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2 Data Pump Export

This chapter describes the Oracle Data Pump Export utility (expdp). The following topics are discussed:

What Is Data Pump Export?

Data Pump Export (hereinafter referred to as Export for ease of reading) is a utility for unloading data and metadata into a set of operating system files called a dump file set. The dump file set can be imported only by the Data Pump Import utility. The dump file set can be imported on the same system or it can be moved to another system and loaded there.

The dump file set is made up of one or more disk files that contain table data, database object metadata, and control information. The files are written in a proprietary, binary format. During an import operation, the Data Pump Import utility uses these files to locate each database object in the dump file set.

Because the dump files are written by the server, rather than by the client, the database administrator (DBA) must create directory objects that define the server locations to which files are written. See "Default Locations for Dump, Log, and SQL Files" for more information about directory objects.

Data Pump Export enables you to specify that a job should move a subset of the data and metadata, as determined by the export mode. This is done using data filters and metadata filters, which are specified through Export parameters. See "Filtering During Export Operations".

To see some examples of the various ways in which you can use Data Pump Export, refer to "Examples of Using Data Pump Export".

Invoking Data Pump Export

The Data Pump Export utility is started using the expdp command. The characteristics of the export operation are determined by the Export parameters you specify. These parameters can be specified either on the command line or in a parameter file.

Note:

Do not start Export as SYSDBA, except at the request of Oracle technical support. SYSDBA is used internally and has specialized functions; its behavior is not the same as for general users.

The following sections contain more information about invoking Export:

Data Pump Export Interfaces

You can interact with Data Pump Export by using a command line, a parameter file, or an interactive-command mode.

  • Command-Line Interface: Enables you to specify most of the Export parameters directly on the command line. For a complete description of the parameters available in the command-line interface, see "Parameters Available in Export's Command-Line Mode".

  • Parameter File Interface: Enables you to specify command-line parameters in a parameter file. The only exception is the PARFILE parameter, because parameter files cannot be nested. The use of parameter files is recommended if you are using parameters whose values require quotation marks. See "Use of Quotation Marks On the Data Pump Command Line".

  • Interactive-Command Interface: Stops logging to the terminal and displays the Export prompt, from which you can enter various commands, some of which are specific to interactive-command mode. This mode is enabled by pressing Ctrl+C during an export operation started with the command-line interface or the parameter file interface. Interactive-command mode is also enabled when you attach to an executing or stopped job.

    For a complete description of the commands available in interactive-command mode, see "Commands Available in Export's Interactive-Command Mode".

Data Pump Export Modes

Export provides different modes for unloading different portions of the database. The mode is specified on the command line, using the appropriate parameter. The available modes are described in the following sections:

Note:

Several system schemas cannot be exported because they are not user schemas; they contain Oracle-managed data and metadata. Examples of system schemas that are not exported include SYS, ORDSYS, and MDSYS.

Full Mode

A full database export is specified using the FULL parameter. In a full database export, the entire database is unloaded. This mode requires that you have the DATAPUMP_EXP_FULL_DATABASE role.

Using the Transportable Option During Full Mode Exports

If you specify the TRANSPORTABLE=ALWAYS parameter along with the FULL parameter, then Data Pump performs a full transportable export. A full transportable export exports all objects and data necessary to create a complete copy of the database. A mix of data movement methods is used:

  • Objects residing in transportable tablespaces have only their metadata unloaded into the dump file set; the data itself is moved when you copy the data files to the target database. The data files that must be copied are listed at the end of the log file for the export operation.

  • Objects residing in non-transportable tablespaces (for example, SYSTEM and SYSAUX) have both their metadata and data unloaded into the dump file set, using direct path unload and external tables.

Performing a full transportable export has the following restrictions:

  • The user performing a full transportable export requires the DATAPUMP_EXP_FULL_DATABASE privilege.

  • The default tablespace of the user performing the export must not be set to one of the tablespaces being transported.

  • If the database being exported contains either encrypted tablespaces or tables with encrypted columns (either Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) columns or SecureFiles LOB columns), then the ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameter must also be supplied.

  • The source and target databases must be on platforms with the same endianness if there are encrypted tablespaces in the source database.

  • If the source platform and the target platform are of different endianness, then you must convert the data being transported so that it is in the format of the target platform. You can use the DBMS_FILE_TRANSFER package or the RMAN CONVERT command to convert the data. See Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about using either of these options.

  • A full transportable export is not restartable.

  • All objects with storage that are selected for export must have all of their storage segments either entirely within administrative, non-transportable tablespaces (SYSTEM / SYSAUX) or entirely within user-defined, transportable tablespaces. Storage for a single object cannot straddle the two kinds of tablespaces.

  • When transporting a database over the network using full transportable export, tables with LONG or LONG RAW columns that reside in administrative tablespaces (such as SYSTEM or SYSAUX) are not supported.

  • When transporting a database over the network using full transportable export, auditing cannot be enabled for tables stored in an administrative tablespace (such as SYSTEM and SYSAUX) if the audit trail information itself is stored in a user-defined tablespace.

  • If both the source and target databases are running Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1), then to perform a full transportable export, either the Data Pump VERSION parameter must be set to at least 12.0. or the COMPATIBLE database initialization parameter must be set to at least 12.0 or later.

Full transportable exports are supported from a source database running release 11.2.0.3. To do so, set the Data Pump VERSION parameter to at least 12.0 as shown in the following example:

> expdp user_name FULL=y DUMPFILE=expdat.dmp DIRECTORY=data_pump_dir 
      TRANSPORTABLE=always VERSION=12.0 LOGFILE=export.log

See Also:

Schema Mode

A schema export is specified using the SCHEMAS parameter. This is the default export mode. If you have the DATAPUMP_EXP_FULL_DATABASE role, then you can specify a list of schemas, optionally including the schema definitions themselves and also system privilege grants to those schemas. If you do not have the DATAPUMP_EXP_FULL_DATABASE role, then you can export only your own schema.

The SYS schema cannot be used as a source schema for export jobs.

Cross-schema references are not exported unless the referenced schema is also specified in the list of schemas to be exported. For example, a trigger defined on a table within one of the specified schemas, but that resides in a schema not explicitly specified, is not exported. This is also true for external type definitions upon which tables in the specified schemas depend. In such a case, it is expected that the type definitions already exist in the target instance at import time.

See Also:

"SCHEMAS" for a description of the Export SCHEMAS parameter

Table Mode

A table mode export is specified using the TABLES parameter. In table mode, only a specified set of tables, partitions, and their dependent objects are unloaded.

If you specify the TRANSPORTABLE=ALWAYS parameter with the TABLES parameter, then only object metadata is unloaded. To move the actual data, you copy the data files to the target database. This results in quicker export times. If you are moving data files between releases or platforms, then the data files may need to be processed by Oracle Recovery Manager (RMAN).

You must have the DATAPUMP_EXP_FULL_DATABASE role to specify tables that are not in your own schema. Note that type definitions for columns are not exported in table mode. It is expected that the type definitions already exist in the target instance at import time. Also, as in schema exports, cross-schema references are not exported.

To recover tables and table partitions, you can also use RMAN backups and the RMAN RECOVER TABLE command. During this process, RMAN creates (and optionally imports) a Data Pump export dump file that contains the recovered objects. For more on this topic, see Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide.

See Also:

Tablespace Mode

A tablespace export is specified using the TABLESPACES parameter. In tablespace mode, only the tables contained in a specified set of tablespaces are unloaded. If a table is unloaded, then its dependent objects are also unloaded. Both object metadata and data are unloaded. In tablespace mode, if any part of a table resides in the specified set, then that table and all of its dependent objects are exported. Privileged users get all tables. Unprivileged users get only the tables in their own schemas.

See Also:

  • "TABLESPACES" for a description of the Export TABLESPACES parameter

Transportable Tablespace Mode

A transportable tablespace export is specified using the TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES parameter. In transportable tablespace mode, only the metadata for the tables (and their dependent objects) within a specified set of tablespaces is exported. The tablespace data files are copied in a separate operation. Then, a transportable tablespace import is performed to import the dump file containing the metadata and to specify the data files to use.

Transportable tablespace mode requires that the specified tables be completely self-contained. That is, all storage segments of all tables (and their indexes) defined within the tablespace set must also be contained within the set. If there are self-containment violations, then Export identifies all of the problems without actually performing the export.

Transportable tablespace exports cannot be restarted once stopped. Also, they cannot have a degree of parallelism greater than 1.

Encrypted columns are not supported in transportable tablespace mode.

Note:

You cannot export transportable tablespaces and then import them into a database at a lower release level. The target database must be at the same or later release level as the source database.

See Also:

Network Considerations

You can specify a connect identifier in the connect string when you start the Data Pump Export utility. This identifier can specify a database instance that is different from the current instance identified by the current Oracle System ID (SID). The connect identifier can be an Oracle*Net connect descriptor or a net service name (usually defined in the tnsnames.ora file) that maps to a connect descriptor. Use of a connect identifier requires that you have Oracle Net Listener running (to start the default listener, enter lsnrctl start). The following is an example of this type of connection, in which inst1 is the connect identifier:

expdp hr@inst1 DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr.dmp TABLES=employees

Export then prompts you for a password:

Password: password

The local Export client connects to the database instance defined by the connect identifier inst1 (a net service name), retrieves data from inst1, and writes it to the dump file hr.dmp on inst1.

Specifying a connect identifier when you start the Export utility is different from performing an export operation using the NETWORK_LINK parameter. When you start an export operation and specify a connect identifier, the local Export client connects to the database instance identified by the connect identifier, retrieves data from that database instance, and writes it to a dump file set on that database instance. Whereas, when you perform an export using the NETWORK_LINK parameter, the export is performed using a database link. (A database link is a connection between two physical database servers that allows a client to access them as one logical database.)

See Also:

Filtering During Export Operations

Data Pump Export provides data and metadata filtering capability to help you limit the type of information that is exported.

Data Filters

Data specific filtering is implemented through the QUERY and SAMPLE parameters, which specify restrictions on the table rows that are to be exported.

Data filtering can also occur indirectly because of metadata filtering, which can include or exclude table objects along with any associated row data.

Each data filter can be specified once per table within a job. If different filters using the same name are applied to both a particular table and to the whole job, then the filter parameter supplied for the specific table takes precedence.

Metadata Filters

Metadata filtering is implemented through the EXCLUDE and INCLUDE parameters. The EXCLUDE and INCLUDE parameters are mutually exclusive.

Metadata filters identify a set of objects to be included or excluded from an Export or Import operation. For example, you could request a full export, but without Package Specifications or Package Bodies.

To use filters correctly and to get the results you expect, remember that dependent objects of an identified object are processed along with the identified object. For example, if a filter specifies that an index is to be included in an operation, then statistics from that index will also be included. Likewise, if a table is excluded by a filter, then indexes, constraints, grants, and triggers upon the table will also be excluded by the filter.

If multiple filters are specified for an object type, then an implicit AND operation is applied to them. That is, objects pertaining to the job must pass all of the filters applied to their object types.

The same metadata filter name can be specified multiple times within a job.

To see a list of valid object types, query the following views: DATABASE_EXPORT_OBJECTS for full mode, SCHEMA_EXPORT_OBJECTS for schema mode, and TABLE_EXPORT_OBJECTS for table and tablespace mode. The values listed in the OBJECT_PATH column are the valid object types. For example, you could perform the following query:

SQL> SELECT OBJECT_PATH, COMMENTS FROM SCHEMA_EXPORT_OBJECTS
  2  WHERE OBJECT_PATH LIKE '%GRANT' AND OBJECT_PATH NOT LIKE '%/%';

The output of this query looks similar to the following:

OBJECT_PATH
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
COMMENTS
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
GRANT
Object grants on the selected tables
 
OBJECT_GRANT
Object grants on the selected tables
 
PROCDEPOBJ_GRANT
Grants on instance procedural objects
 
PROCOBJ_GRANT
Schema procedural object grants in the selected schemas
 
ROLE_GRANT
Role grants to users associated with the selected schemas
 
SYSTEM_GRANT
System privileges granted to users associated with the selected schemas

See Also:

"EXCLUDE" and "INCLUDE"

Parameters Available in Export's Command-Line Mode

This section describes the parameters available in the command-line mode of Data Pump Export. Be sure to read the following sections before using the Export parameters:

Many of the parameter descriptions include an example of how to use the parameter. For background information on setting up the necessary environment to run the examples, see:

Specifying Export Parameters

For parameters that can have multiple values specified, the values can be separated by commas or by spaces. For example, you could specify TABLES=employees,jobs or TABLES=employees jobs.

For every parameter you enter, you must enter an equal sign (=) and a value. Data Pump has no other way of knowing that the previous parameter specification is complete and a new parameter specification is beginning. For example, in the following command line, even though NOLOGFILE is a valid parameter, it would be interpreted as another dumpfile name for the DUMPFILE parameter:

expdp DIRECTORY=dpumpdir DUMPFILE=test.dmp NOLOGFILE TABLES=employees

This would result in two dump files being created, test.dmp and nologfile.dmp.

To avoid this, specify either NOLOGFILE=YES or NOLOGFILE=NO.

Case Sensitivity When Specifying Parameter Values

For tablespace names, schema names, table names, and so on that you enter as parameter values, Oracle Data Pump by default changes values entered as lowercase or mixed-case into uppercase. For example, if you enter TABLE=hr.employees, then it is changed to TABLE=HR.EMPLOYEES. To maintain case, you must enclose the value within quotation marks. For example, TABLE="hr.employees" would preserve the table name in all lower case. The name you enter must exactly match the name stored in the database.

Use of Quotation Marks On the Data Pump Command Line

Some operating systems treat quotation marks as special characters and will therefore not pass them to an application unless they are preceded by an escape character, such as the backslash (\). This is true both on the command line and within parameter files. Some operating systems may require an additional set of single or double quotation marks on the command line around the entire parameter value containing the special characters.

