forward, 13.4.1
undo data in, 12.4.3.3
writing buffers, 15.4.1.5
OPEN_CURSORS parameter
managing private SQL areas, 14.3.1.1
operating systems
communications software, 16.4.3
privileges for administrator, 13.2.1.1
operators, SQL, 7.2.2.1
optimized physical reads, 14.4.1.4.3
optimizer, 7.1.1, 7.3, 7.3
adaptive optimization, 7.3.2.3
components, 7.3.2
estimator, 7.3.2.2
execution, 7.4.1.4
execution plans, 4.3.3, 7.3.1, 7.3.2.3, 7.4.1.3, 20.3.4.5.4
function-based indexes, 3.1.4.2
hints, 7.3.1, 7.3.5
invisible indexes, 3.1.1, 3.1.1
partitions in query plans, 4.1
plan generator, 7.3.2.3
query plans, 7.4.1.3
query transformer, 4.3.3, 7.3.2.1
row sources, 7.4.1.3, 7.4.1.3
statistics, 2.2.6.1, 7.3.4, 20.3.4.2
Oracle ASM (Automatic Storage Management), 11.1.2, 11.1.2.1, 19.3.3
Oracle Audit Vault, 19.1.6.4
Oracle Automatic Storage Management. See Oracle ASM
Oracle blocks, 12.1.1
Oracle Call Interface. See OCI
Oracle code, 16.4
Oracle Connection Manager Control utility, 20.2.4
Oracle Data Pump, 12.5.1, 17.3.2.4, 20.2.5.2
dump file set, 20.2.5.2
Oracle Enterprise Manager, 20.2.1
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control, 20.2.1.1
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express, 20.2.1.2
Oracle Enterprise Manager. See Enterprise Manager
Oracle Flashback Technology, 20.3.1.4.1
Oracle interMedia
See Oracle Multimedia
Oracle Internet Directory, 16.3.2.2
Oracle JVM
main components, 8.3.1.2
overview, 8.3.1.1
Oracle Label Security, 19.1.5.3
Oracle LogMiner, 20.2.5.3
Oracle Management Agents, 20.2.1.1
Oracle Management Repository, 20.2.1.1
Oracle Management Service (OMS), 20.2.1.1
Oracle Multimedia, 21.3.4.4
Oracle Multitenant option, 17
Oracle Net Configuration Assistant, 20.2.4
multitenant architecture support, 17.1.2
Oracle Net Manager, 20.2.4
Oracle Net Services, 16.3
client/server systems use of, 16.3
overview, 16.3
shared server requirement, 16.3.4.1.1
Oracle Net Services Connection Manager, 8.3
Oracle processes, 15.3
Oracle program interface (OPI), 16.4.1, 16.4.1
Oracle RAC. See Oracle Real Application Clusters
Oracle Real Application Clusters, 6.2.1
Enterprise Grids, 19.3
reverse key indexes, 3.1.2.3
Oracle Secure Backup, 20.3.1.1
Oracle Spatial and Graph, 21.3.4.5
Oracle Text, 21.3.4.3
Oracle Universal Installer (OUI), 20.2.3
Oracle XA
session memory in the large pool, 14.4.4
ORDBMS (object-relational database management system), 1.1.3
outer joins, 7.2.2.2