The following examples are provided to illustrate these concepts. Be aware that they may not apply to your particular operating system and that this documentation cannot anticipate the operating environments unique to each user.

Suppose you specify the TABLES parameter in a parameter file, as follows:

TABLES = \"MixedCaseTableName\"

If you were to specify that on the command line, some operating systems would require that it be surrounded by single quotation marks, as follows:

TABLES = '\"MixedCaseTableName\"'

To avoid having to supply additional quotation marks on the command line, Oracle recommends the use of parameter files. Also, note that if you use a parameter file and the parameter value being specified does not have quotation marks as the first character in the string (for example, TABLES=scott."EmP"), then the use of escape characters may not be necessary on some systems.

See Also:

Using the Export Parameter Examples

If you try running the examples that are provided for each parameter, be aware of the following:

  • After you enter the username and parameters as shown in the example, Export is started and you are prompted for a password. You must enter the password before a database connection is made.

  • Most of the examples use the sample schemas of the seed database, which is installed by default when you install Oracle Database. In particular, the human resources (hr) schema is often used.

  • The examples assume that the directory objects, dpump_dir1 and dpump_dir2, already exist and that READ and WRITE privileges have been granted to the hr user for these directory objects. See "Default Locations for Dump, Log, and SQL Files" for information about creating directory objects and assigning privileges to them.

  • Some of the examples require the DATAPUMP_EXP_FULL_DATABASE and DATAPUMP_IMP_FULL_DATABASE roles. The examples assume that the hr user has been granted these roles.

If necessary, ask your DBA for help in creating these directory objects and assigning the necessary privileges and roles.

Syntax diagrams of these parameters are provided in "Syntax Diagrams for Data Pump Export".

Unless specifically noted, these parameters can also be specified in a parameter file.

ABORT_STEP

Default: Null

Purpose

Used to stop the job after it is initialized. This allows the master table to be queried before any data is exported.

Syntax and Description

ABORT_STEP=[n | -1]

The possible values correspond to a process order number in the master table. The result of using each number is as follows:

  • n -- If the value is zero or greater, then the export operation is started and the job is aborted at the object that is stored in the master table with the corresponding process order number.

  • -1 -- If the value is negative one (-1) then abort the job after setting it up, but before exporting any objects or data.

Restrictions

  • None

Example

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=expdat.dmp SCHEMAS=hr ABORT_STEP=-1

ACCESS_METHOD

Default: AUTOMATIC

Purpose

Instructs Export to use a particular method to unload data.

Syntax and Description

ACCESS_METHOD=[AUTOMATIC | DIRECT_PATH | EXTERNAL_TABLE]

The ACCESS_METHOD parameter is provided so that you can try an alternative method if the default method does not work for some reason. Oracle recommends that you use the default option (AUTOMATIC) whenever possible because it allows Data Pump to automatically select the most efficient method.

Restrictions

  • If the NETWORK_LINK parameter is also specified, then direct path mode is not supported.

Example

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=expdat.dmp SCHEMAS=hr 
ACCESS_METHOD=EXTERNAL_TABLE 

ATTACH

Default: job currently in the user's schema, if there is only one

Purpose

Attaches the client session to an existing export job and automatically places you in the interactive-command interface. Export displays a description of the job to which you are attached and also displays the Export prompt.

Syntax and Description

ATTACH [=[schema_name.]job_name]

The schema_name is optional. To specify a schema other than your own, you must have the DATAPUMP_EXP_FULL_DATABASE role.

The job_name is optional if only one export job is associated with your schema and the job is active. To attach to a stopped job, you must supply the job name. To see a list of Data Pump job names, you can query the DBA_DATAPUMP_JOBS view or the USER_DATAPUMP_JOBS view.

When you are attached to the job, Export displays a description of the job and then displays the Export prompt.

Restrictions

  • When you specify the ATTACH parameter, the only other Data Pump parameter you can specify on the command line is ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD.

  • If the job you are attaching to was initially started using an encryption password, then when you attach to the job you must again enter the ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameter on the command line to re-specify that password. The only exception to this is if the job was initially started with the ENCRYPTION=ENCRYPTED_COLUMNS_ONLY parameter. In that case, the encryption password is not needed when attaching to the job.

  • You cannot attach to a job in another schema unless it is already running.

  • If the dump file set or master table for the job have been deleted, then the attach operation will fail.

  • Altering the master table in any way will lead to unpredictable results.

Example

The following is an example of using the ATTACH parameter. It assumes that the job, hr.export_job, already exists.

> expdp hr ATTACH=hr.export_job

CLUSTER

Default: YES

Purpose

Determines whether Data Pump can use Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) resources and start workers on other Oracle RAC instances.

Syntax and Description

CLUSTER=[YES | NO]

To force Data Pump Export to use only the instance where the job is started and to replicate pre-Oracle Database 11g release 2 (11.2) behavior, specify CLUSTER=NO.

To specify a specific, existing service and constrain worker processes to run only on instances defined for that service, use the SERVICE_NAME parameter with the CLUSTER=YES parameter.

Use of the CLUSTER parameter may affect performance because there is some additional overhead in distributing the export job across Oracle RAC instances. For small jobs, it may be better to specify CLUSTER=NO to constrain the job to run on the instance where it is started. Jobs whose performance benefits the most from using the CLUSTER parameter are those involving large amounts of data.

Example

The following is an example of using the CLUSTER parameter:

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr_clus%U.dmp CLUSTER=NO PARALLEL=3

This example starts a schema-mode export (the default) of the hr schema. Because CLUSTER=NO is specified, the job uses only the instance on which it started. (If the CLUSTER parameter had not been specified at all, then the default value of Y would have been used and workers would have been started on other instances in the Oracle RAC, if necessary.) The dump files will be written to the location specified for the dpump_dir1 directory object. The job can have up to 3 parallel processes.

COMPRESSION

Default: METADATA_ONLY

Purpose

Specifies which data to compress before writing to the dump file set.

Syntax and Description

COMPRESSION=[ALL | DATA_ONLY | METADATA_ONLY | NONE]
  • ALL enables compression for the entire export operation. The ALL option requires that the Oracle Advanced Compression option be enabled.

  • DATA_ONLY results in all data being written to the dump file in compressed format. The DATA_ONLY option requires that the Oracle Advanced Compression option be enabled.

  • METADATA_ONLY results in all metadata being written to the dump file in compressed format. This is the default.

  • NONE disables compression for the entire export operation.

See Also:

Oracle Database Licensing Information for information about licensing requirements for the Oracle Advanced Compression option

Restrictions

  • To make full use of all these compression options, the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter must be set to at least 11.0.0.

  • The METADATA_ONLY option can be used even if the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter is set to 10.2.

  • Compression of data using ALL or DATA_ONLY is valid only in the Enterprise Edition of Oracle Database 11g or later, and they require that the Oracle Advanced Compression option be enabled.

Example

The following is an example of using the COMPRESSION parameter:

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr_comp.dmp COMPRESSION=METADATA_ONLY

This command will execute a schema-mode export that will compress all metadata before writing it out to the dump file, hr_comp.dmp. It defaults to a schema-mode export because no export mode is specified.

COMPRESSION_ALGORITHM

Default: BASIC

Purpose

Specifies the compression algorithm to be used when compressing dump file data.

Syntax and Description

COMPRESSION_ALGORITHM = {BASIC | LOW | MEDIUM | HIGH}

The parameter options are defined as follows:

  • BASIC--Offers a good combination of compression ratios and speed; the algorithm used is the same as in previous versions of Oracle Data Pump.

  • LOW---Least impact on export throughput and suited for environments where CPU resources are the limiting factor.

  • MEDIUM---Recommended for most environments. This option, like the BASIC option, provides a good combination of compression ratios and speed, but it uses a different algorithm than BASIC.

  • HIGH--Best suited for situations in which dump files will be copied over slower networks where the limiting factor is network speed.

The performance of a compression algorithm is characterized by its CPU usage and by the compression ratio (the size of the compressed output as a percentage of the uncompressed input). These measures vary on the size and type of inputs as well as the speed of the compression algorithms used. The compression ratio generally increases from low to high, with a trade-off of potentially consuming more CPU resources.

It is recommended that you run tests with the different compression levels on the data in your environment. Choosing a compression level based on your environment, workload characteristics, and size and type of data is the only way to ensure that the exported dump file set compression level meets your performance and storage requirements.

Restrictions

  • To use this feature, database compatibility must be set to 12.0.0 or later.

  • This feature requires that the Oracle Advanced Compression option be enabled.

Example 1

This example performs a schema-mode unload of the HR schema and compresses only the table data using a compression algorithm with a low level of compression. This should result in fewer CPU resources being used, at the expense of a less than optimal compression ratio.

  > expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr.dmp COMPRESSION=DATA_ONLY 
COMPRESSION_ALGORITHM=LOW

Example 2

This example performs a schema-mode unload of the HR schema and compresses both metadata and table data using the basic level of compression. Omitting the COMPRESSION_ALGORITHM parameter altogether is equivalent to specifying BASIC as the value.

  > expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr.dmp COMPRESSION=ALL COMPRESSION_ALGORITHM=BASIC

CONTENT

Default: ALL

Purpose

Enables you to filter what Export unloads: data only, metadata only, or both.

Syntax and Description

CONTENT=[ALL | DATA_ONLY | METADATA_ONLY]
  • ALL unloads both data and metadata. This is the default.

  • DATA_ONLY unloads only table row data; no database object definitions are unloaded.

  • METADATA_ONLY unloads only database object definitions; no table row data is unloaded. Be aware that if you specify CONTENT=METADATA_ONLY, then when the dump file is subsequently imported, any index or table statistics imported from the dump file will be locked after the import.

Restrictions

  • The CONTENT=METADATA_ONLY parameter cannot be used with the TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES (transportable-tablespace mode) parameter or with the QUERY parameter.

Example

The following is an example of using the CONTENT parameter:

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr.dmp CONTENT=METADATA_ONLY

This command will execute a schema-mode export that will unload only the metadata associated with the hr schema. It defaults to a schema-mode export of the hr schema because no export mode is specified.

DATA_OPTIONS

Default: There is no default. If this parameter is not used, then the special data handling options it provides simply do not take effect.

Purpose

The DATA_OPTIONS parameter designates how certain types of data should be handled during export operations.

Syntax and Description

DATA_OPTIONS=XML_CLOBS

The XML_CLOBS option specifies that XMLType columns are to be exported in uncompressed CLOB format regardless of the XMLType storage format that was defined for them.

Note:

XMLType stored as CLOB is deprecated as of Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1). XMLType tables and columns are now stored as binary XML.

If a table has XMLType columns stored only in CLOB format, then it is not necessary to specify the XML_CLOBS option because Data Pump automatically exports them in CLOB format.If a table has XMLType columns stored as any combination of object-relational (schema-based), binary, or CLOB formats, then Data Pump exports them in compressed format, by default. This is the preferred method. However, if you need to export the data in uncompressed CLOB format, you can use the XML_CLOBS option to override the default.

See Also:

Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for information specific to exporting and importing XMLType tables

Restrictions

  • Using the XML_CLOBS option requires that the same XML schema be used at both export and import time.

  • The Export DATA_OPTIONS parameter requires the job version to be set to 11.0.0 or later. See "VERSION".

Example

This example shows an export operation in which any XMLType columns in the hr.xdb_tab1 table are exported in uncompressed CLOB format regardless of the XMLType storage format that was defined for them.

> expdp hr TABLES=hr.xdb_tab1 DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr_xml.dmp
VERSION=11.2 DATA_OPTIONS=XML_CLOBS

DIRECTORY

Default: DATA_PUMP_DIR

Purpose

Specifies the default location to which Export can write the dump file set and the log file.

Syntax and Description

DIRECTORY=directory_object

The directory_object is the name of a database directory object (not the file path of an actual directory). Upon installation, privileged users have access to a default directory object named DATA_PUMP_DIR. Users with access to the default DATA_PUMP_DIR directory object do not need to use the DIRECTORY parameter at all.

A directory object specified on the DUMPFILE or LOGFILE parameter overrides any directory object that you specify for the DIRECTORY parameter.

Example

The following is an example of using the DIRECTORY parameter:

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=employees.dmp CONTENT=METADATA_ONLY

The dump file, employees.dmp, will be written to the path that is associated with the directory object dpump_dir1.

See Also:

DUMPFILE

Default: expdat.dmp

Purpose

Specifies the names, and optionally, the directory objects of dump files for an export job.

Syntax and Description

DUMPFILE=[directory_object:]file_name [, ...]

The directory_object is optional if one has already been established by the DIRECTORY parameter. If you supply a value here, then it must be a directory object that already exists and that you have access to. A database directory object that is specified as part of the DUMPFILE parameter overrides a value specified by the DIRECTORY parameter or by the default directory object.

You can supply multiple file_name specifications as a comma-delimited list or in separate DUMPFILE parameter specifications. If no extension is given for the file name, then Export uses the default file extension of .dmp. The file names can contain a substitution variable (%U), which implies that multiple files may be generated. The substitution variable is expanded in the resulting file names into a 2-digit, fixed-width, incrementing integer starting at 01 and ending at 99. If a file specification contains two substitution variables, both are incremented at the same time. For example, exp%Uaa%U.dmp would resolve to exp01aa01.dmp, exp02aa02.dmp, and so forth.

If the FILESIZE parameter is specified, then each dump file will have a maximum of that size and be nonextensible. If more space is required for the dump file set and a template with a substitution variable (%U) was supplied, then a new dump file is automatically created of the size specified by the FILESIZE parameter, if there is room on the device.

As each file specification or file template containing a substitution variable is defined, it is instantiated into one fully qualified file name and Export attempts to create it. The file specifications are processed in the order in which they are specified. If the job needs extra files because the maximum file size is reached, or to keep parallel workers active, then additional files are created if file templates with substitution variables were specified.

Although it is possible to specify multiple files using the DUMPFILE parameter, the export job may only require a subset of those files to hold the exported data. The dump file set displayed at the end of the export job shows exactly which files were used. It is this list of files that is required to perform an import operation using this dump file set. Any files that were not used can be discarded.

Restrictions

  • Any resulting dump file names that match preexisting dump file names will generate an error and the preexisting dump files will not be overwritten. You can override this behavior by specifying the Export parameter REUSE_DUMPFILES=YES.

  • Dump files created on Oracle Database 11g releases with the Data Pump parameter VERSION=12 can only be imported on Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) and later.

Example

The following is an example of using the DUMPFILE parameter:

> expdp hr SCHEMAS=hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=dpump_dir2:exp1.dmp,
 exp2%U.dmp PARALLEL=3

The dump file, exp1.dmp, will be written to the path associated with the directory object dpump_dir2 because dpump_dir2 was specified as part of the dump file name, and therefore overrides the directory object specified with the DIRECTORY parameter. Because all three parallel processes will be given work to perform during this job, dump files named exp201.dmp and exp202.dmp will be created based on the specified substitution variable exp2%U.dmp. Because no directory is specified for them, they will be written to the path associated with the directory object, dpump_dir1, that was specified with the DIRECTORY parameter.

See Also:

ENCRYPTION

Default: The default value depends upon the combination of encryption-related parameters that are used. To enable encryption, either the ENCRYPTION or ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameter, or both, must be specified.

If only the ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameter is specified, then the ENCRYPTION parameter defaults to ALL.

If only the ENCRYPTION parameter is specified and the Oracle encryption wallet is open, then the default mode is TRANSPARENT. If only the ENCRYPTION parameter is specified and the wallet is closed, then an error is returned.

If neither ENCRYPTION nor ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD is specified, then ENCRYPTION defaults to NONE.

Purpose

Specifies whether to encrypt data before writing it to the dump file set.

Syntax and Description

ENCRYPTION = [ALL | DATA_ONLY | ENCRYPTED_COLUMNS_ONLY | METADATA_ONLY | NONE]
  • ALL enables encryption for all data and metadata in the export operation.

  • DATA_ONLY specifies that only data is written to the dump file set in encrypted format.

  • ENCRYPTED_COLUMNS_ONLY specifies that only encrypted columns are written to the dump file set in encrypted format. This option cannot be used in conjunction with the ENCRYPTION_ALGORITHM parameter because the columns already have an assigned encryption format and by definition, a column can have only one form of encryption.

    If you specify the ENCRYPTED_COLUMNS_ONLY option, then the maximum length allowed for an encryption password (specified with ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD) is 30 bytes.

    If you specify the ALL, DATA_ONLY, or METADATA_ONLY options or if you accept the default, then the maximum length allowed for an encryption password is 128 bytes.

    To use the ENCRYPTED_COLUMNS_ONLY option, you must have Oracle Advanced Security Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) enabled. See Oracle Database Advanced Security Guide for more information about TDE.

  • METADATA_ONLY specifies that only metadata is written to the dump file set in encrypted format.

  • NONE specifies that no data is written to the dump file set in encrypted format.

SecureFiles Considerations for Encryption

If the data being exported includes SecureFiles that you want to be encrypted, then you must specify ENCRYPTION=ALL to encrypt the entire dump file set. Encryption of the entire dump file set is the only way to achieve encryption security for SecureFiles during a Data Pump export operation. For more information about SecureFiles, see Oracle Database SecureFiles and Large Objects Developer's Guide.

Oracle Database Vault Considerations for Encryption

When an export operation is started, Data Pump determines whether Oracle Database Vault is enabled. If it is, and dump file encryption has not been specified for the job, a warning message is returned to alert you that secure data is being written in an insecure manner (clear text) to the dump file set:

ORA-39327: Oracle Database Vault data is being stored unencrypted in dump file set

You can abort the current export operation and start a new one, specifying that the output dump file set be encrypted.

Restrictions

  • To specify the ALL, DATA_ONLY, or METADATA_ONLY options, the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter must be set to at least 11.0.0.

  • This parameter is valid only in the Enterprise Edition of Oracle Database 11g or later.

  • Data Pump encryption features require that the Oracle Advanced Security option be enabled. See Oracle Database Licensing Information for information about licensing requirements for the Oracle Advanced Security option.

Example

The following example performs an export operation in which only data is encrypted in the dump file:

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr_enc.dmp JOB_NAME=enc1
ENCRYPTION=data_only ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD=foobar

ENCRYPTION_ALGORITHM

Default: AES128

Purpose

Specifies which cryptographic algorithm should be used to perform the encryption.

Syntax and Description

ENCRYPTION_ALGORITHM = [AES128 | AES192 | AES256]

See Oracle Database Advanced Security Guide for information about encryption algorithms.

Restrictions

  • To use this encryption feature, the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter must be set to at least 11.0.0.

  • The ENCRYPTION_ALGORITHM parameter requires that you also specify either the ENCRYPTION or ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameter; otherwise an error is returned.

  • The ENCRYPTION_ALGORITHM parameter cannot be used in conjunction with ENCRYPTION=ENCRYPTED_COLUMNS_ONLY because columns that are already encrypted cannot have an additional encryption format assigned to them.

  • This parameter is valid only in the Enterprise Edition of Oracle Database 11g or later.

  • Data Pump encryption features require that the Oracle Advanced Security option be enabled. See Oracle Database Licensing Information for information about licensing requirements for the Oracle Advanced Security option.

Example

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr_enc3.dmp
ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD=foobar ENCRYPTION_ALGORITHM=AES128

ENCRYPTION_MODE

Default: The default mode depends on which other encryption-related parameters are used. If only the ENCRYPTION parameter is specified and the Oracle encryption wallet is open, then the default mode is TRANSPARENT. If only the ENCRYPTION parameter is specified and the wallet is closed, then an error is returned.

If the ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameter is specified and the wallet is open, then the default is DUAL. If the ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameter is specified and the wallet is closed, then the default is PASSWORD.

Purpose

Specifies the type of security to use when encryption and decryption are performed.

Syntax and Description

ENCRYPTION_MODE = [DUAL | PASSWORD | TRANSPARENT]

DUAL mode creates a dump file set that can later be imported either transparently or by specifying a password that was used when the dual-mode encrypted dump file set was created. When you later import the dump file set created in DUAL mode, you can use either the wallet or the password that was specified with the ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameter. DUAL mode is best suited for cases in which the dump file set will be imported on-site using the wallet, but which may also need to be imported offsite where the wallet is not available.

PASSWORD mode requires that you provide a password when creating encrypted dump file sets. You will need to provide the same password when you import the dump file set. PASSWORD mode requires that you also specify the ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameter. The PASSWORD mode is best suited for cases in which the dump file set will be imported into a different or remote database, but which must remain secure in transit.

TRANSPARENT mode allows an encrypted dump file set to be created without any intervention from a database administrator (DBA), provided the required wallet is available. Therefore, the ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameter is not required, and will in fact, cause an error if it is used in TRANSPARENT mode. This encryption mode is best suited for cases in which the dump file set will be imported into the same database from which it was exported.

Restrictions

  • To use DUAL or TRANSPARENT mode, the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter must be set to at least 11.0.0.

  • When you use the ENCRYPTION_MODE parameter, you must also use either the ENCRYPTION or ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameter. Otherwise, an error is returned.

  • When you use the ENCRYPTION=ENCRYPTED_COLUMNS_ONLY, you cannot use the ENCRYPTION_MODE parameter. Otherwise, an error is returned.

  • This parameter is valid only in the Enterprise Edition of Oracle Database 11g or later.

  • Data Pump encryption features require that the Oracle Advanced Security option be enabled. See Oracle Database Licensing Information for information about licensing requirements for the Oracle Advanced Security option.

Example

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr_enc4.dmp
ENCRYPTION=all ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD=secretwords
ENCRYPTION_ALGORITHM=AES256 ENCRYPTION_MODE=DUAL

ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD

Default: There is no default; the value is user-provided.

Purpose

Specifies a password for encrypting encrypted column data, metadata, or table data in the export dumpfile. This prevents unauthorized access to an encrypted dump file set.

Note:

Data Pump encryption functionality changed as of Oracle Database 11g release 1 (11.1). Before release 11.1, the ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameter applied only to encrypted columns. However, as of release 11.1, the new ENCRYPTION parameter provides options for encrypting other types of data. This means that if you now specify ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD without also specifying ENCRYPTION and a specific option, then all data written to the dump file will be encrypted (equivalent to specifying ENCRYPTION=ALL). If you want to re-encrypt only encrypted columns, then you must now specify ENCRYPTION=ENCRYPTED_COLUMNS_ONLY in addition to ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD.

Syntax and Description

ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD = password

The password value that is supplied specifies a key for re-encrypting encrypted table columns, metadata, or table data so that they are not written as clear text in the dump file set. If the export operation involves encrypted table columns, but an encryption password is not supplied, then the encrypted columns are written to the dump file set as clear text and a warning is issued.

The password that you enter is echoed to the screen. If you do not want the password shown on the screen as you enter it, then use the ENCRYPTION_PWD_PROMPT parameter.

The maximum length allowed for an encryption password depends on the option specified on the ENCRYPTION parameter. If ENCRYPTION=ENCRYPTED_COLUMNS_ONLY is specified, then the maximum length of the encryption password is 30 bytes. If the ENCRYPTION parameter is specified as ALL, DATA_ONLY, or METADATA_ONLY, or if the default is used, then the maximum length of the encryption password is 128 bytes.

For export operations, this parameter is required if the ENCRYPTION_MODE parameter is set to either PASSWORD or DUAL.

Note:

There is no connection or dependency between the key specified with the Data Pump ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameter and the key specified with the ENCRYPT keyword when the table with encrypted columns was initially created. For example, suppose a table is created as follows, with an encrypted column whose key is xyz:
CREATE TABLE emp (col1 VARCHAR2(256) ENCRYPT IDENTIFIED BY "xyz");

When you export the emp table, you can supply any arbitrary value for ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD. It does not have to be xyz.

Restrictions

  • This parameter is valid only in the Enterprise Edition of Oracle Database 11g or later.

  • The ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameter is required for the transport of encrypted tablespaces and tablespaces containing tables with encrypted columns in a full transportable export.

  • Data Pump encryption features require that the Oracle Advanced Security option be enabled. See Oracle Database Licensing Information for information about licensing requirements for the Oracle Advanced Security option.

  • If ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD is specified but ENCRYPTION_MODE is not specified, then it is not necessary to have Oracle Advanced Security Transparent Data Encryption enabled since ENCRYPTION_MODE will default to PASSWORD.

  • The ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameter is not valid if the requested encryption mode is TRANSPARENT.

  • To use the ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameter if ENCRYPTION_MODE is set to DUAL, you must have Oracle Advanced Security Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) enabled. See Oracle Database Advanced Security Guide for more information about TDE.

  • For network exports, the ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameter in conjunction with ENCRYPTION=ENCRYPTED_COLUMNS_ONLY is not supported with user-defined external tables that have encrypted columns. The table will be skipped and an error message will be displayed, but the job will continue.

  • Encryption attributes for all columns must match between the exported table definition and the target table. For example, suppose you have a table, EMP, and one of its columns is named EMPNO. Both of the following situations would result in an error because the encryption attribute for the EMP column in the source table would not match the encryption attribute for the EMP column in the target table:

    • The EMP table is exported with the EMPNO column being encrypted, but before importing the table you remove the encryption attribute from the EMPNO column.

    • The EMP table is exported without the EMPNO column being encrypted, but before importing the table you enable encryption on the EMPNO column.

Example

In the following example, an encryption password, 123456, is assigned to the dump file, dpcd2be1.dmp.

> expdp hr TABLES=employee_s_encrypt DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1
DUMPFILE=dpcd2be1.dmp ENCRYPTION=ENCRYPTED_COLUMNS_ONLY 
ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD=123456

Encrypted columns in the employee_s_encrypt table will not be written as clear text in the dpcd2be1.dmp dump file. Note that to subsequently import the dpcd2be1.dmp file created by this example, you will need to supply the same encryption password.

ENCRYPTION_PWD_PROMPT

Default: NO

Purpose

Specifies whether Data Pump should prompt you for the encryption password.

Syntax and Description

ENCRYPTION_PWD_PROMPT=[YES | NO]

Specify ENCRYPTION_PWD_PROMPT=YES on the command line to instruct Data Pump to prompt you for the encryption password, rather than you entering it on the command line with the ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameter. The advantage to doing this is that the encryption password is not echoed to the screen when it is entered at the prompt. Whereas, when it is entered on the command line using the ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameter, it appears in plain text.

The encryption password that you enter at the prompt is subject to the same criteria described for the ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameter.

If you specify an encryption password on the export operation, you must also supply it on the import operation.

Restrictions

  • Concurrent use of the ENCRYPTION_PWD_PROMPT and ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameters is prohibited.

Example

The following example shows Data Pump first prompting for the user password and then for the encryption password.

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr.dmp ENCRYPTION_PWD_PROMPT=YES
.
.
.
Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

Password: 
 
Connected to: Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.1.0 - 64bit
Production 
With the Partitioning, Advanced Analytics and Real Application Testing options
 
Encryption Password: 

Starting "HR"."SYS_EXPORT_SCHEMA_01":  hr/******** directory=dpump_dir1 dumpfile=hr.dmp encryption_pwd_prompt=Y
.
.
.

ESTIMATE

Default: BLOCKS

Purpose

Specifies the method that Export will use to estimate how much disk space each table in the export job will consume (in bytes). The estimate is printed in the log file and displayed on the client's standard output device. The estimate is for table row data only; it does not include metadata.