P

packages, 8.2.2
advantages of, 8.2.2.1
executing, 8.2.6
for locking, 9.6
private, 8.2.2.1
public, 8.2.2.1
shared SQL areas and, 14.4.3.1.2
pages, 12.1.1
parallel execution, 15.4.3.2
coordinator, 15.4.3.2.3
server, 15.4.3.2.3
servers, 15.4.3.2.3
tuning, 15.4.3.2
parallel SQL, 15.4.3.2
coordinator process, 15.4.3.2.3
server processes, 15.4.3.2.3
parameter
server, 13.5
parameters
initialization, 13.5
locking behavior, 9.4
parse locks, 9.4.2.3
parsing
embedded SQL, 7.2.6
storage of information, 6.1.3.2
parsing, SQL, 7.4.1.1
hard parse, 9.4.3.1
partial global partitioned indexes, 4.1.4
partitions
composite, 4.1.1.2
dynamic partitioning, 15.4.3.2.3
elimination from queries, 4.1.3.1.1
index, 4.1.3
index-organized tables, 4.1.5
keys, 4.1.1.1
materialized views, 4.3.1
range, 4.1.1.2
segments, 12.4.1
single-level, 4.1.1.2
strategies, 4.1.1.2
table, 4.1.2
tables, 4.1.5
partitions, table, 4.1.4
passwords
administrator privileges, 13.2.1.1
connecting with, 15.2.2
PCTFREE storage parameter
how it works, 12.2.4.1
PDBs, 1.5.5
about, 17.1
benefits, 17.2
consolidation of data into, 17.3
containers, 18.1
creation, 17.3.2
data dictionary, 17.2.2
database links, 18.1.2.4
definition, 18.1.2
purpose of, 18.1.2.1
performance
group commits, 15.4.1.5.1
packages, 8.2.2.1
phantom reads, 9.1.3
physical database structures
control files, 11.3
physical guesses, 3.2.3.1
plan
SQL execution, 7.2.2
planned downtime
avoiding downtime during, 19.2.2
PL/SQL
anonymous blocks, 8.2, 8.2.3
collections, 8.2.5.1
data types, 2.2.4
dynamic SQL, 8.2.4
exceptions, 8.2.4
execution, 8.2.6
language constructs, 8.2.4
overview, 8.2
packages, 6.3, 8.2.2
PL/SQL engine, 8.2.6
program units, 8.2, 14.4.3.1.2
compiled, 8.2.6
shared SQL areas and, 14.4.3.1.2
records, 8.2.5.1
stored procedures, 1.3.2, 6.1.1.2, 8.2, 8.2.1
pluggable databases. See PDBs
PMON background process, 15.4.1.1
pragmas, PL/SQL, 10.5
precompilers, 8.1
embedded SQL, 7.2.6, 7.2.6
predicates, SQL, 3.1.2.2.1
SQL
predicates, 7.1.1
primary key constraints, 5.2
primary keys, 2.2.3, 3.1
constraints, 5.2.3, 5.2.3, 5.2.3
hash clusters, 2.6.2.3
index-organized tables, 2.2
private SQL areas, 14.4.3.1.1
described, 14.4.3.1.1
how managed, 14.3.1.1
parsing and, 7.4.1.1
private synonyms, 4.6
privileges, 6.1, 7.2.4
administrator, 13.2.1.1, 13.2.1.1
granting, 7.2.1
PL/SQL procedures and, 8.2.1.1
revoking, 7.2.1
privileges, database
granting, 19.1.1.3
privilege profiler, 19.1.1.3
procedures
advantages, 8.2.1.1
execution, 8.2.1.3, 8.2.1.3, 8.2.6
external, 8.2.6
memory allocation, 8.2.1.1
security, 8.2.1.1
shared SQL areas and, 14.4.3.1.2
stored procedures, 1.3.2, 6.1.1.2, 8.2, 8.2.6
process monitor process (PMON)
described, 15.4.1.1
processes, 15.1
archiver (ARCn), 15.4.2.1
background, 15.4
checkpoints and, 15.4.1.4
client, 15.2
dedicated server, 16.3.4.1.2
distributed transaction resolution, 15.4.1.8
job queue, 15.4.2.2
listener, 16.3.2
shared servers and, 16.3.4.1.1
log writer (LGWR), 15.4.1.5
Oracle, 15.3
parallel execution coordinator, 15.4.3.2.3
parallel execution servers, 15.4.3.2.3
process monitor (PMON), 15.4.1.1
recoverer (RECO), 15.4.1.8
server, 15.3
shared, 16.3.4.1.1, 16.3.4.1.2
shared server, 16.3.4
client requests and, 16.3.4.1
structure, 15.1
system monitor (SMON), 15.4.1.3
user
recovery from failure of, 15.4.1.1
sharing server processes, 16.3.4.1.1
processing
parallel SQL, 15.4.3.2
program global area (PGA), 14.1.1
shared server, 16.3.4.1.2
shared servers, 16.3.4.1.2
program interface, 16.4
Oracle side (OPI), 16.4.1
structure of, 16.4.1
user side (UPI), 16.4.1
program units, 8.2
shared pool and, 14.4.3.1.2
programming, server-side, 8.1
pseudocode
triggers, 8.4.6
pseudocolumns, 2.2.4.4.2, 3.2.1
public synonyms, 4.6