Syntax and Description

ESTIMATE=[BLOCKS | STATISTICS]
  • BLOCKS - The estimate is calculated by multiplying the number of database blocks used by the source objects, times the appropriate block sizes.

  • STATISTICS - The estimate is calculated using statistics for each table. For this method to be as accurate as possible, all tables should have been analyzed recently. (Table analysis can be done with either the SQL ANALYZE statement or the DBMS_STATS PL/SQL package.)

Restrictions

  • If the Data Pump export job involves compressed tables, then the default size estimation given for the compressed table is inaccurate when ESTIMATE=BLOCKS is used. This is because the size estimate does not reflect that the data was stored in a compressed form. To get a more accurate size estimate for compressed tables, use ESTIMATE=STATISTICS.

  • The estimate may also be inaccurate if either the QUERY or REMAP_DATA parameter is used.

Example

The following example shows a use of the ESTIMATE parameter in which the estimate is calculated using statistics for the employees table:

> expdp hr TABLES=employees ESTIMATE=STATISTICS DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1
 DUMPFILE=estimate_stat.dmp

ESTIMATE_ONLY

Default: NO

Purpose

Instructs Export to estimate the space that a job would consume, without actually performing the export operation.

Syntax and Description

ESTIMATE_ONLY=[YES | NO]

If ESTIMATE_ONLY=YES, then Export estimates the space that would be consumed, but quits without actually performing the export operation.

Restrictions

  • The ESTIMATE_ONLY parameter cannot be used in conjunction with the QUERY parameter.

Example

The following shows an example of using the ESTIMATE_ONLY parameter to determine how much space an export of the HR schema will take.

> expdp hr ESTIMATE_ONLY=YES NOLOGFILE=YES SCHEMAS=HR

EXCLUDE

Default: There is no default

Purpose

Enables you to filter the metadata that is exported by specifying objects and object types to be excluded from the export operation.

Syntax and Description

EXCLUDE=object_type[:name_clause] [, ...]

The object_type specifies the type of object to be excluded. To see a list of valid values for object_type, query the following views: DATABASE_EXPORT_OBJECTS for full mode, SCHEMA_EXPORT_OBJECTS for schema mode, and TABLE_EXPORT_OBJECTS for table and tablespace mode. The values listed in the OBJECT_PATH column are the valid object types. (See "Metadata Filters" for an example of how to perform such a query.)

All object types for the given mode of export will be included in the export except those specified in an EXCLUDE statement. If an object is excluded, then all of its dependent objects are also excluded. For example, excluding a table will also exclude all indexes and triggers on the table.

The name_clause is optional. It allows selection of specific objects within an object type. It is a SQL expression used as a filter on the type's object names. It consists of a SQL operator and the values against which the object names of the specified type are to be compared. The name_clause applies only to object types whose instances have names (for example, it is applicable to TABLE, but not to GRANT). It must be separated from the object type with a colon and enclosed in double quotation marks, because single quotation marks are required to delimit the name strings. For example, you could set EXCLUDE=INDEX:"LIKE 'EMP%'" to exclude all indexes whose names start with EMP.

The name that you supply for the name_clause must exactly match, including upper and lower casing, an existing object in the database. For example, if the name_clause you supply is for a table named EMPLOYEES, then there must be an existing table named EMPLOYEES using all upper case. If the name_clause were supplied as Employees or employees or any other variation, then the table would not be found.

If no name_clause is provided, then all objects of the specified type are excluded.

More than one EXCLUDE statement can be specified.

Depending on your operating system, the use of quotation marks when you specify a value for this parameter may also require that you use escape characters. Oracle recommends that you place this parameter in a parameter file, which can reduce the number of escape characters that might otherwise be needed on the command line.

See Also:

If the object_type you specify is CONSTRAINT, GRANT, or USER, then you should be aware of the effects this will have, as described in the following paragraphs.

Excluding Constraints

The following constraints cannot be explicitly excluded:

  • NOT NULL constraints

  • Constraints needed for the table to be created and loaded successfully; for example, primary key constraints for index-organized tables, or REF SCOPE and WITH ROWID constraints for tables with REF columns

This means that the following EXCLUDE statements will be interpreted as follows:

  • EXCLUDE=CONSTRAINT will exclude all (nonreferential) constraints, except for NOT NULL constraints and any constraints needed for successful table creation and loading.

  • EXCLUDE=REF_CONSTRAINT will exclude referential integrity (foreign key) constraints.

Excluding Grants and Users

Specifying EXCLUDE=GRANT excludes object grants on all object types and system privilege grants.

Specifying EXCLUDE=USER excludes only the definitions of users, not the objects contained within users' schemas.

To exclude a specific user and all objects of that user, specify a command such as the following, where hr is the schema name of the user you want to exclude.

expdp FULL=YES DUMPFILE=expfull.dmp EXCLUDE=SCHEMA:"='HR'"

Note that in this situation, an export mode of FULL is specified. If no mode were specified, then the default mode, SCHEMAS, would be used. This would cause an error because the command would indicate that the schema should be both exported and excluded at the same time.

If you try to exclude a user by using a statement such as EXCLUDE=USER:"='HR'", then only the information used in CREATE USER hr DDL statements will be excluded, and you may not get the results you expect.

Restrictions

  • The EXCLUDE and INCLUDE parameters are mutually exclusive.

Example

The following is an example of using the EXCLUDE statement.

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr_exclude.dmp EXCLUDE=VIEW,
PACKAGE, FUNCTION

This will result in a schema-mode export (the default export mode) in which all of the hr schema will be exported except its views, packages, and functions.

See Also:

FILESIZE

Default: 0 (equivalent to the maximum size of 16 terabytes)

Purpose

Specifies the maximum size of each dump file. If the size is reached for any member of the dump file set, then that file is closed and an attempt is made to create a new file, if the file specification contains a substitution variable or if additional dump files have been added to the job.

Syntax and Description

FILESIZE=integer[B | KB | MB | GB | TB]

The integer can be immediately followed (do not insert a space) by B, KB, MB, GB, or TB (indicating bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, and terabytes respectively). Bytes is the default. The actual size of the resulting file may be rounded down slightly to match the size of the internal blocks used in dump files.

Restrictions

  • The minimum size for a file is ten times the default Data Pump block size, which is 4 kilobytes.

  • The maximum size for a file is 16 terabytes.

Example

The following shows an example in which the size of the dump file is set to 3 megabytes:

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr_3m.dmp FILESIZE=3MB

If 3 megabytes had not been sufficient to hold all the exported data, then the following error would have been displayed and the job would have stopped:

ORA-39095: Dump file space has been exhausted: Unable to allocate 217088 bytes

The actual number of bytes that could not be allocated may vary. Also, this number does not represent the amount of space needed to complete the entire export operation. It indicates only the size of the current object that was being exported when the job ran out of dump file space.This situation can be corrected by first attaching to the stopped job, adding one or more files using the ADD_FILE command, and then restarting the operation.

FLASHBACK_SCN

Default: There is no default

Purpose

Specifies the system change number (SCN) that Export will use to enable the Flashback Query utility.

Syntax and Description

FLASHBACK_SCN=scn_value

The export operation is performed with data that is consistent up to the specified SCN. If the NETWORK_LINK parameter is specified, then the SCN refers to the SCN of the source database.

Restrictions

  • FLASHBACK_SCN and FLASHBACK_TIME are mutually exclusive.

  • The FLASHBACK_SCN parameter pertains only to the Flashback Query capability of Oracle Database. It is not applicable to Flashback Database, Flashback Drop, or Flashback Data Archive.

Example

The following example assumes that an existing SCN value of 384632 exists. It exports the hr schema up to SCN 384632.

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr_scn.dmp FLASHBACK_SCN=384632

Note:

If you are on a logical standby system and using a network link to access the logical standby primary, then the FLASHBACK_SCN parameter is ignored because SCNs are selected by logical standby. See Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration for information about logical standby databases.

FLASHBACK_TIME

Default: There is no default

Purpose

The SCN that most closely matches the specified time is found, and this SCN is used to enable the Flashback utility. The export operation is performed with data that is consistent up to this SCN.

Syntax and Description

FLASHBACK_TIME="TO_TIMESTAMP(time-value)"

Because the TO_TIMESTAMP value is enclosed in quotation marks, it would be best to put this parameter in a parameter file. See "Use of Quotation Marks On the Data Pump Command Line".

Restrictions

  • FLASHBACK_TIME and FLASHBACK_SCN are mutually exclusive.

  • The FLASHBACK_TIME parameter pertains only to the flashback query capability of Oracle Database. It is not applicable to Flashback Database, Flashback Drop, or Flashback Data Archive.

Example

You can specify the time in any format that the DBMS_FLASHBACK.ENABLE_AT_TIME procedure accepts. For example, suppose you have a parameter file, flashback.par, with the following contents:

DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1
DUMPFILE=hr_time.dmp
FLASHBACK_TIME="TO_TIMESTAMP('27-10-2012 13:16:00', 'DD-MM-YYYY HH24:MI:SS')"

You could then issue the following command:

> expdp hr PARFILE=flashback.par

The export operation will be performed with data that is consistent with the SCN that most closely matches the specified time.

Note:

If you are on a logical standby system and using a network link to access the logical standby primary, then the FLASHBACK_SCN parameter is ignored because SCNs are selected by logical standby. See Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration for information about logical standby databases.

See Also:

Oracle Database Development Guide for information about using Flashback Query

FULL

Default: NO

Purpose

Specifies that you want to perform a full database mode export.

Syntax and Description

FULL=[YES | NO]

FULL=YES indicates that all data and metadata are to be exported. To perform a full export, you must have the DATAPUMP_EXP_FULL_DATABASE role.

Filtering can restrict what is exported using this export mode. See "Filtering During Export Operations".

You can perform a full mode export using the transportable option (TRANSPORTABLE=ALWAYS). This is referred to as a full transportable export, which exports all objects and data necessary to create a complete copy of the database. See "Using the Transportable Option During Full Mode Exports".

Note:

Be aware that when you later import a dump file that was created by a full-mode export, the import operation attempts to copy the password for the SYS account from the source database. This sometimes fails (for example, if the password is in a shared password file). If it does fail, then after the import completes, you must set the password for the SYS account at the target database to a password of your choice.

Restrictions

  • To use the FULL parameter in conjunction with TRANSPORTABLE (a full transportable export), either the Data Pump VERSION parameter must be set to at least 12.0. or the COMPATIBLE database initialization parameter must be set to at least 12.0 or later.

  • A full export does not, by default, export system schemas that contain Oracle-managed data and metadata. Examples of system schemas that are not exported by default include SYS, ORDSYS, and MDSYS.

  • Grants on objects owned by the SYS schema are never exported.

  • A full export operation exports objects from only one database edition; by default it exports the current edition but you can use the Export SOURCE_EDITION parameter to specify a different edition.

  • If you are exporting data that is protected by a realm, then you must have authorization for that realm.

    See Also:

    Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide for information about configuring realms
  • The Automatic Workload Repository (AWR) is not moved in a full database export and import operation. (See Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide for information about using Data Pump to move AWR snapshots.)

  • The XDB repository is not moved in a full database export and import operation. User created XML schemas are moved.

Example

The following is an example of using the FULL parameter. The dump file, expfull.dmp is written to the dpump_dir2 directory.

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir2 DUMPFILE=expfull.dmp FULL=YES NOLOGFILE=YES

See Also:

HELP

Default: NO

Purpose

Displays online help for the Export utility.

Syntax and Description

HELP = [YES | NO]

If HELP=YES is specified, then Export displays a summary of all Export command-line parameters and interactive commands.

Example

> expdp HELP = YES

This example will display a brief description of all Export parameters and commands.

INCLUDE

Default: There is no default

Purpose

Enables you to filter the metadata that is exported by specifying objects and object types for the current export mode. The specified objects and all their dependent objects are exported. Grants on these objects are also exported.

Syntax and Description

INCLUDE = object_type[:name_clause] [, ...]

The object_type specifies the type of object to be included. To see a list of valid values for object_type, query the following views: DATABASE_EXPORT_OBJECTS for full mode, SCHEMA_EXPORT_OBJECTS for schema mode, and TABLE_EXPORT_OBJECTS for table and tablespace mode. The values listed in the OBJECT_PATH column are the valid object types. (See "Metadata Filters" for an example of how to perform such a query.)

Only object types explicitly specified in INCLUDE statements, and their dependent objects, are exported. No other object types, including the schema definition information that is normally part of a schema-mode export when you have the DATAPUMP_EXP_FULL_DATABASE role, are exported.

The name_clause is optional. It allows fine-grained selection of specific objects within an object type. It is a SQL expression used as a filter on the object names of the type. It consists of a SQL operator and the values against which the object names of the specified type are to be compared. The name_clause applies only to object types whose instances have names (for example, it is applicable to TABLE, but not to GRANT). It must be separated from the object type with a colon and enclosed in double quotation marks, because single quotation marks are required to delimit the name strings.

The name that you supply for the name_clause must exactly match, including upper and lower casing, an existing object in the database. For example, if the name_clause you supply is for a table named EMPLOYEES, then there must be an existing table named EMPLOYEES using all upper case. If the name_clause were supplied as Employees or employees or any other variation, then the table would not be found.

Depending on your operating system, the use of quotation marks when you specify a value for this parameter may also require that you use escape characters. Oracle recommends that you place this parameter in a parameter file, which can reduce the number of escape characters that might otherwise be needed on the command line. See "Use of Quotation Marks On the Data Pump Command Line".

For example, suppose you have a parameter file named hr.par with the following content:

SCHEMAS=HR
DUMPFILE=expinclude.dmp
DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1
LOGFILE=expinclude.log
INCLUDE=TABLE:"IN ('EMPLOYEES', 'DEPARTMENTS')"
INCLUDE=PROCEDURE
INCLUDE=INDEX:"LIKE 'EMP%'"

You could then use the hr.par file to start an export operation, without having to enter any other parameters on the command line. The EMPLOYEES and DEPARTMENTS tables, all procedures, and all index names with an EMP prefix will be included in the export.

> expdp hr PARFILE=hr.par

Including Constraints

If the object_type you specify is a CONSTRAINT, then you should be aware of the effects this will have.

The following constraints cannot be explicitly included:

  • NOT NULL constraints

  • Constraints needed for the table to be created and loaded successfully; for example, primary key constraints for index-organized tables, or REF SCOPE and WITH ROWID constraints for tables with REF columns

This means that the following INCLUDE statements will be interpreted as follows:

  • INCLUDE=CONSTRAINT will include all (nonreferential) constraints, except for NOT NULL constraints and any constraints needed for successful table creation and loading

  • INCLUDE=REF_CONSTRAINT will include referential integrity (foreign key) constraints

Restrictions

  • The INCLUDE and EXCLUDE parameters are mutually exclusive.

  • Grants on objects owned by the SYS schema are never exported.

Example

The following example performs an export of all tables (and their dependent objects) in the hr schema:

> expdp hr INCLUDE=TABLE DUMPFILE=dpump_dir1:exp_inc.dmp NOLOGFILE=YES

JOB_NAME

Default: system-generated name of the form SYS_EXPORT_<mode>_NN

Purpose

Used to identify the export job in subsequent actions, such as when the ATTACH parameter is used to attach to a job, or to identify the job using the DBA_DATAPUMP_JOBS or USER_DATAPUMP_JOBS views.

Syntax and Description

JOB_NAME=jobname_string

The jobname_string specifies a name of up to 30 bytes for this export job. The bytes must represent printable characters and spaces. If spaces are included, then the name must be enclosed in single quotation marks (for example, 'Thursday Export'). The job name is implicitly qualified by the schema of the user performing the export operation. The job name is used as the name of the master table, which controls the export job.

The default job name is system-generated in the form SYS_EXPORT_<mode>_NN, where NN expands to a 2-digit incrementing integer starting at 01. An example of a default name is 'SYS_EXPORT_TABLESPACE_02'.

Example

The following example shows an export operation that is assigned a job name of exp_job:

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=exp_job.dmp JOB_NAME=exp_job
NOLOGFILE=YES

KEEP_MASTER

Default: NO

Purpose

Indicates whether the master table should be deleted or retained at the end of a Data Pump job that completes successfully. The master table is automatically retained for jobs that do not complete successfully.

Syntax and Description

KEEP_MASTER=[YES | NO]

Restrictions

  • None

Example

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=expdat.dmp SCHEMAS=hr KEEP_MASTER=YES

LOGFILE

Default: export.log

Purpose

Specifies the name, and optionally, a directory, for the log file of the export job.

Syntax and Description

LOGFILE=[directory_object:]file_name

You can specify a database directory_object previously established by the DBA, assuming that you have access to it. This overrides the directory object specified with the DIRECTORY parameter.

The file_name specifies a name for the log file. The default behavior is to create a file named export.log in the directory referenced by the directory object specified in the DIRECTORY parameter.

All messages regarding work in progress, work completed, and errors encountered are written to the log file. (For a real-time status of the job, use the STATUS command in interactive mode.)

A log file is always created for an export job unless the NOLOGFILE parameter is specified. As with the dump file set, the log file is relative to the server and not the client.

An existing file matching the file name will be overwritten.

Restrictions

  • To perform a Data Pump Export using Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM), you must specify a LOGFILE parameter that includes a directory object that does not include the Oracle ASM + notation. That is, the log file must be written to a disk file, and not written into the Oracle ASM storage. Alternatively, you can specify NOLOGFILE=YES. However, this prevents the writing of the log file.

Example

The following example shows how to specify a log file name if you do not want to use the default:

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr.dmp LOGFILE=hr_export.log

Note:

Data Pump Export writes the log file using the database character set. If your client NLS_LANG environment setting sets up a different client character set from the database character set, then it is possible that table names may be different in the log file than they are when displayed on the client output screen.

See Also:

LOGTIME

Default: No timestamps are recorded

Purpose

Specifies that messages displayed during export operations be timestamped. You can use the timestamps to figure out the elapsed time between different phases of a Data Pump operation. Such information can be helpful in diagnosing performance problems and estimating the timing of future similar operations.

Syntax and Description

LOGTIME=[NONE | STATUS | LOGFILE | ALL]

The available options are defined as follows:

  • NONE--No timestamps on status or log file messages (same as default)

  • STATUS--Timestamps on status messages only

  • LOGFILE--Timestamps on log file messages only

  • ALL--Timestamps on both status and log file messages

Restrictions

  • None

Example

The following example records timestamps for all status and log file messages that are displayed during the export operation:

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=expdat.dmp SCHEMAS=hr LOGTIME=ALL

The output looks similar to the following:

10-JUL-12 10:12:22.300: Starting "HR"."SYS_EXPORT_SCHEMA_01":  hr/******** directory=dpump_dir1 dumpfile=expdat.dmp schemas=hr logtime=all 
10-JUL-12 10:12:22.915: Estimate in progress using BLOCKS method...
10-JUL-12 10:12:24.422: Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE_DATA
10-JUL-12 10:12:24.498: Total estimation using BLOCKS method: 128 KB
10-JUL-12 10:12:24.822: Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/USER
10-JUL-12 10:12:24.902: Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/SYSTEM_GRANT
10-JUL-12 10:12:24.926: Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/ROLE_GRANT
10-JUL-12 10:12:24.948: Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/DEFAULT_ROLE
10-JUL-12 10:12:24.967: Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLESPACE_QUOTA
10-JUL-12 10:12:25.747: Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PRE_SCHEMA/PROCACT_SCHEMA
10-JUL-12 10:12:32.762: Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/SEQUENCE/SEQUENCE
10-JUL-12 10:12:46.631: Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE
10-JUL-12 10:12:58.007: Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/GRANT/OWNER_GRANT/OBJECT_GRANT
10-JUL-12 10:12:58.106: Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/COMMENT
10-JUL-12 10:12:58.516: Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PROCEDURE/PROCEDURE
10-JUL-12 10:12:58.630: Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PROCEDURE/ALTER_PROCEDURE
10-JUL-12 10:12:59.365: Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/INDEX
10-JUL-12 10:13:01.066: Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/CONSTRAINT/CONSTRAINT
10-JUL-12 10:13:01.143: Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/STATISTICS/INDEX_STATISTICS
10-JUL-12 10:13:02.503: Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/VIEW/VIEW
10-JUL-12 10:13:03.288: Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/CONSTRAINT/REF_CONSTRAINT
10-JUL-12 10:13:04.067: Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/TRIGGER
10-JUL-12 10:13:05.251: Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/STATISTICS/TABLE_STATISTICS
10-JUL-12 10:13:06.172: . . exported "HR"."EMPLOYEES"                            17.05 KB     107 rows
10-JUL-12 10:13:06.658: . . exported "HR"."COUNTRIES"                            6.429 KB      25 rows
10-JUL-12 10:13:06.691: . . exported "HR"."DEPARTMENTS"                          7.093 KB      27 rows
10-JUL-12 10:13:06.723: . . exported "HR"."JOBS"                                 7.078 KB      19 rows
10-JUL-12 10:13:06.758: . . exported "HR"."JOB_HISTORY"                          7.164 KB      10 rows
10-JUL-12 10:13:06.794: . . exported "HR"."LOCATIONS"                            8.398 KB      23 rows
10-JUL-12 10:13:06.824: . . exported "HR"."REGIONS"                              5.515 KB       4 rows
10-JUL-12 10:13:07.500: Master table "HR"."SYS_EXPORT_SCHEMA_01" successfully loaded/unloaded
10-JUL-12 10:13:07.503: ******************************************************************************

METRICS

Default: NO

Purpose

Indicates whether additional information about the job should be reported to the Data Pump log file.

Syntax and Description

METRICS=[YES | NO]

When METRICS=YES is used, the number of objects and the elapsed time are recorded in the Data Pump log file.

Restrictions

  • None

Example

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=expdat.dmp SCHEMAS=hr METRICS=YES

NETWORK_LINK

Default: There is no default

Purpose

Enables an export from a (source) database identified by a valid database link. The data from the source database instance is written to a dump file set on the connected database instance.

Syntax and Description

NETWORK_LINK=source_database_link

The NETWORK_LINK parameter initiates an export using a database link. This means that the system to which the expdp client is connected contacts the source database referenced by the source_database_link, retrieves data from it, and writes the data to a dump file set back on the connected system.

The source_database_link provided must be the name of a database link to an available database. If the database on that instance does not already have a database link, then you or your DBA must create one using the SQL CREATE DATABASE LINK statement.

If the source database is read-only, then the user on the source database must have a locally managed temporary tablespace assigned as the default temporary tablespace. Otherwise, the job will fail.

Caution:

If an export operation is performed over an unencrypted network link, then all data is exported as clear text even if it is encrypted in the database. See Oracle Database Security Guide for more information about network security.

See Also:

Restrictions

  • The only types of database links supported by Data Pump Export are: public, fixed user, and connected user. Current-user database links are not supported.

  • Network exports do not support LONG columns.

  • When transporting a database over the network using full transportable export, tables with LONG or LONG RAW columns that reside in administrative tablespaces (such as SYSTEM or SYSAUX) are not supported.

  • When transporting a database over the network using full transportable export, auditing cannot be enabled for tables stored in an administrative tablespace (such as SYSTEM and SYSAUX) if the audit trail information itself is stored in a user-defined tablespace.

  • When operating across a network link, Data Pump requires that the source and target databases differ by no more than two versions. For example, if one database is Oracle Database 12c, then the other database must be 12c, 11g, or 10g. Note that Data Pump checks only the major version number (for example, 10g,11g, 12c), not specific release numbers (for example, 12.1,10.1, 10.2, 11.1, or 11.2).

Example

The following is an example of using the NETWORK_LINK parameter. The source_database_link would be replaced with the name of a valid database link that must already exist.

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 NETWORK_LINK=source_database_link
  DUMPFILE=network_export.dmp LOGFILE=network_export.log

NOLOGFILE

Default: NO

Purpose

Specifies whether to suppress creation of a log file.

Syntax and Description

NOLOGFILE=[YES | NO]

Specify NOLOGFILE =YES to suppress the default behavior of creating a log file. Progress and error information is still written to the standard output device of any attached clients, including the client that started the original export operation. If there are no clients attached to a running job and you specify NOLOGFILE=YES, then you run the risk of losing important progress and error information.

Example

The following is an example of using the NOLOGFILE parameter:

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr.dmp NOLOGFILE=YES

This command results in a schema-mode export (the default) in which no log file is written.

PARALLEL

Default: 1

Purpose

Specifies the maximum number of processes of active execution operating on behalf of the export job. This execution set consists of a combination of worker processes and parallel I/O server processes. The master control process and worker processes acting as query coordinators in parallel query operations do not count toward this total.

This parameter enables you to make trade-offs between resource consumption and elapsed time.

Syntax and Description

PARALLEL=integer

The value you specify for integer should be less than, or equal to, the number of files in the dump file set (or you should specify substitution variables in the dump file specifications). Because each active worker process or I/O server process writes exclusively to one file at a time, an insufficient number of files can have adverse effects. Some of the worker processes will be idle while waiting for files, thereby degrading the overall performance of the job. More importantly, if any member of a cooperating group of parallel I/O server processes cannot obtain a file for output, then the export operation will be stopped with an ORA-39095 error. Both situations can be corrected by attaching to the job using the Data Pump Export utility, adding more files using the ADD_FILE command while in interactive mode, and in the case of a stopped job, restarting the job.

To increase or decrease the value of PARALLEL during job execution, use interactive-command mode. Decreasing parallelism does not result in fewer worker processes associated with the job; it decreases the number of worker processes that will be executing at any given time. Also, any ongoing work must reach an orderly completion point before the decrease takes effect. Therefore, it may take a while to see any effect from decreasing the value. Idle workers are not deleted until the job exits.

Increasing the parallelism takes effect immediately if there is work that can be performed in parallel.

Using PARALLEL During An Export In An Oracle RAC Environment

In an Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) environment, if an export operation has PARALLEL=1, then all Data Pump processes reside on the instance where the job is started. Therefore, the directory object can point to local storage for that instance.

If the export operation has PARALLEL set to a value greater than 1, then Data Pump processes can reside on instances other than the one where the job was started. Therefore, the directory object must point to shared storage that is accessible by all instances of the Oracle RAC.

Restrictions

  • This parameter is valid only in the Enterprise Edition of Oracle Database 11g or later.

  • To export a table or table partition in parallel (using PQ slaves), you must have the DATAPUMP_EXP_FULL_DATABASE role.

Example

The following is an example of using the PARALLEL parameter:

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 LOGFILE=parallel_export.log 
JOB_NAME=par4_job DUMPFILE=par_exp%u.dmp PARALLEL=4
 

This results in a schema-mode export (the default) of the hr schema in which up to four files could be created in the path pointed to by the directory object, dpump_dir1.

PARFILE

Default: There is no default

Purpose

Specifies the name of an export parameter file.

Syntax and Description

PARFILE=[directory_path]file_name

A parameter file allows you to specify Data Pump parameters within a file, and then that file can be specified on the command line instead of entering all the individual commands. This can be useful if you use the same parameter combination many times. The use of parameter files is also highly recommended if you are using parameters whose values require the use of quotation marks.

A directory object is not specified for the parameter file because unlike dump files, log files, and SQL files which are created and written by the server, the parameter file is opened and read by the expdp client. The default location of the parameter file is the user's current directory.

Within a parameter file, a comma is implicit at every newline character so you do not have to enter commas at the end of each line. If you have a long line that wraps, such as a long table name, enter the backslash continuation character (\) at the end of the current line to continue onto the next line.