Q

queries
blocks, 7.2.2.3
definition, 7.2.2.1
implicit, 7.2.2.3, 9.2.1.1
in DML, 7.2.2
parallel processing, 15.4.3.2
query blocks, 7.3.2.3
query transformer, 7.3.2.1
SQL language and, 7.1
stored, 4.2
subqueries, 4.2, 7.2.2, 7.2.2.3
query blocks, 7.3.2.3
query plans, 7.4.1.3
partitioning and, 4.1
query rewrite, 4.5
query transformer, 4.3.3

R

range partitions, 4.1.1.2
RDBMS (relational database management system), 1.1.3
read committed isolation, 9.2.1
read consistency. See multiversion read consistency
read uncommitted, 9.1.3
read-only isolation level, 9.2.3
Real Application Clusters
cache fusion, 9.1.1.3
system monitor process and, 15.4.1.3
threads of online redo log, 11.4.2
records, PL/SQL, 8.2.5.1
recoverable errors, 10.3, 19.2.1.4
recoverer process (RECO), 15.4.1.8
in-doubt transactions, 10.6.2
recovery
complete, 20.3.1.4.4
database buffers and, 13.4.1
distributed processing in, 15.4.1.8
instance recovery
SMON process, 15.4.1.3
media, 20.3.1.4.4, 20.3.1.4.4, 20.3.1.4.4, 20.3.1.4.4
media recovery
dispatcher processes, 16.3.4.2
process recovery, 15.4.1.1
required after terminating instance, 13.2.2.2.2, 13.2.2.2.2
rolling back transactions, 13.4.4
tablespace
point-in-time, 20.3.1.4.4
Recovery Manager (RMAN), 6.2
redaction, data, 19.1.4
policies, 19.1.4
redo log buffer, 11.4.1
redo log files
See also online redo log
available for use, 11.4.2.1
circular use of, 11.4.2.1
contents of, 11.4.3
distributed transaction information in, 11.4.2
group members, 11.4.2.2
groups, defined, 11.4.2.2
instance recovery use of, 11.4
LGWR and the, 11.4.2.1
members, 11.4.2.2
multiplexed, 11.4.2.2, 11.4.2.2
online, defined, 11.4
redo entries, 11.4.3
threads, 11.4.2
redo logs buffer, 14.4.2
redo records, 11.4.3
REF constraints, 5.2
referential integrity
examples of, 5.3.3
self-referential constraints, 5.3.3
refresh
incremental, 4.3.2
job queue processes, 15.4.2.2
materialized views, 4.3.2
relational database management system. See RDBMS
replication, Oracle Streams, 4.3
master database, 4.3
reserved words, 7.2
response queues, 16.3.4.1
result cache, 14.4.3.3, 14.4.3.3.1
result sets, SQL, 2.2, 2.2.4.4.2, 2.3, 4.2.2
RESULT_CACHE clause, 14.4.3.3.1
results sets, SQL, 7.2.2.1
reverse key indexes, 3.1.2.3
REVOKE statement, 7.2.1
rights, definer’s and invoker’s, 8.2.1.1
roles, 2.1.1, 6.1.1.2, 7.2.4
local, 18.3.2.2
rollback, 10.2.4
described, 10.2.4
ending a transaction, 10.2.4
implicit in DDL, 7.2.1
statement-level, 10.1.3
to a savepoint, 10.2.3.1
rollback segments
locks on, 9.4.3.3
parallel recovery, 13.4.4
use of in recovery, 13.4.4
ROLLBACK statement, 10.2
rollback, statement-level, 9.3.6
rollback, transaction, 7.2.3
rolling back, 10.1, 10.2.4
root container, 17.1.1, 17.1.1, 17.3.1, 18.1.1
row chaining, 12.2.4.3
row data (section of data block), 12.2.2.2
row directories, 12.2.2.1
row locks, 9.4.1.1
concurrency, 9.4.1.1.1
storage, 9.4.1.1.2
row pieces, 2.2.6.2
row source generation, 7.4.1.3
ROWID data type, 2.2.4.4
rowids, 2.2.6.3
foreign, 2.2.4.4
index, 3.1.1.3
logical, 2.2.4.4, 3.2.3
physical, 2.2.4.4
row migration, 12.2.4.3
scans, 7.3.3
universal, 2.2.4.4
rows
addresses, 2.2.6.3
chaining across blocks, 2.2.6.2, 12.2.4.3
clustered, 2.2.6.2
definition, 1.2.1, 2.2.2
format of in data blocks, 12.2.2.1
locking, 9.4.1.1
locks on, 9.4.1.1
migrating to new block, 12.2.4.3
row set, 7.4.1.3
row source, 7.4.1.3
shown in rowids, 12.2.2.2.3
storage, 2.2.6.2
triggers, 8.4.2