Restrictions

  • The PARFILE parameter cannot be specified within a parameter file.

Example

The content of an example parameter file, hr.par, might be as follows:

SCHEMAS=HR
DUMPFILE=exp.dmp
DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1
LOGFILE=exp.log

You could then issue the following Export command to specify the parameter file:

> expdp hr PARFILE=hr.par

QUERY

Default: There is no default

Purpose

Allows you to specify a query clause that is used to filter the data that gets exported.

Syntax and Description

QUERY = [schema.][table_name:] query_clause

The query_clause is typically a SQL WHERE clause for fine-grained row selection, but could be any SQL clause. For example, an ORDER BY clause could be used to speed up a migration from a heap-organized table to an index-organized table. If a schema and table name are not supplied, then the query is applied to (and must be valid for) all tables in the export job. A table-specific query overrides a query applied to all tables.

When the query is to be applied to a specific table, a colon must separate the table name from the query clause. More than one table-specific query can be specified, but only one query can be specified per table.

If the NETWORK_LINK parameter is specified along with the QUERY parameter, then any objects specified in the query_clause that are on the remote (source) node must be explicitly qualified with the NETWORK_LINK value. Otherwise, Data Pump assumes that the object is on the local (target) node; if it is not, then an error is returned and the import of the table from the remote (source) system fails.

For example, if you specify NETWORK_LINK=dblink1, then the query_clause of the QUERY parameter must specify that link, as shown in the following example:

QUERY=(hr.employees:"WHERE last_name IN(SELECT last_name 
FROM hr.employees@dblink1)")

Depending on your operating system, the use of quotation marks when you specify a value for this parameter may also require that you use escape characters. Oracle recommends that you place this parameter in a parameter file, which can reduce the number of escape characters that might otherwise be needed on the command line. See "Use of Quotation Marks On the Data Pump Command Line".

To specify a schema other than your own in a table-specific query, you must be granted access to that specific table.

Restrictions

  • The QUERY parameter cannot be used with the following parameters:

    • CONTENT=METADATA_ONLY

    • ESTIMATE_ONLY

    • TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES

  • When the QUERY parameter is specified for a table, Data Pump uses external tables to unload the target table. External tables uses a SQL CREATE TABLE AS SELECT statement. The value of the QUERY parameter is the WHERE clause in the SELECT portion of the CREATE TABLE statement. If the QUERY parameter includes references to another table with columns whose names match the table being unloaded, and if those columns are used in the query, then you will need to use a table alias to distinguish between columns in the table being unloaded and columns in the SELECT statement with the same name. The table alias used by Data Pump for the table being unloaded is KU$.

    For example, suppose you want to export a subset of the sh.sales table based on the credit limit for a customer in the sh.customers table. In the following example, KU$ is used to qualify the cust_id field in the QUERY parameter for unloading sh.sales. As a result, Data Pump exports only rows for customers whose credit limit is greater than $10,000.

    QUERY='sales:"WHERE EXISTS (SELECT cust_id FROM customers c 
       WHERE cust_credit_limit > 10000 AND ku$.cust_id = c.cust_id)"'
    

    If, as in the following query, KU$ is not used for a table alias, then the result will be that all rows are unloaded:

    QUERY='sales:"WHERE EXISTS (SELECT cust_id FROM customers c 
       WHERE cust_credit_limit > 10000 AND cust_id = c.cust_id)"'
    
  • The maximum length allowed for a QUERY string is 4000 bytes including quotation marks, which means that the actual maximum length allowed is 3998 bytes.

Example

The following is an example of using the QUERY parameter:

> expdp hr PARFILE=emp_query.par

The contents of the emp_query.par file are as follows:

QUERY=employees:"WHERE department_id > 10 AND salary > 10000"
NOLOGFILE=YES 
DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 
DUMPFILE=exp1.dmp 

This example unloads all tables in the hr schema, but only the rows that fit the query expression. In this case, all rows in all tables (except employees) in the hr schema will be unloaded. For the employees table, only rows that meet the query criteria are unloaded.

REMAP_DATA

Default: There is no default

Purpose

The REMAP_DATA parameter allows you to specify a remap function that takes as a source the original value of the designated column and returns a remapped value that will replace the original value in the dump file. A common use for this option is to mask data when moving from a production system to a test system. For example, a column of sensitive customer data such as credit card numbers could be replaced with numbers generated by a REMAP_DATA function. This would allow the data to retain its essential formatting and processing characteristics without exposing private data to unauthorized personnel.

The same function can be applied to multiple columns being dumped. This is useful when you want to guarantee consistency in remapping both the child and parent column in a referential constraint.

Syntax and Description

REMAP_DATA=[schema.]tablename.column_name:[schema.]pkg.function

The description of each syntax element, in the order in which they appear in the syntax, is as follows:

schema -- the schema containing the table to be remapped. By default, this is the schema of the user doing the export.

tablename -- the table whose column will be remapped.

column_name -- the column whose data is to be remapped. The maximum number of columns that can be remapped for a single table is 10.

schema -- the schema containing the PL/SQL package you have created that contains the remapping function. As a default, this is the schema of the user doing the export.

pkg -- the name of the PL/SQL package you have created that contains the remapping function.

function -- the name of the function within the PL/SQL that will be called to remap the column table in each row of the specified table.

Restrictions

  • The data types of the source argument and the returned value should both match the data type of the designated column in the table.

  • Remapping functions should not perform commits or rollbacks except in autonomous transactions.

  • The maximum number of columns you can remap on a single table is 10. You can remap 9 columns on table a and 8 columns on table b, and so on, but the maximum for each table is 10.

Example

The following example assumes a package named remap has been created that contains functions named minus10 and plusx which change the values for employee_id and first_name in the employees table.

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=remap1.dmp TABLES=employees
REMAP_DATA=hr.employees.employee_id:hr.remap.minus10 
REMAP_DATA=hr.employees.first_name:hr.remap.plusx 

REUSE_DUMPFILES

Default: NO

Purpose

Specifies whether to overwrite a preexisting dump file.

Syntax and Description

REUSE_DUMPFILES=[YES | NO]

Normally, Data Pump Export will return an error if you specify a dump file name that already exists. The REUSE_DUMPFILES parameter allows you to override that behavior and reuse a dump file name. For example, if you performed an export and specified DUMPFILE=hr.dmp and REUSE_DUMPFILES=YES, then hr.dmp would be overwritten if it already existed. Its previous contents would be lost and it would contain data for the current export instead.

Example

The following export operation creates a dump file named enc1.dmp, even if a dump file with that name already exists.

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=enc1.dmp
TABLES=employees REUSE_DUMPFILES=YES

SAMPLE

Default: There is no default

Purpose

Allows you to specify a percentage of the data rows to be sampled and unloaded from the source database.

Syntax and Description

SAMPLE=[[schema_name.]table_name:]sample_percent

This parameter allows you to export subsets of data by specifying the percentage of data to be sampled and exported. The sample_percent indicates the probability that a row will be selected as part of the sample. It does not mean that the database will retrieve exactly that amount of rows from the table. The value you supply for sample_percent can be anywhere from .000001 up to, but not including, 100.

The sample_percent can be applied to specific tables. In the following example, 50% of the HR.EMPLOYEES table will be exported:

SAMPLE="HR"."EMPLOYEES":50

If you specify a schema, then you must also specify a table. However, you can specify a table without specifying a schema; the current user will be assumed. If no table is specified, then the sample_percent value applies to the entire export job.

You can use this parameter with the Data Pump Import PCTSPACE transform, so that the size of storage allocations matches the sampled data subset. (See the Import "TRANSFORM" parameter.)

Restrictions

  • The SAMPLE parameter is not valid for network exports.

Example

In the following example, the value 70 for SAMPLE is applied to the entire export job because no table name is specified.

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=sample.dmp SAMPLE=70

SCHEMAS

Default: current user's schema

Purpose

Specifies that you want to perform a schema-mode export. This is the default mode for Export.

Syntax and Description

SCHEMAS=schema_name [, ...]

If you have the DATAPUMP_EXP_FULL_DATABASE role, then you can specify a single schema other than your own or a list of schema names. The DATAPUMP_EXP_FULL_DATABASE role also allows you to export additional nonschema object information for each specified schema so that the schemas can be re-created at import time. This additional information includes the user definitions themselves and all associated system and role grants, user password history, and so on. Filtering can further restrict what is exported using schema mode (see "Filtering During Export Operations").

Restrictions

  • If you do not have the DATAPUMP_EXP_FULL_DATABASE role, then you can specify only your own schema.

  • The SYS schema cannot be used as a source schema for export jobs.

Example

The following is an example of using the SCHEMAS parameter. Note that user hr is allowed to specify more than one schema because the DATAPUMP_EXP_FULL_DATABASE role was previously assigned to it for the purpose of these examples.

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=expdat.dmp SCHEMAS=hr,sh,oe 
 

This results in a schema-mode export in which the schemas, hr, sh, and oe will be written to the expdat.dmp dump file located in the dpump_dir1 directory.

SERVICE_NAME

Default: There is no default

Purpose

Used to specify a service name to be used in conjunction with the CLUSTER parameter.

Syntax and Description

SERVICE_NAME=name

The SERVICE_NAME parameter can be used with the CLUSTER=YES parameter to specify an existing service associated with a resource group that defines a set of Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) instances belonging to that resource group, typically a subset of all the Oracle RAC instances.

The service name is only used to determine the resource group and instances defined for that resource group. The instance where the job is started is always used, regardless of whether it is part of the resource group.

The SERVICE_NAME parameter is ignored if CLUSTER=NO is also specified.

Suppose you have an Oracle RAC configuration containing instances A, B, C, and D. Also suppose that a service named my_service exists with a resource group consisting of instances A, B, and C only. In such a scenario, the following would be true:

  • If you start a Data Pump job on instance A and specify CLUSTER=YES (or accept the default, which is Y) and you do not specify the SERVICE_NAME parameter, then Data Pump creates workers on all instances: A, B, C, and D, depending on the degree of parallelism specified.

  • If you start a Data Pump job on instance A and specify CLUSTER=YES and SERVICE_NAME=my_service, then workers can be started on instances A, B, and C only.

  • If you start a Data Pump job on instance D and specify CLUSTER=YES and SERVICE_NAME=my_service, then workers can be started on instances A, B, C, and D. Even though instance D is not in my_service it is included because it is the instance on which the job was started.

  • If you start a Data Pump job on instance A and specify CLUSTER=NO, then any SERVICE_NAME parameter you specify is ignored and all processes will start on instance A.

See Also:

"CLUSTER"

Example

The following is an example of using the SERVICE_NAME parameter:

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr_svname2.dmp SERVICE_NAME=sales

This example starts a schema-mode export (the default mode) of the hr schema. Even though CLUSTER=YES is not specified on the command line, it is the default behavior, so the job will use all instances in the resource group associated with the service name sales. A dump file named hr_svname2.dmp will be written to the location specified by the dpump_dir1 directory object.

SOURCE_EDITION

Default: the default database edition on the system

Purpose

Specifies the database edition from which objects will be exported.

Syntax and Description

SOURCE_EDITION=edition_name

If SOURCE_EDITION=edition_name is specified, then the objects from that edition are exported. Data Pump selects all inherited objects that have not changed and all actual objects that have changed.

If this parameter is not specified, then the default edition is used. If the specified edition does not exist or is not usable, then an error message is returned.

See Also:

Restrictions

  • This parameter is only useful if there are two or more versions of the same versionable objects in the database.

  • The job version must be 11.2 or later. See "VERSION".

Example

The following is an example of using the SOURCE_EDITION parameter:

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=exp_dat.dmp SOURCE_EDITION=exp_edition EXCLUDE=USER

This example assumes the existence of an edition named exp_edition on the system from which objects are being exported. Because no export mode is specified, the default of schema mode will be used. The EXCLUDE=user parameter excludes only the definitions of users, not the objects contained within users' schemas.

STATUS

Default: 0

Purpose

Specifies the frequency at which the job status display is updated.

Syntax and Description

STATUS=[integer]

If you supply a value for integer, it specifies how frequently, in seconds, job status should be displayed in logging mode. If no value is entered or if the default value of 0 is used, then no additional information is displayed beyond information about the completion of each object type, table, or partition.

This status information is written only to your standard output device, not to the log file (if one is in effect).

Example

The following is an example of using the STATUS parameter.

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 SCHEMAS=hr,sh STATUS=300

This example will export the hr and sh schemas and display the status of the export every 5 minutes (60 seconds x 5 = 300 seconds).

TABLES

Default: There is no default

Purpose

Specifies that you want to perform a table-mode export.

Syntax and Description

TABLES=[schema_name.]table_name[:partition_name] [, ...]

Filtering can restrict what is exported using this mode (see "Filtering During Export Operations"). You can filter the data and metadata that is exported, by specifying a comma-delimited list of tables and partitions or subpartitions. If a partition name is specified, then it must be the name of a partition or subpartition in the associated table. Only the specified set of tables, partitions, and their dependent objects are unloaded.

If an entire partitioned table is exported, then it will be imported in its entirety, as a partitioned table. The only case in which this is not true is if PARTITION_OPTIONS=DEPARTITION is specified during import.

The table name that you specify can be preceded by a qualifying schema name. The schema defaults to that of the current user. To specify a schema other than your own, you must have the DATAPUMP_EXP_FULL_DATABASE role.

Use of the wildcard character, %, to specify table names and partition names is supported.

The following restrictions apply to table names:

  • By default, table names in a database are stored as uppercase. If you have a table name in mixed-case or lowercase, and you want to preserve case-sensitivity for the table name, then you must enclose the name in quotation marks. The name must exactly match the table name stored in the database.

    Some operating systems require that quotation marks on the command line be preceded by an escape character. The following are examples of how case-sensitivity can be preserved in the different Export modes.