S

sample schemas, 2.1.5
SAVEPOINT statement, 7.2.3
savepoints, 7.2.3, 10.2.3
definition, 10.2.3
implicit, 10.1.3
rolling back to, 10.2.3.1
SAVEPOINT statement, 10.2
scans
cluster, 7.3.3
fast full index, 3.1.2.2.2
full index, 3.1.2.2.1
full table, 3.1, 5.2.4.4, 7.3.3, 14.4.1.6
index, 3.1.2.2, 7.3.3
index skip, 3.1.2.2.5
range, 2.6.2.2
rowid, 7.3.3
unique index, 3.1.2.2.4
schema objects
definitions, 1.2, 6.1, 7.2.1
dependencies, 2.1.3, 4.2.1
dimensions, 4.5
indexes, 3.1.1
introduction, 2.1
materialized views, 4.3
relationship to data files, 11.2.1
sequences, 4.4
storage, 2.1.2
schemas, 1.2, 2.1
schemas, sample, 2.1.5
SCN
See system change numbers
secondary indexes, 3.2.3
benefits, 3.2.3
physical guesses, 3.2.3.1
SecureFiles, 21.3.4.2.3
security
administrator privileges, 13.2.1.1
auditing, 19.1.6.1
definer’s rights, 8.2.1.1
program interface enforcement of, 16.4
views, 4.2
seed PDB, 17.1.1, 17.1.1, 17.3.1
segment advisor, 20.3.4.2
segments, 12.4
data, 12.4.1
defined, 12.1.1
index, 3.1.3.3, 3.1.6
overview of, 12.4
table storage, 2.2.6
temporary, 2.3.2, 12.4.2
allocating, 12.4.2
select lists, SQL, 7.2.2.1
SELECT statement, 7.2.2
selectivity, 3.1.2.2.3
self-referential integrity constraints, 5.2.4.1
sequences
concurrent access, 4.4.2
definition, 4.4
surrogate keys, 5.2.3
serializability, transactional, 9.1
serialization isolation level, 9.2.2
server parameter file
startup, 13.2.1.2
server processes, 15.3, 15.3
listener process, 16.3.2
servers
client/server architecture, 16.1.1
shared
architecture, 15.1.1, 16.3.4
processes of, 16.3.4, 16.3.4.1.2
server-side programming, 8.1
overview, 8.1
service names, 16.3.2
service oriented architecture, 1.5.4.1, 16.1.2.4
SERVICE_NAMES parameter, 16.3.2.2
session control statements, 7.2.4
sessions, 7.2.4
connections contrasted with, 15.2.2
defined, 15.2.2
memory allocation in the large pool, 14.4.4
sequence generation in, 4.4.2
SET CONSTRAINT statement, 7.2.3
SET TRANSACTION statement, 7.2.3, 10.1.2.1
SGA (system global area)
allocating, 13.2.1.2
contents of, 14.4
data dictionary cache, 6.1.3.2, 14.4.3.2
database buffer cache, 14.4.1
large pool, 14.4.4
redo log buffer, 10.2.2, 14.4.2
rollback segments and, 10.2.2
shared and writable, 14.4
shared pool, 8.2.1.1, 14.4.3
variable parameters, 13.5.1.1
share DDL locks, 9.4.2.2
share locks, 9.3.3
shared pool, 8.2.6, 14.4.3, 14.4.3.1.3
allocation of, 14.4.3.1.3
dependency management and, 14.4.3.1.3
described, 14.4.3
flushing, 14.4.3.1.3
latches, 9.4.3.1
parse locks, 9.4.2.3
shared server
described, 15.1.1
dispatcher processes, 16.3.4.1.1
Oracle Net Services or SQL*Net V2 requirement, 16.3.4.1.1
processes, 16.3.4.1.2, 16.3.4.1.2
processes needed for, 16.3.4
restricted operations in, 16.3.4.2
session memory in the large pool, 14.4.4
shared server processes (Snnn), 16.3.4.1.2
described, 16.3.4.1.2
shared SQL areas, 4.2.1.2, 14.4.3, 14.4.3.1.1, 14.4.3.1.3
dependency management and, 14.4.3.1.3
described, 14.4.3.1.1
parse locks, 9.4.2.3
procedures, packages, triggers and, 14.4.3.1.2
shutdown, 13.2.2, 13.2.2.4
abnormal, 13.2.2.4
prohibited by dispatcher processes, 16.3.4.2
steps, 13.2.2
SHUTDOWN ABORT statement, 13.2.2.4
Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). See SOAP
simple triggers, 8.4.3
single-level partitioning, 4.1.1.2
SMON background process, 15.4.1.3
SOA, 1.5.4.1, 16.1.2.4
SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol), 1.5.4.1
space management
extents, 12.3
PCTFREE, 12.2.4.1
row chaining, 12.2.4.3
segments, 12.4
SQL, 7.1, 7.2
conditions, 7.1.1, 7.2.2.1
data definition language (DDL), 7.2.1
data manipulation language (DML), 7.2.2
dictionary cache locks, 9.4.3.3
dynamic SQL, 8.2.4
embedded, 7.1, 7.2.6, 7.2.6
executable, 10.1.2.1
execution, 7.4.1.4, 10.1.3
expressions, 3.1.1.1, 7.2.2.1
functions, 2.2.4.4.2
implicit queries, 7.2.2.3
interactive, 7.1
memory allocation for, 14.4.3.1.1
operators, 7.1.1, 7.2.2.1
optimization, 7.4.1.2
Oracle, 7.1.2
overview, 7.1
parallel execution, 15.4.3.2
parsing, 7.4.1.1
PL/SQL and, 8.2
predicates, 3.1.2.2.1
reserved words, 7.2
result sets, 2.2, 2.2.4.4.2, 2.3, 4.2.2, 7.2.2.1
select lists, 7.2.2.1
session control statements, 7.2.4
stages of processing, 7.4.1
standards, 7.1.2
statements, 7.2
subqueries, 4.2, 7.2.2.3
system control statements, 7.2.5
transaction control statements, 7.2.3
transactions, 10.1
types of statements, 7.2
SQL areas
private, 14.4.3.1.1
shared, 14.4.3.1.1
SQL tuning advisor, 20.3.4.2
SQL*Loader, 20.2.5.1
SQL*Plus, 20.2.2
alert log, 13.6.2
executing a package, 8.2.2.3
lock and latch monitors, 9.4.3
multitenant architecture support, 17.1.2
SQLJ standard, 8.3.2.2.2
standard auditing, 19.1.6.1
standards
ANSI/ISO, 7.1.2
isolation levels, 9.1.3
startup, 13.1
prohibited by dispatcher processes, 16.3.4.2
statement-level atomicity, 10.1.3
statement-level read consistency, 9.1.1.1
statement-level rollback, 9.3.6, 10.1.3
statements, SQL, 7.2
statistics, 2.2.6.1, 6.2, 7.3.1, 7.4.1.2, 14.4.3.1.3
ASH, 20.3.4.4
AWR, 20.3.4.2
definition, 7.3.4
gathering for optimizer, 20.3.4.2
Java-related, 14.4.5
join order, 7.2.2.2
undo retention, 12.5.1.3.2
storage
logical structures, 12.5
nulls, 2.2.3
triggers, 8.4.6, 8.4.6
stored procedures. See procedures
Structured Query Language (SQL), 7.1
structures
locking, 9.4.2
logical, 12
data blocks, 12, 12.2, 12.2.5
extents, 12.1, 12.3
segments, 12.1, 12.4
tablespaces, 11, 12.5
physical
control files, 11.3
data files, 11
processes, 15
subprograms, PL/SQL. See procedures
subqueries, 4.2, 7.2.2, 7.2.2.3
summaries, 4.3
surrogate keys, 5.2.3
synonyms
constraints indirectly affect, 5.3.3.2
data dictionary views, 6.1.3.1
definition, 4.6
private, 4.6
public, 4.6, 6.1.1.3
securability, 4.6
SYS user name, 2.1.4
data dictionary tables, 6.1.3
V$ views, 6.2.1
SYSDBA privilege, 13.2.1.1
SYSOPER privilege, 13.2.1.1
system change numbers
definition, 9.1.1.3.1
when assigned, 11.4.3
system change numbers (SCN), 10.1.4
committed transactions, 10.2.5
defined, 10.2.5
system control statements, 7.2.5
system global area. See SGA
system locks, 9.4.3
internal, 9.4.3.3
latches, 9.4.3.1
mutexes, 9.4.3.2
system monitor process (SMON), 15.4.1.3
defined, 15.4.1.3
Real Application Clusters and, 15.4.1.3
rolling back transactions, 13.4.4
SYSTEM tablespace, 6.1.2
data dictionary stored in, 12.5.1.1
online requirement of, 12.5.3.2
SYSTEM user name, 2.1.4