    • In command-line mode:

      TABLES='\"Emp\"'
      
    • In parameter file mode:

      TABLES='"Emp"'
      
  • Table names specified on the command line cannot include a pound sign (#), unless the table name is enclosed in quotation marks. Similarly, in the parameter file, if a table name includes a pound sign (#), then the Export utility interprets the rest of the line as a comment, unless the table name is enclosed in quotation marks.

    For example, if the parameter file contains the following line, then Export interprets everything on the line after emp# as a comment and does not export the tables dept and mydata:

    TABLES=(emp#, dept, mydata)
    

    However, if the parameter file contains the following line, then the Export utility exports all three tables because emp# is enclosed in quotation marks:

    TABLES=('"emp#"', dept, mydata)
    

    Note:

    Some operating systems require single quotation marks rather than double quotation marks, or the reverse. See your Oracle operating system-specific documentation. Different operating systems also have other restrictions on table naming.

    For example, the UNIX C shell attaches a special meaning to a dollar sign ($) or pound sign (#) (or certain other special characters). You must use escape characters to get such characters in the name past the shell and into Export.

Using the Transportable Option During Table-Mode Export

To use the transportable option during a table-mode export, specify the TRANSPORTABLE=ALWAYS parameter with the TABLES parameter. Metadata for the specified tables, partitions, or subpartitions is exported to the dump file. To move the actual data, you copy the data files to the target database.

If only a subset of a table's partitions are exported and the TRANSPORTABLE=ALWAYS parameter is used, then on import each partition becomes a non-partitioned table.

Restrictions

  • Cross-schema references are not exported. For example, a trigger defined on a table within one of the specified schemas, but that resides in a schema not explicitly specified, is not exported.

  • Types used by the table are not exported in table mode. This means that if you subsequently import the dump file and the type does not already exist in the destination database, then the table creation will fail.

  • The use of synonyms as values for the TABLES parameter is not supported. For example, if the regions table in the hr schema had a synonym of regn, then it would not be valid to use TABLES=regn. An error would be returned.

  • The export of tables that include a wildcard character, %, in the table name is not supported if the table has partitions.

  • The length of the table name list specified for the TABLES parameter is limited to a maximum of 4 MB, unless you are using the NETWORK_LINK parameter to an Oracle Database release 10.2.0.3 or earlier or to a read-only database. In such cases, the limit is 4 KB.

  • You can only specify partitions from one table if TRANSPORTABLE=ALWAYS is also set on the export.

Examples

The following example shows a simple use of the TABLES parameter to export three tables found in the hr schema: employees, jobs, and departments. Because user hr is exporting tables found in the hr schema, the schema name is not needed before the table names.

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=tables.dmp
TABLES=employees,jobs,departments

The following example assumes that user hr has the DATAPUMP_EXP_FULL_DATABASE role. It shows the use of the TABLES parameter to export partitions.

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=tables_part.dmp
TABLES=sh.sales:sales_Q1_2012,sh.sales:sales_Q2_2012

This example exports the partitions, sales_Q1_2012 and sales_Q2_2012, from the table sales in the schema sh.

TABLESPACES

Default: There is no default

Purpose

Specifies a list of tablespace names to be exported in tablespace mode.

Syntax and Description

TABLESPACES=tablespace_name [, ...]

In tablespace mode, only the tables contained in a specified set of tablespaces are unloaded. If a table is unloaded, then its dependent objects are also unloaded. Both object metadata and data are unloaded. If any part of a table resides in the specified set, then that table and all of its dependent objects are exported. Privileged users get all tables. Unprivileged users get only the tables in their own schemas

Filtering can restrict what is exported using this mode (see "Filtering During Export Operations").

Restrictions

  • The length of the tablespace name list specified for the TABLESPACES parameter is limited to a maximum of 4 MB, unless you are using the NETWORK_LINK to an Oracle Database release 10.2.0.3 or earlier or to a read-only database. In such cases, the limit is 4 KB.

Example

The following is an example of using the TABLESPACES parameter. The example assumes that tablespaces tbs_4, tbs_5, and tbs_6 already exist.

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=tbs.dmp 
TABLESPACES=tbs_4, tbs_5, tbs_6

This results in a tablespace export in which tables (and their dependent objects) from the specified tablespaces (tbs_4, tbs_5, and tbs_6) will be unloaded.

TRANSPORT_FULL_CHECK

Default: NO

Purpose

Specifies whether to check for dependencies between those objects inside the transportable set and those outside the transportable set. This parameter is applicable only to a transportable-tablespace mode export.

Syntax and Description

TRANSPORT_FULL_CHECK=[YES | NO]

If TRANSPORT_FULL_CHECK=YES, then Export verifies that there are no dependencies between those objects inside the transportable set and those outside the transportable set. The check addresses two-way dependencies. For example, if a table is inside the transportable set but its index is not, then a failure is returned and the export operation is terminated. Similarly, a failure is also returned if an index is in the transportable set but the table is not.

If TRANSPORT_FULL_CHECK=NO, then Export verifies only that there are no objects within the transportable set that are dependent on objects outside the transportable set. This check addresses a one-way dependency. For example, a table is not dependent on an index, but an index is dependent on a table, because an index without a table has no meaning. Therefore, if the transportable set contains a table, but not its index, then this check succeeds. However, if the transportable set contains an index, but not the table, then the export operation is terminated.

There are other checks performed as well. For instance, export always verifies that all storage segments of all tables (and their indexes) defined within the tablespace set specified by TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES are actually contained within the tablespace set.

Example

The following is an example of using the TRANSPORT_FULL_CHECK parameter. It assumes that tablespace tbs_1 exists.

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=tts.dmp 
TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES=tbs_1 TRANSPORT_FULL_CHECK=YES LOGFILE=tts.log 

TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES

Default: There is no default

Purpose

Specifies that you want to perform an export in transportable-tablespace mode.

Syntax and Description

TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES=tablespace_name [, ...]

Use the TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES parameter to specify a list of tablespace names for which object metadata will be exported from the source database into the target database.

The log file for the export lists the data files that are used in the transportable set, the dump files, and any containment violations.

The TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES parameter exports metadata for all objects within the specified tablespaces. If you want to perform a transportable export of only certain tables, partitions, or subpartitions, then you must use the TABLES parameter with the TRANSPORTABLE=ALWAYS parameter.

Note:

You cannot export transportable tablespaces and then import them into a database at a lower release level. The target database must be at the same or later release level as the source database.

Restrictions

  • Transportable tablespace mode does not support encrypted columns.

  • Transportable tablespace jobs are not restartable.

  • Transportable tablespace jobs are restricted to a degree of parallelism of 1.

  • Transportable tablespace mode requires that you have the DATAPUMP_EXP_FULL_DATABASE role.

  • The default tablespace of the user performing the export must not be set to one of the tablespaces being transported.

  • The SYSTEM and SYSAUX tablespaces are not transportable in transportable tablespace mode.

  • All tablespaces in the transportable set must be set to read-only.

  • If the Data Pump Export VERSION parameter is specified along with the TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES parameter, then the version must be equal to or greater than the Oracle Database COMPATIBLE initialization parameter.

  • The TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES parameter cannot be used in conjunction with the QUERY parameter.

Example 1

The following is an example of using the TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES parameter in a file-based job (rather than network-based). The tablespace tbs_1 is the tablespace being moved. This example assumes that tablespace tbs_1 exists and that it has been set to read-only. This example also assumes that the default tablespace was changed before this export command was issued.

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=tts.dmp
TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES=tbs_1 TRANSPORT_FULL_CHECK=YES LOGFILE=tts.log

TRANSPORTABLE

Default: NEVER

Purpose

Specifies whether the transportable option should be used during a table mode export (specified with the TABLES parameter) or a full mode export (specified with the FULL parameter).

Syntax and Description

TRANSPORTABLE = [ALWAYS | NEVER]

The definitions of the allowed values are as follows:

ALWAYS - Instructs the export job to use the transportable option. If transportable is not possible, then the job fails.

In a table mode export, using the transportable option results in a transportable tablespace export in which metadata for only the specified tables, partitions, or subpartitions is exported.

In a full mode export, using the transportable option results in a full transportable export which exports all objects and data necessary to create a complete copy of the database.

NEVER - Instructs the export job to use either the direct path or external table method to unload data rather than the transportable option. This is the default.

Note:

If you want to export an entire tablespace in transportable mode, then use the TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES parameter.
  • If only a subset of a table's partitions are exported and the TRANSPORTABLE=ALWAYS parameter is used, then on import each partition becomes a non-partitioned table.

  • If only a subset of a table's partitions are exported and the TRANSPORTABLE parameter is not used at all or is set to NEVER (the default), then on import:

    • If PARTITION_OPTIONS=DEPARTITION is used, then each partition included in the dump file set is created as a non-partitioned table.

    • If PARTITION_OPTIONS is not used, then the complete table is created. That is, all the metadata for the complete table is present so that the table definition looks the same on the target system as it did on the source. But only the data that was exported for the specified partitions is inserted into the table.

Restrictions

  • The TRANSPORTABLE parameter is only valid in table mode exports and full mode exports.

  • To use the TRANSPORTABLE parameter, the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter must be set to at least 11.0.0.

  • To use the FULL parameter in conjunction with TRANSPORTABLE (to perform a full transportable export), the Data Pump VERSION parameter must be set to at least 12.0. If the VERSION parameter is not specified, then the COMPATIBLE database initialization parameter must be set to at least 12.0 or later.

  • The user performing a transportable export requires the DATAPUMP_EXP_FULL_DATABASE privilege.

  • Tablespaces associated with tables, partitions, and subpartitions must be read-only.

  • A full transportable export uses a mix of data movement methods. Objects residing in a transportable tablespace have only their metadata unloaded; data is copied when the data files are copied from the source system to the target system. The data files that must be copied are listed at the end of the log file for the export operation. Objects residing in non-transportable tablespaces (for example, SYSTEM and SYSAUX) have both their metadata and data unloaded into the dump file set. (See Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about performing full transportable exports.)

  • The default tablespace of the user performing the export must not be set to one of the tablespaces being transported.

Example

The following example assumes that the sh user has the DATAPUMP_EXP_FULL_DATABASE role and that table sales2 is partitioned and contained within tablespace tbs2. (The tbs2 tablespace must be set to read-only in the source database.)

> expdp sh DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=tto1.dmp
TABLES=sh.sales2 TRANSPORTABLE=ALWAYS 

After the export completes successfully, you must copy the data files to the target database area. You could then perform an import operation using the PARTITION_OPTIONS and REMAP_SCHEMA parameters to make each of the partitions in sales2 its own table.

> impdp system PARTITION_OPTIONS=DEPARTITION 
TRANSPORT_DATAFILES=oracle/dbs/tbs2 DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 
DUMPFILE=tto1.dmp REMAP_SCHEMA=sh:dp

VERSION

Default: COMPATIBLE

Purpose

Specifies the version of database objects to be exported. Only database objects and attributes that are compatible with the specified release will be exported. This can be used to create a dump file set that is compatible with a previous release of Oracle Database. Note that this does not mean that Data Pump Export can be used with releases of Oracle Database prior to Oracle Database 10g release 1 (10.1). Data Pump Export only works with Oracle Database 10g release 1 (10.1) or later. The VERSION parameter simply allows you to identify the version of the objects being exported.

On Oracle Database 11g release 2 (11.2.0.3) or later, the VERSION parameter can be specified as VERSION=12 in conjunction with FULL=Y to generate a full export dump file that is ready for import into Oracle Database 12c. The export will include information from registered database options and components. If VERSION=12 is used in conjunction with FULL=Y and also with TRANSPORTABLE=ALWAYS, then a full transportable export dump file is generated that is ready for import into Oracle Database 12c. (See "Using the Transportable Option During Full Mode Exports".)

Syntax and Description

VERSION=[COMPATIBLE | LATEST | version_string]

The legal values for the VERSION parameter are as follows:

  • COMPATIBLE - This is the default value. The version of the metadata corresponds to the database compatibility level. Database compatibility must be set to 9.2 or later.

  • LATEST - The version of the metadata corresponds to the database release.

  • version_string - A specific database release (for example, 11.2.0). In Oracle Database 11g, this value cannot be lower than 9.2.

Database objects or attributes that are incompatible with the specified release will not be exported. For example, tables containing new data types that are not supported in the specified release will not be exported.

Restrictions

  • Exporting a table with archived LOBs to a database release earlier than 11.2 is not allowed.

  • If the Data Pump Export VERSION parameter is specified along with the TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES parameter, then the value must be equal to or greater than the Oracle Database COMPATIBLE initialization parameter.

  • If the Data Pump VERSION parameter is specified as any value earlier than 12.1, then the Data Pump dump file excludes any tables that contain VARCHAR2 or NVARCHAR2 columns longer than 4000 bytes and any RAW columns longer than 2000 bytes.

  • Dump files created on Oracle Database 11g releases with the Data Pump parameter VERSION=12 can only be imported on Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) and later.

Example

The following example shows an export for which the version of the metadata will correspond to the database release:

> expdp hr TABLES=hr.employees VERSION=LATEST DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1
DUMPFILE=emp.dmp NOLOGFILE=YES

VIEWS_AS_TABLES

Default: There is no default

Caution:

The VIEWS_AS_TABLES parameter unloads view data in unencrypted format and creates an unencrypted table. If you are unloading sensitive data, then Oracle strongly recommends that you enable encryption on the export operation and that you ensure the table is created in an encrypted tablespace. You can use the REMAP_TABLESPACE parameter to move the table to such a tablespace.

Purpose

Specifies that one or more views are to be exported as tables.

Syntax and Description

VIEWS_AS_TABLES=[schema_name.]view_name[:table_name], ...