T

table clusters
cluster keys, 2.6
definition, 2.6
hash clusters, 2.6.2
indexed, 2.6.1, Glossary
scans, 7.3.3
tables
base, 4.2.1, 6.1.2
characteristics, 2.2.3
clustered, 2.6
compression, 2.2.6.5, 4.1.2
definition, 1.1.2, 1.2.1, 2.1.1
dimension, 4.5.1
directories, 12.2.2.1, 12.2.2.1
DUAL, 6.1.1.4
dynamic partitioning, 15.4.3.2.3
external, 2.4
fact, 4.5.1
full table scans, 3.1
heap-organized, 2.1.2, 3.2
index-organized, 3.2, 3.2.3, 4.1.5
integrity constraints, 5.1
joins, 3.1.3.2
master, 4.3
normalized or denormalized, 4.5.2
object, 2.5
overview, 2
partitions, 4.1.2
permanent, 2.2
storage, 2.2.6
temporary, 2.3, 12.4.2.2
transaction, 10.1.2.1
truncating, 7.2.1, 12.3.2
views of, 4.2
virtual, 6.2.2
tables, base, 4.2
tables, external, 2.2
tables, temporary, 2.2
tablespace point-in-time recovery, 20.3.1.4.4
tablespaces, 12.5
described, 12.5
dictionary managed, 12.1.2.2
locally managed, 12.1.2.1
locks on, 9.4.3.3
offline, 12.5.3.2
online, 12.5.3.2
overview of, 12.5
recovery, 20.3.1.4.4
schema objects, 2.1.2
space allocation, 12.1.2
SYSTEM, 6.1.2
used for temporary segments, 12.4.2.1
tasks, 15.1
temp files, 11.2.2
temporary segments, 2.3.2, 12.4.2.2
allocating, 12.4.2.1
allocation for queries, 12.4.2.1
temporary tables, 2.2, 2.3
threads
online redo log, 11.4.2
time zones, 2.2.4.3.2
in date/time columns, 2.2.4.3.2
TIMESTAMP data type, 2.2.4.3, 2.2.4.3.2
TO_CHAR function, 2.2.4.5
TO_DATE function, 2.2.4.3.1, 2.2.4.5
trace files
LGWR trace file, 15.4.1.5.2
transaction control statements, 7.2.3
Transaction Guard, 10.3, 10.4.2, 19.2.1.4, 19.2.1.4
transaction tables, 10.1.2.1
reset at recovery, 15.4.1.1
transaction-level read consistency, 9.1.1.2
transactions, 10
ACID properties, 10.1
active, 10.2.2, 12.4.3
assigning system change numbers, 10.2.5
autonomous, 10.5
within a PL/SQL block, 10.5
beginning, 10.1.2.1
blocking, 9.2.1.2
committing, 10.3.2.1, 15.4.1.5.1
group commits, 15.4.1.5.1
conflicting writes, 9.2.1.2
deadlocks, 9.3.6
deadlocks and, 10.1.3
definition, 10.1
distributed, 10.2.1, 10.6
resolving automatically, 15.4.1.8
DML statements, 7.2.2
ending, 10.1.2.2
enqueued, 10.2.3.2
idempotence, 10.3, 19.2.1.4
in-doubt
resolving automatically, 10.6.2
in-flight, 10.3
isolation levels, 9.1.3, 9.2.2, 9.2.3
isolation of, 9.1.3
logical transaction ID, 10.3.2.2
naming, 10.2.1
read consistency, 9.1.1.2
rolling back, 10.2.4
partially, 10.2.3.1
savepoints in, 10.2.3
serializability, 9.1
setting properties, 7.2.3
terminated, 12.4.3
terminating the application and, 10.1.2.2
transaction control statements, 7.2.3
transaction history, 9.1.1.3.2
transaction ID, 10.1, 10.1.2.1
triggers, 8.1
cascading, 8.4.1
components of, 8.4.4
compound, 8.4.3
effect of rollbacks, 10.1.3
firing (executing), 8.4.5
privileges required, 8.4.5
INSTEAD OF, 8.4.2
overview, 8.4
restrictions, 8.4.4
row, 8.4.2
shared SQL areas and, 14.4.3.1.2
simple, 8.4.3
statement, 8.4.2
storage of, 8.4.6
timing, 8.4.3
UNKNOWN does not fire, 8.4.4
uses of, 8.4.1
TRUNCATE statement, 7.2.1, 12.3.2
two-phase commit
transaction management, 10.6

U

undo management, automatic, 12.4.3, 12.4.3
undo segments, 10.1.2.1, 12.4.3
read consistency, 9.1.1.3
undo segments, temporary, 11.4.1, 12.4.3, 12.4.3.3
undo tablespaces, 12.4.3, 12.5.1.3
undo retention period, 9.2.3
Unicode, 2.2.4.1
unified audit trail, 16.1.2.3, 19.1.5.3, 19.1.6.2
unique indexes, 3.1.1.3
unique key constraints, 5.2, 5.2.2
composite keys, 5.2.2
NOT NULL constraints and, 5.2.2
unplanned downtime
avoiding downtime during, 19.2.1.2
update no action constraint, 5.2.4.3
UPDATE statement, 7.2.2
updates
lost, 9.2.1.2
updatability of views, 4.2.2, 8.4.2
updatable join views, 4.2.2
updating tables
with parent keys, 9.4.1.3
upgrades
database, 12.5.1.2, 12.5.1.3.1, 17.2.1, 18.1.3.1, 19.2.2.3, 21.3.1
UROWID data type, 2.2.4.4
user program interface (UPI), 16.4.1
USER_ views, 6.1.1.3
users, database, 2.1.1
authentication, 19.1.2
common, 17.1.1, 18.3.1.1
local, 18.3.1.2
names, 6.1
sessions and connections, 15.2.2
privileges, 2.1
temporary tablespaces, 12.4.2.1
UTL_HTTP package, 8.2.2

V

V$ views, 6.2.1
VARCHAR2 data type, 2.2.4.1
variables
embedded SQL, 7.2.6
views, 4.2
base tables, 4.2
constraints indirectly affect, 5.3.3.2
data access, 4.2.1.2
data dictionary
updatable columns, 4.2.2
fixed views, 6.2.1
indexes, 4.2.1.2
INSTEAD OF triggers, 8.4.2
integrity constraints, 4.2.1.1
materialized, 4.3
object, 4.2.3
schema object dependencies, 4.2.1
storage, 4.2.1
updatability, 4.2.2
uses, 4.2
V$, 6.2
virtual columns, 2.2.1.1, 2.2.6.1, 3.1.4.2

W

warehouse
materialized views, 4.3
Web services, 1.5.4.1, 16.1.2.4
write-ahead, 15.4.1.5

X

XA
session memory in the large pool, 14.4.4
XMLType data type, 21.3.4.1