Data Pump exports a table with the same columns as the view and with row data fetched from the view. Data Pump also exports objects dependent on the view, such as grants and constraints. Dependent objects that do not apply to tables (for example, grants of the UNDER object privilege) are not exported.The VIEWS_AS_TABLES parameter can be used by itself or along with the TABLES parameter. If either is used, Data Pump performs a table-mode export.

The syntax elements are defined as follows:

schema_name--The name of the schema in which the view resides. If a schema name is not supplied, it defaults to the user performing the export.

view_name--The name of the view to be exported as a table. The view must exist and it must be a relational view with only scalar, non-LOB columns. If you specify an invalid or non-existent view, the view is skipped and an error message is returned.

table_name--The name of a table to serve as the source of the metadata for the exported view. By default Data Pump automatically creates a temporary "template table" with the same columns and data types as the view, but no rows. If the database is read-only, then this default creation of a template table will fail. In such a case, you can specify a table name. The table must be in the same schema as the view. It must be a non-partitioned relational table with heap organization. It cannot be a nested table.

If the export job contains multiple views with explicitly specified template tables, the template tables must all be different. For example, in the following job (in which two views use the same template table) one of the views is skipped:

expdp scott/tiger directory=dpump_dir dumpfile=a.dmp views_as_tables=v1:emp,v2:emp

An error message is returned reporting the omitted object.

Template tables are automatically dropped after the export operation is completed. While they exist, you can perform the following query to view their names (which all begin with KU$VAT):

SQL> SELECT * FROM user_tab_comments WHERE table_name LIKE 'KU$VAT%';
TABLE_NAME                     TABLE_TYPE
------------------------------ -----------
COMMENTS
-----------------------------------------------------
KU$VAT_63629                   TABLE
Data Pump metadata template table for view SCOTT.EMPV

Restrictions

  • The VIEWS_AS_TABLES parameter cannot be used with the TRANSPORTABLE=ALWAYS parameter.

  • Tables created using the VIEWS_AS_TABLES parameter do not contain any hidden columns that were part of the specified view.

  • The VIEWS_AS_TABLES parameter does not support tables that have columns with a data type of LONG.

Examples

The following example exports the contents of view scott.view1 to a dump file named scott1.dmp.

> expdp scott/tiger views_as_tables=view1 directory=data_pump_dir dumpfile=scott1.dmp

The dump file will contain a table named view1 with rows fetched from the view.

Commands Available in Export's Interactive-Command Mode

In interactive-command mode, the current job continues running, but logging to the terminal is suspended and the Export prompt (Export>) is displayed.

To start interactive-command mode, do one of the following:

  • From an attached client, press Ctrl+C.

  • From a terminal other than the one on which the job is running, specify the ATTACH parameter in an expdp command to attach to the job. This is a useful feature in situations in which you start a job at one location and need to check on it at a later time from a different location.

Table 2-1 lists the activities you can perform for the current job from the Data Pump Export prompt in interactive-command mode.

Table 2-1 Supported Activities in Data Pump Export's Interactive-Command Mode

Activity Command Used

Add additional dump files.

ADD_FILE

Exit interactive mode and enter logging mode.

CONTINUE_CLIENT

Stop the export client session, but leave the job running.

EXIT_CLIENT

Redefine the default size to be used for any subsequent dump files.

FILESIZE

Display a summary of available commands.

HELP

Detach all currently attached client sessions and terminate the current job.

KILL_JOB

Increase or decrease the number of active worker processes for the current job. This command is valid only in the Enterprise Edition of Oracle Database 11g or later.

PARALLEL

Restart a stopped job to which you are attached.

START_JOB

Display detailed status for the current job and/or set status interval.

STATUS

Stop the current job for later restart.

STOP_JOB


The following are descriptions of the commands available in the interactive-command mode of Data Pump Export.

ADD_FILE

Purpose

Adds additional files or substitution variables to the export dump file set.

Syntax and Description

ADD_FILE=[directory_object:]file_name [,...]

Each file name can have a different directory object. If no directory object is specified, then the default is assumed.

The file_name must not contain any directory path information. However, it can include a substitution variable, %U, which indicates that multiple files may be generated using the specified file name as a template.

The size of the file being added is determined by the setting of the FILESIZE parameter.

See Also:

"File Allocation" for information about the effects of using substitution variables

Example

The following example adds two dump files to the dump file set. A directory object is not specified for the dump file named hr2.dmp, so the default directory object for the job is assumed. A different directory object, dpump_dir2, is specified for the dump file named hr3.dmp.

Export> ADD_FILE=hr2.dmp, dpump_dir2:hr3.dmp

CONTINUE_CLIENT

Purpose

Changes the Export mode from interactive-command mode to logging mode.

Syntax and Description

CONTINUE_CLIENT

In logging mode, status is continually output to the terminal. If the job is currently stopped, then CONTINUE_CLIENT will also cause the client to attempt to start the job.

Example

Export> CONTINUE_CLIENT

EXIT_CLIENT

Purpose

Stops the export client session, exits Export, and discontinues logging to the terminal, but leaves the current job running.

Syntax and Description

EXIT_CLIENT

Because EXIT_CLIENT leaves the job running, you can attach to the job at a later time. To see the status of the job, you can monitor the log file for the job or you can query the USER_DATAPUMP_JOBS view or the V$SESSION_LONGOPS view.

Example

Export> EXIT_CLIENT

FILESIZE

Purpose

Redefines the maximum size of subsequent dump files. If the size is reached for any member of the dump file set, then that file is closed and an attempt is made to create a new file, if the file specification contains a substitution variable or if additional dump files have been added to the job.

Syntax and Description

FILESIZE=integer[B | KB | MB | GB | TB]

The integer can be immediately followed (do not insert a space) by B, KB, MB, GB, or TB (indicating bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, and terabytes respectively). Bytes is the default. The actual size of the resulting file may be rounded down slightly to match the size of the internal blocks used in dump files.

A file size of 0 is equivalent to the maximum file size of 16 TB.

Restrictions

  • The minimum size for a file is ten times the default Data Pump block size, which is 4 kilobytes.

  • The maximum size for a file is 16 terabytes.

Example

Export> FILESIZE=100MB

HELP

Purpose

Provides information about Data Pump Export commands available in interactive-command mode.

Syntax and Description

HELP

Displays information about the commands available in interactive-command mode.

Example

Export> HELP

KILL_JOB

Purpose

Detaches all currently attached client sessions and then terminates the current job. It exits Export and returns to the terminal prompt.

Syntax and Description

KILL_JOB

A job that is terminated using KILL_JOB cannot be restarted. All attached clients, including the one issuing the KILL_JOB command, receive a warning that the job is being terminated by the current user and are then detached. After all clients are detached, the job's process structure is immediately run down and the master table and dump files are deleted. Log files are not deleted.

Example

Export> KILL_JOB

PARALLEL

Purpose

Enables you to increase or decrease the number of active processes (worker and parallel slaves) for the current job.

Syntax and Description

PARALLEL=integer

PARALLEL is available as both a command-line parameter and as an interactive-command mode parameter. You set it to the desired number of parallel processes (worker and parallel slaves). An increase takes effect immediately if there are sufficient files and resources. A decrease does not take effect until an existing process finishes its current task. If the value is decreased, then workers are idled but not deleted until the job exits.

See Also:

"PARALLEL" for more information about parallelism

Restrictions

  • This parameter is valid only in the Enterprise Edition of Oracle Database 11g or later.

Example

Export> PARALLEL=10

START_JOB

Purpose

Starts the current job to which you are attached.

Syntax and Description

START_JOB

The START_JOB command restarts the current job to which you are attached (the job cannot be currently executing). The job is restarted with no data loss or corruption after an unexpected failure or after you issued a STOP_JOB command, provided the dump file set and master table have not been altered in any way.

Exports done in transportable-tablespace mode are not restartable.

Example

Export> START_JOB

STATUS

Purpose

Displays cumulative status of the job, a description of the current operation, and an estimated completion percentage. It also allows you to reset the display interval for logging mode status.

Syntax and Description

STATUS[=integer]

You have the option of specifying how frequently, in seconds, this status should be displayed in logging mode. If no value is entered or if the default value of 0 is used, then the periodic status display is turned off and status is displayed only once.

This status information is written only to your standard output device, not to the log file (even if one is in effect).

Example

The following example will display the current job status and change the logging mode display interval to five minutes (300 seconds):

Export> STATUS=300

STOP_JOB

Purpose

Stops the current job either immediately or after an orderly shutdown, and exits Export.

Syntax and Description

STOP_JOB[=IMMEDIATE]

If the master table and dump file set are not disturbed when or after the STOP_JOB command is issued, then the job can be attached to and restarted at a later time with the START_JOB command.

To perform an orderly shutdown, use STOP_JOB (without any associated value). A warning requiring confirmation will be issued. An orderly shutdown stops the job after worker processes have finished their current tasks.

To perform an immediate shutdown, specify STOP_JOB=IMMEDIATE. A warning requiring confirmation will be issued. All attached clients, including the one issuing the STOP_JOB command, receive a warning that the job is being stopped by the current user and they will be detached. After all clients are detached, the process structure of the job is immediately run down. That is, the master process will not wait for the worker processes to finish their current tasks. There is no risk of corruption or data loss when you specify STOP_JOB=IMMEDIATE. However, some tasks that were incomplete at the time of shutdown may have to be redone at restart time.

Example

Export> STOP_JOB=IMMEDIATE

Examples of Using Data Pump Export

This section provides the following examples of using Data Pump Export:

For information that will help you to successfully use these examples, see "Using the Export Parameter Examples".

Performing a Table-Mode Export

Example 2-1 shows a table-mode export, specified using the TABLES parameter. Issue the following Data Pump export command to perform a table export of the tables employees and jobs from the human resources (hr) schema:

Example 2-1 Performing a Table-Mode Export

expdp hr TABLES=employees,jobs DUMPFILE=dpump_dir1:table.dmp NOLOGFILE=YES

Because user hr is exporting tables in his own schema, it is not necessary to specify the schema name for the tables. The NOLOGFILE=YES parameter indicates that an Export log file of the operation will not be generated.

Data-Only Unload of Selected Tables and Rows

Example 2-2 shows the contents of a parameter file (exp.par) that you could use to perform a data-only unload of all tables in the human resources (hr) schema except for the tables countries and regions. Rows in the employees table are unloaded that have a department_id other than 50. The rows are ordered by employee_id.

Example 2-2 Data-Only Unload of Selected Tables and Rows

DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1
DUMPFILE=dataonly.dmp
CONTENT=DATA_ONLY
EXCLUDE=TABLE:"IN ('COUNTRIES', 'REGIONS')"
QUERY=employees:"WHERE department_id !=50 ORDER BY employee_id"

You can issue the following command to execute the exp.par parameter file:

> expdp hr PARFILE=exp.par

A schema-mode export (the default mode) is performed, but the CONTENT parameter effectively limits the export to an unload of just the table's data. The DBA previously created the directory object dpump_dir1 which points to the directory on the server where user hr is authorized to read and write export dump files. The dump file dataonly.dmp is created in dpump_dir1.

Estimating Disk Space Needed in a Table-Mode Export

Example 2-3 shows the use of the ESTIMATE_ONLY parameter to estimate the space that would be consumed in a table-mode export, without actually performing the export operation. Issue the following command to use the BLOCKS method to estimate the number of bytes required to export the data in the following three tables located in the human resource (hr) schema: employees, departments, and locations.

Example 2-3 Estimating Disk Space Needed in a Table-Mode Export

> expdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 ESTIMATE_ONLY=YES TABLES=employees, 
departments, locations LOGFILE=estimate.log

The estimate is printed in the log file and displayed on the client's standard output device. The estimate is for table row data only; it does not include metadata.

Performing a Schema-Mode Export

Example 2-4 shows a schema-mode export of the hr schema. In a schema-mode export, only objects belonging to the corresponding schemas are unloaded. Because schema mode is the default mode, it is not necessary to specify the SCHEMAS parameter on the command line, unless you are specifying more than one schema or a schema other than your own.

Example 2-4 Performing a Schema Mode Export

> expdp hr DUMPFILE=dpump_dir1:expschema.dmp LOGFILE=dpump_dir1:expschema.log

Performing a Parallel Full Database Export

Example 2-5 shows a full database Export that will have up to 3 parallel processes (worker or PQ slaves).

Example 2-5 Parallel Full Export

> expdp hr FULL=YES DUMPFILE=dpump_dir1:full1%U.dmp, dpump_dir2:full2%U.dmp
FILESIZE=2G PARALLEL=3 LOGFILE=dpump_dir1:expfull.log JOB_NAME=expfull

Because this is a full database export, all data and metadata in the database will be exported. Dump files full101.dmp, full201.dmp, full102.dmp, and so on will be created in a round-robin fashion in the directories pointed to by the dpump_dir1 and dpump_dir2 directory objects. For best performance, these should be on separate I/O channels. Each file will be up to 2 gigabytes in size, as necessary. Initially, up to three files will be created. More files will be created, if needed. The job and master table will have a name of expfull. The log file will be written to expfull.log in the dpump_dir1 directory.

Using Interactive Mode to Stop and Reattach to a Job

To start this example, reexecute the parallel full export in Example 2-5. While the export is running, press Ctrl+C. This will start the interactive-command interface of Data Pump Export. In the interactive interface, logging to the terminal stops and the Export prompt is displayed.

Example 2-6 Stopping and Reattaching to a Job

At the Export prompt, issue the following command to stop the job:

Export> STOP_JOB=IMMEDIATE
Are you sure you wish to stop this job ([y]/n): y

The job is placed in a stopped state and exits the client.

Enter the following command to reattach to the job you just stopped:

> expdp hr ATTACH=EXPFULL

After the job status is displayed, you can issue the CONTINUE_CLIENT command to resume logging mode and restart the expfull job.

Export> CONTINUE_CLIENT

A message is displayed that the job has been reopened, and processing status is output to the client.